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Research Journal of Management Sciences __________________________________________ISSN 23191171

Vol. 1(4), 12-15, November (2012)


Res. J. Management Sci.

An Empirical Study of Personality and Cosmetics Consumer Behavior


Patil Hema1, Bakkapa B.2 and Somashekhar I.C.3
1

BIET-MBA Programme, Davangere, Karnataka, INDIA


2
Davangere University, Davangere, Karnataka, INDIA
3
GMIT-MBA Programme, Davangere, Karnataka, INDIA

Available online at: www.isca.in


Received 18th October 2012, 28th October 2012, accepted 30th October 2012

Abstract
There is a relationship between personality and consumer behavior. An individuals personality tends to be both consistent and
enduring. Although marketers cannot change consumers personalities to conform to their products, if they know which
personality characteristics influence specific consumer responses, they can attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in
their target group of consumers. Even though consumers personalities may be consistent, their consumption behavior often
varies considerably because of the various psychological, sociocultural, environmental and situational factors that affect
behavior. Therefore In this research using factor analysis the formation of cosmetics personality is identified.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, cosmetics, personality.

Introduction
Individuals are distinguished based on their inner characteristics
like specific qualities, attributes, traits, factors and mannerisms.
These are deeply ingrained characteristics that we call as
personality. These characteristics are likely to influence the
individuals product choices: They affect the way consumers
respond to marketers promotional efforts, and when, where,
and how they consume particular products or services.
Therefore, the identification of specific personality
characteristics associated with consumer behavior has proven to
be highly useful in the development of a firms market
segmentation strategies. As a reason it is important for cosmetic
marketers to understand the personality of cosmetics consumers.
Cosmetics: The desire to improve ones physical attractiveness
seems to be an inherent characteristic of most individuals1, 2, 3. A
number of studies have addressed the impact of the
representation of attractive women on female consumers.
Cosmetics have been traditionally used by women to control
their physical appearance and, presumably, their physical
attractiveness. Although, the literature is by no means
voluminous, several researchers have examined the
psychological correlation and consequences of cosmetic use2, 4-8.
Cash4 reviewed some of the available research evidence, and
from a self-presentational perspective, argued that cosmetics are
used specifically for grooming behaviors and in general
function to manage and control not only social impressions but
also self-image (for example, body image, self-perceptions, and
mood states).
Since grooming products are considered as a pervasive element
of womens culture. As a general result, the exposure to pictures
of good-looking and even slightly above-average-looking

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females lowered the self-image of exposed women and


increased dissatisfaction with their own appearance9-12.
The body image is an important component of the self-concept
and has stimulated the demand of certain products and services,
such as dietary, slimming, exercise and cosmetic items. In
western cultures, one of the commonly recognized reasons
women use cosmetics is to improve their physical attractiveness.
For example, Cash and Cash4 found women to express a more
positive body image and self-image when wearing makeup
compared to when not wearing makeup.
Personality: Personality dispositions and consumer behavior
personality is a relatively enduring characteristic that makes an
individual unique and different from every other individual. It
relates to peoples characteristic tendencies to behave, think and
feel in certain ways. Personality traits are usually identified by
what people do, and the behavior they exhibit. An individuals
behavior in a given situation is also better understood by his or
her personality. These suggest that there is a relationship
between personality and behavior. Personality attributes could
either be assets or liabilities in any given context. A personality
refers to the relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent
internal state that explain a persons behavioral tendencies.
Several researchers have recognized that it is important to
identify what types of consumers are inclined to engage in retail
relationships.
Given the relevance of personality in predicting behavior,
numerous efforts have been made by researchers to draw a link
between personality and consumer behavior. For example,
Mowen and Speers found that individual differences in
personality, act to influence behavior across a variety of
situations and it is also argued that personality accounts for

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Research Journal of Management Sciences ________________________________________________________ ISSN 23191171


Vol. 1(4), 12-15, November (2012)
Res. J. Management Sci.
more variance in behavior and intentions than recognized in past
literature. In fact, the five-factor model, commonly referred to
as The big five has been identified as one of the most basic
and robust descriptions of personality.
Previous research has linked personality characteristics (e.g.
self-monitoring, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional
stability) in a range of studies related to consumer behavior such
as purchasing, risk-taking, societal influence, fear appeals,
changes in attitude, compulsive buying and brand preference
(Albanese, 1990). In fact, in the context of complaint behavior,
there have been a number of personality characteristics
examined, which include risk-aversion, assertiveness,
confidence, conservatism, individualism, negative affectivity,
agreeableness,
control,
self-presentation,
extroversion
(Kowalski, 1996), self-monitoring and self-esteem.
Consumer behavior: Consumer behavior focuses on how
individuals make decisions to spend their available resources
(time, money, effort) on consumption related items, That
includes what they buy, why they buy it, when they buy it,
where they buy it, how often they buy it, how often they use it,
how they evaluate it after the purchase and the impact of such
evaluations on future purchases, and how they dispose it.
Research in consumer behavior is a top priority for marketers
both in the third world13 and in Eastern Europe14. Once a
company has ensured both economic and physical access to its
products it needs to evaluate the buying behavior of consumers in
the country that it is seeking to enter. However, little is known
about consumer attitudes, buying habits, purchase motives,
lifestyles, etc. in Eastern Europe and Third World countries14.
Marketers who seek to enter these markets might therefore find it
necessary to engage in some a priority marketing research relating
to such issues15.

random sampling method. The primary data was collected with


the help of a questionnaire from the woman of Davangere. A total
of 1200 women from different areas were contacted and aptly
filled questionnaires were obtained. The respondents were given a
list of statements that measured their extent of agreement towards
the variables. The items were measured on a 5 point Likert scale
with 1 representing low score (Strongly dis agree) and 5
representing a high score (strongly agree). These statements were
selected after three rounds of pilot testing with the factor loadings
above 0.70. For the reliability of the research tool Crown Basch
alpha test was performed, and obtained the alpha value of 0.78,
this shows the tool is reliable.
Need of the study: Consumers have a variety of enduring
images of themselves. These self-images, or perceptions of self,
are very closely associated with personality in that individuals
tend to do buy products and services and patronize retailers
whose images or personalities relate in some meaningful way to
their own self-images. In essence, consumers seek to depict
themselves their brand choices-they tend to approach products
with images that could enhance their self-concept and avoid
those products that do not. Sometimes consumers wish to
change themselves to become a different or improved.
Cosmetics offer consumers the opportunity to modify their
appearance and thereby to alter their selves. Therefore it is very
much needed for cosmetics marketers to study the formation of
cosmetics personality
Objectives: Based on the literature review and the conceptual
model framework, the study was designed to explore the
following: i. To know personality reasons for using cosmetics.
ii. To identify the personality factors responsible for the
purchase of cosmetics. iii. To understand the formation of
cosmetics personality.

Results and Discussion


Consumers and their behavior represent an important arena for
inquiry, which has attracted researchers from several
disciplines16. Consumer behavior is the active interplay of
competing theories17. Several studies can be identified as central
to the work and worldview of behavioral economists and other
behavior analysts18-23. Hursh24-25 argues that the behavior
environment relationships observed by operant psychologists
can be construed as economic in nature.

Research Methodology
The study uses both exploratory and descriptive research design
to get clarity of research problem. The research tool used is Likert
Scale and the statistical tool used is Factor Analysis. The sample

size was finalized using the formula = with 95%

confidence level and 0.05 level of significance. The sample size


finally obtained was 1024 and area is Davangere, Karnataka
(state), and India. The sampling technique used was probabilistic
Cluster Sampling (two stage cluster sampling) using systematic

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Analysis and Interpretation: The factor analysis was


performed on the data collected with respect to personality.
KMO and Bartletts test, communalities, total variance explained
and component matrix table are obtained as a result of factor
analysis. The details of the analysis are presented in table-1.

The suitability of data can be checked from the above KMO and
Bartlett's Test table, i.e., from the table-1. For the variable
personality, KMO measure for sampling adequacy was above
0.5.
It can be understood from the table-2 that a factor is extracted
from personality variables; the communality is 0.608 for item 1,
0 .624 for item 2, and 0.558 for item 3 and so on. It means that
60% of variance of item 1, 62% of variance of item 2, and 55%
of variance of item 3 are captured for framing factors. These
large communalities indicate that, a large number of variance
has been accounted for by the factor solution.

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Research Journal of Management Sciences ________________________________________________________ ISSN 23191171


Vol. 1(4), 12-15, November (2012)
Res. J. Management Sci.
Table-1
KMO and Bartlett's Test for personality
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.
Approx. Chi-Square
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
Df
Sig.

.657
169.780
3
.000

Table-2
Communalities for personality
Initial
1.000
1.000
1.000

Usage of cosmetics reflects my personality


I will be more appreciated in my group when I use cosmetics
Cosmetics reflect our self-image
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Extraction
.608
.624
.558

Table-3
Total Variance Explained for personality
Component
Initial Eigenvalues
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
1.790
59.682
59.682
1.790
59.682
59.682
dimension0
2
.644
21.453
81.135
3
.566
18.865
100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Table-4
Component Matrix for personality

Usage of cosmetics reflects my personality


I will be more appreciated in my group when I use cosmetics
Cosmetics reflect our self-image
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 1 components extracted.

Factor
Cosmetics personality formation

Component
1
.780
.790
.747

Table-5
Consolidated factor analysis for Personality
Factor
Loading
Factor items
interpretation
0.78
Usage of cosmetics reflects my personality.
This factor explains
0.79
I will be more appreciated in my group when I use cosmetics.
59 % of variance
0.75
Cosmetics reflect our self-image.

The table-3 explains total variance explained for consumer


behavior element personality. From the table it can be found
that, the factor has Eigen values more than1. The Eigen value
for factor was 1.79. From the percentage of the total variance,
what the variables together presents can be understood. The
index for the present solution accounts for 60% of total variance
for choosing items influencing personality. It is pretty good
extraction as it can economize on a number of factors while we
have lost 40% of information content for factor in choosing the
variable from personality. The first factor of personality
explains 59.682 percentage of variance.
From the table-4 the loading of the factor can be observed.
Anything above 0.44 could be considered salient and the

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increased loading becomes more vital in determining factor. The


summarized personality factor analysis is shown in table -5.
Findings: This research has identified three items regarding
cosmetics personality formations. The first item is The usage
of cosmetics reflects my personality; the second item is I will
be more appreciated in my group when I use cosmetics; the
third item is cosmetics reflect our self- image. The factor
cosmetics personality formation is explained by these three
items together explaining a cumulative variance of 59%. It
means that usage of cosmetics reflects their personality; they
will be more appreciated in their group when they use
cosmetics and cosmetics reflect their self- image.

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Research Journal of Management Sciences ________________________________________________________ ISSN 23191171


Vol. 1(4), 12-15, November (2012)
Res. J. Management Sci.

Conclusion
As cosmetics are personality altering products it is basics for
companies to understand the formation of personality and
alteration of personality amongst consumers. From this research
it can be concluded that consumers are of the opinion that usage
of cosmetics reflects their personality; they will be more
appreciated in their group when they use cosmetics and
cosmetics reflect their self- image.
Scope for Further Research: This research is focused only on
personality; the same research would yield different results if
conducted to know motivation, perception, attitude etc.
Interesting results can be obtained if the research is conducted to
know the impact of culture, reference group, and social class.
The research would contribute good inferences if the research is
conducted to know the personality of consumers at villages.

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