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Exergy Analysis of Renewable Energy

Systems

Arif Hepbasli

Department of Energy Systems Engineering


Yasar University, Izmir, Turkey

17 January 2015
Afyon

Outline
(61 slides)
1. Objective
2. Introduction
3. Historical Development of Exergy Concept
4. What is exergy ?
5. Why exergy ?
6. Dead State
7. Driving Force

8. Exergy efficiency
9. Sankey and Grassmann diagrams
10. Modeling
11. An Illustrative Example
12. Conclusions
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1. Objective
LET US COME TO AN AGREEMENT!!!

My speech will not be on the pure technical basis.

2. Introduction

A Sketch Showing the Meaning of RESs

RESs are money mints.


4

ENERGY

EXERGY

Unit energy price

Unit exergy price

Specific energy production

Specific exergy

Energy analysis

Exergy analysis

Energy efficiency

Exergy efficiency

Energy management

Exergy management

Energy consultant

Exergy consultant

Specific moisture extraction

Specific moisture

production

exergetic
rate (SMER)

Number of publications

index (SMEI)

???????
5

Footprints
Carbon footprint

Water footprint

h-index
Impact-Citations-Exergy (ICEx)
Fractionalized exergy for evaluating research performance (X)

By fractional
counting we mean
that instead of
counting each
citation as unity, we
consider it as
weighted
(fractionated) in
terms of the
number of
references in the
citing
article.

Source: Prathap, G. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 62(11):22942295, 2011

Exergy Consulting Services


Dr. Wall (in

Sweden):www.exergy.se

Dr. Cornelissen

(Holland):www.exergy.nl

Engineers and scientists dealing with the design and


operation of an energy conversion plant want to improve
or optimize it by maximizing efficiency and minimizing
(a)

product

cost

and

(b)

environmental

impact

associated with this plant.

In order to effectively deal with these problems, we


must understand the real mechanisms according to
which

thermodynamic

inefficiencies,

costs,

and

environmental impacts are formed.

Source: G. Tsatsaronis
9

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In the improvement phase, the following questions arise:

Where do real thermodynamic inefficiencies occur, how


high are they, and what causes them ?
(Exergy analysis)
What measures or what alternative designs would
improve the efficiency of the overall plant ?
(Exergy analysis, but a conventional one is
usually not sufficient)
How high are the total investment and the equipment
costs of the major plant components ?
(Economic analysis)
Source: G. Tsatsaronis
10

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How high are the cost and the environmental impact

associated with thermodynamic inefficiencies ?


(Exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analyses )

How high are (a) the environmental impacts associated


with the major plant components, and (b) the
overall environmental impact ?

(LCA and exergoenvironmental analysis)

Source: G. Tsatsaronis
11

Advanced (or enhanced) analyses

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A conventional exergetic, conventional exergoeconomic


and conventional exergoenvironmental analysis does
not evaluate the mutual interdependencies among the
system components nor the potential for improving a
component.
These issues are considered in advanced analyses, in
which the exergy destruction, capital investment cost
and construction-of-component-related environmental
impact in each component are split into:

endogenous and exogenous parts,


unavoidable and avoidable parts, and

the resulting combined parts.

Source: G. Tsatsaronis

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Nicolas Lonard Sadi Carnot: Sadi Carnot

In his only publication, the 1824 monograph Reflections on the


Motive Power of Fire, Carnot gave the first successful theory
of the maximum efficiency of heat engines.
Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_L%C3%A9onard_Sadi_Car
not, Access date: 17 January 2015.

1824de s makinalar zerine almasn yaynlad.

What is his birthday ? Doum yl nedir ?


What is the magic of number 28 ?
28 saysnin sihiri nedir ?
13

Kaynak: Yantovski, E.

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Five Equations That Changed the World

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Equations_That_Changed_t
he_World

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Comparison and evaluation of the energy systems


Energy analysis
Exergy analysis
Economic analysis

Life cycle assessment

Exergoeconomic analysis

Exergoenvironmental analysis
Exergetic life cycle assessment
Advanced exergy analysis
Advanced exergoeconomic analysis
Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis

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17

Our understanding

Energy analysis

Sensitivity analysis
Source: G. Tsatsaronis

Conventional exergetic analysis

Advanced exergetic analysis


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3. Historical Development of Exergy Concept


Wall and Gong has reported the historical
development of the concept exergy as follows:
In 1824, Carnot started that the extractable work of a

heat engine is proportional to the temperature


difference, which later led to the definition of the
second law of thermodynamics.

In 1873, Gibbs introduced the nation of available work,

including the diffusion term.

In 1953, Keenan interpreted exergy as available

energy.

In 1953, Rant suggested the term exergy to denote

technical working capacity.

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In 1961, Tribus linked classical thermodynamics

with information theory, through the entropy and


the exergy concepts.

At a conference in Rome in 1987, it was agreed

among the participants to encourage strongly the


use of exergy for the general concept of the
potential to cause change,
in lieu of terms such as

availability, available energy, essergy, utilizable


energy,
work
potential,
available
work,
convertible energy, etc.
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4. What is Exergy ?
The quality of energy
The capacity of energy to cause change
The maximum work that can be obtained from a

given form of energy using the environmental


parameters as the reference state

A measure of the departure of the state of the

system from the state of the environment

Sources:
Leskinen, M. Low Exergy Sources for Heating and Cooling & IEA Annex 37
Tsatsaronis, G and Cziesla, F. Thermoeconomics, 2003.

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Where is Exergy ?

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It is in my pocket.

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What happens when we squeeze the tooth


paste tube ?
Could we put the paste back in the tube again
after coming out ?

The entropy of a system


increases when exergy is lost.

Source: http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/fysbas/exergy/exergybasics.shtml

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To more easily understand the concept of exergy, you can

consider the previous picture as an analogy: You buy is the


(toothpaste) tube, but have to squeeze it to get at what
you really need, the toothpaste. When the tube is empty
of paste (exergy) the tube is still there, the same amount
as when you bought it.
In these circumstances, the word entropy often comes up.
In the picture this is represented as the depression in the
tube. The depression increases as the amount of paste
diminishes, but the depression is not a negative paste (You
can not take the depression and unbrush your teeth !).
Entropy is not negative exergy, but another description of

the system. Furthermore, it is not defined in far-fromequilibrium systems, as living systems and other organised
systems.

Source: http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/fysbas/LOT/LOT.shtml, Access date: 13 Feb. 2011.


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Differences between Energy and ExergyAnalysis

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Source: LOWEX Guidbook

Source: Helga Ferket, Ben Laenen & Peter Van Tongeren. Low-exergy applications of low-enthalpy
geothermal prospects . 12 Oct. 2009.

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Symbols for exergy and exergetic efficiency used in


textbooks [initially compiled by Noam Lior]

exergy
[J]

the specific
exergy
function [J/kg]

exergy
destruction

exergetic
efficiency

Textbook
reference

Irreversibility

Keenan

, b

Hatsopoulos &
Keenan, 1965

Ed

Ex for open b for open


systems, systems, a for
for closed
closed

Wlost

II

Kotas, 1985

Bejan

Moran
Moran and
Shapiro

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(contnd.) Symbols for exergy and exergetic efficiency used in textbooks [initially
compiled by Noam Lior]
exergy
[J]

the specific exergy


function [J/kg]

exergy
destruction

exergetic
efficiency

Textbook
reference

ED

Bejan, Tsatsaronis,
and Moran

B, p

Szargut et al.

I, Xdestroyed

II

Cengel and Boles

2nd

Anderson

Gyftopoulos and
Beretta

Bosnjakovic

II

Sussman

2nd law

Sontag,
Borgnakke, van
Wylen

Baehr

(only
for
streams)

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Exergy and Anergy


Given: an amount of material with temperature Th
Energy content = Q
Exergy
= Useful
energy
= Q [1-(T0/Th)]

Energy = Exergy + Anergy


Anergy
= Useless energy
= Q (T0/Th)
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5. Why Exergy ?

An effective method using the conservation of mass and

conservation of energy principles together with the SLT for


the design and analysis of energy systems.

A primary tool in best addressing the impact of energy

resource utilization on the environment.

A suitable technique for furthering the goal of more

efficient energy-resource use.

A crucial key for determining the locations, types, and true

magnitudes of wastes and losses.

An efficient technique revealing whether or not and by how

much it is possible to design more efficient energy systems


by reducing the inefficiencies.

A key component in obtaining sustainable development.


Source: I. Dincer

33

Exergy analysis of the thermal systems allows the


designer to:
a) assess the influence of every process (component)

of the system on the overall efficiency;

b) eliminate the major processes (components) of the

system that diminish its performance;

c)

definite the maximum value of the system


efficiency with respect to the best performance of
the assumed process (component); and

d) identify methods for improving the effectiveness

of a power plant.

Source: I. Dincer
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Energy and Exergy Flow Diagrams

Source: Wall, G; Zvolinschi, A.

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6. Dead (Reference) State Definition


It should be noticed that exergy is always evaluated with

respect to a reference environment (i.e. dead state).


When a system is in equilibrium with the environment, the state
of the system is called the dead state due to the fact that the
exergy is zero. At the dead state, the conditions of mechanical,
thermal, and chemical equilibrium between the system and the
environment are satisfied: the pressure, temperature, and
chemical potentials of the system equal those of the
environment, respectively.
In addition, the system has no motion or elevation relative to

coordinates in the environment. Under these conditions, there is


neither possibility of a spontaneous change within the system or
the environment nor an interaction between them. The value of
exergy is zero..
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Dead (Reference) State Definition (Contd)


Another type of equilibrium between the system and

environment can be identified. This is a restricted form of


equilibrium, where only the conditions of mechanical and
thermal equilibrium (thermomechanical equilibrium) must be
satisfied. Such state is called the restricted dead state.
At the restricted dead state, the fixed quantity of matter
under consideration is imagined to be sealed in an envelope
impervious to mass flow, at zero velocity and elevation
relative to coordinates in the environment, and at the
temperature T0 and pressure P0 taken often as 25 oC and 1
atm.
The selection of dead state conditions is arbitrary, but
depends on some criteria.
Please note that we will call only the dead state throughout
this lecture.
Source: Moran MJ. Availability analysis: a guide to efficiency energy use. Englewood Cliffs,
37
NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1982.

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7. Driving Force
The impetus, power, or energy behind something in

motion, as in He was clearly the driving force in the new


administration. This term transfers the force that sets in
motion an engine or vehicle to other enterprises. Ralph
Waldo Emerson was among the first to use it figuratively
(English Traits, 1856): The ability of its journals is the
driving force.
Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/driving+force

What is the driving force for the heat transfer, electric


current and fluid flow ?

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8. Exergy Efficiency

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Exergy Efficiency = Product/Fuel


Exergy Efficiency = Desired Effect/Fuel
Exergy Efficiency = Benefit /Fuel

Exergy Efficiency = Product /Source


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9. Sankey and Grassmann diagrams

The first
Sankey
diagram

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/JIE_Sankey_V5_Fig1.png

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http://www.sei.ie/uploadedfiles/CHP/Sankey%20diagram2.png

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In this diagram, called a Sankey Diagram, we can see that of 72 kW of power


from the fuel, only 9 kW are used in actually driving a car along a road. The
rest is lost as low grade heat.
http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/Physics_A2/Options/Module_7/Topic_5/Sankey.gif

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Exergy balance diagram


(Grassmann diagram)

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10. Modelling
Mass balance equation:

General energy balance:

General exergy balance:

Exergy efficiency:
Other balance equations ???

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Total exergy of a system:

Exsys= ExPH+ ExKN+ ExPT+ ExCH


Total specific exergy on a mass basis:

exsys= exPH+ exKN+ exPT+ exCH

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11. An Illustrative Example

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12. Conclusions
Exergy

analysis is an effective method, using the


conservation of mass and conservation of energy principles
together with the SLT, that can be employed for the
design and analysis of thermal systems.

It is therefore an efficient technique revealing whether

or not and by how much it is possible to design more


efficient thermal systems by reducing the inefficiencies.

Illustrative

example is presented to highlight the


importance of understanding and considering exergy as a
potential tool.

The potential usefulness of exergy analysis in addressing

and solving environmental problems is substantial.

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QUESTIONS ???
A
R
I
F

THANK YOU
VERY MUCH
FOR YOUR
STAYING
HERE
TILL THE END

QUESTIONS ???

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