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24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Mass:

So far, in our studies of mechanics, we have considered the motion of idealised

particles moving geometrically through space. Why a particular particle moves

with a particular type of motion, has not yet been considered.

The motion of a real body, is determined by the external forces, that act upon it.

There is an intrinsic property of a body, however, that determines its precise

response to a given applied force the mass (or inertia ) of the body.

Mass: Mass is the amount of material composing body.

Bodies are made from atoms, and atoms are composed of elementary particles,

such as protons, and electrons. These elementary particles have a quantum

property which we call mass. This property allows a particle to interact

gravitationally with other particles, and also gives the particle the property of

inertia. This property is additive. The mass of a body is the total mass of all the

elementary particles, of all the atoms, of which the body is composed.

SI Unit of mass: kg

1 kg = The total mass of (~5.98x1026) individual protons

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Momentum:

Next we need to quantify the amount of motion possessed by a body. We

need to include both the mass of the body, and its velocity.

A body of mass, m, moving with a velocity vector, v, has a

momentum vector, p, defined by -

v

m

p

p=mv

having the direction of the velocity.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Several Forces:

It is common for several forces to act on a body simultaneously. Each individual

force will contribute to the overall motion of the body. For example:

R

Fr

R = upward reaction Force of the surface, on the block

W = downward weight force of gravity, on the block.

F = applied force dragging the block.

Fr = friction force of the surface, on the block.

W

Although we have not yet defined precisely what we mean by force, it is

intuitively clear that forces have direction, and are therefore vectors.

The individual contributions by individual forces, to the overall motion of a body, will

add up, like vectors. We can use the idea of an overall effective force causing an

overall effective motion.

We can replace the several forces, with a single equivalent force, that has the

same total effect on the motion of the body, as all of the individual forces. Such an

equivalent force is called a resultant force, and is obtained by vector addition of

the several individual forces.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Resultant Force:

The vector sum of all the forces that act on a given body, at a given

moment, is called the resultant force acting on the body, at that moment,

and is represented by F.

R

Fr

F

In the diagram F = F + Fr + R + W (vector sum)

W

It is the resultant force, F, acting on a body, that

determines the overall change in motion of that body.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

We are now able to define force. This is done in terms of the change in the

motion of a body, that the force causes.

This idea is due to Isaac Newton and was included in his three laws of motion.

Firstly, we will give a general description of the role played by each of these laws.

The first law identifies a fundamental spatial property of masses, namely, that

they will not change their momentum, unless a force acts upon them. This law

was originally discovered by Gallileo, and is known as the law of Inertia.

The second law describes the quantitative connection between a force, and the

change it produces in the motion of a body. This law effectively defines force.

The third law expresses the fundamental property of forces, that they always

occur in pairs, and gives the quantitative relationship between the two forces

of the pair. This is the law of action and reaction.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Next we give a quantitative statement of each law:

Law 1 (N1):

Unless a resultant force acts on a body, its momentum vector will not change.

Law 2 (N2):

The time-rate of change in the momentum of a body, is proportional to the

resultant force that acts on that body, and takes place in the direction in which

that resultant force acts.

Law 3 (N3):

If a body A exerts a force on a body B, then B exerts a reaction force back on A,

which is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction to the original action force

due to A. This is true at every instant.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

More Concisely:

F = force vector;

N1 :

N2 :

N3 :

If F = 0, then p = 0

~

d' $

F % p"

~

dt & ~ #

FAB = FBA

~

N1:

p = momentum vector

No cause, no effect!

Force causes a proportional

rate-of-change in momentum.

Never a lonely force; an action

causes an equal, but opposite

reaction.

the fundamental property of bodies, that they will not change their

momentum unless a force acts upon them. If at rest, they remain at rest;

if in motion, they continue their motion with the same velocity, and in the

same direction. This is the property of inertia. Prior to Gallileo, it was

thought that bodies naturally returned to a state of rest. The role of

friction forces had not been understood.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

N2:

We can simplify N2:

Say a resultant

force, F, acts on a

body, of mass, m,

which has a

velocity , v, and a

momentum of p.

p

m

N2

d' $

% p"

dt & ~ #

k constant of proportionality

d

= k m v where

~

p mv

dt

dv

= km ~ if m = const.

dt

dv

= km a where a acceleration ~

~

~

dt

F

~

( )

F = ma

~

Unit:

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

Example:

3N

when acted upon by the two forces

illustrated.

2 kg

m

4N

F = 4 + 3 = 4i +3j (N)

#

4N

F = ma

4i +3j = 2 a

thus a = 2i + 1.5j m s-2

Resultant Force:

F = 5 N, at = 36.9 deg to x-axis

24/06/13

3N

F = ma

thus acceleration

= a = F/m = 5/2 = 2.5 m s-2

in the direction of the resultant

force, namely at = 36.9 deg

to the +x-axis.

Direction tan =

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

1.5

hence = 36.9 deg

2

Same as before

10

N3:

N3 is often misunderstood. The only way a force can act on a body is by an

interaction with another body. There must always be two bodies. The

interaction could be by direct contact, or remotely, via a field. If A exerts a force

on B (the action force), symmetry would suggest that B would exert reaction

force back on A. This can be deduced from the requirement that the motion of

a body must be consistent with the motion of its component parts The action and reaction forces-

- are opposite in direction

- act on different bodies

Bodies A

& B Collide:

Earth(E)Moon(M)

System:

24/06/13

action force of A on B

reaction force of B back on A

gravitational force of M acting on E

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

11

We defined force in terms of the change in motion of a single inertial body (a

single mass). Forces can only be produced by an interaction between two

bodies. Without the second body, the interaction, and therefore the force, cannot

exist.

This interaction involves momentum being transferred from one of the bodies to the

other. Thus the momentum of one body increases, while the momentum of the

other body decreases, with time.

We define the force acting on each body, in terms of the time-rate of transfer of

momentum, to (or from) that body, from (or to) the other body.

This idea of momentum transfer unifies the second, and third laws of Newton.

Forces can only happen between two bodies. Because there is a mutual transfer

of momentum, there must be two, equal, but opposite forces. Each force acts on

only one of the two bodies.

We will return to this idea, when we consider momentum in more detail, later in

this course.

Fundamentally, any force involves the transfer of momentum between particles.

Different types of force differ only in the mechanism for momentum transfer.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

12

Common Forces:

Next, we will describe some of the more common types of force, that occur in

problems.

Weight:

then the weight, W, of a mass, m, will be

g

from F = m a

W=mg

W = mg

Other examples:

24/06/13

Body

g (m s-2)

9.78

8.87

3.77

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

1.62

13

Common Forces:

Tension:

Strings can pull, but not push.

G

T

B

T is the tension force of the string on the block.

t is the tension force of the string on the girder.

If the string is massless, T = t

t is tension force of the string on mass m.

T is tension force of the string on mass M.

t

m

24/06/13

T

M

massless and frictionless, then T = t.

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

14

Common Forces:

Reaction:

When a body exerts a force on a surface, the surface reacts back on the

body, with an equal and opposite reaction force. If there is no mechanism

for this reaction force to have a component along the surface (no friction,

no hinge etc), then the reaction will be normal to the surface. We call this

the normal reaction , R.

R

B

S

r

r is the action of the block on the surface.

(Note: r is not the weight of the block!)

R is the normal reaction of the surface, S,

back on the block.

By N3: R = r always!

Normal reactions occur, where the surfaces in contact are smooth. If the

surfaces are rough, we get, in addition, a force component along the

surface, which we call friction.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

15

Common Forces:

Spring:

Let one end of a spring be fixed to a wall and an object is fixed on the

other. When an applied force F acts on the object, the object exerts a force

F on the spring and the spring exerts a restoring force F on the object.

The restoring force is in a direction opposite to the displacement of the

object.

Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the

restoring force -F acting on the spring when it has been

extended or compressed by some distance of x is

proportional to that distance :

-F x

thus F = -kx

where k is the spring constant and is a characteristic of

that spring.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

16

Common Forces:

Friction:

If there is roughness between two surfaces in contact, a contact force along

the surface is possible. This force is called friction.

The friction force will depend on

(1) the nature of the surfaces in contact

(2) the normal forces of contact that hold the surfaces together.

We identify two situations:

(1) static friction is where there is NO relative motion between the surfaces.

(2) kinetic friction is where there is relative motion.

Friction forces are always directed so that they oppose motion.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

17

R

F

mg

horizontal rough surface. A horizontal force, F, is

applied to the block. mg = weight of the block.

R = normal reaction of the surface up on the block.

A friction force, f, opposes the motion of the block.

When F = 0 (no dragging force!), f must also = 0, since the block is stationary.

Initially, as F is increased, the block remains stationary. Thus f must be equal,

but opposite, to F. Eventually, F reaches a value where the block starts to

move. At this point, f has reached its maximum value, and F has become

slightly greater than f. As F continues to increase, f remains constant, and the

block moves, with an increasing acceleration, proportional to (F-f), along the

surface.

We plot a graph of the friction force, f, against the applied force, F.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

18

f

max. static friction force

kinetic friction force

F

In static region: f = F

In kinetic region: f = const.

static friction

kinetic friction

There is a non-simple transition region between the static, and kinetic regions.

For any pair of surfaces, there will be a characteristic maximum value of

friction force, just before the block slides. This is called the maximum static

friction force.

As soon as the block starts to slip, the friction force typically relaxes to a

slightly smaller constant value, called the kinetic friction force.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

19

The values of maximum static friction, and kinetic friction, depend on

(1) the nature of the contact surfaces

(2) the normal reaction force between the surfaces.

Experiment shows, for any given pair of surfaces, both the max. static

friction force, and the kinetic friction force, are proportional to the

reaction force, R, between the surfaces.

f max.static R

thus f max.static = s R

f kinetic R

thus f kinetic = k R

and k = constant of proportionality = coefficient of kinetic friction

For any pair of surfaces, there will be a characteristic static coefficient, s,

and a (usually) lower kinetic coefficient of friction, k.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

20

Some typical values for :

s = max. static friction coefficient

k = kinetic friction coefficient

Surfaces

steel on steel

0.74

0.57

copper on steel

0.53

0.36

0.10

teflon on teflon

0.04

0.04

human joints

0.01

0.003

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

C

B

A

F

Curves for different pairs of

surfaces A, B, and C.

21

Example:

What horizontal force, F, would be needed to drag a steel block, of mass 5.0 kg,

along a horizontal steel surface, at a constant velocity?

R

R

mg

R = reaction force of surface on block

R = friction force of surface on block

(note: is the kinetic value k)

mg = weight of block

Vertically:

R = mg .........(1)

Horizontally:

F = R .........(2)

(1) --> (2):

An applied force of 27.9 N is required.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

22

Force Diagrams:

When addressing force problems, the first, and probably most important, step is

to draw a diagram showing all the individual forces, that act individually on each

body in the problem. These are force diagrams. There are clearly two steps:

(1) divide the system up into individual bodies

(2) for each chosen body, draw a diagram showing all the

forces that act on that particular body.

Example:

Because the string is massless and the pulley is massless and

frictionless, the same string tension, T, acts on each block. (The

pulley s only effect is to change the direction of the tension

force in the string.)

T

m

mg

Pulley System:

T

M

Mg

is individually determined

by the tension and the

weight, that act upon it.

T

m

mg

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

T

M

Mg

23

Force Diagrams:

The Box in the Lift:

Assume the lift has acceleration, a, upward. Let m = mass of box

M = mass of cage of lift

T = tension in the lift cable

R = reaction of lift floor on box

= action force of box on lift floor.

a

m

Box:

R

Cage:

R

m

mg

Mg

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

(M + m) g

24

Force Diagrams:

a

R

T

Mg

r

t

mg

r

m

We can break the train up into three bodies

engine, first carriage, last carriage.

Let:

M = mass of engine

m = mass of either carriage

F = traction force due to wheels pulling engine forward

R = normal upward reaction of rails on engine

r = normal upward reaction of rails on either carriage

T = tension in coupling between engine and first carriage

t = tension in coupling between the two carriages

mg

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

25

Force Diagrams:

The Block sliding on a Wheeled Wedge:

r

m

M

The Block:

Assume frictionless wheels.

The Wedge:

mg

R

m = mass of block

M = mass of wedge

r = normal reaction of wedge surface on block

R = normal reaction of horizontal surface up on wheels

= coefficient of friction between block and wedge

Relative to the wedge, the block will accelerate

down the wedge s inclined face. The wedge will

accelerate horizontally to the left, relative to the

horizontal surface.

Mg

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

26

For systems of masses, the general strategy is to divide and conquer divide the

problem up into convenient masses, apply N2 to each, thereby obtaining a set of

equations, and finally, solve the equations for the unknowns.

Steps:

(2) Draw a force diagram for each mass

(3) Label acceleration for each mass

(4) Resolve all forces (and acceleration) into mutually

perpendicular directions for each mass

(5) Assuming consistent positive directions, write F = ma , for

each mass, in each direction

(6) Solve all equations, for all masses, for the unknowns.

(7) Interpret your answers

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

27

Example:

A 5 kg mass rests on a horizontal surface, with which its kinetic friction coefficient

is 0.5. Find its acceleration, a, when a horizontal force of 50 N acts upon it.

a

R

m = 5 kg

F = 50 N

= 0.5

24/06/13

R

m

mg

+y

F

+x

N2:

F = ma

x direction: +F R = ma .(1)

y-direction: +R mg = 0 .(2)

Solve (1) & (2) for a:

(2):

R = mg ..(3)

(3)->(1): F mg = ma

thus:

a = F/m g

= 50/5 (0.5)(10)

= 5 m s-2

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

28

Example:

#

M = 10 kg

m = 5 kg

= 0.2

tan = 3/4

of the masses, and the

tension in the string,

after the system is

released from rest.

a

T

T

+

#

a

mg

Choose positive directions.

Mg

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

29

a

T

T

+ a

R

+

M

Mg

Example:

mg cos#

For M (vertically):

N2: F = ma

+Mg T = Ma.(1)

For m (parallel to incline):

+R mg cos = 0.(2)

+T mg sin - R = ma.(3)

+Mg mg sin mg cos = Ma + ma

Thus :

24/06/13

and perpendicular to incline.

mg sin#

mg

(2)->(3):

(1) + (4):

Find a:

a=

M m(sin + cos )

g...........(5)

(M + m)

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

30

Example:

+Mg T = Ma.(1)

a=

Find T:

From (1): T = M (g - a)..(6)

(5)->(6) gives:

M m(sin + cos )

g...........(5)

(M + m)

T = M $g

g!

(M + m )

%

"

& M m(sin + cos )#

= Mg $1

!

(M + m )

%

"

T=

Mm

[1 + sin + cos ] g......... .(7)

(M + m )

Numerical values:

From (5):

a =

M m(sin + cos )

g

(M + m )

(8)->(6):

4#

&3

10 5$ + 0.2 !

5"

%5

=

9.8

(10 + 5)

T = 10 (9.8 4.05)

=57.5 N

= 4.05 m s -2 ...........(8)

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

31

Forces in Rotation:

v

t

a

O

= const

radius, r, at constant angular velocity, .

We know from our study of circular motion, that the

mass has a centripetal acceleration, a, at every

instant, t, given by:

2

v

2

a = r =

r

where

v = the tangential velocity.

By N2, this acceleration must be caused by some centripetal force, F, given by:

2

v

F = ma = m 2 r = m

r

forces, etc, can play the role of the centripetal force, in particular systems.

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

32

Example:

A car drives in ever decreasing circles, on a flat horizontal surface, at a constant

speed of 100 km/hr. The coefficient of maximum static friction, , between the

car s tyres and the road surface is 0.8. At what radius, will the car slip?

v2/r

R

R

m

of centripetal force. It will be directed toward

the centre of the circle in order to oppose

slipping.

mg

As r is decreased, the static

friction force will increase,

until it reaches its maximum

static value. Friction can not

increase beyond this value,

and when r decreases

further, the car will slip.

24/06/13

N2 gives

But

thus

v2

R = m

at the point of slipping

r

R = mg since there is no vertical acceleration

v2

mg = m

r

2

Hence

v 2 ' 100 10 3 $

1

""

r=

= %%

g & 60 60 # 0.8 10

= 96.5 m

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

33

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

34

Fr

W

24/06/13

Forces ( F.Robilliard)

35

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