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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg


VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions
CH.Venkata ramana

Y.Naveen Kumar2

A.Prasadarao3

1. PG Student, Department of EEE, VITAM College of Engineering, VSP-531173


2. Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, VITAM College of Engineering, VSP-531173
3. Associate Professor, Department of EEE, VITAM College of Engineering, VSP-531173
1.Email: david.venkataramana@gmail.com 2.Email: yarra.naveen@ymail.com 3.Email:akulaprasadarao001@gmail.com
been used to eliminate line current harmonics. However,
they introduce resonance in the power system and tend to
be bulky. So active power line conditioners have become
popular than passive filters as it compensates the
harmonics and reactive power simultaneously [1]. The
active power filter topology can be connected in series or
shunt and combinations of both[8]. Shunt active filter is
more popular than series active filter because most of the
industrial applications require current harmonics
compensation. Different types of active filters have been
proposed[10] to increase the electric system quality; a
generalized block diagram of active power filter is
presented. Active power filter continues to attract
considerable attention. Because of sensitivity of
consumers on power quality and advancement in power
electronics.

Abstract- This paper presents a three-phase four-wire grid


interfacing power quality compensator for micro-grid
applications. The compensator is proposed for use with each
individual distributed generation (DG) system in the micro
grid, and consists of two four-phase-leg inverters (a shunt
and a series), optimally controlled to achieve an
enhancement of both the quality of power within the microgrid and the quality of currents flowing between the microgrid and utility system. Using four-phase-leg inverters, the
compensator can compensate for all the unwanted positive-,
negative- and zero-sequence voltage/current components
found within an unbalanced utility grid. Specifically, the
shunt four-leg inverter is controlled to ensure balanced
voltages within the micro-grid and to regulate power sharing
among the parallel-connected DG systems. The fourth leg of
inverter is used to compensate the neutral current of load.
The grid interfacing inverter can thus be utilized as: 1)
power converter to inject power generated from RES to the
grid, and 2) shunt APF to compensate current unbalance,
load current harmonics and load reactive power demand.
The inverter is actively controlled in such a way that it
draws/supplies fundamental active power from/to the grid.
The series inverter is controlled complementarily to inject
negative and zero-sequence voltages in series to balance the
line currents, whilst generating zero real and reactive power.

Active power filter technology is the most efficient way


to compensate reactive power and cancel out low order
harmonics generated by nonlinear loads. The electrical
grid will include a very large number of small
producers[5] that use renewable energy sources, like solar
panels or wind generators. One of the most common
problems when connecting small renewable energy
systems to the electric grid concerns the interface unit
between the power sources and the grid, because it can
inject harmonic components that may detoriate the power
quality. However, the extensive use of power electronics
based equipment and non-linear loads at PCC generate
harmonic currents, which may detoriate the quality
power.

Index Terms-, Distributed generation (DG), three-phase


four-wire grid, Active power filter (APF), renewable energy
(RE) and Voltage source Inverter (VSI).

I.

INTRODUCTION

Power electronics devices are widely used in different


fields and for different practical applications. The
expansion of their field of applications is related to the
knowledge of the device behaviour and of their
performances[2]. One of the most interesting field of
application is load compensation, i.e. active filtering of
load harmonics, load unbalance and / or load power factor
compensation. Both items require a proper drive of power
electronics apparatus. The harmonic components in
current and voltage waveforms are the most important
among these. Conventionally[4]-[6], passive filters have

Generally, current controlled voltage source inverters are


used to interface the intermittent RES in distributed
system. This paper suggests a new method that consists of
four leg VSI that is capable of simultaneously
compensating problems like power factor, current
imbalance and current harmonics, and also of injecting
the energy generated by renewable energy power sources
with a very low THD. In an inverter[14] operates as

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

39

Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

active inductor at a certain frequency to absorb the


harmonic current. A similar approach in which a shunt
active filter acts as active conductance to damp out the
harmonics in distribution network is proposed in the
harmonics generated by the most common non-linear
loads have the following properties:
lower order harmonics tend to dominate in amplitude;
if the waveform has half-wave symmetry there are no
even harmonics;
harmonic emissions from a large number of non-linear
loads of the same type will be added.

Generally, the power circuit of shunt APF consists of a


three phase Voltage Source PWM Inverter (VSI) using
IGBTs coupled at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC)
via coupling inductance.

The major problems caused by[5] the mains harmonic


currents are those associated with the harmonic currents
themselves, and those caused by the voltage waveform
distortion resulting from the harmonic currents flowing in
the supply source impedance. This distortion of the
voltage waveform can cause, e.g. serious effects in direct
on-line induction motors, ranging from a minor increase
in internal temperature through excessive noise and
vibration to actual damage; electronic power supplies may
fail to operate adequately; increased earth leakage current
through [6]EMI filter capacitors due to their lower
reactance at the harmonic frequencies.

Fig.1.Schematic of Proposed Distributed Generation system

The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by


nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic
components in the opposite phase. Harmonics are thus
cancelled and the result is a non-distorted sinusoidal
current. Each leg of VSI consists of two IGBT. The single
phase equivalent circuit of the system is shown in Fig.2.
Load current can be written as

In three phase application with three leg inverter, if the


load requires a neutral point connection a simple approach
is to use two capacitor to split the dc link and tie the
neutral point to the midpoint of two capacitors. In this
case the unbalanced loads will cause the neutral currents
that flow through the fourth wire distorting the output
voltage. Another drawback is the need for excessively
large dc link capacitors. The important parameters of
VSIs are the level of dc link voltage, value of interface
inductor and hysteresis band. These parameters must be
carefully selected to provide satisfactory performance
while tracking reference currents [8]. In a control strategy
based on p-q theory is proposed where load current and
inverter current sensing are required to compensate load
an harmonics.

(1)
(2)

II. SYSTEM TOPOLOGY AND OPERATING


PRINCIPLE\
The proposed system consists of RES connected to the dc
link of a grid-interfacing inverter as shown in Fig. 1. It is
assumed that a non-linear unbalanced load consisting of a
three phase and single phase diode rectifier is connected
to a three-phase balanced source voltages. The voltage
source inverter is a key element of a DG system as it
interfaces the renewable energy source to the grid and
delivers the generated power. The RES may be a DC
source or an AC source with rectifier coupled to dc-link.

Fig.2

Single Phase Equivalent Circuit of the system and VSl

In equation (1), iLf is the fundamental component and iLh


International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

harmonic component of load current. Since the harmonic


component of load current should not be transferred to the
supply side, the inverter has to inject a current whose
magnitude should be equal to harmonic component. We
should have,
(3)

across the capacitor. A PI controller is used to maintain


the DC link voltage at specified value. The DC link
voltage is sensed and compared with reference value and
the error is passed through a PI controller.

(5)
Thus the output of dc link voltage regulator results in
current
.

From equation (2) and (3), we get


(4)
If iLah i1nva switch2 should be OFF and switch 1
should be ON so the current generated by dc capacitor
i1nva is equal to iLh. If iLah < i1nva switch2 should be
ON and switch 1 should be OFF so the current i1nva
should be transferred to the ground in order to have ilnva=
iLah.
III. CONTROL STRATEGY

Current Control of VSI


Vector templates are generated as

(6)

The main aim of the proposed approach is to inject the


power from RES and also to make the voltage source
inverter to function as an APF. There are many control
approaches available for the generation of reference
source currents for the control of VSI system in the
literature [10], [11]. The block diagram of the control
scheme is shown in Fig. 3. The control strategy applied to
the grid side inverter consists mainly of two cascaded
loops. Usually there is a fast internal current control loop,
which regulates the grid current and an external voltage
loop which controls the DC-link voltage [12]. Conduction
and switching losses of diodes and IGBTs in inverters
increase voltage ripple in DC-link which affects the
performance of the filter. These effects controlled by a
feedback loop where PI regulator compares the DC-link
voltage with a reference voltage. The control scheme
approach is based on injecting the currents into the grid
using hysteresis current controller.

(7)

(8)
The multiplication of current 1m with unit vector template
( ,
)
generates
reference
grid
currents
( , , ,) The instantaneous values of reference grid
currents are computed as
(9)
(10)

(11)
The neutral currents present if any due to the loads
connected to the neutral conductor should not be drawn
from the grid. Thus reference grid neutral current is
considered as zero and can be expressed as

(12)
Current errors are obtained by comparing reference grid
currents ( , , ,) with actual grid currents(
)
These current errors are given to the hysteresis current
controller.

Fig.3 Block diagram representation of control scheme


A.

Voltage control of DC capacitor


(13)

The DC link voltage regulates balanced power flow in the


grid system so the DC link voltage is maintained constant
International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

(14)

(15)

(16)
C. Switching Control of IGBTs
Switching pulses are generated using hysteresis current
controller. There are various current control methods for
active power filter configurations but hysteresis method is
preferred among other current control methods because of
quick current controllability, easy implementation and
unconditioned stability. The conventional current control
scheme is the hysteresis method where the actual filter
currents are compared with their reference currents with a
predefined hysteresis band in their respective phases.
Thus the actual currents track the reference currents
generated by current control loop. The switching pattern
of each IGBT is formulated as, If (la * - Ia ) = +hb then
the upper switch S I will be ON in the phase a leg of
inverter. If (la * - Ia ) = -hb then the lower switch S4 will
be ON in the phase a leg of inverter. Where, hb width of
hysteresis band. Similarly switching pulses are derived for
other three legs.

Fig.4 Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4-Leg VSI with Balanced


Linear Load Condition

Fig.4 shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4Leg VSI with Balanced Linear Load Condition using
Matlab/Simulink Platform.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS


Fig. 5 Source Current, Load Current, Inverter Injecting Current, Grid
Voltage

To verify the proposed control approach to achieve the


multi function of four leg inverter simulation study is
carried out using MATLAB/Simulink.Here simulation is
carried out in different cases 1). Implementation of 4-Leg
VSI with Balanced Linear Load Condition 2).
Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with Un-Balanced Linear
Load Condition 3). Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with
Balanced Non-Linear Load Condition 4). Implementation
of 4-Leg VSI with Un-Balanced Non Linear Load
Condition.

Fig.5 shows the Source Current, Load Current, Inverter


Injecting Current, and Grid Voltage of Proposed 4-Leg
VSI with Balanced Linear Load Condition.

Case 1: Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with Balanced


Linear Load Condition

Fig.6 Power Factor

Fig.6 shows the Power Factor of Proposed 4-Leg VSI


with Balanced Linear Load Condition.
Case 2: Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with Un-Balanced
Linear Load Condition

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

Fig. 10 Source Current, Load Current, Inverter Injecting Current, Grid


Voltage

Fig. 7 Source Current, Load Current, Inverter Injecting Current, Grid


Voltage

Fig.10 shows the Source Current, Load Current, Inverter


Injecting Current, and Grid Voltage of Proposed 4-Leg
without VSI with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition,
due to non linear load our source parameters distorts.

Fig.7 shows the Source Current, Load Current, Inverter


Injecting Current, and Grid Voltage of Proposed 4-Leg
VSI with Un-Balanced Linear Load Condition, due to
unwanted impedance our source parameters distorts, but
compensate using the compensator.

Fig.8 Power Factor

Fig.8 shows the Power Factor of Proposed 4-Leg VSI


with Un-Balanced Linear Load Condition.
Case 3: Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with Balanced NonLinear Load Condition

Fig. 11 Source Current, Load Current, Inverter Injecting Current, Grid


Voltage

Fig.11 shows the Source Current, Load Current, Inverter


Injecting Current, and Grid Voltage of Proposed 4-Leg
VSI with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition, due to
non linear load our source parameters distorts, but
compensator compensates the harmonics and maintain
sinusoidal nature.

Fig.12 Power Factor

Fig.12 shows the Power Factor of Proposed 4-Leg VSI


with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition.

Fig.9 Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4-Leg VSI with Balanced


Non Linear Load Condition

Fig.9 shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4Leg VSI with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition using
Matlab/Simulink Platform.
International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

Fig.13 FFT Analysis of Source Current of Proposed 4-Leg without VSI


with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition

Fig.13 shows the FFT Analysis of Source Current of


Proposed 4-Leg without VSI with Balanced Non Linear
Load Condition, we get 30.37%.

Fig.15 Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4-Leg VSI with UnBalanced Non Linear Load Condition

Fig.15 shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed 4Leg VSI with Un-Balanced Non Linear Load Condition
using Matlab/Simulink Platform.

Fig. 16 Source Current, Load Current, Inverter Injecting Current, Grid


Voltage

Fig.16 shows the Source Current, Load Current, Inverter


Injecting Current, and Grid Voltage of Proposed 4-Leg
VSI with Un-Balanced Non Linear Load Condition, due
to unwanted impedance based non linear load our source
parameters distorts, but compensator compensates the
harmonics and maintain sinusoidal nature.

Fig.14 FFT Analysis of Source Current of Proposed 4-Leg with VSI


with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition

Fig.14 shows the FFT Analysis of Source Current of


Proposed 4-Leg with VSI with Balanced Non Linear Load
Condition, we get 1.90%.
Case 4: Implementation of 4-Leg VSI with Un-Balanced
Non Linear Load Condition.

Fig.17 Power Factor


International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJEEE), ISSN (PRINT): 2231 5184, Volume-4, Issue-1, 2013

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Improvement of Power Quality Using Four Leg VSI Applied to Various Load Conditions

on Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO 2011),


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Fig.17 shows the Power Factor of Proposed 4-Leg VSI


with Balanced Non Linear Load Condition.
V. CONCLUSIONS
This paper presented a control of Three phase Four leg
grid interfacing inverter improve the quality of power at
PCC for a 3 phase 4 wire system applied to various load
conditions, here we preferred balanced as well as
unbalanced load conditions with linear & non-linear load.
It has been shown that the grid interfacing inverter can
simultaneously be utilized to inject power generated from
RES to PCC and to improve the quality of power at PCC.
Thus the proposed controller precisely manages any
variation in real power at dc link and effectively feeds it
to the main grid. The current harmonics caused by non
linear load connected at PCC are compensated effectively
such that the grid currents are always maintained
sinusoidal at unity power factor. This approach thus
eliminates the need for additional power conditioning
equipment to improve the quality of power at PCC. Thus
the load neutral current is prevented from flowing into the
grid side by compensating it locally from the fourth leg of
the inverter.

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