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The objective of this thesis is to design and fabricate a simple

and cheap magnet device to investigate the effect of magnets on
fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature. Permanent
magnets are cheap, light in weight, safe and at the same time, it
is environmental friendly. The magnet device is easy to attach on
the fuel line because it is small. Solid Works is used to design the
magnet device before fabricate this device. The magnet device is
then fabricated by using acrylic which not attracted magnetic field
so that the magnetic field will be focused on fuel line. The
magnets help to disperse the hydrocarbon cluster into smaller
particles which will improve the efficiency of combustion. This
will maximize the combustion and thus reduce the unburned
hydrocarbon in the emission. Then, an experiment is conducted by
using a diesel engine without load to determine the fuel
consumption and also temperature. A graph is then plotted based
on the readings to compare the effects of magnets towards the
fuel consumption and temperature.



The purpose of this chapter is to discuss about the
project synopsis, project background, problem statement,
project objectives, project scopes, flow chart of the project and
also a Gantt chart to explain the flow of overall process for this
The title of my project is Magnet Device to Reduce Diesel
Consumption in
Diesel Engine. This project is basically about how to reduce
diesel consumption in diesel engines with the use of magnets.
Other than fuel consumption, magnet also helps in reducing
unburned hydrocarbon in the emission. The magnet device
clamped on the fuel line connected before the fuel injector and
run the engine. The design is totally simple and light.


The world is now moving on a track called money.

Everyone checks the price tag first before going through the
specification of the product. Thus, what we clearly can see is
everyone wishes to save more money. At nowadays market,
there are many type of device for reducing fuel consumption of
an engine but the problems is expensive and leave some side
effects on the engine performance.
In terms of emission, for every 1kg of fuel burnt, there
is about 1.1kg of water vapor and 3.2kg of carbon dioxide
produced (BP Australia Limited, 2000). Unfortunately, there is
no automobile engines have 100% combustion and so there is
also a small amount of products of incomplete combustion
and these are carbon monoxide (denoted CO), unburned
hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, commonly called NOx and
sulphur dioxide. This gaseous lead to hotter exhaust gas
emission (Crouse & Anglin, 1993).
In market, there are various type of fuel saver and has its
own advantages and disadvantages. The most common type of
fuel saver is adding some chemical after filling up the fuel.
The chemical is believed to improve the combustion and
resulting in better output work.


According to Consumer Price Index Malaysia January

2011 which released by the Malaysian National Department

of Statistics, fuel prices in Malaysia are increased about
1.8% compared to previous year. The Malaysian Road
Transport Department revealed that there were roughly 50000
new cars released each year. The fuel price rises simultaneously
with the increasing of usage.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that
global warming is caused by greenhouse gases in which
humans are emitting them in variety of ways. Automobile
emission holding the biggest share. Unwanted emission is
resulted from incomplete







nitrogen dioxide. This

contributes to hotter exhaust gas emission.

Thus, people are looking for fuel saving gadgets in order
to reduce the fuel expenses but the problem is the fuel
saving gadgets is very expensive which is 23.97equivalent
to RM 117.70 (FuelEX).
In order to solve all these problems, I design a magnet
device and analyze it in term of fuel consumption and
emission by considering the weakness of the currently
marketed fuel saver.


The main objectives of this study are:

i. Design and fabricate a simple and cheap magnet device.
ii. Investigate the effect of magnetism on fuel consumption
and exhaust gas temperature.
iii. Fulfill people needs which is to save fuel expenses.



The scopes of this project are:


Design the Magnet

Device. ii. Fabricate the

Magnet Device.
iii. Theoretical analysis on the fuel consumption and exhaust gas



Figure 1.1 shows the process flow of how this project is done.
Title, Objective and
Research and Further Reading
Literature Review
Place the Magnet device on fuel line



Conclude the effect of magnet

Project Evaluation
Project Presentation
Report Preparation


Figure 1.1: Process flow chart



Figure 1.2: Gantt chart


Chapter 1 will explain about the project introduction,

project synopsis, project background, problem statement,

objective, scope, project flow chart and project Gantt chart.
This chapter is a basic understanding and planning for my
Chapter 2 which is the literature review mainly will explain
about the diesel
engine, diesel fuel, magnets, magnetic fuel saver and
issues regarding fuel consumption.
Chapter 3 which is the methodology will explain about further
research about
this project which is on the fuel consumption and exhaust
gas temperature. This chapter also explains about the flow of
my project.
Chapter 4 which is the results and discussion will explains
about the analysis
of the fuel consumption and the emission.
Chapter 5 mainly explains about the conclusion and
recommendation that can
be made to the diesel fuel saver in the future.



The purpose of this chapter is to review the critical points
of the project such as the diesel engine, diesel fuel, magnets,
magnetic fuel saver and fuel consumption related issues.
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
states that diesel
engine was invented in the year of 1892 by a German
engineer, Rudolph Diesel. At first, Rudolph Diesel tried to
come up with powdered coal as a possible fuel but he failed as
it is difficult to inject into the cylinder and caused the
prototype engine to explode. Then, Diesel discovered a stable
byproduct of the petroleum refinement process which is
diesel fuel. He was the first to prove that fuel can be ignited
in high compression condition. Rudolf Diesel then come up
with his prime model of a single 10-foot iron cylinder with a
flywheel and operated by its own power for the first time at

Augsburg, on August 10, 1893 shown in Figure 2.1.

Diesel again came with a new model of diesel engine

with the theoretical efficiency of 75% and substitutes steam
engines which only have 10% of efficiency at that time. Then,
his engine was widely used in marine craft, trucks and factories.

Rudolph Diesels First Prime Diesel Engine

In 1970s, diesel engines were widely used in automobile

industry especially in USA. Currently, almost 50% of all new
car manufactured in Europe is diesel engine based.
Operation and Priciple
Diesel engine which also known as compression-ignition
engine is a four-stroke internal combustion engine. Diesel
combustion engine is different from gasoline engine as diesel
engine does not use spark plug to ignite the mixture of fuel. The
air in combustion chamber is compressed with a typical

combustion ratio of
15 : 1 resulting in 4 MPa of pressure. The temperature at this
situation is roughly 550C. Mixture of diesel and air will be
injected in this compressed region and resulted in
combustion. The rapid expansion of combustion gases drives
the piston downward and rotates the crankshaft. Force is
created (Crouse & Anglin, 1993).

According to Rudolph Diesels theory, higher compression

leads to higher efficiency and power. A gasoline engine
compresses at ratio of 12 : 1 have lower efficiency than a
typical diesel engine. This proved that the theory is correct.
There are four strokes in diesel engine which resulted
from two complete rotation of crankshaft. Figure 2.2 shows
the 4 examples of strokes which are intake, compression,
power and exhaust.

The 4 strokes of Diesel Engine

Advantage and Disadvantage
In term of advantages and disadvantage, I would like
to compare diesel engine with gasoline engine as both are
internal combustion engine and widely used in automobile
The main advantage of diesel engine is inexpensive
diesel fuel. Gasoline is almost 20% more expensive than diesel
fuel. Other than that, diesel engine also can produce more

torque than gasoline engine. Generally, diesel engines having

better mileage than gasoline engines ( Matthew Wright). Diesel
fuel did not explode like gasoline in case of accident. Thus,
diesel engines are safer than gasoline engine. Another main
advantage is diesel engine can run on alternate fuel which is

(non-petroleum based fuel) making it more versatile (Bury

St. Edmunds, 2004). According to The International Energy
Agency (IEA) in the year of 2009, the fuel will peak in the
year 2037 at Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. So, how
the gasoline engine going to run the car after the fossil fuel
comes to the end?
Nothing is perfect. Same goes for diesel engines. The
emissions of diesel
engines are considered to be the worst disadvantage. Diesel
engine release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (known
as NOx), sulphur dioxide and unburned hydrocarbon as the
result of incomplete combustion. Sulphur dioxide can dissolve
in rain water and resulted in acid rain. Dangerous emission
cause the diesel engine to design with emission control system
and this makes diesel engine more expensive than gasoline
engine. Weather is another problem for diesel engine. During
winter season, diesel can freeze in the engine compared to
gasoline which is non-freezing (Bob Schmidt, 2007). Thus,
longer period of warming up is needed. Maintenance and
noisy are considered to be other minor disadvantages (Crouse &
Anglin, 1993).
Diesel fuel is used to operate diesel engines. Diesel is
referred to fossil fuel

based product which obtained by refining of crude oil. The

oil must have several properties such as proper viscosity,
volatility and cetane number in order to be used as diesel fuel
(Crouse & Anglin, 1993).
Volatility measures the tendency of a liquid to
evaporate. Diesel fuel has lower volatility compared to
gasoline. There are two grades of diesel fuel for automotive
engines which is number 1 diesel and number 2 diesel. Number
2 diesel is most recommended fuel to be used in automobile
industry as number 2 diesel have higher volatility and higher
heating value.

Viscosity refers to a liquids flow resistance. Liquid tends

to flow more easily by having low viscosity value. Diesel fuel
must have lower viscosity value in order to flow through flowsystem lines and inject in the combustion chamber with less
resistance. Oil with high viscosity will not break into fine
particles when injected which results in poor combustion.
Number 2 diesel having lower viscosity compared to number 1
diesel making it more versatile.
Cetane number measures the tendency of the diesel fuel to be
ignited in the
combustion chamber. Diesel fuel with lower cetane number
takes more time to ignite which may cause excessive ignition
lag. Higher cetane diesel fuel able to ignite as soon as it
injected to the combustion chamber results in smooth
pressure rise and prevent from combustion knock occurs.
Magnet is an object that produces continuous magnetic field
around it which
is invisible but the effect of the magnetic field is notable.
Magnets can attract all ferromagnetic materials such as iron
and also can attract and repel with other magnet. There are
many type of magnets in different range of dimension, shape
and strength. The most typical magnet used in science
laboratory is made up of ferrite and neodymium magnet.

Neodymium Magnets
This magnet also known as Neo magnet which is most
widely used type of
rare earth magnet and in bright silver colour. This is a
permanent magnet which made from alloy of neodymium, iron
and boron and this magnet considered to be the strongest
magnet type among other permanent magnet. This magnet
widely used in electronic based companies and also as
motor in cordless tools. The magnetic strength measured in
Gauss and permanent magnet has different strength at different
region of the surface. The strength of permanent magnets
usually measured with ranges for an example, in the project I
use two neodymium magnets, one is around

1500 2000 Gauss and another is around 2500 2800

Gauss. The strength of magnets measured by an instrument
called Gaussmeter or magnetometer.
Ferrite Magnets
Ferrite magnet is the compound of ceramic and Iron (iii)
oxide. This is an
example of permanent magnet and used as ferrite cores in the
transformer. Generally, ferrite magnets are carbon black in
colour and brittle because the present of ceramic particle in
the chemical compound. Ferrite magnets also considered as
strong magnets but not as strong as neodymium magnets.
How it works?
Magnetic fuel saver is used to maximize the mileage by using
less diesel fuel.
In other words, magnetic fuel saver able to reduce the diesel
consumption in the diesel


Many people


wondering how could a magnet changes a non-magnetic

liquids properties. Magnetic effect on non-magnetic liquids is
something we cannot see using naked eyes. Thus, the best
method to identify the working principle is by setup an
Diesel fuels is in the form of liquid when its in the oil tank

and the important

point is fuel will only combust when they are vaporized and
mixed with the air. Thus, something has to be done to break
the particles into finer tiny particles to improve the
Magnets help to ionize the fuel. Fuel is basically from
the groupings of hydrocarbons. When the molecules of
hydrocarbon flowing through a magnetic field, it changes their
orientation in the direction opposite to the magnetic field.
Thus, this results in changes of molecule configuration and
weaken the intermolecular force between the molecules. In
other words, magnetic field actually disperses the

molecules into more tiny particles and making the fuel less
viscous. Figure 2.3 shows how magnets help to disperse the
Emission is another hot topic of diesel engine. Emission
of dangerous
gaseous such as oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur is the
result of incomplete combustion in the combustion chamber.
Magnetic field can improve the combustion level. Thus,
automatically the amount of dangerous gaseous can be
reduced. The amount of unburned hydrocarbon also can be
reduced as the combustion rate improved.

The changes in fuel after passing through magnetic field

Fuel economy also related to the efficiency of the engine
determined by
distance travelled by an automobile for certain amount of fuel
consumed (Crouse & Anglin, 1993). This fuel economy can be
measure in both mile per gallon(mpg) and kilometer per gallon

(km/L). Most of the Asian countries use kilometer per gallon


Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ( DOC ) is most preferred
catalytic converter for diesel engines. This system uses
oxygen from exhaust gas to convert carbon monoxide to
carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon to water and carbon
dioxide. The efficiency of DOC catalytic converter is about
90%. But the problem is this system is not active for oxides of
nitrogen and oxides of sulphur (Bury St. Edmunds, 2004).
Additional Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) or
Nitrogen Oxide Absorber can be fixed to the catalytic converter
to trap oxides of nitrogen. Oxides of Nitrogen leave many
dangerous health problems such as shortness of breath, eye
and nose irritation.
Cryptomelane is a chemical compound which can used to
absorb sulphur
dioxide. This chemical compound fixed to the catalytic
converter for better trapping of sulphur dioxide. Sulphur
dioxide emission can be only found in diesel engine as diesel
fuel contain small amount of sulphur.



This chapter will explain further about the fabrication
process and also about how the analysis is conducted. This
main objective of this chapter is to ensure the flow of the
project is kept on the track. All the information and discussion
related to the process of the project will be further explained in
this chapter. A flow chart also included in this chapter to show
the timeline of the project.


Determine the title, project scope
and project background.
Gather information from different source.
Preliminary of literature review
Mid Presentation
Determine proper procedure for the
experiment. Experiment setup
Exhaust gas temperature. Fuel consumption.
Analysis on the effect of magnets.


Final Presentation


Methodology flow chart

Based on the methodology flow chart above, this

project starts with determining the title, project scope and
project background. Then, preliminary literature review is
done by referring to the information gathered from many
source such as journals and internet. Methodology is done
after that which includes the fabrication of the magnet









After that, experiment setup takes place in order to analyze
the effect of
magnets on fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature.
The complete report regarding the data analyzed is done before
the final presentation.

Design of the Magnet Device

There are many criteria taken in count before design the

magnet device. The magnet device will be attached to the fuel
line which connects to the fuel injection system. The figure 3.3
clearly shows that the front engine compartment is too
compact. Thus, the magnet device must be designed to be small
in size.

The interior look of engine compartment

The magnet device must be designed from a material
that doest attract to magnets. This is to ensure the magnetic
field is totally focused on the fuel line and at the same time,
the magnet device also must be able to withstand high
temperature. This is because magnets may lose its strength if
the magnet exposed to temperature of 260 C. The magnet
device also must be strong and rigid so that can protect the
magnet from sudden shock and vibrations.

After analyze all the critical points, the best material that
can be used to design the magnet device is Acrylic, commonly
known as Perspex. This is because acrylic is cheap, not attracted
to magnets, relatively high melting point, good insulator of

easy to be shaped, excellent appearance, inert to chemicals

and shockproof. The Perspex used in the fabrication process is
3.0mm thick.
After the design of magnet device is made, the following
process is the
fabrication process. The fabrication process is all about
converting raw materials into useful product.

The fabricated magnet device

This project is totally based on analytical method. Thus,
many apparatus have to be manually fabricated. There are
many tools that have been used in order complete the
fabrication processes like Perspex cutter, hacksaw, super glue
and L-square. L-square is used in general marking and
measuring purpose. L-square also used as a guide for drawing
horizontal and vertical lines on the Perspex. Perspex cutter
used to mark and cut large pieces of Perspex whereas
hacksaw used to cut small pieces of Perspex. All the small
Perspex pieces joined by super glue.

Perspex cutter


Super glue


Diesel engine
Figure 3.9 shows the diesel engine used in this project
which is YANMAR TF120. The diesel engine is made from
Japan. The specifications of the engine are as follows:
Brand &



120 : 636 cc


nt Size



0cm : 102 kg


: 12 Bhp @

Max Output

2400rpm : 11

Fuel tank



: Water cooled and radiator


: Starter or manual cranking


Diesel Engine
There are 2 types of magnet with 3 ranges of strength
are used in this experiment. The two types of magnets are
ferrite magnets and neodymium magnets. The three ranges of
magnetic strength are 500-800 Gauss, 1500-2000 Gauss and
2500-2800 Gauss. Magnetic field on the surface are vary, and
thus the strength given in ranges. The unit for magnetic
strength is Gauss and measured by using Magnetometer.

500-800 Gauss Ferrite Magnet

1500-2000 Gauss Neodymium Magnets


2500-2800 Gauss Neodymium Magnet

Air box
The intake of air affects the fuel consumption. Thus, the
intake of air must be kept constant in order to measure the
fuel consumption. Air box helps to supply constant amount
air supply into the intake manifold by maintain the pressure
inside the air box.


Reasons for Using the CCHT Houses

The Canadian Centre for Housing Technology (CCHT) is a facility
designed for doing controlled experiments on residential technologies. It
includes two highly instrumented, identical, unoccupied R-2000 houses.
Each is two storeys with 223 m 2 (2,400 ft2) of floor area, not counting
the full basements. Occupancy is simulated by computer controlled
operation of lights and appliances, use of hot water, and generation of
heat to simulate the presence of occupants. Repeated testing under
identical conditions (benchmarking) has shown that the two houses use
almost exactly the same amounts of energy for space heating, air
conditioning, hot water and utilities. The CCHT is open to projects from
manufacturers, utilities, government agencies, and others.
The CCHT houses were ideal locations for the ECM test because
having two identical houses at the same site allows the effects of a
relatively small change in one of them to be clearly shown in the
collected data, rather than based on an analysis of space heat loads
derived from outdoor temperatures, wind speeds and solar radiation.
Testing Conditions
During this project, the furnace fans ran continuously, operating at
higher speed when the furnace or the air conditioner was on, and at a
lower speed when they were not. This is the recommended practice in
newer, more airtight houses in which the furnace fan circulates
ventilation air. However, actual practice seems to vary across the

country. A study by Unies Ltd. (Phillips 1997) showed that in Quebec

about 50% of respondents operated their furnace fans continuously,
while in the rest of Canada only about 20% did. This is confirmed by a
more recent study in Manitoba (Proskiw 2002). Continuous fan
operation does increase the impact of switching to an ECM, and hence
the real value of an ECM will be determined by the dominant ventilation
practice in any region of the country.
The furnaces in both houses were mid-efficiency, single-stage units
with rated AFUEs of 81%, and outputs of 17.8 kW. The PSC motors
were the original horsepower (HP) motors supplied with the furnaces
and run in the second-highest of their four speeds during heating, in the
highest speed during air conditioning, and in the lowest speed during
circulation, as is normal for PSC fan motors in newer Canadian
installations. The ECM was a HP motor made by General Electric.
Static pressures are shown in Table 1. Those for heating are within the
typical range of 75 to 175 Pa for Canadian houses (Phillips 1997).
Benchmarking consists of running both of the CCHT houses under
identical conditions for several days to verify that they are using the
same amounts of energy. Conditions that are kept identical in the two
houses include indoor temperatures, ventilation rates, hot water use, and
internal gains from lights, appliances and simulated occupancy. Once
benchmarking has shown that the consumptions of the two houses are
essentially identical, then an experiment can be conducted by making a
change in the Test House while leaving the Reference House unchanged.

Table 1. Air Flows & Static Pressures

Air Flow
Drop (Pa)
454 204
622 595 161 130
conditioning 681 710 186 193
Measuring Duct Air Flows and Programming an ECM
As mentioned in the introduction, ECMs can be programmed to
lower speeds than PSC motors, and energy savings are significantly
increased by the lower ECM speeds. Thus, in order to take full
advantage of the ECM, its circulation speed was set as low as was
considered compatible with good circulation and air quality. With the
PSC motor at circulation speed, the air flows from thirteen supply ducts
were measured. The ECM motor was programmed for several
circulation airflow rates, and the lowest rate that still provided adequate
ventilation to all rooms was used. The air flow rates used in this project
are shown in Table 1
The intent was to have the heating and air conditioning flows of
the two motors equal. The 4% difference between them is due to the fact
that the ECM is adjusted in steps, and is probably within the level of
accuracy of the airflow measurements.
Projecting Results
The HOT2000 house energy simulation software1 was used to
project the results from the specific days of testing at the CCHT houses
to complete years at the CCHT, and to other houses, locations and
furnaces. Projections were done with and without continuous circulation,
and with and without air conditioning, and results are compared. As
discussed below, net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were calculated
in two ways: On the assumption that saved electricity displaces coalfired electricity, and based on the actual mix of generation fuels in each

Benchmarking for Heating

In Figure 1, the lower line (+ marks) shows the results of the
benchmarking for the space heating period of this project. The
coordinates of each point are the furnace gas consumption in each of the
two houses for one day. If the consumption in both houses were exactly
the same each day, then all points would fall exactly on the 1:1 line, the
slope and intercept of their linear regression would be exactly one and
zero, and the r2 would be one. Any significant deviations from these
values would indicate that the houses are not operating identically. The
benchmarking results are considered excellent, and show that the
operation of the two houses was almost identical, so that any significant
differences during ECM testing are due to the ECM. The plotted results
have a slope of 0.9891, an intercept of 2.99 MJ/day, and an r2 of 0.998.



Benchmarking for Air Conditioning

In Figure 2, the upper line (+ marks) shows the benchmarking for
the air conditioning period of this project. The points are based on the
sum of daily electrical consumption of the air conditioner compressor
and the furnace fan. The coordinates of each point are this sum for each
of the two houses. As with the space heat benchmark, ideally all points
should lie on the 1:1 line. The air conditioning benchmark is not as close
to perfect as the one for space heat, because the Test House consistently
uses slightly more energy than the Reference House, and the difference
between them increases with daily energy use. Nevertheless, the r2
(0.9979) is still close to perfect, and as long as there is a clear and
consistent difference between the benchmark and the results with an
ECM, then the results are still useful.
Effects of the ECM during Heating

Motor & furnace electricity consumption. The power use of the ECM
and the PSC motor were measured in one-time tests, and the results are
shown in Table 2. The second row shows the results with the reduced
ECM circulation flow rate, and the last row shows the results with the
ECM circulation flow as close as possible to the PSCs. In heating
speed, the PSC motor used 423 Watts while the ECM used 246 W, or
58% as much as the PSC motor for a nearly equal flow rate. With the
reduced ECM circulation rate (on which the results of this report are
based), the PSC motor used 316 W while the ECM used 22 W, or only
7% as much. With the

circulation rates nearly equal, the ECM used 146 W, or 46% as much as
the PSC motor. As shown in Table 2, the ECM delivers over 1.5 times as
much air flow per watt, and more than six times as much in reduced
circulation mode. With equal circulation rates, the ECM still delivers
twice as much, showing that electricity savings and therefore increased
gas use are not dependent on the reduced circulation rate. A kWh meter
in each house measures the consumption of the furnace, which includes
the controls and draft-inducing fans as well as the motor. Daily results
from these meters show that on average the furnace with the PSC motor
uses 9.29 kWh/day, and the furnace with the ECM uses 2.38 kWh/day, a
reduction of 6.91 kWh or 74%.



Motor Power
Air Flow (L/s) (L/s.W)







1.55 155%








1.54 644%








1.54 206%


House electricity consumption. During benchmarking, electrical

consumption for all purposes in the two houses was nearly identical and
averaged 26.8 kWh in the Reference House and 27.1 kWh in the Test
House. These values are fairly typical of Canadian houses. During ECM

testing, the Reference House averaged 25.9 kWh/day, while in the Test
House averaged 19.1 kWh/day. Thus, the house with the ECM saved an
average of 6.8 kWh/day, and used 74% as much as the house with the
PSC motor.
Gas consumption. During ECM testing, the average furnace gas
consumption in the Reference House was 213.7 MJ/day, while in the
Test House it was 243.4 MJ/day. Thus, the lower electrical consumption
of the ECM resulted in an average increased gas consumption of 29.71
MJ/day or 13.9%.
Figure 1 compares daily values of furnace gas consumption of both
houses during benchmarking and ECM tests. The results of the ECM
testing under normal conditions are shown as Xs. Theoretically, they
should lie on a straight line above the 1:1 line, and with a slope of less
than one. The line should be above the 1:1 line because the lower
electricity use of the ECM causes gas consumption in the Test House to
be higher. The slope should be less than one because the difference
between the PSC and ECM electrical use is higher when the furnace
spends less time in heating mode. Figure 1 also includes three points
with no furnace gas consumption in the Reference House (two are
indistinguishable), shown as diamonds () on the Y-axis.
The linear correlation for the normal condition points has a slope
of 0.992 and an intercept of 31.37 MJ/day. Its correlation coefficient (r 2)
is 0.994. The intercept is slightly larger than the average difference in
gas consumption (29.71 MJ/day), as would be expected since the slope
is less than one. The benchmark and results lines are clearly distinct.
Both have r2s of over 0.99, and no individual point of one line crosses
the correlation line of the other. Thus, the increased furnace gas use due
to the ECM is clearly shown in the results.
Effects of the ECM during Air Conditioning
Figure 2 shows that, despite the imperfect benchmark for the air
conditioning period, the energy savings due to the ECM are clear.
Higher energy use for both PSC motors and compressors contribute to
the higher A/C energy use in the Test House during benchmarking. The

percentage savings due to the ECM at the CCHT are: 48% for the fan,
4% for the compressor, 21% for the A/C (fan plus compressor), and
13.9% for the house. Savings for the compressor are relatively small
because they should be the fan savings (in kWh/day) divided by the
COP of the compressor (~3.60).
Projections to Complete Years, and to other Furnaces, Houses and
The results from the CCHT houses show the effects of the ECM
for seventy particular days in a particular house with a particular furnace
and air conditioner. To be generally useful, these results must be
projected to entire years, and to other houses, locations and furnace
types. An existing HOT2000 model of the CCHT Reference house was
modified for the ECM and PSC motor, compared with the results, and
used to project the results to an entire typical heating season. Then new
models were created for the following furnaces, house types and cities:

Furnaces: Mid-efficiency (82% steady-state efficiency), and highefficiency (92%).

House types: R-2000, typical new, typical existing, and typical row
Cities: Toronto, Ottawa, Moncton and Winnipeg.

Operating Conditions: Air conditioners and Furnace Fans

The furnace fans were operated at three different speeds: high
speed for air conditioning, medium speed for heating, and low speed for
continuous circulation. When the air conditioner or furnace is running,
the fan always runs at the corresponding speed. However, when neither
the furnace nor the air conditioner is active, the fan may operate in its
continuous circulation speed, or it may be off. Since houses may or may
not have air conditioners, and may or may not have continuous
circulation, projections of ECM savings were done under four

Air conditioning and continuous circulation,

No air conditioning and continuous circulation,
Air conditioning and no continuous circulation, and
No air conditioning and no continuous circulation.
Together, these conditions cover the range of potential ECM
effects. The first should show the greatest difference between a PSC
motor and an ECM since the fan motor will be in use continually for the
entire year, and will spend a large amount of time in circulation speed
where the difference between the PSC motor and ECM is greatest. The
last should show the smallest difference since the motor will only be on
when the furnace is operating, and will never be in circulation speed.
Calculations of GHG Savings
ECMs save electricity and cause more natural gas to be consumed
for space heating, so their effects on emissions of greenhouse gases
(GHG) depends on the actual effects on the two fuels, and the GHG
intensity of the fuels. The GHG intensity of natural gas is straight
forward, but the intensity of electricity depends on the mix of fuels used
to generate the electricity, and the GHG reductions from savings of
electricity depends on which of these fuels will be displaced by the
savings. This paper calculates GHG reductions from electricity savings
in two ways. The first assumes that all electricity savings displace coal-

fired electricity generation. Although each location has it own mix of

fuels, reductions in demand result in reductions in coal-fired generation.
Even in Manitoba where most generation is by hydro power (zero
GHGs), excess electricity is sold to the U.S. where it can displace coal.
The second way is based on the actual mix of generation fuels in each of
the provinces in which projections are done. Table 3 shows the GHG
intensities used in this report (Parekh 2000).
The values of kg CO2/GJ in Table 3 clearly show that if saved
electricity is generated from coal, then an ECM will definitely reduce
GHG emissions. Electricity from coal is almost six times as GHG
intensive as natural gas, so saving electricity and using more natural gas
will significantly reduce GHG intensity, regardless of differences in their
efficiencies of use. However, if electrical GHG intensity is based on
provincial fuel mixes, the situation is very different. In Ontario, and
especially in Manitoba, electricity is less GHG intensive than gas, so
substituting gas for electricity could result in significant increases in
emissions. In New Brunswick, electricity is 15% more GHG intensive
than gas, so the net effect on emissions could depend on their
efficiencies of use.
How to best calculate the GHG reductions from electrical savings
is controversial. Some people are convinced that coal is always the
swing fuel, while others believe that this assumption exaggerates GHG
reductions because natural gas, oil or hydro power may be the swing

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Natural Gas


CO2/kWh kg CO2/GJ

Electricity from












Electricity, New




Using provincial averages probably underestimates the effects of

reductions because capital intensive nuclear and hydro plants (counted
as zero GHG emitters) are less likely to be reduced than fossil fuel
plants. This report presents GHG reductions calculated by both methods,
and allows readers to make their own judgements.
Projection Results
Continuous Circulation Fan
To summarize the results for all cities, houses and furnaces:

Savings of electricity are more than 1,500 kWh/year in all cases.

Without A/C, savings are 1,535 to 1,832 kWh/y. With A/C they are 2,795
to 2,991 kWh/y. As a percentage of electrical use by the entire house, the

savings are 12% to 18% without A/C, and 17% to 25% with A/C.
Based on coal-fired electricity, net GHG reductions in houses
without A/C range from 1,314 to 1,674 kg CO 2/y, and with A/C from
2,703 to 2,962 kg CO2/y.
Based on provincial mixes of generating fuels, the effects of ECMs
on GHG emissions range from an increase of 383 kg CO 2/y to a decrease
of 312 CO2/y. Only Moncton showed any decreases; in the other cities
the smallest increase was 60 kg CO2/y.
Natural gas prices in the four cities vary by 37% from 0.3696 to
0.5073 $/m3, and electricity prices vary by 60% from 0.0559 to 0.0896
$/kWh. Net annual savings from an ECM can vary from $14 to $180
depending on the price of electricity and other factors.
to 222 m3/y. The percentage increase in gas use for the entire house
ranges from 4.7% to 9.7%.
Thus, in houses with continuous circulation, the use of ECMs for
fan motors would have significant benefits as:

a demand side management (DSM) tool for reducing demand for

a means of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, assuming that
saved electricity is coal-fired, or has a GHG intensity between that of
coal-fired electricity and electricity from the provincial mixes of
generating fuels,
a means of reducing homeowners utility bills, and
a means of increasing gas sales.

No Circulation Fan
All conditions are the same as in the previous section, except that
the furnace fan operates only when there is a demand for space heat or
air conditioning. As would be expected, the effects of an ECM without
continuous circulation are much smaller than with. For Toronto, savings
of electricity due to an ECM range from 90 to 372 kWh/y (1% to 3% of
total house use), increases in natural gas are 8 to 29 m 3/y (less than one
percent of total house use), and net savings are $4 to $20 per year. Based
on coal-fired electricity, net reductions of GHG emissions are 81 to 360
kg CO2/y, and based on the provincial fuel mix, increases in GHG
emissions are 6 to 32 kg CO2/y. Results for the other cities are similar.
Thus, whether ECM furnace fan motors will have significant benefits
depends critically on whether the furnace fan is run in continuous mode
for at least a significant part of the year.
Free Continuous Circulation with an ECM
A house with a PSC motor and no circulation mode that changed to
an ECM with continuous circulation would see only a very small
increase, or a small saving, in its utility bills. This can be seen by
comparing the projections for ECMs with continuous circulation with
those for PSC motors with no circulation mode. A comparison of the
costs for all four cities shows that the maximum extra utility bill for
continuous circulation with an ECM would be $5.14/y. The greatest
reduction would be $ 19.09/y. For all cities and houses, the average
result is a saving of $3.51/y. Thus, having made the initial purchase of an
ECM, occupants could enjoy the health and comfort benefits of
continuous circulation for virtually no cost, or even a small saving in
their utility bills.
Comparison with other ECM Studies
A recent study for the ACEEE (Sachs & Smith 2003) predicts
much larger effects than this report does from ECMs and similar energy
efficient motors. The ACEEE study uses Gas Appliance Manufactures
Association (GAMA) data on annual electrical use by high-efficiency
gas furnaces to separate them into those with and without energy-

efficient motors, and then to calculate the annual electrical savings and
gas increases due to efficient motors. The GAMA ratings are based on
operation of the furnace fan only when the furnace is producing heat.
Thus, all of their findings are for no continuous circulation.
Table 4 compares electrical savings. The ACEEE savings for
Wisconsin are compared with ours for a typical existing house in
Toronto, which according to the GAMA map of heating load hours is in
the same zone as Wisconsin. ACEEE gas increases are 65 m 3 while ours
are 26 m3. Thus, the ACEEEs projections are 1.9 to 2.5 times larger than
those in this report. Their results may be a product of aggregating all
furnaces that appear to have efficient motors and all those that don't.
This involves other factors besides motor efficiency, e.g., motor size and
pressure drop through the furnace. Peter Edwards (Edwards 2003) used a
very similar method to separate furnaces with and without ECMs, and
found that it worked well, but was not 100% effective, i.e., some of the
models that he could identify by model numbers were not in the correct
A Wisconsin study (Pigg 2003) of 31 new furnaces, including 14
with ECMs, produced results that are closer to ours. Table 4 shows that
their results for electricity savings are within 25% of ours (they did not
measure gas), except for the case with continuous circulation and no

A/C. We modelled this case with the furnace fan off during the nonheating season, which explains our much lower savings. The other
differences are easily explained by the facts that the Wisconsin study
included multi-stage ECM furnaces, and took place in occupied houses,
many of which used thermostat setbacks. Thus, the two studies based on
measurements of actual furnace performance are in close agreement. A
major strength of this study is that it directly measured the effects of an
ECM in a particular furnace under controlled conditions. A weakness is
that it used a single-stage furnace while many furnaces with ECMs are
Table 4. ECM Electrical Savings from Three Studies
Savings due to ECMs
Without continuous
With continuous
ACE Wiscons

No air
With air







ECMs and Power Factors

ECMs have lower power factors than PSC motors, and this could
be a concern to utilities. A lower power factor (PF) results in a higher
VAR (volt-ampere-reactive). Residential customers do not pay for VAR,
but it results in higher line losses, and requires more generation capacity.
Table 5 compares the true power (P), PF and VAR of the ECM and two
PSCs used in this study. In circulation speed, the ECMs P is so low that
its VAR is less than 1/5 of the PSCs. But, in the other two speeds, the
ECMs low PFs give it significantly higher VARs, despite its lower P.
However, a recent study by Natural Resources Canada (Thomas,
MacKenzie & Hayden 2004) has shown that a choke (induction coil),
which should sell for about $5, improves an ECMs PF by 24 to 31%,
while at the same time improving its efficiency by 22 to 38%, the
improvements being dependent on motor speed.

A Program to Promote Furnaces with ECMs

Enbridge Gas Distribution (EGD), an Ontario natural gas utility,
was an initiator and sponsor of this project. EGD now has a program to
promote the installation of furnaces with ECM fan motors (Furdas &
Simpson 2003). Prior to the start of the program in 2003, virtually none
of the furnaces installed by EGDs business partners had ECMs. Results
of the first year of the program were five times greater than EGDs own
targets. Out of the total of 13,000 retrofit furnaces installed in existing
houses, 4,000 or 31% have ECMs. Of the furnaces with ECMs, 57%
were high-efficiency, 39% were mid-efficiency, and 4% are unspecified.
ECMs are promoted through retail partners, HVAC contractors, bill
inserts and the Enbridge website. Installation contractors receive an
incentive of $75 per installation.
Circulation 19.1 9 46.1 342 0.77 282 345 0.80 256
220 4 340 485 0.86 286 458 0.86 278
444 0 589 587 0.82 420 552 0.78 440

In this manuscript, research on hydrogen internal

combustion engines is discussed. The objective of this
project is to provide a means of renewable hydrogen
based fuel utilization. The development of a high
efficiency, low emissions electrical generator will lead to
establishing a path for renewable hydrogen based fuel
utilization. A full-scale prototype will be produced in
collaboration with commercial manufacturers.
The electrical generator is based on developed
internal combustion engine technology. It is able to
operate on many hydrogen-containing fuels. The
efficiency and emissions are comparable to fuel cells
(50% fuel to electricity, ~ 0 NOx). This electrical
generator is applicable to both stationary power and
hybrid vehicles. It also allows specific markets to utilize
hydrogen economically and painlessly.
Two motivators for the use of hydrogen as an energy
carrier today are: 1) to provide a transition strategy from
hydrocarbon fuels to a carbonless society and 2) to
enable renewable energy sources. The first motivation
requires a little discussion while the second one is selfevident.
The most common and cost effective way to produce
hydrogen today is the reformation of hydrocarbon fuels,
specifically natural gas. Robert Williams discusses the
cost and viability of natural gas reformation with CO2
sequestration as a cost-effective way to reduce our
annual CO2
emission levels. He argues that if a hydrogen
economy was in place then the additional cost of natural

gas reformation and subsequent CO2 sequestration is

minimal (Williams 1996).
Decarbonization of fossil fuels with subsequent CO2
sequestration to reduce or eliminate our CO2
atmospheric emissions provides a transition strategy
to a renewable, sustainable, carbonless society. However,
this requires hydrogen as an energy carrier.
The objectives of this program for the year 2000 are
to continue to design, build, and test the advanced
electrical generator components, research hydrogen
based renewable fuels, and develop industrial
partnerships. The rationale behind the continuation of
designing, building, and testing generator components is
to produce a research prototype for demonstration in two
years. Similarly, researching hydrogen based renewable
fuels will provide utilization components for the largest
possible application. Finally, developing industrial
partnerships can lead to the transfer of technology to the
commercial sector as rapidly as possible.
This year work is being done on the linear alternator,
two-stroke cycle scavenging system,
electromagnetic/combustion/dynamic modeling, and fuel
research. The Sandia alternator design and prototype will
be finished, and the Sandia and Magnequench designs
will be tested. Work on the scavenging system consists of
learning to use KIVA-3V, and designing the scavenging
experiment. Ron Moses of Los Alamos National
Laboratories is conducting the modeling; modeling of the
alternator is being performed. Hydrogen based
renewables, such as biogas and ammonia, are the fuels
being researched. Outside of modeling and research, an

industrial collaboration has been made with Caterpillar

and Magnequench International, a major supplier of rare
earth permanent magnet materials. A collaborative
research and development agreement (CRADA) has been
arranged with Caterpillar, and Magnequench is designing
and supplying a linear alternator. In addition, the
prestigious Harry Lee Van Horning Award presented by
the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was awarded
in October 1999 for a paper concerning homogeneous
charge compression ignition (HCCI) with a free piston
(SAE 982484).
Electrical generators capable of high conversion
efficiencies and extremely low exhaust emissions will no
doubt power advanced hybrid vehicles and stationary
power systems. Fuel cells are generally considered to be
ideal devices for these applications where hydrogen or
methane are used as fuel. However, the extensive
development of the IC engine, and the existence of repair
and maintenance industries associated with piston
engines provide strong incentives to remain with this
technology until fuel cells are proven reliable and cost
competitive. In addition, while the fuel cell enjoys high
public relations appeal, it seems possible that it may not
offer significant efficiency advantages relative to an
optimized combustion system. In light of these factors,
the capabilities of internal combustion engines have been
In regards to thermodynamic efficiency, the Otto
cycle theoretically represents the best option for an IC
engine cycle. This is due to the fact that the fuel energy
is converted to heat at constant volume when the
working fluid is at maximum compression. This

combustion condition leads to the highest possible peak

temperatures, and thus the highest possible thermal
Edson (1964) analytically investigated the efficiency
potential of the ideal Otto cycle using compression ratios
(CR) up to 300:1, where the effects of chemical
dissociation, working fluid 2
thermodynamic properties, and chemical species
concentration were included. He found that even as the
compression ratio is increased to 300:1, the thermal
efficiency still increases for all of the fuels investigated.
At this extreme operating for instance, the cycle
efficiency for isooctane fuel at stoichiometric ratio is over
Indeed it appears that no fundamental limit exists to
achieving high efficiency from an internal combustion
engine cycle. However, many engineering challenges are
involved in approaching ideal Otto cycle performance in
real systems, especially where high compression ratios
are utilized.
Caris and Nelson (1959) investigated the use of high
compression ratios for improving the thermal efficiency of
a production V8 spark ignition engine. They found that
operation at compression ratios above about 17:1 did not
continue to improve the thermal efficiency in their
configuration. They concluded that this was due to the
problem of non-constant volume combustion, as time is
required to propagate the spark-ignited flame.
In addition to the problem of burn duration, other
barriers exist. These include the transfer of heat energy
from the combustion gases to the cylinder walls, as well
as the operating difficulties associated with increased

pressure levels for engines configured to compression

ratios above 25:1 (Overington and Thring 1981, Muranaka
and Ishida 1987). Still, finite burn duration remains the
fundamental challenge to using high compression ratios.
The goal of emissions compliance further restricts
the design possibilities for an optimized IC
engine. For example, in order to eliminate the
production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the fuel/air mixture
must be homogeneous and very lean at the time of
combustion (Das 1990, Van Blarigan 1995). (It is
subsequently possible to use oxidation catalyst
technologies to sufficiently control other regulated
emissions such as HC and CO.) Homogeneous operation
precludes diesel- type combustion, and spark-ignition
operation on premixed charges tends to limit the
operating compression ratio due to uncontrolled
autoignition, or knock. As well, very lean fuel/air mixtures
are difficult, or impossible to spark ignite.
On the other hand, lean charges have more favorable
specific heat ratios relative to stoichiometric mixtures,
and this leads to improved cycle thermal efficiencies.
Equivalence ratio is no longer required to be precisely
controlled, as is required in conventional stoichiometric
operation when utilizing tree way catalysts. Equivalence
ratio is defined here as the ratio of the actual fuel/air ratio
to the stoichiometric ratio.
Combustion Approach
Homogeneous charge compression ignition
combustion could be used to solve the problems of burn
duration and allow ideal Otto cycle operation to be more
closely approached. In this combustion process a
homogeneous charge of fuel and air is compression

heated to the point of autoignition. Numerous ignition

points throughout the mixture can ensure very rapid
combustion (Onishi et al 1979). Very low equivalence
ratios ( ~ 0.3) can be used since no flame propagation is
required. Further, the useful compression ratio can be
increased as higher temperatures are required to
autoignite weak mixtures (Karim and Watson 1971).
HCCI operation is unconventional, but is not new. As
early as 1957 Alperstein et al. (1958) experimented with
premixed charges of hexane and air, and n-heptane and
air in a Diesel engine.
They found that under certain operating conditions
their single cylinder engine would run quite well in a
premixed mode with no fuel injection whatsoever.
In general, HCCI combustion has been shown to be
faster than spark ignition or compression ignition
combustion. And much leaner operation is possible than
in SI engines, while lower NOx emissions result.
Most of the HCCI studies to date however, have
concentrated on achieving smooth releases of energy
under conventional compression condition (CR ~ 9:1).
Crankshaft driven pistons have been utilized in all of
these previous investigations. Because of these operating
parameters, successful HCCI operation has required
extensive EGR and/or intake air preheating.
Conventional pressure profiles have resulted (Thring
1989, Najt and Foster 1983).
In order to maximize the efficiency potential of HCCI
operation much higher compression ratios must be used,
and a very rapid combustion event must be achieved.

Recent work with higher compression ratios (~21:1) has

demonstrated the high efficiency potential of the HCCI
process (Christensen et al 1998, Christensen et al 1997).
Modern 4-Stroke Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Engineering Configuration
The free piston linear alternator illustrated in Figure 2
has been designed in hopes of approaching ideal Otto
cycle performance through HCCI operation. In this
configuration, high compression ratios can be used and
rapid combustion can be achieved.
Figure 2 Free piston linear alternator
The linear generator is designed such that electricity
is generated directly from the pistons oscillating motion,
as rare earth permanent magnets fixed to the piston are
driven back and forth through the alternators coils.
Combustion occurs alternately at each end of the piston
and a modern two-stroke cycle scavenging process is
used. The alternator component controls the pistons
motion, and thus the extent of cylinder gas compression,
by efficiently managing the pistons kinetic energy
through each stroke. Compression of the fuel/air mixture
is achieved inertially and as a result, a mechanically

simple, variable compression ratio design is possible with

sophisticated electronic control.
The use of free pistons in internal combustion
engines has been investigated for quite some time.
In the 1950s, experiments were conducted with free
piston engines in automotive applications.
In these early designs, the engine was used as a
gasifier for a single stage turbine (Underwood 1957,
Klotsch 1959). More recent developments have
integrated hydraulic pumps into the engines design
(Baruah 1988, Achten 1994).
Several advantages have been noted for free piston
IC engines. First, the compression ratio of the engine is
variable; this is dependent mainly on the engines
operating conditions (e.g., fuel type, equivalence ratio,
temperature, etc.). As a result, the desired compression
ratio can be achieved through modification of the
operating parameters, as opposed to changes in the
engines hardware.


By establishing correct fuel burning parameters through

magnetic means (Fuel Energizer) we can assumed that an internal

combustion engine is getting maximum energy per liter as well as
environment with lowest possible level toxic emission.