Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 299

NIST Technical Note 1863-1

Assessment of
First Generation
Performance-Based
Seismic Design
Methods for
New Steel Buildings
Volume 1:
Special Moment
Frames

John L. Harris III


Matthew S. Speicher

This publication is available free of charge from:


http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1863-1

NIST Technical Note 1863-1

Assessment of First Generation PerformanceBased Seismic Design Methods


for New Steel Buildings
Volume 1: Special Moment Frames

John L. Harris III


Matthew S. Speicher
Materials and Structural Systems Division
Engineering Laboratory
This publication is available free of charge from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1863-1

February 2015

U.S. Department of Commerce


Penny Pritzker, Secretary

National Institute of Standards and Technology


Willie May, Acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards
and Technology and Acting Director

Disclaimers
Certain commercial software, equipment, instruments, or materials may have been used in the preparation
of information contributing to this report. Identification in this report is not intended to imply
recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor is it intended to imply that such software, equipment,
instruments, or materials are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
NIST policy is to use the International System of Units (metric units) in all its publications. In this report,
however, information is presented in U.S. Customary Units (inch-pound), as this is the preferred system of
units in the U.S. earthquake engineering industry.

National Institute of Standards and Technology Technical Note 1863-1


Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech Note 1863-1, 300 pages (February 2015)
CODEN: NTNOEF
This publication is available free for charge from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1863-1

Preface

In June 2008, the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) sponsored a PerformanceBased Seismic Design (PBSD) workshop for leading practitioners and researchers from around the United
States to develop a comprehensive list of research needs to foster full development and implementation of
PBSD. From this workshop, the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) reported a prioritized list of key
PBSD research and implementation needs in NIST GCR 09-917-2: Research Required to Support Full
Implementation of Performance-Based Seismic Design (NIST 2009a). The highest priority need identified
in this report was to benchmark current PBSD methodologies (e.g., ASCE/SEI 41-06: Seismic
Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings (ASCE 2006)hereafter referred to as ASCE 41) with code procedures
for design of new buildings. Two observations from the report were that among workshop participants (1)
ASCE 41 procedures are perceived to be overly conservative and (2) existing PBSD methods are not
accepted by practitioners as providing a uniform level of confidence. A supporting reason for these two
observations was that no systematic effort had been undertaken to benchmark structural performance as
determined using ASCE 41 procedures, together with widely accepted procedures for designing new
buildings using ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE
2010)hereafter referred to as ASCE 7.
Work was initiated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to support this priority
study under the Assessment of Design Methods in Existing PBSD Standards Project. This task was
conducted by the Earthquake Risk Reduction in Buildings and Infrastructure group, the research division
of the NEHRP Office at NIST. This research involves problem-focused studies in PBSD assessing the
applicability and accuracy of implementing first-generation PBSD analysis methods now used for
evaluating existing buildings in the performance-based design of new buildings. The current study focuses
on buildings with lateral systems utilizing structural steel frames. This project evaluates the results of the
studies and identifies changes to current model building codes and standards provisions that will encourage
more universal use of PBSD. The volume of data required to illustrate the results and conclusions
necessitated three separate reports, as follows:

Volume 1: Special Moment Frames (this report)


Volume 2: Special Concentrically Braced Frames
Volume 3: Eccentrically Braced Frames

A fourth report, Volume 4: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames, is under development.


A peer review panel (PRP) was engaged under a contract with the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture
(NCJV)www.nehrp-consultants.org. The PRP was tasked to complement the NIST project by providing,
where needed, individual subject matter expert guidance to improve the technical detail and outcome of the
project; provide technical support on specific topics on seismic hazard analysis, ground motion scaling for

iii

varying return periods, nonlinear dynamic analysis, structural behavior and design of building structures;
and provide peer review services. The review panel for this project was structured as follows:

NCJV
JonHeintz
Ayse Horta csu

Project Review Pa ne l
Wi ll iamHolmes,Chair
RobertHans on
Pete r Somers
Nicolas Luco
Robert Pekelnicky

MomentFramePanel
Thomas Sabol
Mi chael Engel hardt

Concentrica llyBraced
FramePanel
RafaelSabelli
Ste phenMa hi n

Ec centrically Brace d
FramePanel
Ja mes Mal ley
CharlesRoeder

Jon Heintz (Program Manager)


Applied Technology Council
201 Redwood Shores Parkway, Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065

Ayse Hortacsu (Project Manager)


Applied Technology Council
201 Redwood Shores Parkway, Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065

Michael Engelhardt
The University of Texas at Austin
Dept. of Civil, Arch. and Environ. Eng.
301 East Dean Keeton St., Stop C1747
Austin, TX 78712

Robert Hanson
University of Michigan, Emeritus
5885 Dunabbey Loop
Dublin, Ohio 43017

William Holmes (PRP Chair)


Rutherford + Chekene
55 Second Street, Suite 600
San Francisco, California 94105

Nicolas Luco
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046 DFC MS 966
Denver, Colorado 80225

Stephen Mahin
University of California, Berkeley
Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng.
777 Davis Hall
Berkeley, California 94720

James Malley
Degenkolb Engineers
235 Montgomery St., Suite 500
San Francisco, California 94104

iv

Robert Pekelnicky
Degenkolb Engineers
235 Montgomery St., Suite 500
San Francisco, California 94104

Charles Roeder

University of Washington

Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng.

Box 352700

Seattle, WA 98195

Rafael Sabelli
Walter P. Moore
595 Market St., Suite 2130
San Francisco, California 94105

Thomas Sabol

Englekirk Institutional

2116 Arlington Ave.

Los Angeles, California 90018

Peter Somers

Magnusson Klemencic Associates

1301 Fifth Ave., Suite 3200

Seattle, WA 98101

The authors gratefully acknowledge the members of the PRP for their input and guidance during this project
and in the preparation of report volumes 1-3. Further, the authors wish to thank Jon Heintz and Ayse
Hortacsu at Applied Technology Council for management of Task Order 12. Special thanks are also
extended to Jack Hayes (NEHRP Director), Steve McCabe (NEHRP Deputy Director), and Bob Pekelnicky
for reviewing the final NIST reports.
John L. Harris III
Research Structural Engineer
jay.harris@nist.gov
Matthew S. Speicher
Research Structural Engineer
matthew.speicher@nist.gov
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Engineering Laboratory
National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Office
100 Bureau Dr., MS 8604
Gaithersburg, MD 20899

vi

Table of Contents

Preface

.............................................................................................................................................. iii

Table of Contents...................................................................................................................................... vii

List of Tables............................................................................................................................................ xiii

List of Figures ......................................................................................................................................... xvii

List of Abbreviations ...............................................................................................................................xxv

Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................. xxvii

Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1

Project Motivation and Background................................................................................ 1-3

1.2

Scope of Project .............................................................................................................. 1-5

Overview and Design of Archetype Buildings................................................................ 2-1

2.1

General Information ........................................................................................................ 2-1

2.2

Structural Design Loads .................................................................................................. 2-5

Load Combinations ............................................................................................ 2-5

Gravity Loads ..................................................................................................... 2-5

Environmental Loads ......................................................................................... 2-6

Earthquake Forces ................................................................................. 2-6

Wind Forces .......................................................................................... 2-9

2.3

Structural Analysis and Mathematical Model ................................................................. 2-9

2.4

SFRS Design ................................................................................................................. 2-13

SMF Design...................................................................................................... 2-13

SCBF Design.................................................................................................... 2-22

Seismic Assessment ........................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1

Assessment Overview ..................................................................................................... 3-1

Seismic Hazard ................................................................................................... 3-3

General Analysis Requirements ......................................................................... 3-3

Analysis Procedures ........................................................................................... 3-5

Linear Analysis Procedures................................................................... 3-5

3.1.3.1.1

Linear Static Procedure ............................................... 3-7

vii

3.1.3.1.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure.......................................... 3-8

Nonlinear Analysis Procedures ............................................................. 3-8

3.1.3.2.1

Nonlinear Static Procedure.......................................... 3-9

3.1.3.2.2

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................. 3-13

Acceptance Criteria .......................................................................................... 3-14

Linear Procedures................................................................................ 3-15

3.1.4.1.1

Calculating Component Assessment Results ............ 3-15

Nonlinear Procedures .......................................................................... 3-16

3.1.4.2.1
3.2

Calculating Component Assessment Results ............ 3-17

Moment Frame .............................................................................................................. 3-19

Assessment Methodology................................................................................. 3-19

Linear Procedures................................................................................ 3-19

Nonlinear Procedures .......................................................................... 3-31

Seismic Assessment Results ............................................................................. 3-45

Four-Story Moment Frame.................................................................. 3-46

3.2.2.1.1

Linear Static Procedure ............................................. 3-46

3.2.2.1.1.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-46

3.2.2.1.1.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL).............. 3-47

3.2.2.1.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure........................................ 3-49

3.2.2.1.2.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-49

3.2.2.1.2.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL).............. 3-51

3.2.2.1.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure........................................ 3-53

3.2.2.1.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................. 3-58

Eight-Story Moment Frame................................................................. 3-66

3.2.2.2.1

Linear Static Procedure ............................................. 3-66

3.2.2.2.1.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-66

3.2.2.2.1.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL).............. 3-68

3.2.2.2.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure........................................ 3-70

3.2.2.2.2.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-70

3.2.2.2.2.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL).............. 3-72

3.2.2.2.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure........................................ 3-74

3.2.2.2.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................. 3-82

Sixteen-Story Moment Frame ............................................................. 3-89

3.2.2.3.1

Linear Static Procedure ............................................. 3-89

3.2.2.3.1.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-89

viii

3.2.2.3.1.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL) ............. 3-92

3.2.2.3.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure ....................................... 3-95

3.2.2.3.2.1.....BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL) .............. 3-95

3.2.2.3.2.2.....BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL) ............. 3-98

3.2.2.3.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure ..................................... 3-101

3.2.2.3.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure ................................ 3-110

Seismic Assessment Discussion ..................................................................... 3-117

Linear Assessment Procedures.......................................................... 3-117

3.2.3.1.1

Beam-to-Column Connections ................................ 3-117

3.2.3.1.2

Panel Zones ............................................................. 3-119

3.2.3.1.3

Member Cross-section Strength (flexural hinge) and

Global Strength (member stability) ......................... 3-119

3.2.3.1.4

Summary ................................................................. 3-121

Nonlinear Assessment Procedures .................................................... 3-122

3.2.3.2.1

Beam-to-Column Connections ................................ 3-122

3.2.3.2.2

Panel Zones ............................................................. 3-123

3.2.3.2.3

Member Cross-section Strength (flexural hinge) and

Global Strength (member stability) ......................... 3-124

3.2.3.2.4

Summary ................................................................. 3-126

Comparison between Linear and Nonlinear Assessment Results ..... 3-127

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations............................................................ 4-1

4.1

Summary of Project Work ............................................................................................... 4-1

4.2

Assumptions and Limitations of this Study..................................................................... 4-3

4.3

Conclusions and Observations ........................................................................................ 4-5

ASCE 41............................................................................................................. 4-5

General .................................................................................................. 4-5

Special Moment Frames ........................................................................ 4-6

4.4

Recommendations for Future Research........................................................................... 4-7

ASCE 41............................................................................................................. 4-7

General .................................................................................................. 4-7

Fully Restrained Moment Frames ......................................................... 4-8

ASCE 7............................................................................................................... 4-9

AISC 341 / 360 / 358.......................................................................................... 4-9

Special Moment Frames ........................................................................ 4-9

ix

Appendix A Ground Motions for Response History Analysis .......................................................... A-1

A.1

Ground Motion Record Set ............................................................................................ A-1

A.2

Ground Motion Selection and Scaling ........................................................................... A-1

A.3

Four-Story Archetype Building ...................................................................................... A-3

4-Story Special Moment Frame ........................................................................ A-3

A.4

Eight-Story Archetype Building ..................................................................................... A-6

8-Story Special Moment Frame ........................................................................ A-6

A.5

Sixteen-Story Archetype Building ................................................................................. A-9

16-Story Special Moment Frame ...................................................................... A-9

A.6

FEMA P-695 Far-Field Record Set.............................................................................. A-12

Appendix B Supplemental Design Information and Design Examples ............................................ B-1

B.1

Horizontal Design Forces ............................................................................................... B-1

Wind Forces ...................................................................................................... B-1

Seismic Forces................................................................................................... B-3

Effective Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces .......................... B-3

Horizontal Seismic Forces, E-W Direction .......................................... B-4

B.1.2.2.1

MC4 (Special Moment Frame) .................................. B-4

B.1.2.2.2

MC8 (Special Moment Frame) .................................. B-7

B.1.2.2.3

MC16 (Special Moment Frame) .............................. B-10

Horizontal Seismic Forces, N-S Direction ......................................... B-13

B.2

B.1.2.3.1

MC4 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame) .......... B-13

B.1.2.3.2

MC8 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame) .......... B-15

B.1.2.3.3

MC16 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame) ........ B-18

Horizontal and Vertical Irregularities........................................................................... B-21

Special Moment Frame ................................................................................... B-21

Special Concentrically Braced Frame ............................................................. B-23

B.3

SMF AISC Frame Stability (Effective Length Method) .............................................. B-25

B.4

Example Design Calculations ...................................................................................... B-29

Special Moment Frame Example .................................................................... B-29

Member Selection .............................................................................. B-29

SMF Beam and RBS Beam-to-Column Connection .......................... B-30

B.4.1.2.1

Flexural Demand ...................................................... B-30

B.4.1.2.2

Flexural Strength...................................................... B-30

B.4.1.2.3

Fully Restrained Connection .................................... B-31

SMF Column .......................................................................................B-31

B.4.1.3.1

Axial and Flexural Demand ......................................B-32

B.4.1.3.2

Axial Strength ...........................................................B-32

B.4.1.3.3

Flexural Strength.......................................................B-33

B.4.1.3.4

Strength Check ..........................................................B-33

SMF Panel Zone..................................................................................B-34

B.4.1.4.1

Shear Demand ...........................................................B-34

B.4.1.4.2

Shear Strength ...........................................................B-35

B.4.1.4.3

Strength Check ..........................................................B-35

SMF Strong-Column / Weak-Beam ....................................................B-36

Appendix C Example Assessment Calculations ................................................................................. C-1

C.1

Linear Assessment Examples ......................................................................................... C-1

SMF Frame Beam and RBS Beam-to-Column Connection ...............................C-1

Flexural Demand ...................................................................................C-1

C.1.1.1.1

Frame Beam ................................................................C-1

C.1.1.1.2

FR Connection ............................................................C-2

Flexural Strength ...................................................................................C-2

C.1.1.2.1

Beam ...........................................................................C-2

C.1.1.2.2

Fully Restrained Connection .......................................C-2

Acceptance Criteria ...............................................................................C-3

C.1.1.3.1

Beam ...........................................................................C-3

C.1.1.3.2

Fully Restrained Connection .......................................C-3

Acceptance Criteria Check ....................................................................C-5

C.1.1.4.1

Beam ...........................................................................C-5

C.1.1.4.2

Fully Restrained Connection .......................................C-6

SMF Column ......................................................................................................C-6

Axial Demand .......................................................................................C-7

Axial Strength .......................................................................................C-7

Flexural Demand ...................................................................................C-8

Flexural Strength ...................................................................................C-8

Acceptance Criteria Check ....................................................................C-9

SMF Panel Zone.................................................................................................C-9

Shear Demand .......................................................................................C-9

Shear Strength .......................................................................................C-9

xi

Acceptance Criteria .............................................................................. C-9

Acceptance Criteria Check ................................................................. C-10

C.2

Nonlinear Assessment Examples ................................................................................. C-10

SMF Beam....................................................................................................... C-10

Deformation Demand ......................................................................... C-10

Acceptance Criteria ............................................................................ C-11

Acceptance Criteria Check ................................................................. C-12

SMF Column ................................................................................................... C-13

Axial Demand .................................................................................... C-13

Axial Strength .................................................................................... C-13

Deformation Demand ......................................................................... C-13

Acceptance Criteria ............................................................................ C-13

Acceptance Criteria Check ................................................................. C-15

SMF Panel Zone.............................................................................................. C-15

Deformation Demand ......................................................................... C-16

Acceptance Criteria ............................................................................ C-16

Acceptance Criteria Check ................................................................. C-16

Appendix D References......................................................................................................................... D-1

xii

List of Tables

Table 1-1. Comparison of Seismic Hazard and Associated Performance for ASCE 7 and ASCE 41 ..... 1-4

Table 1-2. Performance Comparison between IBC and ASCE 41 (From IEBC Table 301.1.4.1) ....... 1-4

Table 2-1. Structural Characteristics of Archetype Buildings.................................................................. 2-1

Table 2-2. Design Gravity Loads ............................................................................................................. 2-6

Table 2-3. Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters ........................................................................... 2-7

Table 2-4. Seismic Analysis and Design Parameters, E-W ...................................................................... 2-8

Table 2-5. Seismic Analysis and Design Parameters, N-S ....................................................................... 2-8

Table 3-1. Seismic Performance Targets (from ASCE 41-06)................................................................. 3-2

Table 3-2. Seismic Performance Targets (from ASCE 41-13)................................................................. 3-2

Table 3-3. Spectral Response Parameters................................................................................................. 3-3

Table 3-4. Displacement MultiplierE-W (SMF) .................................................................................. 3-6

Table 3-5. Displacement MultiplierN-S (SCBF) .................................................................................. 3-6

Table 3-6. Analytical Fundamental Periods (seconds) ............................................................................. 3-8

Table 3-7. Empirical Fundamental Periods (seconds) .............................................................................. 3-8

Table 3-8. Story Shear Ratio - ELF ........................................................................................................ 3-12

Table 3-9. Story Shear Ratio - RSA ....................................................................................................... 3-12

Table 3-10. Basic Acceptance Criteria for a W2484............................................................................ 3-22

Table 3-11. Basic m-factors for Linear Procedures, SMF ...................................................................... 3-26

Table 3-12. Plastic Rotation Angles for Improved WUF and Column Hinge for a W18175 .............. 3-38

Table 3-13. NSP General Information, 4-Story SMF (kip, inch) ........................................................... 3-53

Table 3-14. NSP Analysis Parameters, 4-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch).......................................... 3-53

Table 3-15. NSP Analysis Parameters 4-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch) ......................................... 3-53

Table 3-16. NSP General Information, 8-Story SMF (kip, inch) ........................................................... 3-75

Table 3-17. NSP Analysis Parameters, 8-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch).......................................... 3-75

Table 3-18. NSP Analysis Parameters 8-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch) ......................................... 3-75

Table 3-19. NSP General Information, 16-Story SMF (kip, inch) ....................................................... 3-102

Table 3-20. NSP Analysis Parameters, 16-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch)...................................... 3-102

Table 3-21. NSP Analysis Parameters, 16-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch) ...................................... 3-102

Table 3-22. Performance Summary of FR Connections (BC) per Frame, Linear Procedures ............. 3-118

Table 3-23. Performance Summary of Panel Zones (PZ) per Frame, Linear Procedures .................... 3-119

Table 3-24. Performance Summary of Column Members (CM) per Frame, Linear Procedures ......... 3-120

xiii

Table 3-25. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings, Linear Procedures ....................... 3-121

Table 3-26. Summary of Base Shears, Linear Procedures (kips) ......................................................... 3-122

Table 3-27. Performance Summary of FR Connections (BC) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures ........ 3-123

Table 3-28. Performance Summary of Panel Zones (PZ) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures ............... 3-124

Table 3-29. Performance Summary of Column Hinges (CH) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures ........ 3-125

Table 3-30. Performance Summary of Column Members (CM) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures .... 3-126

Table 3-31. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings, Nonlinear Procedures .................. 3-126

Table 3-32. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings....................................................... 3-128

Table A-1. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC4 ............................................................ A-3

Table A-2. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC8 ............................................................ A-6

Table A-3. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC16 .......................................................... A-9

Table B-1. Wind Forces on MC4 (kips) .................................................................................................. B-2

Table B-2. Wind Forces on MC8 (kips) .................................................................................................. B-2

Table B-3. Wind Forces on MC 16 (kips) ............................................................................................... B-2

Table B-4. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC4 (kips)............................................ B-3

Table B-5. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC8 (kips)............................................ B-3

Table B-6. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC16 (kips).......................................... B-4

Table B-7. Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC4 ......................................................................... B-4

Table B-8. Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC4 ........................................................................................... B-5

Table B-9. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC4 RSA .................................. B-6

Table B-10. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC4 ELF ................................. B-7

Table B-11. Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC8 ....................................................................... B-7

Table B-12. Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC8 ......................................................................................... B-8

Table B-13. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC8 RSA ................................ B-9

Table B-14. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC8 ELF ................................. B-9

Table B-15. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC16 .............................................. B-10

Table B-16. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC16 ................................................................ B-11

Table B-17. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC16 RSA ............................ B-12

Table B-18. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC16 RSA ............................ B-13

Table B-19. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC4 ................................................. B-13

Table B-20. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC4.................................................................... B-14

Table B-21. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC4 RSA................................ B-15

Table B-22. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC4 ELF ................................ B-15

Table B-23. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC8 ................................................. B-16

Table B-24. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC8.................................................................... B-16

xiv

Table B-25. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC8 RSA.................................B-18

Table B-26. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC8 ELF .................................B-18

Table B-27. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC16 ................................................B-18

Table B-28. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC16 ..................................................................B-19

Table B-29. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC16 RSA...............................B-21

Table B-30. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC16 ELF ...............................B-21

Table B-31. Horizontal Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification ........................................................B-22

Table B-32. Vertical Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification (Exception 1)......................................B-22

Table B-33. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, ELF (kip, feet)...................................B-23

Table B-34. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, RSA (kip, feet) ..................................B-23

Table B-35. Horizontal Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification ........................................................B-24

Table B-36. Vertical Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification (Using Exception 1) ...........................B-24

Table B-37. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, ELF (kip, feet)...................................B-25

Table B-38. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, RSA (kip, feet) ..................................B-25

Table B-39. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 4-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch) ......B-26

Table B-40. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 4-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch) .....B-26

Table B-41. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 8-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch) ......B-26

Table B-42. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 8-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch) .....B-26

Table B-43. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 16-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch)....B-27

Table B-44. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 16-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch) ...B-27

Table B-45. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 4-Story SMF ............................................................B-27

Table B-46. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 8-Story SMF ............................................................B-28

Table B-47. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 16-Story SMF ..........................................................B-28

Table B-48. Controlling Load Combinations (kips, feet) .......................................................................B-32

xv

xvi

List of Figures

Figure 2-1. Isometric View of MC4 Archetype Building ........................................................................ 2-2

Figure 2-2. Isometric View of MC8 Archetype Building ........................................................................ 2-2

Figure 2-3. Isometric View of MC16 Archetype Building ...................................................................... 2-3

Figure 2-4. Typical Floor Framing Plan, MC4 and MC8 ......................................................................... 2-4

Figure 2-5. Typical Floor Framing Plan, MC16 ....................................................................................... 2-4

Figure 2-6. Typical FR RBS Beam-to-Column Connection Assembly ................................................. 2-10

Figure 2-7. FR RBS Beam-To-Column Connection Subassembly Model for Linear Analysis ............. 2-11

Figure 2-8. Typical Brace-to-Beam / Column Connection Assembly ................................................... 2-12

Figure 2-9. Brace-to-Beam / Column Connection Subassembly Model for Linear Analysis ................ 2-12

Figure 2-10. Flow Chart of SMF Design Process .................................................................................. 2-14

Figure 2-11. 4-Story SMF Schematic ..................................................................................................... 2-17

Figure 2-12. 8-Story SMF Schematic ..................................................................................................... 2-18

Figure 2-13. 16-Story SMF Schematic ................................................................................................... 2-20

Figure 2-14. Flow Chart of SCBF Design Process ................................................................................. 2-22

Figure 2-15. 4-Story SCBF Schematic ................................................................................................... 2-24

Figure 2-16. 8-Story SCBF Schematic ................................................................................................... 2-25

Figure 2-17. 16-Story SCBF Schematic ................................................................................................. 2-27

Figure 3-1. Acceleration Response Spectra .............................................................................................. 3-3

Figure 3-2. Generalized Component Backbone Curve (adopted from ASCE 41 Figure C2-1) ............... 3-9

Figure 3-3. NSP Process ......................................................................................................................... 3-11

Figure 3-4. P-M Interaction on Section m-factor (in-plane) and Member Instability (Primary Component)

................................................................................................................................................................. 3-23

Figure 3-5. Compactness Requirements as a Function of Axial Load Ratio, LS Acceptance Criteria .. 3-24

Figure 3-6. Acceptance Criteria as a Function of Axial Load Ratio and Section Compactness, LS

Acceptance Criteria ................................................................................................................................. 3-25

Figure 3-7. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 4-Story SMF ELF ............................... 3-27

Figure 3-8. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 4-Story SMF RSA .............................. 3-27

Figure 3-9. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 8-Story SMF ELF ............................... 3-28

Figure 3-10. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 8-Story SMF RSA ............................ 3-28

Figure 3-11. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 16-Story SMF ELF ........................... 3-29

Figure 3-12. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 16-Story SMF RSA .......................... 3-30

Figure 3-13. SMF Beam-to-Column Subassembly Analytical Schematic ............................................. 3-32

xvii

Figure 3-14. PERFORM-3D RBS Calibration ....................................................................................... 3-33

Figure 3-15. PERFORM-3D Panel Zone Calibration ............................................................................ 3-34

Figure 3-16. In-plane Flexural Hinge Yield Surface Model (Including Force-Controlled Response) ... 3-36

Figure 3-17. Variation in Acceptance Criteria and Hinge Model for Axial Force ................................. 3-36

Figure 3-18. P-M Interaction on Plastic Rotation, LS Acceptance Criteria (Primary Component) ....... 3-37

Figure 3-19. P-M Interaction Curve (Section Yield Surface)................................................................. 3-38

Figure 3-20. P-M Interaction Curve (Member Strength)........................................................................ 3-39

Figure 3-21. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 4-Story SMF ELF .................... 3-40

Figure 3-22. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 4-Story SMF RSA.................... 3-40

Figure 3-23. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 8-Story SMF ELF .................... 3-41

Figure 3-24. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 8-Story SMF RSA.................... 3-42

Figure 3-25. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 16-Story SMF ELF .................. 3-43

Figure 3-26. Frame Capacity Schematic (inelastic), YD, LS and CP, 16-Story SMF RSA ................... 3-44

Figure 3-27. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS................................................... 3-46

Figure 3-28. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS .................................................. 3-47

Figure 3-29. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-1 ........ 3-47

Figure 3-30. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-48

Figure 3-31. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-48

Figure 3-32. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-2 ........ 3-49

Figure 3-33. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .................................................. 3-50

Figure 3-34. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ................................................. 3-50

Figure 3-35. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-1 ....... 3-51

Figure 3-36. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-52

Figure 3-37. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ................................................. 3-52

Figure 3-38. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-2 ....... 3-52

Figure 3-39. 4-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2 .................................................................................. 3-54

Figure 3-40. 4-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2 ................................................................................. 3-54

Figure 3-41. 4-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2 ............................................... 3-55

Figure 3-42. 4-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2............................................... 3-55

Figure 3-43. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 4-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)...................... 3-56

Figure 3-44. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) ........................ 3-57

Figure 3-45. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) ....................... 3-57

Figure 3-46. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) ........................ 3-57

Figure 3-47. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) ....................... 3-58

Figure 3-48. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .......................... 3-59

xviii

Figure 3-49. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ......................... 3-59

Figure 3-50. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP.......................... 3-60

Figure 3-51. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ......................... 3-60

Figure 3-52. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ...................... 3-61

Figure 3-53. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ..................... 3-62

Figure 3-54. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield .................. 3-62

Figure 3-55. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield ................. 3-63

Figure 3-56. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................. 3-63

Figure 3-57. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP.................. 3-64

Figure 3-58. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP............................ 3-65

Figure 3-59. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ........................... 3-65

Figure 3-60. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS................................................... 3-67

Figure 3-61. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS .................................................. 3-67

Figure 3-62. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-1 ........ 3-68

Figure 3-63. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-69

Figure 3-64. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-69

Figure 3-65. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-2 ........ 3-70

Figure 3-66. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .................................................. 3-71

Figure 3-67. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ................................................. 3-71

Figure 3-68. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-1 ....... 3-72

Figure 3-69. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................................................. 3-73

Figure 3-70. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ................................................. 3-73

Figure 3-71. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-2 ....... 3-74

Figure 3-72. 8-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2 .................................................................................. 3-75

Figure 3-73. 8-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2 ................................................................................. 3-76

Figure 3-74. 8-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2 ............................................... 3-76

Figure 3-75. 8-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2............................................... 3-77

Figure 3-76. Story Shear Demand to Strength Comparison, ELF .......................................................... 3-78

Figure 3-77. Story Shear Demand to Strength Comparison, RSA ......................................................... 3-78

Figure 3-78. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 8-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)...................... 3-79

Figure 3-79. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) ........................ 3-80

Figure 3-80. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) ....................... 3-80

Figure 3-81. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) ........................ 3-81

Figure 3-82. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) ....................... 3-81

Figure 3-83. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .......................... 3-82

xix

Figure 3-84. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ......................... 3-83

Figure 3-85. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .......................... 3-83

Figure 3-86. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ......................... 3-84

Figure 3-87. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ...................... 3-85

Figure 3-88. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ..................... 3-85

Figure 3-89. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield .................. 3-86

Figure 3-90. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield ................. 3-86

Figure 3-91. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 ........................ 3-87

Figure 3-92. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2........................ 3-87

Figure 3-93. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ............................ 3-88

Figure 3-94. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ........................... 3-88

Figure 3-95. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS................................................. 3-90

Figure 3-96. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ................................................ 3-91

Figure 3-97. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-1 ...... 3-92

Figure 3-98. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ................................................ 3-93

Figure 3-99. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ................................................ 3-94

Figure 3-100. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-2 .... 3-95

Figure 3-101. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .............................................. 3-96

Figure 3-102. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ............................................. 3-97

Figure 3-103. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-1 ... 3-98

Figure 3-104. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .............................................. 3-99

Figure 3-105. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ........................................... 3-100

Figure 3-106. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-2 . 3-101

Figure 3-107. 16-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2 ............................................................................ 3-102

Figure 3-108. 16-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2 ........................................................................... 3-103

Figure 3-109. 16-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2 ......................................... 3-103

Figure 3-110. 16-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2......................................... 3-104

Figure 3-111. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 16-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)................ 3-105

Figure 3-112. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) .................. 3-106

Figure 3-113. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right) ................. 3-107

Figure 3-114. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) .................. 3-108

Figure 3-115. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right) ................. 3-109

Figure 3-116. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS .................... 3-110

Figure 3-117. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS ................... 3-111

Figure 3-118. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP .................... 3-111

xx

Figure 3-119. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ................... 3-112

Figure 3-120. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ................ 3-113

Figure 3-121. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ............... 3-113

Figure 3-122. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield ............ 3-114

Figure 3-123. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield ........... 3-114

Figure 3-124. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP ............ 3-115

Figure 3-125. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ............ 3-115

Figure 3-126. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP...................... 3-116

Figure 3-127. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP ..................... 3-116

Figure A-1. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W

Direction of MC4 ..................................................................................................................................... A-4

Figure A-2. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W

Direction of MC4 ..................................................................................................................................... A-5

Figure A-3. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W

Direction of MC8 ..................................................................................................................................... A-7

Figure A-4. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W

Direction of MC8 ..................................................................................................................................... A-8

Figure A-5. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W

Direction of MC16 ................................................................................................................................. A-10

Figure A-6. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W

Direction of MC16 ................................................................................................................................. A-11

Figure A-7. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Beverly Hills, Mulholland Drive Station, Comp. 009 ..... A-12

Figure A-8. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Beverly Hills, Mulholland Drive Station, Comp. 279 ..... A-12

Figure A-9. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Canyon Country WLC Station, Comp. 000..................... A-13

Figure A-10. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Canyon Country WLC Station, Comp. 270................... A-13

Figure A-11. 1999 Duzce, Turkey Earthquake at Bolu Station, Comp. 000 ......................................... A-14

Figure A-12. 1999 Duzce, Turkey Earthquake at Bolu Station, Comp. 090 ......................................... A-14

Figure A-13. 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake at Hector Station, Comp. 000 ......................................... A-15

Figure A-14. 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake at Hector Station, Comp. 090 ......................................... A-15

Figure A-15. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at Delta Station, Comp. 262....................................... A-16

Figure A-16. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at Delta Station, Comp. 352....................................... A-16

Figure A-17. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at El Centro Array Station #11, Comp. 140............... A-17

Figure A-18. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at El Centro Array Station #11, Comp. 230............... A-17

Figure A-19. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Nishi-Akashi Station, Comp. 000 ............................... A-18

Figure A-20. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Nishi-Akashi Station, Comp. 090 ............................... A-18

Figure A-21. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Shin-Osaka Station, Comp. 000 .................................. A-19

xxi

Figure A-22. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Shin-Osaka Station, Comp. 090 .................................. A-19

Figure A-23. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Duzce Station, Comp. 180 .................................... A-20

Figure A-24. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Duzce Station, Comp. 270 .................................... A-20

Figure A-25. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Arcelik Station, Comp. 000................................... A-21

Figure A-26. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Arcelik Station, Comp. 090................................... A-21

Figure A-27. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Yermo Fire Station, Comp. 270 ......................................... A-22

Figure A-28. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Yermo Fire Station, Comp. 360 ......................................... A-22

Figure A-29. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Coolwater Station, Longitudinal Direction ........................ A-23

Figure A-30. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Coolwater Station, Transverse Direction ........................... A-23

Figure A-31. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Capitola Station, Comp. 000 ....................................... A-24

Figure A-32. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Capitola Station, Comp. 090 ....................................... A-24

Figure A-33. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Gilroy Array Station #3, Comp. 000 ........................... A-25

Figure A-34. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Gilroy Array Station #3, Comp. 090 ........................... A-25

Figure A-35. 1990 Manjil, Iran Earthquake at Abbar Station, Longitudinal Direction ........................ A-26

Figure A-36. 1990 Manjil, Iran Earthquake at Abbar Station, Transverse Direction............................ A-26

Figure A-37. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at El Centro, Imperial County, Comp. 000 ............. A-27

Figure A-38. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at El Centro, Imperial County, Comp. 090 ............. A-27

Figure A-39. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at Poe Road, Comp. 270 ......................................... A-28

Figure A-40. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at Poe Road, Comp. 360 ......................................... A-28

Figure A-41. 1992 Cape Mendocino Earthquake at Rio Dell Overpass, Comp. 270 ............................ A-29

Figure A-42. 1992 Cape Mendocino Earthquake at Rio Dell Overpass, Comp. 360 ............................ A-29

Figure A-43. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at CHY101 Station, E-W Component ...................... A-30

Figure A-44. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at CHY101 Station, N-S Component ....................... A-30

Figure A-45. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at TCU045 Station, E-W Component ...................... A-31

Figure A-46. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at TCU045 Station, N-S Component ....................... A-31

Figure A-47. 1971 San Fernando Earthquake at Los Angeles Hollywood Store Station, Comp. 090 .. A-32

Figure A-48. 1971 San Fernando Earthquake at Los Angeles Hollywood Store Station, Comp. 180 .. A-32

Figure A-49. 1976 Fruili, Italy Earthquake at Tolmezzo Station, Comp. 000 ...................................... A-33

Figure A-50. 1976 Fruili, Italy Earthquake at Tolmezzo Station, Comp. 270 ...................................... A-33

Figure B-1. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears................................................................ B-5

Figure B-2. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears ...................................................................... B-5

Figure B-3. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ............................................................................... B-6

Figure B-4. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears................................................................ B-7

Figure B-5. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears ...................................................................... B-8

Figure B-6. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ............................................................................... B-9

xxii

Figure B-7. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears ...............................................................B-10

Figure B-8. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears.....................................................................B-11

Figure B-9. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ..............................................................................B-12

Figure B-10. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears .............................................................B-14

Figure B-11. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears...................................................................B-14

Figure B-12. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ............................................................................B-15

Figure B-13. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears .............................................................B-16

Figure B-14. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears...................................................................B-17

Figure B-15. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ............................................................................B-17

Figure B-16. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears .............................................................B-19

Figure B-17. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears...................................................................B-20

Figure B-18. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape ............................................................................B-20

Figure B-19. SMF Member Sizes, 8-story RSA .....................................................................................B-29

xxiii

xxiv

List of Abbreviations

AISC

American Institute of Steel Construction

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

ATC

Applied Technology Council

BPL

Building Performance Level

BSE

Basic Safety Earthquake

BSO

Basic Safety Objective

BSSC

Building Seismic Safety Council

CBF

Concentrically Braced Frame

CP

Collapse Prevention

DC

Deformation-Controlled

DCR

Demand to capacity ratio

EBF

Eccentrically Braced Frame

EHL

Earthquake Hazard Level

ELF

Equivalent Lateral Force

E-W

East-West

FC

Force-Controlled

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FR

Fully Restrained

GSA

General Services Administration

GCR

Grant/Contract Report

HD

Highly Ductile

HSS

Hollow Structural Section

IBC

International Building Code

ICC

International Code Council

IEBC

International Existing Building Code

IO

Immediate Occupancy

LC

Load Combination

LDP

Linear Dynamic Procedure

LFRS

Lateral Force Resisting System

LRFD

Load and Resistance Factor Design


xxv

LS

Life Safety

LSP

Linear Static Procedure

LTB

Lateral Torsional Buckling

MC

Moment Curvature

MCE (MCER) Maximum Considered Earthquake


MD

Moderately Ductile

MR

Moment Rotation

MRSA

Modal Response Spectrum Analysis

MWFRS

Main Wind Force Resisting System

NDP

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure

NEHRP

National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

NIBS

National Institute of Building Sciences

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NPL

Nonstructural Performance Level

N-S

North-South

NSP

Nonlinear Static Procedure

PBS

Public Buildings Service

PBSD

Performance-Based Seismic Design

RBS

Reduced Beam Section

RHA

Response History Analysis

RSA

Response Spectrum Analysis

SCBF

Special Concentrically Braced Frame

SCWB

Strong Column Weak Beam

SDC

Seismic Design Category

SDOF

Single Degree of Freedom

SEAONC

Structural Engineers Association of Northern California

SEI

Structural Engineering Institute

SFRS

Seismic Force Resisting System

SMF

Special Moment Frame

SPL

Structural Performance Level

SRSS

Square Root Sum of the Squares

W.P.

Work Point

xxvi

Executive Summary

This report presents the results of a study investigating the correlation between the seismic performance of
an ASCE 7 code-compliant building and its performance as quantified using ASCE 41 analysis procedures
and structural performance metrics. This investigation is performed by evaluating a suite of structural steel
buildings in a high seismicity region that are designed using ASCE 7 and evaluated using ASCE 41. The
basic question is whether the standards for designing new steel buildings and assessing existing steel
buildings provide consistent levels of performance. An additional outcome of this research is to advance
the state-of-knowledge in PBSD and assessment of buildings using ASCE 41. Further, results provide the
technical background for provisions that target equivalent seismic performance between a new building and
an existing building that is required to meet the seismic performance objective of a new building.
This report presents the results of a structural seismic performance assessment using ASCE 41 procedures
and performance measures of buildings utilizing steel special moment frames (SMF) as the lateral forceresisting system (LFRS).
A suite of archetype buildings that incorporate SMFs along one principal direction of the buildings is
designed in accordance with ASCE 7. The suite consists of 4-, 8-, and 16-story buildings designed using
both the Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) Procedure and Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA). Both
analysis procedures are used to provide a generally applicable range of LFRS strength within the selected
seismic intensity region. As such, an LFRS may include significant overstrength to resist nonseismic loads
or to satisfy other design criteria. A design space is created to investigate the effects of design methodology,
building height and other LFRS-specific geometric modifications on seismic performance. In reality, the
design space is infinitely large and many design choices made in this study can also have different
configurations to evaluate the variation in performance specific to a design choice.
The seismic performance assessment of the building suite is conducted using both linear and nonlinear
analysis procedures prescribed in ASCE 41:

Linear Static Procedure (LSP)


Linear Dynamic Procedure (Response Spectrum) (LDP)
Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)
Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP)

For this study, the performance assessment targets the Basic Safety Objective (BSO) prescribed in ASCE
41. This objective includes the interrelated goals of Life Safety (LS) Building Performance Level (BPL) at
the Basic Safety Earthquake-1 (BSE-1) earthquake hazard level (EHL) and Collapse Prevention (CP) BPL
at the BSE-2 EHL. This performance objective is chosen to align with the intended structural performance
objective of an ordinary building in ASCE 7, which is qualitatively defined here as life safety provided
by collapse prevention of the building, given a maximum considered earthquake (MCE) event.

xxvii

To evaluate seismic assessment criteria, each component of the SMFs is designated as a primary or
component in accordance with ASCE 41 2.2.5 (and ASCE 41 2.4.4.2). Similarly, quantitative
performance measures (i.e., acceptance criteria) for primary components are used for all assessment
procedures, although performance measures for secondary components are permitted by ASCE 41 for some
primary components. The consistent use of primary acceptance criteria keeps all components and associated
assessment results correlated among the assessment procedures for this study.
The goals of this research are as follows:

Assess new structural steel buildings utilizing SMFs designed per ASCE 7 requirements and, in
turn, evaluated using ASCE 41,
Develop a qualitative link between the performance implied in ASCE 7 in light of the performance
identified by ASCE 41 procedures and performance measures,
Provide guidance or technical support for improved or new provisions in ASCE 41 (and to a lesser
extent, ASCE 7),
Reduce uncertainty in first-generation PBSD procedures for performance-based seismic
assessment, and
Identify any inconsistencies, ambiguities, and confusing provisions in ASCE 41.

The primary conclusions of this research can be divided into two parts: General Observations and Specific
Observations about ASCE 41 analytical procedures.
A.

General Observations for Special Moment Frames:


The LSP generally results in more conservative normalized demand to capacity ratios, DCRN,
values than that of the LDP, because of the differences in the distribution of seismic demands and
the lack of modal representation other than the fundamental mode in the LSP.
The NSP generally results in less conservative DCRN values than that of the NDP, contrary to what
would be expected with increasing the analytical complexity, because of the differences in the
distribution of seismic demands and the lack of modal representation other than the fundamental
mode in the NSP.
The nonlinear procedures provide a more rigorous assessment approach as compared to the linear
procedures. The results from the LSP, and to a lesser extent the LDP, indicate more performance
failures in components than identified using the nonlinear procedures. The results presented
emphasize the inherent conservatism in the linear procedures. However, this conservatism is
accompanied by a reduction in required analytical resources and proficiency of the analyst.
The linear procedures can illustrate the trend in demands but may fail to highlight critical
performance zones within a given frame.

B.

Specific Observations for Special Moment Frames:

The following significant observations and conclusions are based on the collective results obtained from
the assessment of the SMFs. More details about the specific items are in the relevant sections of the
assessment discussion in Chapter 3.
xxviii

Analytical results based on component-level performances indicate that new SMFs designed in
accordance with ASCE 7, and its referenced standards, have difficulty achieving the ASCE 41 BSO
for an existing building intended to be equivalent to a new building. This observation is driven by
the performance of the columns and beam-to-column connections.
Assuming the archetype buildings meet the collapse performance objective of ASCE 7, the results
of the assessment procedures indicate that ASCE 41 is generally conservative for SMFs. ASCE 41
analysis would require retrofit or replacement of specific components of a code-compliant SFRS
to satisfy the CP BPL, given an MCE event. The results highlight that columns (i.e., beam-columns)
with high axial and flexural demands and beam-to-column connections with a reduced beam section
(RBS) have difficulty in satisfying the performance criteria in ASCE 41. Future research is needed
to couple the collapse performance objectives of the two standards, as well as other performance
objectives associated with a seismic hazard with a lower return period.
A significant number of columns, primarily at the exterior of the frames, did not satisfy the ASCE
41 acceptance criteria. These failures are in beam-columns classified by analysis as force
controlled, which can be particularly problematic when the columns are located at the base of a
frame. The results for columns can be enhanced by more mechanistically consistent assessment
provisions and analytical modeling parameters for columns. Refinement of the relevant interaction
equations to evaluate specific failure mechanisms could assist by allowing what would be a forcecontrolled column to be classified as deformation-controlled.
A significant number of RBS beam-to-column connections, primarily at the exteriors of the frames,
did not satisfy the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria for the LSP and NDP. Although the nonlinear
acceptance criteria and detailing recommendations in ASCE 41 were derived from experimental
test data, the rationale for the quantitative development of the cumulative reduction factors on these
criteria (i.e., 0.8 multipliers in ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3-4) is unclear. The analytical results indicate that
step function-based cumulative reduction factors can have a significant impact on the performance
of a SMF. Further, reduction factors for the span-to-depth ratio limitations for beam-to-column
connections have potentially opposing effects that could impact the results between linear and
nonlinear assessment procedures.
Assessment results illustrate that panel zones designed per ASCE 7 and its referenced standards,
including the common practice of upsizing columns to offset the need for doubler plates and/or
continuity plates, consistently satisfied the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria by a large margin.
Consequently, the panel zones are deemed stronger than required by ASCE 41. Specifically,
upsizing columns can impact the strength of panel zones in reference to the balance yield approach
adopted by ASCE 41 and in turn can influence the performance of the beam-to-column connections.
Components of the SMFs that do not satisfy the CP acceptance criteria would need to be
strengthened to achieve the performance required by ASCE 41. However, the results from the
various assessment procedures were seen to be inconsistent in some cases for a given design routine
(i.e., LSP vs. NDP) or the same assessment procedure was inconsistent between design routines
(i.e., ELF and RSA). This makes it difficult to definitively suggest that using ASCE 41 to design a
new SMF would produce a system capable of achieving the seismic performance objective of
ASCE 7. Future research is needed to evaluate the collapse probability of a new system
strengthened by ASCE 41 relative to the seismic performance objective of ASCE 7. The same is
required for a new system that has component strengths reduced from that required by ASCE 7 to
meet an ASCE 41 performance objective. Further, the adequacy of the components of the enhanced
xxix

frame (those required to satisfy ASCE 41) would be dependent upon which analysis procedure is
used to iterate between design and assessment, and therefore the fidelity of the analytical model
and analysis parameters.
Results of this study indicate that for ASCE 41 to be used as a seismic design procedure for new
steel buildings, as a performance-based alternative to ASCE 7 (see ASCE 7 1.3.1.3), acceptance
criteria for the various analysis methods must be calibrated to each other to consistently result in a
uniform collapse risk. Additionally, ASCE 41 would need to reference material-specific design
standards (e.g., AISC 341) for their seismic design requirements, as well as consistent requirements
for defining acceptance criteria for a component (e.g., plastic rotation).

xxx

Introduction

In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) published FEMA 273: NEHRP Guidelines
for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 1997) as a first step towards standardizing seismic
performance assessment procedures for existing buildings. This effort, produced under the Applied
Technology Councils project 33 (ATC-33), was the first significant step in implementing performancebased seismic design (PBSD) into practice. Subsequently in 2000, FEMA and the American Society of
Civil Engineers (ASCE) published FEMA 356: Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic
Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 2000e). This publication introduced many changes to FEMA 273 to
refine the accuracy and applicability of the provisions. The changes are chronicled in FEMA 357: Global
Topics Report on the Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA
2000f). In 2006 ASCE published ASCE/SEI 41-06: Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings (ASCE
2006) as an ASCE Standardhereafter referred to as ASCE 41. This document is referenced by the
International Existing Building Code (IEBC) published by the International Code Council (ICC) (ICC
2012a).
ASCE 41 represents the current state-of-practice in seismic evaluation and rehabilitation of existing
buildings. This standard is referenced by the California Building Standards Code (CBSC 2010), Federal
government building standards (e.g., NIST 2011a), and a number of other local jurisdictions. ASCE 41
provides analytical procedures and criteria for evaluating buildings and designing seismic retrofits based
on a defined performance goal (i.e., Life Safety and Collapse Prevention). This ability to explicitly define
a performance goal and then assess a building design against that goal has led practitioners to adapt ASCE
41 methodology for use in new building design. The performance-based methodologies in ASCE 41 provide
an alternative to the traditional prescriptive approaches used in the current standard for new buildings,
ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 2010)hereafter
referred to as ASCE 7. Referenced by the International Building Code (IBC) (ICC 2012b), ASCE 7 is
widely used throughout the country for seismic design of new buildings. However, with the trend toward
performance-based design, the correlation between the performance of a building designed with the
prescriptive provisions of ASCE 7 and assessed with the performance-based provisions of ASCE 41 is
largely unknown.
The next version of ASCE 41 (ASCE 41-131) will offer a new track for application of the provisions to
existing buildings whose performance goal is equivalent to that of a building designed with the new building
standard. Consequently, this new track will allow direct seismic performance assessment of new buildings
or, alternatively, a substitute seismic design approach via Chapter 1 of ASCE 7. For example, the PBS
P100: Facility Standards for the Public Buildings Service (GSA 2012) prescribes that ASCE 41-06 shall

1 ASCE 41-13: Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings (ASCE 2014) was being developed during this project period.
As such, new or updated provisions in ASCE 41-13 were not incorporated, except where changes were required to align with the
seismic hazard prescribed in ASCE 7-10.

1-1

be used for the seismic design of new GSA facilities2 and that the guidelines from ASCE 41 are intended
to be applied to new buildings. This document does not permit a building to be designed for seismic
performance below the minimum level specified by IBC. The National Institute of Building Sciences
(NIBS) is using PBS-P100 as the basis for developing their National Performance Based Design Guide
(NIBS 2013). Further, the Provisions Update Committee for the Building Seismic Safety Council is
currently deliberating expanded provisions for performing nonlinear response history analysis (Chapter 16
in ASCE 7) for the 2015 edition of the NEHRP Recommend Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 2015). These expanded provisions reference ASCE 41-13 in the
commentary for modeling and acceptance criteria for the design of new buildings.
This report presents the results of a study investigating the correlation between the seismic performance of
an ASCE 7 code-compliant building and its performance as quantified using ASCE 41 analysis procedures
and structural performance metrics. This investigation is performed by evaluating a suite of structural steel
buildings in a high seismicity region that are designed using ASCE 7 and evaluated using ASCE 41. The
basic question is whether the standards for designing new steel buildings and assessing existing steel
buildings provide consistent levels of performance. The intended outcome of this research is to advance the
state-of-knowledge in performance-based seismic design and assessment of buildings using ASCE 41.
Further, results provide the technical background for provisions that target equivalent seismic performance
between a new building and an existing building that is required to meet the seismic performance objective
of a new building.
Applicability of ASCE 41-13 to this Study
During this project, ASCE/SEI 41-13, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings (ASCE 2014),
completed committee balloting and was sent out for public comment as well as for approval for inclusion
in the IEBC. Any significant differences between ASCE 41-06 and ASCE 41-13 regarding assessment of
steel structural systems will be highlighted in the discussions where applicableunless otherwise noted,
reference to ASCE 41 refers only to ASCE 41-06.
One significant addition to ASCE 41-13 is a process for applying the provisions for the seismic assessment
of existing buildings where the intended performance is equivalent to that which is intended for new
buildings designed in accordance with ASCE 7, including a correlation matrix between the two standards.
While ASCE 41-06 is being used currently in practice to justify seismic performance of new buildings in
compliance with ASCE 7 (as well as to identify noncompliance), this addition is the first step in
conceptually aligning future editions of ASCE 41 and ASCE 7 so that ASCE 41 can be used for the seismic
design of new buildings. Still, there are variations between material-specific provisions in ASCE 41 and
provisions in material design standards referenced in ASCE 7 (e.g., AISC 360 and ACI 318) that need to
be resolved.

The seismic hazard used to characterize the design basis earthquake is that with a 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years. This
differs from that used in ASCE/SEI 7-05 (ASCE 2005)two-thirds of that with a 2% probability of exceedence in 50 yearsand
ASCE 7-10two-thirds of that producing a 1% probability of collapse in 50 years.

1-2

In terms of assessment of steel systems, the technical content in ASCE 41-13 did not change in any
significant manner that invalidates the results presented in this report. The few changes that would affect
the results of individual components are highlighted where applicable. In fact, data from this study
instigated some of these changes.

1.1

Project Motivation and Background

Traditional prescriptive seismic provisions for new buildings principally concentrate on the Life Safety
objective applied to all-encompassing arrangements of similar lateral force-resisting systems. Little
consideration is given to either the actual performance of individual buildings or the economic loss and
occupancy interruption that may occur after an earthquake. Thus, a need arises for seismic provisions that
allow engineers to design buildings and assess them against varying levels of performance associated with
varying levels of earthquake hazard. So doing provides a method where desired building damage levels can
be coupled to both quantitative and qualitative definitions of performance so that building and operational
stakeholders are integrated into a project. Conceptually, PBSD was conceived to satisfy this need. The
objective of PBSD is to provide a means of integrating additional performance objectives into the seismic
design of new buildings that explicitly measure and account for risk of casualties, occupancy interruption,
and economic loss including repair costs.
Prescriptive building code procedures, such as those found in ASCE 7, tend to restrict design innovation
and can lead to inefficient structural designs and higher construction costs. In lieu of its prescriptive
provisions, ASCE 7 allows alternative rational design methods, such as PBSD, to be used in new building
design. PBSD affords the designer the freedom to bypass prescriptive building code provisions by
demonstrating that a building performs to an explicitly defined performance target that equals or exceeds
the life safety objective in prescriptive provisions. The use of such methods must be approved by the local
authority having jurisdiction and typically requires rigorous structural analysis coupled with a high level of
expertise.
Although ASCE 7 allows PBSD (see ASCE 7 1.3.1.3) to be used in new building design, it provides no
substantial guidance on implementing PBSD for this purpose. Therefore, many practitioners and local
authorities have turned to the provisions in ASCE 41 as a way of implementing PBSD into new building
design. These provisions, widely considered to be first generation PBSD principles, were originally
intended to be used in the evaluation of existing buildings by assessing performance compliance with a
selected rehabilitation objective. Since ASCE 41 is applicable to existing buildings, it does not provide a
direct correlation between the rehabilitation objective and the intended performance of an ASCE 7 codecompliant new building (see Table 1-1). However, the IEBC does provide a correlation between ASCE 41
performance levels and IBC (and thus ASCE 7) Risk Categories, thus providing the link between the
prescriptive requirements for new building design and the nonprescriptive requirements of existing building
assessment and PBSD. A matrix showing this correlation is shown in Table 1-2. Still, this matrix has not
been comprehensively validated nor have the seismic performance expectations for new buildings been
quantitatively assessed to standardize acceptable performance within the framework of ASCE 41, or vice
versa. ASCE 7 has not expressly adopted Table 1-2 for seismic design.

1-3

Table 1-1. Comparison of Seismic Hazard and Associated Performance for ASCE 7 and ASCE 41
Target Building Performance Level 1

Earthquake Hazard Level

Operational

Immediate
Occupancy
(IO)

Life Safety
(LS)

Collapse
Prevention
(CP)

ASCE 41
50% / 50 year2

ASCE 41
(nonstructural)

ASCE 41 Limited

ASCE 41 Limited

ASCE 41 Limited

ASCE 41
20% / 50 year2

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41

ASCE 41
Limited

ASCE 41
Limited

ASCE 7
Frequent 1

ASCE 7
Risk Category III
& IV

ASCE 7 Risk
Category I & II
(anticipated) 3

N.A.

N.A.

ASCE 41
BSE-1
~ 10% / 50 year 2

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41 BSO

ASCE 41
Limited

ASCE 7
MCER 1

N.A.

ASCE 7
Risk Category III
& IV

ASCE 7 Risk
Category I & II
(design)

N.A.

ASCE 41
BSE-2
~ 2% / 50 year 2

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41
Enhanced

ASCE 41 BSO

ASCE 7
MCER 1

N.A.

N.A.

ASCE 7
Risk Category III
& IV

ASCE 7 Risk
Category I & II
(objective) 3

1. Seismic hazard defined in ASCE 7-10.


2. Seismic hazard defined in ASCE 41-06.
3. See ASCE 7, Expanded Seismic Commentary (ASCE 7-10, 3rd printing).

Table 1-2. Performance Comparison between IBC and ASCE 41 (From IEBC Table 301.1.4.1)
Risk Category
(Based on IBC Table 1604.5)
I
II
III
IV

Performance Level for use with ASCE


41 BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level
Life Safety (LS)
Life Safety (LS)
Note a
Immediate Occupancy (IO)

Performance Level for use with ASCE


41 BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level
Collapse Prevention (CP)
Collapse Prevention (CP)
Note a
Immediate Occupancy (IO)

a. Acceptance criteria for Risk Category III shall be taken as 80 percent of the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category II performance levels, but
need not be less than the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category IV performance levels

In June 2008 the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) sponsored a PBSD workshop
for leading practitioners and researchers from around the United States to develop a comprehensive list of
research needs to foster full development and implementation of PBSD. From this workshop, the Building
Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) reported a prioritized list of key PBSD research and implementation needs
in NIST GCR 09-917-2: Research Required to Support Full Implementation of Performance-Based Seismic
Design (NIST 2009a). The highest priority need identified in this report was to benchmark current PBSD
methodologies (e.g., ASCE 41) with code procedures for design of new buildings. Two observations from
the report were that among workshop participants (1) ASCE 41 procedures are perceived to be overly
1-4

conservative and (2) existing PBSD methods are not accepted by practitioners as providing a uniform level
of confidence. A supporting reason for these two observations was that no systematic effort had been
undertaken to benchmark structural performance as determined using ASCE 41 procedures, together with
widely accepted procedures for designing new buildings using ASCE 7.
Additionally, needs for the advancement of PBSD have been highlighted by other researchers and
practitioners (Toranzo-Dianderas 2009, SEAONC 2010, Paret, Searer, and Freeman 2011, and Pekelnicky
and Poland 2012). The needs identified include, but are not limited to the following:

Calibration / comparison of ASCE 41 to ASCE 7


Reduced conservatism in linear procedures and acceptance criteria
Better clarification of provisions and intent

Therefore, the research study presented in this report was undertaken in an effort to address some of these
needs.

1.2

Scope of Project

This report presents the results of a structural seismic performance assessment using ASCE 41 procedures
and performance measures of buildings utilizing steel special moment frames (SMF) as the lateral forceresisting system (LFRS)3.
A suite of archetype buildings that incorporate SMFs along one principal direction of the buildings is
designed in accordance with ASCE 7. The suite consists of 4-, 8-, and 16-story buildings designed using
both the Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) Procedure and Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA). Both
analysis procedures are used to provide a generally applicable range of LFRS strength within the selected
seismic intensity region. As such, components of an LFRS may include significant overstrength4 to resist
nonseismic loads or to satisfy other design criteria. A design space is created to investigate the effects of
design methodology, building height, and other LFRS-specific geometric modifications on seismic
performance. In reality, the design space is infinitely large and many design choices made in this study can
also have different configurations to evaluate the variation in performance specific to a design choice (e.g.,
study of a range of doubler plate thicknesses in an SMF and the influence on frame column performance).
The seismic performance assessment of the building suite is conducted using both linear and nonlinear
analysis procedures prescribed in ASCE 41:

Linear Static Procedure (LSP)

3 Although the LFRS is a component of a cohesive three-dimensional building system that includes structural framing intended to
primarily resist gravity loads and nonstructural components, only the performance of the LFRS as identified by ASCE 41
procedures and measures is presented. The performance of an LFRS can be influenced by the inclusion of gravity framing in a
analysis. Based on the analytical modeling used in this study, this interaction is deemed to be negligible because the LFRS resists
nearly all forces and deformations resulting from lateral loads and movement.
4 Overstrength is defined here as the additional elastic strength in a component that is in excess of the required minimum seismic
strength.

1-5

Linear Dynamic Procedure (Response Spectrum) (LDP)

Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP)

For this study, the performance assessment targets the Basic Safety Objective (BSO) prescribed in ASCE
41. This objective includes the interrelated goals of Life Safety (LS) Building Performance Level (BPL) at
the Basic Safety Earthquake-1 (BSE-1) earthquake hazard level (EHL) and Collapse Prevention (CP) BPL
at the BSE-2 EHL (see Table 1-2 above). This performance objective is chosen to align with the intended
structural performance objective of an ordinary building5 in ASCE 7, which is qualitatively defined here as
life safety provided by collapse prevention of the building, given a maximum considered earthquake
(MCE) event.
To evaluate seismic assessment criteria, each component of the SMFs is designated as a primary component
in accordance with ASCE 41 2.2.5 (and ASCE 41 2.4.4.2). Similarly, quantitative performance measures
(i.e., acceptance criteria) for primary components are used for all assessment procedures, although
performance measures for secondary components are permitted by ASCE 41 for some primary components.
The consistent use of primary acceptance criteria keeps all components and associated assessment results
correlated among the assessment procedures for this study.
The goals of this research are as follows:

Assess new structural steel buildings utilizing SMFs designed per ASCE 7 requirements and, in
turn, evaluated using ASCE 41,
Develop a qualitative link between the performance implied in ASCE 7 in light of the performance
identified by ASCE 41 procedures and performance measures,
Provide guidance or technical support for improved or new provisions in ASCE 41 (and to a lesser
extent, ASCE 7),
Reduce uncertainty in first-generation PBSD procedures for performance-based seismic
assessment, and
Identify any inconsistencies, ambiguities, and confusing provisions in ASCE 41.

This report does not discuss the correlation between deterministic performance metrics for components
(e.g., m-factor in ASCE 41) and the system (e.g., R-factor in ASCE 7)a topic for future research and one
that is required to establish the link between the performance of an ASCE 7 code-compliant design and the
associated performance identified by ASCE 41 procedures and performance measures. Here, it is assumed
that the acceptance criteria for each BPL in ASCE 41 Chapter 5 are quantitatively rational and accurate
interpretations of what deformations / actions are appropriate for the intended structural performance (see
ASCE 41 Tables C1-2, C1-3, and C1-4). Clearly, this is a subjective and, at times, controversial topic, as
some component actions are physically qualified only by experimental test results (i.e., SAC project, see
FEMA 351 (FEMA 2000b)), but not necessarily for all performance levels.

Buildings assigned Risk Category I or II.

1-6

In this report, the archetype building designs are presented in Chapter 2. Next, the results from the seismic
assessment in accordance with ASCE 41 and supplementary discussions are presented in Chapter 3. In the
discussion of the assessment results, special focus is given to highlighting any notable differences or
similarities between ASCE 41 and ASCE 7 (including the referenced design standards in ASCE 7 for the
design of structural steel buildings) and to making suggestions for improvements in ASCE 41. Conclusions
are provided in Chapter 4. Selection and scaling of ground motions, including pertinent ground motion data,
for the NDP are provided in Appendix A. Additional information applicable to the design of the archetype
buildings and detailed design calculations for a few example members and connections are provided in
Appendix B. Detailed assessment calculations for a few example members and connections are provided in
Appendix C.
The hope is that other follow-on projects will be undertaken by NIST and / or other organizations to provide
additional data sets that advance the state-of-practice and state-of-knowledge and facilitate the
implementation of performance-based seismic engineering in design of buildings. Further studies of
structural steel systems (e.g., buckling-restrained braced frames), as well as studies of reinforced concrete
moment frame and shear wall buildings, are planned as next steps at NIST.

1-7

1-8

Overview and Design of Archetype Buildings

This chapter presents the design of the archetype buildings. General discussions are provided in Section 2.1
on the geometry of the buildings and the design criteria, including sizes of structural members not
considered to principally resist lateral loads. Section 2.2 discusses the structural design loads and associated
design criteria specific to them. Section 2.3 presents information regarding the structural analysis and
mathematical model used in the structural member selection process. Section 2.4 provides the design of the
structural systems principally required to resist lateral loads and stabilize the buildings.

2.1

General Information

A suite of three steel-framed office buildings is investigated in this study. It is presumed that the archetype
buildings will be constructed in a high seismicity area (e.g., somewhere along the west coast of the United
Statessee Earthquake Forces section below). Building stability and resistance to environmental loads and
deformations is provided by special moment frames along the East-West (E-W) direction and special
concentrically braced frames along the North-South (N-S) direction. All lateral force-resisting systems
(LFRS) are symmetrically located at the perimeter of the building and orthogonal. For purposes of design,
the identified LFRS acts as both the seismic force-resisting system (SFRS) and the main wind forceresisting system (MWFRS). For completeness of the full design of the archetype buildings, design of both
LFRSs is presented below. However, only the assessment of the moment frames will be presented in this
report. Assessment of the braced frames is presented in NIST TN 1863-2: Assessment of First Generation
Performance-Based Design Methods for New Steel Buildings, Volume 2: Special Concentrically Braced
Frames (Harris and Speicher 2015).
Each building is rectangular in plan, with five 30-foot bays in the E-W direction and generally five 20-foot
bays in the N-S direction. The plan dimensions for all floors and roofs are 152 feet in the E-W direction
and 102 feet in the N-S direction. For all buildings, the height of the first story is 18 feet and the remaining
story heights are 14 feet. A summary of the geometric structural characteristics of each building is provided
in Table 2-1. Building schematics are shown in Figure 2-1 through Figure 2-3. The typical floor framing
plan is shown in Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5. For brevity, the building schematics do not show symmetrical
elevator core or stairwell diaphragm openings.
Table 2-1. Structural Characteristics of Archetype Buildings
Bldg. ID

Stories

E-W
Dimension

N-S
Dimension

E-W
LFRS

N-S
LFRS

MC4

150 = 5 bays
@ 30

100 = 5 bays
@ 20

SMF

SCBF

MC8

150 = 5 bays
@ 30

100 = 5 bays
@ 20

SMF

SCBF

MC16

16

150 = 5 bays
@ 30

100 = Varies
see Figure 2-5

SMF

SCBF

2-1

Notes
SMF: 330-foot bays
SCBF: 120-foot bay inverted V
(Chevron) with HSS braces
SMF: 330-foot bays
SCBF: 120-foot bay two-story X-bracing
with HSS braces
SMF: 330-foot bays
SCBF: 230-foot bays two-story Xbracing with HSS braces

Figure 2-1. Isometric View of MC4 Archetype Building

Figure 2-2. Isometric View of MC8 Archetype Building

2-2

Figure 2-3. Isometric View of MC16 Archetype Building

2-3

W1422
W1626

Sym.
About

W1422

W1422

W2784

W1422

W1422

W1422
W1422

W1422
W1422
W1422

W1626

W1422

W1422
W2784

W1422
W1422

See SCBF Elev.


Section 2.4.2

W1626

C Sym. About D

W1626
W1626

5 @ 20'-0" = 100'-0"

W1422

5 @ 30'-0" = 150'-0"

See SMF Elev.


Section 2.4.1

Note: All non-SFRS beams and girders are composite.

Figure 2-4. Typical Floor Framing Plan, MC4 and MC8

W1422

W2784

W1422
W1422
W1422

W1422
W1422
W1422
W1422

20'-0"

W1422

W1422

40'-0"

Sym.
About

W1422

W1626

W1422

W1422
W2784

W1422
W1422

See SCBF Elev.


Section 2.4.2

W1626

C Sym. About D

W1626
W1626

2 @ 30'-0" = 60'-0"

5 @ 30'-0" = 150'-0"

See SMF Elev.


Section 2.4.1

Note: All non-SFRS beams and girders are composite.

Figure 2-5. Typical Floor Framing Plan, MC16

2-4

The archetype buildings are analyzed and designed for all load effects in accordance with the following:

IBC 2012: International Building Code (ICC 2012b)


ASCE 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 2010)
AISC 360-10: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 2010a)
AISC 341-10: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Building (AISC 2010b)
AISC 358-10: Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for
Seismic Applications (AISC 2010c)

The following material types and corresponding nominal properties were assumed in design:

Wide-Flange Sections: A992 Grade 50, Fy = 50 ksi, Ry = 1.1


HSS Sections: A500 Grade B, Fy = 46 ksi, Ry = 1.4
Connections: A572 Grade 50, Fy = 50 ksi, Ry = 1.1
E = 29000 ksi, G = 11200 ksi, = 0.3

The archetype buildings do not contain any geometry-based or configuration-based horizontal irregularities,
Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 as defined in ASCE 7 Table 12.3-1. Horizontal irregularity Type 1 is dependent on postdesign analysis verification, and is presented in Appendix B. Similarly, the archetype buildings do not
contain any geometry-based or configuration-based vertical irregularities, Type 2, 3, or 4 as defined in
ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2. Vertical irregularity Types 1 and 5 are dependent on post-design analysis verification
and are presented in Appendix B. The buildings are classified as Risk Category II structures in accordance
with ASCE 7 1.5.

2.2

Structural Design Loads


Load Combinations

Loads and load combinations used for analysis and strength design of members and connections are in
accordance with ASCE 7 2.3, including modifications to these combinations prescribed in ASCE 7 12.4.
This resulted in 189 load combinations for design of each component. Capacity design provisions for each
SFRS type prescribed in AISC 341 as well as for beam-to-column connections in an SMF prescribed in
AISC 358 provided several design load combinations in addition to those from ASCE 7.
Loads and load combinations for serviceability analysis and verification (e.g., wind drift), and seismic drift
analysis and allowable drift compliance verification are discussed subsequently under Environmental
Loads, 2.2.3.

Gravity Loads
The floor and roof dead load consists of the weight of the steel members, metal deck, and concrete slab
weight (3 inch lightweight concrete at 110 pcf on 18-gage, 3 inch metal deck 46 psf). Superimposed
dead loads are taken as 15 psf for floors and 10 psf for the roof, representing mechanical, electrical,
plumbing, and miscellaneous dead loads. A 250 plf superimposed dead load is also applied to the perimeter
2-5

horizontal framing to account for faade (curtain wall) weight. The edge of the slab is 1 foot from the
perimeter framing. The design live load (unreduced) is 50 psf for floors and 30 psf for the roof (increased
live load within egress areas is neglected in this study). A summary of the design gravity loads is presented
in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2. Design Gravity Loads
Load
Dead, D
Floor Superimposed Dead, SD
Roof Superimposed Dead, SD
Faade Dead (Curtain Wall), SD
Unreduced Design Floor Live, Lo
Unreduced Design Roof Live, Lo
1
2

Load Type
Dead
Dead
Dead
Dead
Floor Live
Roof Live

Magnitude
46 psf 1
15 psf
10 psf
250 plf
50 psf (Office)
30 psf 2

Weight of slab and metal deck only. Self-weight of steel components is included automatically in the structural analysis.
10 psf was added to the roof live load to represent non-inertial service equipment weight.

Verification of serviceability criteria under gravity loads is performed per IBC 1604.3, ASCE 7 1.3.2,
and AISC 360 Chapter L.

Environmental Loads
Earthquake Forces
The archetype buildings are located where it is assumed they would be assigned a Seismic Design Category
(SDC) at the upper limit of D (i.e.,6Dmaxsee footnote 6). Two designs are produced for each archetype
building height and frame type as follows:

One design using the ELF procedure per ASCE 7 12.8 to determine the equivalent seismic effects.
One design using the RSA procedure per ASCE 7 12.9 to determine the equivalent seismic effects.

Two designs are performed to provide a common range of potential system strengths for seismic assessment
using ASCE 41, and to a lesser extent, provide comparison points between the two design methodologies.
There are cases when the two designs do not result in different member sizes because of material-specific
minimum requirements. Further, wind effects are determined from statically applied design forces and thus
the analysis method for wind does not vary between the two seismic analyses.
For the RSA procedure, enough modes are included in each principal direction to exceed 90 percent mass
participation in both horizontal orthogonal directions. Masses were not modeled in the analysis to address
vertical accelerations. Design forces determined from the RSA are scaled up so that the total modal base
shear for design is equal to 85 percent of the corresponding base shear from applying the ELF procedure;
story drifts are not scaled for verifying seismic drift compliance. Application of orthogonal seismic forces
and accidental eccentricity prescribed in ASCE 7 12.5 and ASCE 7 12.8.4, respectively, are considered
in the strength design analysis. The redundancy factor, , is taken as 1.0 for each SFRS, and therefore does
not affect the allowable seismic drift limits along the E-W direction (moment frames).

See FEMA P695: Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA 2009a) for further information.

2-6

Effective seismic weights for computing the horizontal earthquake forces are determined from dead loads
plus 20 percent of the unreduced design floor live loads to represent partition weight (i.e., 0.250 psf = 10
psf). The effective seismic weights (lumped at each level) are tabulated in Appendix B. It is assumed in this
study that there is no snow load on the building.
The story gravity loads for seismic drift analysis prescribed in ASCE 7 12.8.6 (including period
calculation) and stability verification prescribed in ASCE 7 12.8.7 are determined from dead loads plus
25 percent of the unreduced floor live loads (i.e., 0.25Lo 0.5L where L is the reduced floor live loads).
Roof live loads are considered not to be present for seismic drift analysis. The effective lumped gravity
load acting on a story is tabulated in Appendix B. Vertical seismic loads are considered for strength design
but not for drift or stability compliance. Similarly, application of orthogonal seismic forces and accidental
eccentricity are not considered in the drift analysis because story drifts are computed at the center of mass
(which aligns with the center of stiffness) of each story because of building symmetry and regularity. The
centers of mass for all stories are vertically aligned.
The seismic hazard in ASCE 7 is based on a risk-targeted design philosophy and is defined as ground
motions having a one percent probability of causing total or partial structural collapse (i.e., risk) of an
appropriately designed structure in 50 years (except in areas controlled by the deterministic cap7 on ground
motions). This ground motion intensity is denoted in ASCE 7 as MCER. The following parameters
summarize the seismic hazard used for design:

Building Risk Category: II


Site Soil Conditions: Site Class D, Stiff Soil ASCE 7 Table 20.3-1
Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters: shown in Table 2-3
SDC: Dtaken as Dmax as used in FEMA P695
Table 2-3. Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters

1.

SDC

Ss
(g)

S1
(g)

Fa

Fv

Dmax

1.50

0.60 1

1.00

1.50

SMS
= FaSs
(g)
1.50

SM1
= FvS1
(g)
0.90

SDS
= SMS
(g)
1.00

SD1
= SM1
(g)
0.60

3.5TS
(sec)
2.1

S1 is actually just under 0.60 (i.e., 0.599)

Allowable seismic drift limit is set to hsx / 50 (for amplified story drifts, see ASCE 7 12.12) where hsx is
the story height below the level under consideration. Composite action between the beams of the SFRS and
the concrete slab is not considered for checking seismic drifts or when computing the fundamental period,
T1. This action is commonly neglected in seismic analysis and design because research has shown that the
slab does not contribute significantly to the strength or stiffness of the assembly at significant inelastic
deformations (see FEMA 355D (FEMA 2000c)).
The seismic analysis and design parameters for each archetype building are provided in Table 2-4 for the
E-W direction and Table 2-5 for the N-S direction. There is one archetype building system that is not

Regions where probabilistic-based ground motion parameters exceed those resulting from deterministic ground motions based
on the characteristic magnitudes of earthquakes from well-defined active fault systems.

2-7

permitted to be designed with the ELF procedure because its design period, CuTa, is greater than 3.5Ts (see
ASCE 7 12.6): E-W component of MC16 (SMF)this system is shaded in Table 2-4. This frame is
included to make a seismic performance comparison. Furthermore, ASCE 7 is vague about which T is
referenced in ASCE 7 12.6. For example, although the capped fundamental period (T = CuTa) may satisfy
3.5Ts, the actual fundamental period (T = T1) may not, indicating that the ELF procedure may be used for
strength design but not used for drift verification per ASCE 7 12.8.6.2. Consequently, the same analysis
procedure was used for both strength design and computation of the design story drifts in this study.
Table 2-4. Seismic Analysis and Design Parameters, E-W
Building
SFRS
R, Cd, o
CuTa (seconds)
ELF Permitted?
Height Limit (feet)
Analysis Procedure
W 1 (kips)
Vb 1 Design (kips)
Vb 1 Drift (kips)
RSA Scaling Factor 3
T1 4 (seconds)
T2 4 (seconds)
T3 4 (seconds)
T1 5 (seconds)
T1 6 (seconds)
Steel Wgt.7 (tons)

MC4
SMF
8, 5.5, 3
1.04
Yes
No Limit
ELF
RSA
5172
5136
374
316
213
166
Design = 93
NA
Drift = 266
1.82
2.22
0.55
0.61
0.26
0.29
1.83
2.24
1.77
2.12
37
29

MC8
SMF
8, 5.5, 3
1.76
Yes
No Limit
ELF
10618
467 2
273
NA
2.91
1.02
0.56
2.94
2.79
74

RSA
10527
394 2
192
Design = 101
Drift = 266
3.81
1.30
0.68
3.86
3.55
53

ELF
21782
958 2
375
NA
4.36
1.58
0.91
4.40
4.15
193

MC16
SMF
8, 5.5, 3

3.02

No 8

No Limit
RSA
21649

810 2

295
Design = 134
Drift =266
5.01
1.83
1.05
5.07
4.70
163

Notes:
Inertial mass computed as Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.2Floor Live. W for ELF and RSA differ because of member size differences.
0.044SDSIe min. controls strength design (not applied for drift).
3
Scaling for design = gIe / R(0.85Vb,ELF) / Vb,RSA. Scaling for drift = gIe / RCd / Ie. Scaling assumes the spectrum is defined as a function of g.
4
Computed from a second-order eigenvalue analysis with Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load.
5
Computed from a second-order eigenvalue analysis with 1.2Dead + 1.2Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load.
6
Computed from a first-order eigenvalue analysis.
7
Per single SFRS (see Table 1-1). Does not include connection or miscellaneous steel.
8
Analysis procedure not permitted per ASCE 7 12.6. Shaded Area: design is included for seismic performance comparison purposes.
1
2

Table 2-5. Seismic Analysis and Design Parameters, N-S


Building
SFRS
R, Cd, o
CuTa (seconds)
ELF Permitted?
Height Limit (feet)
Analysis Procedure
W 1 (kips)
Vb 1 Design (kips)
Vb 1 Drift (kips)

MC4
SCBF
6, 5, 2
0.60
Yes
240
ELF
5172
857
782

RSA Scaling Factor 3

NA

T1 4 (seconds)
T2 4 (seconds)
T3 4 (seconds)
T1 5 (seconds)
T1 6 (seconds)
Steel Wgt.7 (tons)

0.67
0.27
0.18
0.67
0.66
13

RSA
5136
723
627
Design = 74
Drift = 322
0.72
0.28
0.19
0.72
0.71
12

MC8
SCBF
6, 5, 2
0.99
Yes
240
ELF
10618
1073
735
NA
1.45
0.48
0.27
1.45
1.43
28

RSA
10527
904
633
Design = 92
Drift = 322
1.50
0.49
0.28
1.51
1.49
27

MC16
SCBF
6, 5, 2
1.64
Yes
240
ELF
21782
1326
1089
NA
2.08
0.70
0.39
2.09
2.06
127

RSA
21649
1120
945
Design = 76
Drift = 322
2.14
0.71
0.40
2.14
2.11
123

Notes:
1
Inertial mass computed as Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.2Floor Live. W for ELF and RSA differ because of member size differences.
2
0.044SDSIe min. controls strength design (not applied for drift).
3
Scaling for design = gIe / R(0.85Vb,ELF) / Vb,RSA. Scaling for drift = gIe / RCd / Ie. Scaling assumes the spectrum is defined as a function of g.
4
Computed from a second-order eigenvalue analysis with Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load.
5
Computed from a second-order eigenvalue analysis with 1.2Dead + 1.2Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load.
6
Computed from a first-order eigenvalue analysis.
7
Per single SFRS (see Table 1-1). Does not include connection or miscellaneous steel.

2-8

The difference in the stiffness and strength of the SCBFs provided by the ELF and RSA procedures is
negligible. This is primarily due to design provisions prescribed in AISC 341 (e.g., minimum width-to
thickness ratios for highly ductile braces). A summary of the equivalent seismic forces for each archetype
building is provided in Appendix B.
Wind Forces
Basic wind speeds are taken from the ASCE 7 wind maps based on locations along the west coast that
would have a high probability of producing structures assigned to SDC D. The basic wind speed is taken
to be 110 mph for the 700-year wind for strength design of components and 72 mph for the 10-year wind
for verifying story drifts (serviceability). Each archetype building is assigned to Exposure B and is not
considered rigid, with gust factors, Gf, for each principal direction computed assuming two percent
damping. Torsional wind effects are considered, and the directionality factor, kd, is 0.85. A summary of the
wind forces for each archetype building is provided in Appendix B.
Allowable wind drift limit is set to hsx / 400 (elastic) for the 10-year wind. Composite action between the
beams of the MWFRS and the concrete slab is considered for checking wind drift and when computing the
fundamental period, T1, for wind vibrations using an average Ieff as recommended in AISC 360 commentary
for Chapter I. The same gravity load combination used for the seismic drift analysis is used in the wind drift
analysis (see previous discussion under Earthquake Forces2.2.3.1).
Not all practitioners will use the 10-year wind to verify drift compliance (see ASCE 7 commentary for
Appendix C); the 25-year or 50-year may be used, depending on project-specific requirements. The 10-year
wind is considered appropriate for these structures, as the faade (curtain wall) is designed to accommodate
large in-plane seismic movements, and period control (i.e., acceleration) is typically not a concern for
building geometries in the range used for this investigation.

2.3

Structural Analysis and Mathematical Model

The archetype buildings are analyzed in ETABS, ver. 9.7.4 (CSI 2011a). A conventional second-order
elastic analysis is used to determine the required strength of components, and member and story
deformation demands (elastic and virtual inelastic). This type of analysis uses a constant reduced stiffness
matrix based on an initial gravity (i.e., P-) load combination applied in a pre-analysis as follows:

P- load combination for strength analysis: 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live


P- load combination for drift and stability verification analysis: 1.0Dead + 0.25Floor Live

The analyses do not account for material nonlinearity or geometric imperfections (except for gravity-only
load combinationssee AISC 360 Chapter C). Because the stiffness matrix remains constant for all loads,
superposition of individual load effects in load combinations is applicable.
Each building is considered globally restrained horizontally, vertically, and rotationally at the seismic base
(taken at grade level). The base columns of the LFRSs are embedded into the foundation wall. As such,
column bases are modeled as rotationally restrained in the plane of the frames and rotationally unrestrained
2-9

out-of-plane. Non-SFRS gravity column bases are considered rotationally unrestrained in both orthogonal
directions.
The mathematical models are based on centerline dimensions with rigid end offsets at the beam-to-column,
brace-to-beam / column, and brace-to-beam joints with panel zones explicitly modeled based on column
web and doubler plate (if required) geometry. The slabs are modeled as semi-rigid membrane diaphragms
(no out-of-plane bending stiffness) with a 0.5 in-plane stiffness modifier to account for cracking at the
design loadssee NIST GCR 11-917-10: Seismic Design of Composite Steel Deck and Concrete-filled
Diaphragms: A Guide for Practicing Engineers (NIST 2011b).
In the moment frames, reduced beam sections (RBS) are explicitly modeled in all SMF beams by
subdividing each member into seven segments; the RBS is modeled as two linearly-tapered sections. The
typical fully restrained (FR) beam-to-column connection is illustrated in Figure 2-6, and the equivalent
assembly model for linear analysis is shown in Figure 2-7.
c
c
a

Section A-A

Continuity Plates
typ., if required

Reduced Beam
Section

Doubler Plate,
if required

Panel Zone

Figure 2-6. Typical FR RBS Beam-to-Column Connection Assembly

In the concentrically braced frames, member ends of the SCBF diagonal braces are rotationally unrestrained
out-of-plane and restrained in-plane (though design forces do not vary significantly if modeled as
unrestrained in both planes). Partially rigid end zones are included to capture gusset plate rigidity; the
tangible length of SCBF diagonal braces is taken equal to 90 percent of the distance between work points
(W.P.), Lwp.
The adopted brace-to-beam / column connection in the SCBF allows the beam to rotate near the edge of the
gusset plate as shown in Figure 2-8see AISC 341 Figure C-F2.8. The assembly model for linear analysis
is shown in Figure 2-9. A rotationally unrestrained connection (adjacent to the gusset plate) was selected
2-10

because ASCE 41 does not prescribe flexural acceptance criteria for beam-to-column connections where a
brace is present. This approach also provides a seismic design and assessment that does not rely on the
contribution of non-brace assemblies for stiffness and strength. All other beam-to-column connections are
simple-type connections (i.e., rotationally unrestrained).
c
c
a

Section A-A

Column, EIc

Panel Zone Boundary

Panel Zone Spring

Line Element,
typ.

node

Column, EIc

a
Rigid End

Zone, typ.

b/2

Reduced Beam
Section
Beam, EIb

Figure 2-7. FR RBS Beam-To-Column Connection Subassembly Model for Linear Analysis

Diagonal braces were analyzed without gravity loads. Thus, two analyses were performed for each
archetype building: (1) a gravity load-only model with braces removed and (2) a lateral force and gravity
load model with braces in place. Load effects then were taken from the respective analysis for input into
load combinations.
Non-LFRS framing that primarily supports gravity loads is included in the mathematical models to capture
the leaning column effect. The gravity beams are modeled as composite beams with rotationally
unrestrained member ends (i.e., shear tab connections). The gravity columns are modeled as continuous
along the height of the building and designed for deformation compatibility. The increase in lateral stiffness
along the two principal axes due to these columns is negligible. Other than the columns, no other forms of
lateral stiffness attributed to non-SFRS framing (e.g., stairs) and nonstructural components are considered
in the mathematical model.

2-11

C
L Column
Gusset Plate (shop welded)
C
L Brace
Slab on metal deck
w/ isolation at connection

node

C
L Beam

W.P.

Effective Rotationally
Unrestrained Connection
Figure 2-8. Typical Brace-to-Beam / Column Connection Assembly

Out-of-plane
rotation release

Column, EIc

Brace axial stiffness


computed from 0.9Lwp
Gusset Plate (not modeled)
Increased joint stiffne ss
provided by gusset elements

node

In-pla ne rota tion


release
node

Column, EIc

Rigid End
Zone, typ.

node
W.P.

18"
Panel Line Element,
typ.
Zone
Beam, EIb
Beam, EIb

Figure 2-9. Brace-to-Beam / Column Connection Subassembly Model for Linear Analysis

2-12

2.4

SFRS Design
SMF Design

For the SMF designs, seismic drift criteria prescribed in ASCE 7 12.12 tended to control member sizes
for both 4-story archetype buildings and the 8-story ELF-designed archetype building. The seismic stability
criteria prescribed in ASCE 7 12.8.7 tended to control member sizes for the 8-story RSA-designed
archetype building and both 16-story archetype buildings (ELF design was more drift controlled than the
RSA design). The strong-column / weak-beam (SCWB) criteria using an amplified seismic load (axial) and
section compactness requirements provided additional constraint on column sizes where required.
The RBS beam-to-column connections were designed in accordance with AISC 358 with the flange cut out
dimensions optimized to produce the lowest probable moment, Mpr. Because the bay length did not change,
the same beam depth was used for a given floor for uniform connection constructability and plastic hinge
sequencing optimization (i.e., yield rotation is theoretically equal). The panel zones are designed for
demands based on the probable moment of the RBS projected to the column face using nominal material
properties. AISC 360 J10.6 (b) is applicable for panel zone design because the effect of panel zone
deformations on frame stability is explicitly considered in the analysis. The flow chart in Figure 2-10
illustrates the analysis and design process for an SMF. Additional details on design and construction of
special moment frames can be found in NIST GCR 09-917-3: Seismic Design of Steel Special Moment
Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers (NIST 2009b).
To reflect industry practice and reduce fabrication costs, column sizes were increased from that required
by analysis rather than adding doubler plates. AISC Design Guide 13 (AISC 1999) and Troup (1999)
showed that increasing the column size by up to 100 plf to eliminate both continuity plates and doubler
plates was often the more economical alternative. Some seismic specifications (e.g., AISC 341), however,
either require or suggest the use of transverse stiffeners in all high seismic applications. For these cases,
eliminating the need for doubler plates alone may still prove to be the economical choice (Lee et al. 2002).
In this study, this increase typically occurred at interior frame columns and on average was 100 plf for the
frame as a whole.
The Effective Length Method (see AISC 360 C1) is used for design of the SMF columns, with the Story
Buckling Method (see commentary for AISC 360 Appendix 7) used to compute the effective length, KL =
K2L8(see footnote 8) for determining the nominal compression strength, Pn, of the column in the plane of
the frame. In all but one SMF, at least one story had B2, as defined in AISC 360 Appendix 8, greater than
1.1; all stories were less than 1.5 (see AISC 360 Appendix 7). Tabulated values for B2 are provided in
Appendix B. KL = L was adopted for determining Pn of the column out-of-plane of the frame.

AISC 360-05 (AISC 2005) used the term K2 to define the in-plane effective length factor. AISC 360-10 Appendix 7 uses K in lieu
of K2. However, K2 is still used in the commentary of Appendix 7. Therefore, K2 is also used here. Additional information can be
found in Steel Design Guide 28: Stability Design of Steel Buildings (AISC 2013).

2-13

StrengthAnalysis

perASCE7.

Design Frame

Beamsand Beam

toCo lu mn

Co nnection s

Iterate ana lysis


and de sign

CapacityDesign

AnalysisperAISC

341.

NoGood?
Des ign Columns

andPanelZo nes.

Good?

Dr iftan dStability
Analysisper
ASCE7

Verify Design
UpdateMem ber
StoryDrift
Sizes
NOGOOD?

GOOD?

END

Figure 2-10. Flow Chart of SMF Design Process

Computation of in-plane effective length factors is generally considered to be not required for columns in
regular moment frames in high seismicity areas (i.e., adopting KL = L). Seismic story drift and stability
requirements in ASCE 7 typically result in significant in-plane story strength and stiffness above that
required by the analysis. However, the concept of story drift control without consideration of its effects on
a moment frame is a nontechnical rationale for neglecting the effective length factors for in-plane seismic
design of frame columns. Essentially, the effects of drift control reduce the error in calculating the beamcolumn strength for load combinations including lateral forces because of the following (taken from White
and Hajjar 1997):

The in-plane, strong-axis radius of gyration, rx, is increased thus lowering KL / rx in the design
equation. Column strength varies little with large variations of KL / rx.
The columns are heavily restrained at each end by deep beams, and subjected to nearly doublecurvature bending under sideway of the frame.
The beam-column interaction check for the lateral force-resisting columns is dominated by the
moment term.
2-14

Designers must also consider the vertical strength of a story9 loaded only with gravity-type loads, as well
as the correlation of the actual demand relative to this vertical strength (e.g., Pstory / Pe,story as defined in
AISC 360 Appendix 8). This story strength would represent the minimum value of Pn (in the absence of
moment) for construction of the P-M interaction diagram for the in-plane strength of a frame column in the
story. Fundamentally, the effective length factor for a column is a function of the frame deformation
demands and the loading on the column. Consequently, a P-M interaction diagram would need to be
constructed for each category of load combination (e.g., vertical load, vertical plus horizontal loads)
considering the influence of the ratio of vertical to horizontal loading demands as well as which loading is
being incremented until incipient buckling. Theoretically, KL = L should be adopted when the physical
behavior of the column at its ultimate strength aligns with the theoretical definition of the compression
strength. Future studies should investigate designing the selected frames using the Direct Analysis Method
prescribed in AISC 360 Chapter C.
In proportioning frame members for this study, section depths were selected to maintain a low in-plane
relative beam-to-column stiffness ratio, G. AISC 360 commentary for Appendix 7 defines G for bending
about the strong-axis as Equation (2-1)see AISC 360 for definitions of the variables and subscripts.

EI x,c
Lc
G
EI
Lx,b
b

(2-1)

Other relationships can be used to show that G can be computed as function of the in-plane flexural section
strength, ZxFy, independent of the in-plane flexural stiffness, EIx. Equation (2-2) shows that the strongaxis plastic section modulus, Zx, is a function of the strong-axis moment of inertia, Ix, and section depth, d.
Equation (2-3) rewrites the SCWB equation in AISC 341 (see E3.4a) for a wide-flange section.

Zx

M p ,c
M p ,b

(2-2)

P
min 1.18 1 u , ,1.0 Z x ,c Fy

Py

1 Z x,b min 1.18 1 u,

Z x ,b Fy
Py

2I x
d

P
min 1.18 1 u ,

Py

d c Lb
d

b Lc
,1.0

The vertical story strength, Pe,story, is a function of the elastic lateral stiffness of the story.

2-15

,1.0 Z x ,c

(2-3)

(2-4)

In the previous equations, Pu, is the axial load demand in the column including the system overstrength
factor, o, in ASCE 7 as required by AISC 341 E3.4a. An additional rule of thumb is that dc db / 2 and
dc db. For example, an 18-inch deep column and 24-inch deep beam were selected for the SMF in the 8
story building. Conservatively assuming a 15 percent reduction in plastic flexural strength of the column
leads to G = 1.9 (see Equation (2-5)). A 27-inch deep column and 36-inch deep beam could also have been
selected, but this would have been at the expense of architectural constraints and construction budget.
G

d c Lb 1.0 d c 360
18

2.52 1.9
24
P db Lc 0.85 db 168
1.18 1 u,

Py

(2-5)

This approach assists in selecting member depths while attempting to minimize relative elastic flexural
stiffness variations between the beams and columns within a story, and between adjacent stories. As
discussed previously, computing G is not required unless the size of the frame column is governed by
strength requirements and one is using the Effective Length Method; tabulated values for K are provided in
Appendix B.
The lateral force distributions and story shears for each archetype building are provided in Appendix B.
Allowable drift compliance verification is provided in Appendix B. Similarly, verification for drift
amplification from global p-delta (P-) effects and ASCE 7 stability verification are also provided in
Appendix B. Design calculations for select members and connections are provided to illustrate the design
process in Appendix B.
The 4-, 8-, and 16-story SMF frame designs are shown in Figure 2-11 through Figure 2-13. Each figure
shows both the RSA design (a) and the ELF design (b)underlined member sizes indicate changes from
the RSA design. These figures also provide the RBS dimensions and fundamental periods of the archetype
building for various gravity loads (e.g., drift and strength design).

2-16

W14257

W14159

W14233

W14145

(a) RSA

(b) ELF

Figure 2-11. 4-Story SMF Schematic

2-17

W14193

W14132

W14193

W14132

(a) RSA

Figure 2-12. 8-Story SMF Schematic

2-18

W18192

W18175

W18192

W18106

W18143

W1871

W18119

W1855

(b) ELF
Figure 2-12. 8-Story SMF Schematic, Contd

2-19

3 @ 30'-0" = 90'-0"

61
W2455 RBS
43

W2712 9

41

W2794 RBS
25

51
35

W3010 8 RBS
13

W3313 0 RBS
7

43
29

W3313 0 RBS
1

44

11th Fl o or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

30
39

38

40

10th Fl o or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

same
27
35
23

36

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

24
31

30

32

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

same
21
27
17

28

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

18
23

22

24

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

same
14

15
19

20

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

same
11

12
15

14

16

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

same
8

9
11

10

12th Fl o or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

33

same

9
W3313 0 RBS
4

48

same

18

13

13th Fl o or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

36

20

17
W3313 0 RBS
10

52

47

46

26

21

14th Fl o or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

39

same

25
W3010 8 RBS
16

56

same

34

W3010 8 RBS
19

42

26

33

29

15th Fl o or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

same

W2723 5

37

60

55

54

42

W2728 1

W2714 6
W2716 1

59

32

41

W3010 8 RBS
22

W2719 4

W2723 5

W2794 RBS
31

16th Fl o or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

45

same

W2728 1

W2711 4

45

64

same

50

W2794 RBS
28

W2723 5

63

62

38

49
W2794 RBS
34

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

48

same

W2736 8

W2711 4

W2455 RBS
37

47

58

53

44

57
W2455 RBS
40

same

12

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

same

W2736 8

W2794

W2455 RBS
46

W2733 6

Sym. Abou t

W2712 9

6
7

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

same
2

3
3

RBS Dim ension s:


W2455 a = 3.75", b = 16", c = 1.75"
W2794 a = 5.00", b = 18", c = 2.50"
W3010 8 a = 5.25", b = 20", c = 2.50"
W3313 0 a = 5.75", b = 22", c = 2.75"

= Panel Zon e
= Colu mn Splice

Fundam ental Per iods


T1 = 4.70 sec (First-Order)
T1 = 5.01 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)
T1 = 5.07 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

(a) RSA
Figure 2-13. 16-Story SMF Schematic

2-20

3 @ 30'-0" = 90'-0"
B

W2455 RBS
43

W2712 9

61

47

W2794 RBS
37

41

W2728 1

W2712 9

35

W2728 1

W2716 1

29

W2730 7

W2721 7

W2736 8

10th Fl o or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

27
35

23

36

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

24
31

30

32

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

same
20

21
27

28

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

same
17

18
23

22

24

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

same
14

15
19

18

20

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

same
11

12
15

14

W3313 0 RBS
7

16

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

same
8

9
11

10
W3313 0 RBS
4

W2736 8

40

same

26

W2730 7

W2725 8
W2733 6

11th Fl o or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

30
39

26

W3313 0 RBS

W2753 9

44

same

W3313 0 RBS
13

12

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

same
5

6
7

W3313 0 RBS
1
1

12th Fl o or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

33
43

38

W3313 0 RBS
16

48

same

34

36

32

W3313 0 RBS
19

13

13th Fl o or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

same

W3313 0 RBS
22

17

52

47

46

W3010 8 RBS
25

25

14th Fl o or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

39
51

42

33

56

same

W3010 8 RBS
28

10

42

38

41

21

15th Fl o or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

same

W3010 8 RBS
31

29

60

55

50

37

16th Fl o or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

45
59

54

W3010 8 RBS
34

64

same

same

49

45

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

48
63

62

58

53

44

57
W2794 RBS
40

same

W2723 5

W2794

W2455 RBS
46

W2711 4

Sym. Abou t

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

same
2
2

RBS Dim ension s:


W2455 a = 3.75", b = 16", c = 1.75"
W2794 a = 5.00", b = 18", c = 2.50"
W3010 8 a = 5.25", b = 20", c = 2.50"
W3313 0 a = 5.75", b = 22", c = 2.75"

3
3

= Panel Zon e
= Colu mn Splice

Fundam ental Per iods


T1 = 4.15 sec (First-Order)
T1 = 4.36 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)
T1 = 4.40 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

(b) ELF
Figure 2-13. 16-Story SMF Schematic, Contd

2-21

SCBF Design
SCBF designs are included here to provide the required information of the building for SMF designs. For
the SCBF designs, seismic strength requirements prescribed in ASCE 7 and seismic compactness
requirements in AISC 341 controlled brace sizes for all archetype buildings. Section compactness and
capacity design requirements in AISC 341 F2.3 (i) and (ii)exception 2(a) is not considered here
governed column and beam sizes. The beams in the 4-story frames are laterally braced per AISC 341 and
designed for the unbalanced load created by a buckled brace. For the 8- and 16-story frames, except at the
second floor, beam sizes were maintained at each floor based on the largest required strength (usually at
the third and fourth floors). The beams on the second floor had an atypical change in required strength
because of the variation in adjacent story heights. The flowchart in Figure 2-14 illustrates the analysis and
design process for an SCBF. Additional details on design and construction of special concentrically braced
frames can be found in NIST GCR 13-917-24: Seismic Design of Steel Special Concentrically Braced
Frame Systems: A Guide for Practicing Engineers (NIST 2013).
StrengthAnalysis
perASCE7.
Design Bracesand
Brac e
Co nnection s.
Iterate ana lysis
and de sign

CapacityDesign
AnalysisperAISC
341.
NoGood?
Des ign Columns
andBeams.
Good?

Dr iftan dStability
Analysisper
ASCE7

Verify Design
UpdateMem ber
StoryDrift
Sizes
NOGOOD?

GOOD?

END

Figure 2-14. Flow Chart of SCBF Design Process

2-22

Wind drift criteria began to influence the 16-story SCBF when two isolated 20-foot two-story braced bays
were used (as done in the 4- and 8-story archetype buildings). Therefore, a double 30-foot bay configuration
was adopted to minimize nonseismic force contributions to member selections, as well as to allow seismic
assessment of longer (potentially slender) braces.
The Effective Length Method (see AISC 360 C1) is used for design of the SCBF braces, beams, and
columns. The effective length factor, K, was conservatively taken as unity for determining the nominal
compression strength, Pn, of the SCBF members, although a lower value could be justified by analysis.
Though the gusset plate connections are not fully designed and detailed in this study, a lower value of K
could have been adopted where the rotational stiffness of the connection can influence the assumed
boundary conditions of the adjacent braces (out-of-plane buckling controlled design). Hollow structural
sections (HSS) are used as the diagonal braces in all archetype buildings while keeping face dimensions
within the adjacent column flange widths. The tangible length of SCBF braces is taken equal to 90 percent
of the distance between work points, Lwp. Diagonal braces are designed not to carry gravity loadssee 2.3.
The lateral force distributions and story shears for each archetype building are provided in Appendix B.
Allowable drift compliance verification is provided in Appendix B. Similarly, verification for drift
amplification from global p-delta (P-) effects and ASCE 7 stability verification are also provided in
Appendix B. Design calculations for select members and connections are provided to illustrate the design
process in Appendix B.
The 4-, 8-, and 16-story SCBF frame designs are shown in Figure 2-15 through Figure 2-17, respectively.
Each figure shows both the RSA design (a) and the ELF design (b)underlined member sizes indicate
changes from the RSA design. These figures also provide the fundamental periods of the archetype building
for various gravity loads (e.g., drift and strength design).

2-23

20'-0"
Sym. Abou t

2
Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

W2710 2
4

HSS553/8

7
W1453

HSS443/8

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

W2710 2
3
5

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

W2711 4
HSS5.55.53/8

HSS661/2

W1413 2

2
3

2nd Flo or

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

W2716 1
1
2

= Panel Zon e/Gusset Plate


= Colu mn Splice
= In-plane mom en t r elease
= Out-of-plane mom en t release

Fundam ental Per iods


T1 = 0.71 sec (Fir st-Order)
T1 = 0.72 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)
T1 = 0.72 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

(a) RSA

20'-0"
Sym. Abou t

W2712 9

Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

HSS553/8

W1453

HSS441/2

4th Flo or
(ELEV = 46 ft.)

W2710 2
3
5

3rd Flo or
(ELEV = 32 ft.)

W2714 6
HSS661/2

HSS665/8

W1413 2

2
3

2nd Floor
(ELEV = 18 ft.)

W2717 8
1
2

= Panel Zon e/Gusset Plate


= Colu mn Splice
= In-plane mom en t release
= Out-of-plane moment release

Fundam ental Per iods


T1 = 0.66 sec (Fir st-Order)
T1 = 0.67 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)
T1 = 0.67 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

(b) ELF
Figure 2-15. 4-Story SCBF Schematic

2-24

(a) RSA
Figure 2-16. 8-Story SCBF Schematic

2-25

W1468
W14132
W14176
W14311

(b) ELF
Figure 2-16. 16-Story SMF Schematic, Contd

2-26

2 @ 30'-0" = 60'-0"
Sym. About

46
HSS553/8

57
53

58

44

54

41

W1855
27

59
55

60

45

56

42

15th Floor

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

28

14th Floor

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

49
45

26

50

38

46

35

W1855
23

51
47

52

39

48

36

13th Floor

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

24

12th Floor

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

41
37

42

22
32

W1855
19
38

29

43
39

44

33

40

30

11th Floor

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

20

10th Floor

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

W1645
17
25

22

33
29

18

34

26

30

23

W1855
15

35
31

36

27

32

24

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

16

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

W1645
13
19

16

25
21

14

26

20

22

17

W1855
11

27
23

28

21

24

18

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

12

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

W1645
9
13

10

17
13

18

10
14

W1855
7
14

11

19
15

20

15

16

12

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

W1645
5
7

4
HSS885/8

16th Floor

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

30

21

28

HSS771/2

48

W1645
31

HSS665/8

64

25

34

HSS661/2

63

W1645
37

HSS661/2

47

29

40

HSS661/2

62

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

32

W1645
43

HSS5.55.53/8

61

W1855
31

10

9
5

6
8

W1855
3
6

11
7

12

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

W1897
1
1

2
2

= Panel Zone/Gusset Plate


= Column Splice
= In-plane moment release
= Out-of-plane moment release

(a) RSA
Figure 2-17. 16-Story SCBF Schematic

2-27

Fundamental Periods

T1 = 2.11 sec (First-Order)

T1 = 2.14 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)

T1 = 2.14 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

2 @ 30'-0" = 60'-0"
Sym. About

46
HSS553/8

57
53

58

44

54

41

W1855
27

59
55

60

45

56

42

15th Floor

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

28

14th Floor

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

49
45

26

50

38

46

35

W1855
23

51
47

52

39

48

36

13th Floor

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

24

12th Floor

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

41
37

22

42

32

38

29

W1855
19

43
39

44

33

40

30

11th Floor

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

20

10th Floor

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

W1645
17
25

22

33
29

18

34

26

30

23

W1855
15

35
31

36

27

32

24

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

16

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

W1645
13
19

16

25
21

14

26

20

22

17

W1855
11

27
23

28

21

24

18

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

12

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

W1645
9
13

10

17
13

18

10
14

W1855
7
14

11

19
15

20

15

16

12

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

W1645
5
7

4
HSS885/8

16th Floor

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

30

21

28

HSS771/2

48

W1645
31

HSS771/2

64

25

34

HSS771/2

63

W1645
37

HSS665/8

47

29

40

HSS661/2

62

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

32

W1645
43

HSS5.55.53/8

61

W1855
31

10

9
5

6
8

W1855
3
6

11
7

12

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

W1897
1
1

2
2

= Panel Zone/Gusset Plate


= Column Splice
= In-plane moment release
= Out-of-plane moment release

Fundamental Periods

T1 = 2.06 sec (First-Order)

T1 = 2.08 sec (1.0D + 0.25Lo)

T1 = 2.09 sec (1.2D + 0.25Lo)

(b) ELF
Figure 2-17. 16-Story SCBF Schematic, Contd

2-28

Seismic Assessment

This chapter presents the results of the seismic assessment of the special moment frames in accordance with
ASCE 41. Section 3.1 provides general discussions on the global analysis requirements for assessment.
Analysis requirements specific to moment frames and assessment results of primary components of the
frames are provided in Section 3.2.

3.1

Assessment Overview

A seismic performance assessment of the special moment frames is conducted using both linear and
nonlinear analysis procedures prescribed in ASCE 41 2.4:

Linear Static Procedure [ASCE 41 3.3.1]


Linear Dynamic Procedure (Response Spectrum) [ASCE 41 3.3.2] 10
Nonlinear Static Procedure [ASCE 41 3.3.3] 11
Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure [ASCE 41 3.3.4]

Seismic assessment analyses follow the guidelines outlined in ASCE 41 Chapters 1 through 3, and, where
applicable, ASCE 41 Chapter 5. Foundations, including soil-structure interaction, and geological site
hazards (ASCE 41 Chapter 4) are not considered in this study. Modeling and assessment requirements for
steel structural systems follow the provisions in ASCE 41 Chapter 5. Any deviations from these guidelines
are explained where applicable.
The seismic performance target (i.e., rehabilitation objective) for this study is selected as the Basic Safety
Objective (BSO) in ASCE 41 1.4.1. This selection allows the correlation between the seismic performance
objective intended by ASCE 41 and the intended design objective of ASCE 7 for an ordinary building12 to
be evaluated. The BSO associated goals for Structural Performance Levels (SPLs) found in ASCE 41 1.5.1
and Earthquake Hazard Levels (EHLs) found in ASCE 41 1.6 are given in Table 3-1. Nonstructural
Performance Levels (NPLs) found in ASCE 41 1.5.2 are not considered in this study. The target Building
Performance Levels (BPLs) found in ASCE 41 1.5.3 are given in Table 3-1.
The only explicit connection between the target structural performance objectives (i.e., SPL) of the BSO
in ASCE 41 and the intended structural design performance objective of ASCE 7 is Collapse Prevention
given an MCE event, assuming that the BSE-2 EHL is equivalent to the MCE defined by ASCE 7see
Table 1-1 and Table 3-1. It is presumed by ASCE 7 that an appropriately designed structure using a seismic
hazard of MCE will achieve this structural design performance objective. ASCE 7 does not explicitly

10

The user can alternatively perform a linear response history analysis. This was not done in this study, although it would bypass

the limitations of using modal response spectrum analysis.

11 Simplified Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) is not considered.

12 Structures assigned to Risk Category II or lower.

3-1

identify a target structural design performance objective for Life Safety at MCE. Rather, ASCE 7
contains implicit life safety measures to protect against loss of life from nonstructural damage at the designlevel event, MCE.
Table 3-1. Seismic Performance Targets (from ASCE 41-06)
Earthquake Hazard
Level
BSE-1 1.6.1.2
BSE-2 1.6.1.1

Earthquake Intensity
2/3BSE-2
Maximum Considered
Earthquake (MCE)

Structural
Performance Level
Life Safety (S-3)
Collapse
Prevention (S-5)

Nonstructural
Performance Level
Not Considered (N-E)
Not Considered (N-E)

Building
Performance Level
Life Safety (3-E)
Collapse
Prevention (5-E)

Prior to ASCE 7-10, the MCE was defined as a uniform seismic hazard associated with a two percent
probability of being exceeded in 50 years, except near known faults where deterministic-based hazards
controlled. ASCE 7-10 adopted a risk-targeted design philosophy that shifts from a uniform hazard design
basis to a uniform risk design basis, and defines the MCE ground motion intensity (denoted as MCER) as
ground motions having a one percent probability of causing total or partial structural collapse in 50 years.
This risk has a conditional probability (anticipated reliability) of ten percent probability of total or partial
structural collapse conditioned on the occurrence of an MCE eventsee ASCE 7 Table C.1.3.1b. Several
reference documents are available for more information about this implementation (FEMA 2009b,
commentary of ASCE 7-10 (3rd printing), and NIST 2012). Therefore, the approved MCE in ASCE 41-06
1.6.1.1 (see BSE-2 in Table 3-1) should be taken as the MCER in ASCE 7-10 to maintain equivalency
between the standards. ASCE 41-13 2.2.4 prescribes using the MCER to define the BSE-2 EHL for the
new building equivalency track. The seismic performance targets for this study are taken from ASCE 41
13 and are given in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2. Seismic Performance Targets (from ASCE 41-13)
Earthquake Hazard
Level
BSE-1N 1 2.4.1.2
BSE-2N 1 2.4.1.1
1

Earthquake Intensity
2/3BSE-2N
Maximum Considered
Earthquake (MCER)

Structural
Performance Level
Life Safety (S-3)
Collapse Prevention
(S-5)

Nonstructural
Performance Level
Not Considered (N-E)
Not Considered (N-E)

Building Performance
Level
Life Safety (3-E)
Collapse Prevention
(5-E)

ASCE 41-13 expanded the term BSE to include N or E depending on the chosen assessment track. For this project, the N is dropped to follow the terminology used
in ASCE 41-06.

This study does not evaluate assessment results for earthquake hazard levels with return periods shorter
than identified above or building performance levels below Life Safety. Future research efforts may
evaluate incorporating other performance levels for design in ASCE 7see NIST GCR 12-917-20:
Tentative Framework for Development of Advanced Seismic Design Criteria for New Buildings (NIST
2012).

3-2

Seismic Hazard
The seismic hazard is defined in ASCE 41 1.6. The spectral response parameters for the BSE-2 ( BSE
2Nsee above) and BSE-1 ( BSE-1Nsee above) EHLs are given in Table 3-3. The parameters
summarize the seismic hazard13 for Site Class D, Stiff Soil, in ASCE 41 1.6.1.4.1.
Table 3-3. Spectral Response Parameters
EHL
BSE-2
BSE-1 2
1
2
3

S1
(g)
0.60 1
0.60 1

SS
(g)
1.5
1.5

Fa 3

Fv 3

1.0
1.0

1.50
1.50

SXS
(g)
1.50
1.00

SX1
(g)
0.90
0.60

Ts (sec)

T0 (sec)

0.60
0.60

0.12

0.12

S1 is actually just under 0.60 (i.e., 0.599)


SS and S1 do not include 2/3 reduction prior to site class modification
See ASCE 41 Table 1-4 and Table 1-5

Figure 3-1 illustrates the generalized response spectrum for BSE-1 and BSE-2.

Spectral Response Acceleration, Sa (g)

1.6
1.4

BSE-2 (BSE-2N in ASCE 41-13)


BSE-1 (BSE-1N in ASCE 41-13)

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0

Period, T (seconds)
Figure 3-1. Acceleration Response Spectra

General Analysis Requirements


This section discusses the implementation of the general analysis requirements prescribed in ASCE 41 3.2
in this study.
ASCE 41 3.2.2Mathematical Modeling: The archetype buildings are modeled in three-dimensions.
Increased forces and displacements because of torsional demands are inherently addressed in the three

13 The seismic hazard in ASCE 41-13 is the MCE , ground motion based on a risk-targeted design philosophy in which an
R
appropriately designed structure will have a one percent probability of collapse (i.e., risk) in 50-years (except in areas controlled
by the deterministic cap on ground motionssee ASCE 7 commentary for Chapter 11).

3-3

dimensional analysis. Because of building symmetry, the inherent torsional moment at each floor is
theoretically zero. Accidental torsional moment (i.e., five percent mass offset) at each floor is not
considered in the assessment analyses because the displacement modifier, , associated with the applied
loads including accidental torsion is less than 1.1 at every floor for all buildings (see Table 3-4 and Table
3-5). The values in these tables for determining torsional irregularity are based on floor displacements
relative to the base and not story drifts as used in ASCE 714.
All members and connections of the seismic force-resisting system (SFRS) are classified as primary
components in accordance with ASCE 41 2.4.4.2 for both linear and nonlinear assessment procedures.
Gravity framing (non-SFRS members and shear tab connections) is assumed in this study to provide
negligible analytical lateral stiffness and strengthsee ASCE 41 3.2.2.3. Therefore, components of the
non-SFRS framing are classified as secondary components for both linear and nonlinear assessment
procedures. Similar to the assumptions adopted for design, specific component stiffnesses (e.g., partially
restrained composite shear tab connections and stairs) are not modeled explicitly in the mathematical model.
This is done to minimize the influence of secondary components on the demands imposed on primary
components. This will allow assessment results between linear and nonlinear analysis to be compared.
Performance assessment of these secondary members is outside the scope of this studythough would
need to be checked in a real retrofit design. In addition, foundation or soil flexibility is not included in the
analysis. Models for anticipated component inelastic actions in nonlinear assessment procedures include
both strength and stiffness degradationdiscussed subsequently in 3.2.
ASCE 41 3.2.3Configuration: Building irregularities are discussed in ASCE 41 3.1.3.1. Building
irregularities defined in ASCE 41 are used only to determine whether the linear procedures are applicable.
ASCE 41 3.2.4Diaphragms: Floor diaphragms are modeled for analysis as semi-rigid membranes (i.e.,
stiff per ASCE 41). The same assumptions adopted in design are maintained for assessment.
ASCE 41 3.2.5P- Effects: Global P- effects are considered in the linear and nonlinear analyses, for
both static and dynamic. Local P- effects are not addressed either explicitly or implicitly in the analyses.
ASCE 41 3.2.6Soil-Structure Interaction: Soil-Structure Interaction is not considered in the seismic
assessment of the archetype buildings.
ASCE 41 3.2.7Multidirectional Seismic Effects: The principal axes of the archetype buildings align
directly with the E-W and N-S directions (performance in the E-W direction is presented in this report).
Seismic effects are determined by applying the seismic forces independently in each of the two orthogonal
directions. Per ASCE 41 3.2.7.1, concurrent seismic effects are addressed in the assessment by combining
the effects along each principal axes.

14

Amplification of the accidental torsion, if required, is consistent between ASCE 41 and ASCE 7.

3-4

ASCE 41 3.2.7Vertical Seismic Effects: Vertical seismic effects are not considered for seismic
assessment of the archetype buildings. Masses are input for horizontal accelerations only for dynamic
analysis.
ASCE 41 3.2.8Gravity Loads: Gravity loads for the linear assessment procedures are applied using the
following two load combinations (LC). Roof live loads are considered not to be present for seismic analysis.
There is no snow load acting on the buildings.

LC1 = 1.1(Dead+0.25Unreduced Floor Live)


LC2 = 0.9Dead

A P- load combination based on LC1 above is used for the linear assessment analyses; consequently, this
is conservative for analysis using LC2.
Both gravity load combinations above are used for the nonlinear static procedure. The average of the two
combinations (LC1 and LC2) is applied in the nonlinear dynamic procedure.

LC3 = 1.0Dead+0.25Unreduced Floor Live

A P- load combination based on LC3 above is used for the nonlinear assessment analyses.
ASCE 41 3.2.9Verification of Design Assumptions: The following design objectives are verified with
the nonlinear dynamic procedure.

SMFStrong Column Weak Beam (SCWB) (AISC 341)


SMFadequate flexural and shear strength in beam at the face of column (AISC 358)
SMFadequate shear strength at the center of the RBS (AISC 358)
SMFin-plane and out-of-plane stability of columns (AISC 360)

ASCE 41 3.2.10Overturning: Overturning is not considered for design or seismic assessment of the
archetype buildings.

Analysis Procedures
This section discusses the implementation of the specific analysis procedures prescribed in ASCE 41 3.3
in this study.
Linear Analysis Procedures
The archetype buildings are modeled and analyzed in ETABS 9.7.4 (CSI 2011a) for the linear analyses.
The assumptions used in the mathematical model and analysis techniques are the same as those adopted for
design (see Chapter 2). Modeling and analysis considerations for the linear procedures are outlined in ASCE
41 3.2.2 with supplemental information provided in ASCE 41 3.3.2.2 for the Linear Dynamic Procedure
(LDP). Gravity loads and load combinations assumed present during the earthquake are computed from
3-5

ASCE 41 3.2.8 as discussed previously. The effective horizontal seismic weights, w, for analysis are
computed in accordance with ASCE 41 3.3.1, and are the same as those used for design (see Chapter 2).
Global P- effects (e.g., B2 in AISC 360 Appendix 8) are addressed in the analysis by using a simplified
algorithmsee ETABS User Manual. ETABS does not explicitly include local P- effects (e.g., B1 in AISC
360 Appendix 8). System specific modeling assumptions and analysis techniques are described in their
respective sections.
Table 3-4. Displacement MultiplierE-W (SMF)

Floor
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

=max / avg
MC4
MC8
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

1.010
1.007
1.010
1.007
1.009
1.006
1.009
1.006
1.006
1.006
1.008
1.005
1.006
1.006
1.008
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.007
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.007
1.005

MC16
ELF
RSA
1.010
1.008
1.009
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.008
1.007

Values shown to four significant figures are for comparison purposes only.

Table 3-5. Displacement MultiplierN-S (SCBF)

Floor
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

=max / avg
MC4
MC8
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

1.087
1.091

1.087
1.091

1.088
1.091

1.088
1.092
1.093
1.094
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.095
1.090
1.093
1.094
1.095
1.090
1.093
1.094
1.095
1.091
1.093

Values shown to four significant figures are for comparison purposes only.

3-6

MC16
ELF
RSA
1.088
1.090
1.088
1.090
1.088
1.090
1.088
1.090
1.089
1.090
1.089
1.090
1.089
1.090
1.089
1.091
1.089
1.091
1.089
1.091
1.089
1.091
1.090
1.091
1.090
1.091
1.090
1.091
1.090
1.091
1.089
1.090

ASCE 41 2.4.1.1 prescribes restrictions on the use of the linear procedures. First, a retrofitted 15 SFRS
must not contain certain types of structural irregularities where the earthquake demands on the primary
components of the SFRS fail to comply with the demand capacity ratio (DCR) limitations.
DCR

QUD
2.0
QCE

(3-1)

where QUD is the demand on a component due to gravity and earthquake loads and QCE is the expected
strength of the component. The archetype buildings do not contain any configuration-based in-plane or outof-plane irregularities. Further, a linear analysis procedure must be performed to determine whether a
building contains a weak story or torsional strength irregularity. Because of plan symmetry and regularity
of the archetype buildings, there are no torsional irregularities. The required weak story irregularity
verifications are discussed subsequently in the linear static procedure for each specific system type.
3.1.3.1.1

Linear Static Procedure

The Linear Static Procedure (LSP) is outlined in ASCE 41 3.3.1. The provisions of the LSP closely
resemble those of the ELF procedure in ASCE 7; as such, no additional analysis details are presented here.
However, one place where ASCE 7 and ASCE 41 differ is in the determination of the fundamental period,
T, in the direction being analyzed. ASCE 41 does not place an upper-bound limit on the period used for
assessment as ASCE 7 does for strength design. In this study, the fundamental periods are determined by
eigenvalue analysis per ASCE 41 3.3.1.2.1.
Further restrictions on the use of the LSP are prescribed in ASCE 41 2.4.1.2. The LSP cannot be used if
any of the following occur:
The fundamental period of the building, T, is greater than 3.5Ts (= 3.50.6 = 2.1 seconds in this
study). This trigger is similar to that used in ASCE 7; however, like ASCE 7, which computation
method for T to be used in this evaluation is not clear. If the analytical method (ASCE 41 3.3.1.2.1)
is used, only the E-W component of the ELF-designed MC4 and N-S components of all the
buildings satisfy this requirementsee Table 3-6 (directional components that fail this criteria are
shaded). If the empirical method (ASCE 41 3.2.1.2.2) is used, all building components satisfy this
constraint except the E-W component of MC16. In this study, this analysis constraint is disregarded
to allow an assessment comparison between methodssee Table 3-7 (directional components that
fail this criteria are shaded).
The building has a ratio of the horizontal dimension at any story to the corresponding dimension in
an adjacent story that exceeds 1.4. In this study, this constraint is satisfied because the building
plan does not change at any story.
The building has a torsional stiffness irregularity. This limitation is satisfied as discussed previously
under accidental torsion as well as in Chapter 2. In this study, this check is based on the individual
story drift rather than the floor displacement relative to the base.
The building has a vertical stiffness irregularity. In this study, this limitation is automatically
satisfied by using ASCE 7 12.3.2.2 Exception 1 for the design of the archetype buildings.

15

This term is now used in lieu of rehabilitation.

3-7

The building has a non-orthogonal SFRS. In this study, this limitation is not applicable to the
archetype buildings.
Regardless of the restrictions on using the LSP, results from applying the LSP to the archetype buildings
are included for the purpose of seismic performance comparison between the various assessment methods
in this study.
Table 3-6. Analytical Fundamental Periods (seconds)
MC4

Direction
E-W
N-S

SFRS
SMF
SCBF

ELF
1.83
0.67

MC8
RSA
2.23
0.72

ELF
2.93
1.45

MC16
RSA
3.84
1.51

ELF
4.39
2.09

RSA
5.05
2.14

Table 3-7. Empirical Fundamental Periods (seconds)


MC4

Direction
E-W
N-S

3.1.3.1.2

SFRS
SMF
SCBF

ELF
0.93
0.43

MC8
RSA
0.93
0.43

ELF
1.57
0.71

MC16
RSA
1.57
0.71

ELF
2.69
1.17

RSA
2.69
1.17

Linear Dynamic Procedure

The Linear Dynamic Procedure (LDP) is outlined in ASCE 41 3.3.2. The LDP requires the use of either
response spectrum analysis (RSA) or response history analysis (RHA)only the RSA is presented in this
report. Though there are significant benefits of using the RHA (e.g., maintaining sign convention on
response), the RSA was selected to align with the design methodology. The provisions of the LDP closely
resemble those of the RSA procedure in ASCE 7; as such, no additional analysis details are presented here,
except that no base shear scaling is required by ASCE 41. Damping for analysis is taken as five percent of
critical for all modes for dynamic analysis to match the response spectrum (see ASCE 41 1.6.1.5.3). A
sufficient number of modes is used in the analysis to capture at least 90 percent of the mass participation in
each of the two horizontal principal directions. Masses were not modeled in the analysis to address vertical
accelerations. Furthermore, the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) rule is used to combine the
modal responses so as to obtain the maximum forces and deformations.
Nonlinear Analysis Procedures
The archetype buildings are modeled and analyzed in PERFORM-3D 5.0.0 (CSI 2011b) for the nonlinear
procedures. Modeling and analysis considerations for the nonlinear procedures are outlined in ASCE 41
3.2.2 with supplemental information provided in ASCE 41 3.3.3.2 for the Nonlinear Static Procedure
(NSP) and ASCE 41 3.3.4.2 for the Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP). Primary components of the
SFRS expected to experience inelastic deformations are modeled using a full backbone curve that
includes strength and stiffness (applicable only for the NDP) degradation and residual strength. For this
study, all nonlinear components are modeled with the anchor points (A to E) bounding the full backbone
curve as shown in ASCE 41 Figure C2-1 and Figure 5-1see Figure 3-2. This topic will be discussed
further in the respective analysis and system-specific sections.
3-8

Gravity loads and corresponding load combination assumed to be present during the earthquake are
computed from ASCE 41 3.2.8 as discussed previously. The effective horizontal seismic weights, w, for
analysis are computed in accordance with ASCE 41 3.3.1 and are the same as those used for design (see
Chapter 2). Global P- effects (e.g., B2 in AISC 360 Appendix 8) are addressed in the analysis by using a
simplified algorithmsee PERFORM-3D User Guide (CSI 2011d). PERFORM-3D does not explicitly
include local P- effects (e.g., B1 in AISC 360 Appendix 8). Building specific modeling assumptions and
analysis techniques are described in their respective sections.

Figure 3-2. Generalized Component Backbone Curve (adopted from ASCE 41 Figure C2-1)

3.1.3.2.1

Nonlinear Static Procedure

The Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) is outlined in ASCE 41 3.3.3. ASCE 41 places limitations on the
use of the NSP in ASCE 41 2.4.2. First, if higher modes are significant, the NSP is permitted with
supplemental verifications required using the LDP. Higher mode effects are consider significant when the
story shear computed by analysis with at least 90 percent horizontal mass participation is at least 1.3 times
greater than that computed considering only response in the fundamental mode. This condition is generally
triggered in multistory buildings with fundamental periods greater than 1.0 second in the direction being
considered (see Table 3-8 and Table 3-9story shear ratios that fail this criteria are shaded).
Second, if R > Rmax (as defined in ASCE 41 3.3.3), dynamic instability is a potential failure mode and the
NSP is not permitted. Information regarding this ductility criterion as applied to an idealized single-degree
of-freedom (SDOF) system is provided in FEMA 440: Improvements of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis
3-9

Procedures (FEMA 2005). However, this verification is computationally cumbersome because a nonlinear
static analysis has to be conducted to determine both R and Rmax, prior to knowing if the NSP is permitted.
This verification is illustrated subsequently in the NSP assessment results. The NSP procedure is
graphically illustrated in the flowchart of Figure 3-3.

3-10

Structural System

Dynamic
Properties
T1,M1,K1,1

Note:Eff ective
properti esare used
herenotModal

Conduct Pushover
Analysis

Response
Properties
Te,Ke,
factors

Modification
Factors
R,C0,C1,C2,
Sa

End
NSP NotPermitted

No

IsRd<Rmax?

Ye s

Checkmember and
component capacities
(forces and de formati ons)

End

Figure 3-3. NSP Process

3-11

Table 3-8. Story Shear Ratio - ELF

Story
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof)
8
7
6
5 (Roof)
4
3
2

MC4
E-W
1.45
1.10
1.01
1.06

MC8
E-W
1.98
1.41
1.19
1.10
1.05
1.03
1.05
1.10

Vstory / Vstory,1st mode


MC16
E-W
2.96
2.03
1.61
1.41
1.29
1.20
1.14
1.09
1.07
1.07
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.11
1.15
1.19

MC4
N-S
1.07
1.01
1.00
1.02

MC8
N-S
1.57
1.31
1.13
1.03
1.02
1.06
1.13
1.20

MC16
N-S
2.07
1.83
1.61
1.43
1.28
1.17
1.09
1.05
1.04
1.05
1.07
1.12
1.17
1.22
1.26
1.29

MC8
N-S
1.59
1.33
1.14
1.03
1.02
1.08
1.17
1.25

MC16
N-S
2.11
1.86
1.64
1.45
1.29
1.18
1.10
1.05
1.04
1.05
1.08
1.13
1.18
1.24
1.28
1.31

Table 3-9. Story Shear Ratio - RSA

Story
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof)
8
7
6
5 (Roof)
4
3
2

MC4
E-W
1.58
1.14
1.01
1.08

MC8
E-W
2.25
1.50
1.22
1.12
1.07
1.05
1.08
1.16

Vstory / Vstory,1st mode


MC16
E-W
3.10
2.11
1.65
1.42
1.30
1.22
1.15
1.11
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.11
1.15
1.21
1.26

MC4
N-S
1.08
1.01
1.00
1.02

The mathematical model requirements for use with the NSP are outlined in ASCE 41 3.2.2 and ASCE 41
3.3.3.2. Primary components of the SFRS expected to experience inelastic deformations are modeled
using full backbone curves that include strength degradation and residual strength (see ASCE 41 3.2.2.3
and ASCE 41 3.3.3.2). ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.2 allows the generalized modeling parameters provided in
ASCE 41 to model the full backbone curves of steel components for the NSP as an alternative to
experimental calibration. In this study, all nonlinear components are modeled with the anchor points (A to
E) bounding the full backbone curve as shown in Figure 3-2 and quantified in ASCE 41 Tables 5-6 and 5
7. Component strength at the ultimate deformation, point E on the backbone curve, retains residual strength
3-12

and does not experience complete strength loss. SFRS-specific modeling approaches are discussed in their
respective sections.
For the nonlinear static analysis algorithm in PERFORM-3D, the following apply:

The lateral force distribution is based on a non-adaptive first-mode shape (first-order elastic) and
mass distribution.
Damping is set to zero percent for all modes with no supplemental Rayleigh damping. All elements
are assigned a beta-K damping stiffness reduction factor of unity (no reduction).
Strength degradation is included in the analysis.
Global P- effects are directly included in the analysis. Local P- effects are not addressed in the
analysis. Geometric nonlinearity is assigned to all elements.
Number of Steps is taken as 100 and Maximum Number of Events is taken as 1,000.
Roof displacement at the center of mass relative to the base is used as the target displacement. The
reference drift is therefore taken as the roof drift; the maximum allowable drift is taken as 10
percent. All story drifts are included in the list of Controlled Drifts.
See PERFORM-3D User Guide for additional information.

3.1.3.2.2

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure

The Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP) is outlined in ASCE 41 3.3.4. The NDP is intended to be the
most rigorous of all the assessment procedures prescribed, with no limitations placed on types of buildings
allowed for the assessment because of the intent of capturing the true behavior of the building subjected to
strong ground motions.
The mathematical model requirements for use with the NDP are outlined in ASCE 41 3.2.2 and ASCE 41
3.3.4.2, except that the point-in-time gravity load present during strong ground motion is taken as (D +
SD) + 0.25Lo,floor, a slight but common alternative to ASCE 41 3.2.8 (see ASCE 7 16.2.3). Primary
components of the SFRS expected to experience inelastic deformations are modeled using full backbone
curves that include strength and stiffness degradation and residual strength (see ASCE 41 3.2.2.3 and
ASCE 3.3.4.2).
For the NSP, ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.2 allows using the generalized modeling parameters provided in ASCE 41
Tables 5-6 and 5-7 to model the full backbone curves of steel components as an alternative to experimental
calibration. However, for the NDP, ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.3 requires all component hysteretic behavior be based
on experimental data unless permitted by the authority have jurisdiction. The benefit of calibrating
component models with experimental results is that the force-deformation relationship will more accurately
reflect strength and stiffness degradation, both cyclic and in-cyclesee NIST GCR 10-917-5: Nonlinear
Structural Analysis for Seismic Design: A Guide for Practicing Engineers (NIST 2010a) and FEMA P
440A: Effects of Strength and Stiffness Degradation on Seismic Response (FEMA 2009c). In this study, all
nonlinear components are modeled with the anchor points (A to E) bounding the full backbone curve as
shown in Figure 3-2 and quantified in ASCE 41 Tables 5-6 and 5-7. All nonlinear components are calibrated
based on experimental results to determine cyclic and in-cycle stiffness degradation only; post-yield
strength increases and strength degradation calibrations from experimental results were not included.
Component strength at the ultimate deformation, point E on the backbone curve, retains the residual strength
and does not experience complete strength loss. SFRS-specific modeling approaches are discussed in their
3-13

respective sections. Therefore, the same PERFORM-3D model used in the NSP is also used in the NDP;
analytical results from the two procedures are thus consistent and directly comparable. Future ASCE 41
revisions should unify modeling practices for the NSP and NDP, as well as provide supporting data to the
authority having jurisdiction. Future research should examine the response of these systems with hysteretic
models calibrated completely to test results, including performing FEMA P695 analyses.
The nonlinear dynamic analysis algorithm in PERFORM-3D used the following parameters:

Damping is taken as three percent of critical for all modes (elastic) and 0.3 percent of critical is
added as Rayleigh damping (elastic stiffness component only, beta-K) for dynamic analysis.
Damping computation in PERFORM-3D is not based on the tangent stiffness matrix. All elements
are assigned a beta-K damping stiffness reduction factor of unity (no reduction).
Strength and stiffness degradation are included in the analysis.
Global P- effects are directly included in the analysis. Local P- effects are not addressed in the
analysis. Geometric nonlinearity is assigned to all elements.
Maximum Number of Events for each time step is taken as 200.
Time steps for analysis are taken as the time step of the input motion, ranging from 0.005 to 0.02
secondssee FEMA P695 Appendix A.
See PERFORM-3D User Guide for additional information.

A critical aspect of the NDP is the selection and scaling of input ground motions (free-field motions) which
is described in ASCE 41 1.6.2.2. The methodology adopted in this study is discussed in Appendix A.
In addition to the analysis routine terminating when a solution fails to converge, the routine was also set to
terminate when an arbitrarily selected roof drift ratio of twenty percent16 is achieved (story drift ratios can
be higher). While both of these methods are used to indicate and rationalize total or partial collapse of a
system, the indicator of collapse used in this study is the component demands measured against the
nonlinear modeling parameters and acceptance criteria. These component limits will typically be reached
prior to an analysis routine failing to converge or an excessive roof drift is reached.

Acceptance Criteria
This section discusses the implementation of the acceptance criteria in ASCE 41 3.4. Component actions
are classified as force-controlled or deformation-controlled depending on the post-elastic behavior of the
component (see ASCE 41 Table C2-1). Generally speaking, deformation-controlled actions are assigned to
component actions capable of a ductile response (e.g., moment in a plastic hinge in a compact beam) and
force-controlled actions are assigned to component actions with limited ductility (e.g., moment in a plastic
hinge in a column with high axial load). Additionally, a knowledge factor, , is applied to account for
uncertainties in the framing system and materials. Since the archetype buildings are new construction with
quality control measures, is taken as unity in this study to represent new component capacities or actions
as discussed in ASCE 41 2.2.2 and ASCE 41 Tables 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3.

16 This value does not change the qualitative performance result of a component; however, it can influence the mean value of a
performance response for a set of records. For example, mean values would be slightly larger than if ten percent was selected.

3-14

Linear Procedures
Acceptance criteria of components for linear assessment procedures are provided as m-factors. The m-factor
is intended to account for the ductility associated with a specific action and depends on the SPL and
component type. ASCE 41 Table 5-5 provides the m-factors for steel components for linear assessment
procedures. Adjustments to the m-factors for member or connection characteristics are detailed in ASCE
41 Chapter 5. In this study, actions in force-controlled components are assigned m = 1.0 for simplicity and
computational consistency in developed assessment spreadsheets. It should be noted that ASCE 41 does
not assign an m-factor to force-controlled components.
3.1.4.1.1

Calculating Component Assessment Results

Component forces and deformations obtained by the LSP or LDP are referred to as design actions, QU (e.g.,
flexure in a component).
Component design actions classified as deformation-controlled, QUD, are computed by
QUD QG QE

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.1)

(3-2)

Component design actions classified as force-controlled, QUF, are computed by

QUF QG

QE
C1C2 J

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2)

(3-3)

where QG is the action due to gravity loads and QE is the action due to earthquake effects. Elastic forcecontrolled demands from earthquake effects are divided by C1C2 to remove the demand amplification for
short period structures from non-ductile components (see ASCE 41 3.3.1). Similarly, the demand is
divided by J, which is the force-delivery reduction factor and is taken as the minimum demand capacity
ration (DCR) of the components in the load path delivering force to the component. Alternatively, J can be
taken as 2.0 when the system is located in a region of a high level of seismicity, independent of EHL.
However, holding J constant for multiple performance levels (disregarding the change in intensity) is not
consistent with a capacity design approach, resulting in potentially overly conservative estimates of
component actions in force-controlled elements at the higher EHL, or vice versa.
ASCE 41 3.4.2.2 requires that deformation-controlled and force-controlled actions in primary and
secondary components satisfy:
Deformation-controlled:
Force-controlled:

m QCE QUD

m QCL QUF

3-15

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.2.1)
(ASCE 41 3.4.2.2.2)

(3-4)
(3-5)

where m is the component demand modification factor (taken as unity for force-controlled actionssee
above), is the knowledge factor (taken as unity in this study), QCE is the expected strength of the
component, and QCL is the lower-bound strength of the component.
The results of the linear assessment procedures are presented in this report as a normalized demand capacity
ratio, DCRN, so that the acceptance criteria verification becomes a unity check similar to that done in modern
component design standards (e.g., AISC 360). DCRN is computed by rearranging ASCE 41 Eq. 3-20 and
ASCE 41 Eq. 3-21 as required. As such, a DCRN value greater than unity indicates that the component does
not satisfy the performance criteria for a given SPL. DCRN is similar to, but different than, the DCR as used
in ASCE 41. This approach is also a more consistent way to present results over the various types of
assessment procedures used in this study. However, a slightly different interpretation is also taken in this
study with regards to the DCRN: in lieu of m and adjusting the apparent strength of a component, as
illustrated in ASCE 41 3.4.2.2, m and act to reduce the elastic demand to the expected demand given an
EHL. Where required, the DCRN is determined from an interaction equation from the appropriate equation.
Deformation-controlled:
Force-controlled:

DCRN

DCRN

QUD
DCR

m QCE
m

QUF
[with m taken as 1.0]
m QCL

(3-6)
(3-7)

Nonlinear Procedures
Acceptance criteria of components for nonlinear assessment procedures are provided as plastic (inelastic)
deformations dependent on the SPL and component type. ASCE 41 Tables 5-6 and 5-7 provide the plastic
deformations limits for steel components for nonlinear assessment procedures. Adjustments to the
acceptance criteria for member or connection characteristics are detailed in ASCE 41 Chapter 5.
Inelastic deformation parameters in ASCE 41 are provided for steel components in terms of plastic
deformations rather than total deformations. The choice of whether to use plastic deformations or total
deformations will depend on what nonlinear component model is adopted for each component action in the
structural analysis (e.g., moment-curvature hinge or moment-rotation hinge). Consequently, yield and postyield elastic deformations may need to be added to the values given in ASCE 41 to determine the total
deformation for each SPL.
In this study, demands on primary components of new buildings are measured against acceptance criteria
for primary components. ASCE 41 3.4.3.2 allows primary component demands to be within the
acceptance criteria for secondary components for the NSP if degradation effects are explicitly modeleda
change introduced in FEMA 356. This also includes NDP, although not explicitly stated. This allowance is
neglected in this study for the following reasons:
Bypassing nonlinear acceptance criteria set for primary components suggests that acceptance
criteria for primary components for linear and nonlinear assessment procedures are not calibrated.
In this study, acceptance criteria for primary components are maintained for all assessment methods
to provide a uniform comparison basis.
3-16

There is no technical justification provided in ASCE 41 as to why comprehensive component


models for primary components, which are required to stabilize the structure after a large
earthquake, will allow them to deform to the extent given for a secondary component and maintain
the structural integrity of the system. Analytically speaking, it is debatable if collapse prevention
can be reliably achieved if a concentrated few SFRS components are deformed past the deformation
associated with their peak strength and lose a considerable amount of strength and stiffness.
Available literature has indicated the difficulty in solution convergence in analysis when
component response is following a negative stiffness branch. Still, some liberties are provided,
debatably, for existing buildings, but transferring this allowance to new buildings is also of
debatable validity. Engineering judgment must be applied. Broadly speaking, the function that
separating existing buildings and new buildings into bins plays in developing a resilient community
must be clarified.
Reliability issues arise when adopting secondary acceptance criteria for primary components. For
example, the acceptance criterion of an RBS beam-to-column connection taken as a secondary
component for the Life Safety SPL is beyond the peak deformation (a in Figure 3-2). In ASCE
41, primary acceptance criteria for the Collapse Prevention SPL generally matches the deformation
associated with the peak strength of a component.
There is little empirical evidence supporting the acceptance criteria for secondary steel components
permitted in ASCE 41 3.4.3.2, other than for beam-to-column connections studied in the SAC
project (see FEMA 350 series (FEMA 2000a through 2000d)). Experimental tests are rarely
continued to achieve the peak deformations and the associated reserve strength of a component or
subassembly after the required loading protocol is complete.
As a side note, ASCE 41-13 has removed all acceptance criteria for primary components for nonlinear
assessment. Future research should be conducted to evaluate the systems by measuring demands against
acceptance criteria for secondary componentswhich can be done by inspection with the analysis results
presented in this study.
3.1.4.2.1

Calculating Component Assessment Results

Component forces and deformations obtained by the NSP or NDP are referred to as design actions, QU (e.g.,
plastic rotation in a plastic hinge). Component design actions are computed as the action in the member or
connection at the target displacement for the NSP and as the maximum value for a given earthquake for the
NDP. Subsequently, a statistical average is computed from the maximum values from the suite of ground
motions. In specific cases, the maximum value must be coupled with other actions in the component at the
instant of computation of the maximum response.
Component design actions classified as deformation-controlled, QUD, are computed by
QUD QG QE

(ASCE 41 3.4.3.2.1)

(3-8)

Component design actions classified as force-controlled, QUF, are computed by


QUF QG QE

(ASCE 41 3.4.3.2.3)

(3-9)

where QG is the action due to gravity loads (or associated deformation) and QE is the action due to
earthquake effects (or associated deformations). Superposition of forces or deformations is not applicable
3-17

in a nonlinear analysis; thus, gravity loads are directly applied in the analysis. The above equations are
numerical interpretations of ASCE 41 3.4.3.2. They are used in this study to maintain computational
consistency over the various types of assessment procedures.
ASCE 41 3.4.3.2 requires that deformation-controlled and force-controlled actions in primary and
secondary components satisfy:
Deformation-controlled:
Force-controlled:

QCE QUD
QCL QUF

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.2.1)

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.2.2)

(3-10)
(3-11)

where QCE is the expected strength or deformation demand of a component, QCL is the lower-bound strength
of a component, and is the knowledge factor (taken as unity in this study). ASCE 41 Chapter 5 does not
explicitly provide a relationship between QCE (or QCL) and Qy on the force-deformation curve.
The results of the nonlinear assessment procedures are presented in this report as a normalized demand
capacity ratio, DCRN, where the plastic or total deformation demands are normalized with respect to the
plastic or total acceptance criteria, modified by if required. The acceptance criteria verification then
becomes a unity check similar to that done in modern component design standards (e.g., AISC 360). As
such, a DCRN value greater than unity indicates that the component does not satisfy the performance criteria
for a given SPL. This approach is a consistent way to present results over the various types of assessment
procedures used in this study.
Deformation-controlled:

DCRN

QUD
QCE

plastic elastic

Total
y pe p , AC

Plastic plastic

p , AC

Force-controlled:

DCRN

QUF
QCL

(3-12)

(3-13)

where plastic is the plastic deformation of a component, elastic is the elastic deformation of a component, y
is the yield deformation of a component, pe is the post-yield elastic deformation of a component, and p,AC
is the acceptance criteria of a component based on plastic deformation.

3-18

3.2

Moment Frame

Seismic performance assessment of steel moment frames is performed in accordance with ASCE 41 5.4.
The moment frames in the archetype buildings are designed with fully restrained (FR) moment connections
as identified in AISC 360 B3.6b and as an SMF as identified in ASCE 7 12.2 (item C.1 in Table 12.2-1)
and AISC 341 E3. This designation aligns with that prescribed in ASCE 41 5.4.2, Fully Restrained
Moment Frames. The FR beam-to-column moment connection used in each SMF is an RBS as identified
in AISC 358 Table 2.1 and ASCE 41 Table 5-4.

Assessment Methodology
There are three primary characteristics of each component (i.e., member, connection, etc.) forming the
structural model for each assessment method:
1. Stiffness, ASCE 41 5.4.2.2
2. Strength, ASCE 41 5.4.2.3
3. Acceptance Criteria, ASCE 41 5.4.2.4, and whether or not the component action is forcecontrolled or deformation-controlled.
Each component characteristic is discussed in the appropriate linear and nonlinear assessment discussion.
The following component design actions are assessed in this study:

Beam-to-column connection flexural force or deformation (RBS)

Panel zone shear force or deformation

Beam and column flexural force or deformation at potential plastic hinge zones (section strength)17

Column axial-moment interaction strength (member strength)

Beam and connection flexure and shear strength (e.g., moment at face of column)

Linear Procedures

This section discusses the three primary component characteristics listed in Section 3.2.1 and computation
of the demand in the component for the linear assessment procedures.
Stiffness
The stiffnesses of all members and connections for linear assessment follow ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.1. Panel
zones at the beam-to-column joints are explicitly modeled; ETABS uses the scissor modelsee User
Manual. Explicit joint and connection modeling is not required because the beam-to-column connections
are classified as FR. However, the stiffness of the frame beams must be modified to account for the reduced
beam sections within the beam-to-column connections (see Chapter 2).

17

Beam hinges within the RBS are included in assessment of FR connection (controlling mechanism).

3-19

Strength
The strength of all members and connections for linear assessment follow ASCE 41 5.4.2.3.2.
The expected flexural strength of a member, QCE = MCE (= Qy), is computed as Mn from AISC 360 Chapter
F18 with b = 1.0 and Fye in lieu of Fy. For ASTM A992 steel, Fye = 1.1Fy (see ASCE 41 Table 5-3), which
corresponds to RyFy in AISC 341. Composite action with the concrete slab is generally neglected in
computing Mn for frame beams. In so doing, it is assumed that the plastic moment strength is achievable
via adequate lateral bracing, thus Mn = Mp. If the flexural strength is less than Mp, then the available ductility
of the member is significantly reduced because of member or cross-section instability (which also affects
the acceptance criteria). ASCE 41 enforces section compactness requirements through the acceptance
criteriadiscussed subsequently.
The lower-bound flexural strength of a member, QCL = MCL, is computed as Mn from AISC 360 Chapter F18
with b = 1.0 and FyLB in lieu of Fy. For ASTM A992 steel, FyLB = 1.0Fy (see ASCE 41 Table 5-2).
Although not explicitly identified in ASCE 41 5.4.2.3.2, the expected shear strength of a member, QCE =
VCE (= Qy), is identical to that computed as Vn from AISC 360, Chapter G with v = 1.0 and Fye in lieu of
Fy. Web slenderness, h / tw, is critical in developing a fully yielded cross-section. As such, there are cases
when
418
Fy

2.45

E
h 640
E

3.76
Fy t w
Fy
Fy

(3-14)

and the web is still capable of achieving full yield strength in shear. However, if the web slenderness
approaches the upper limit (taken as the compact limit in AISC 360 Table B4.1) then the beam may have
difficulty achieving its plastic moment strength, Mp. There is no lower-bound shear strength, VCL, in ASCE
41 or shear-moment interaction.
The lower-bound compression strength of a member, QCL = PCL, is computed as Pn from AISC 360 Chapter
E18 with c = 1.0 and FyLB in lieu of Fy. For ASTM A992 steel, FyLB = 1.0Fy (see ASCE 41 Table 5-2).
Though identified in ASCE 41 5.4.2.3.2-2, no explicit guidance is provided for computing the expected
flexural strength, MCE, of a compression member if the axial load demand, P, exceeds 10 percent of the
axial strength. This guidance would be useful for computing the flexural DCR at a given location, such as
at the column base where a plastic hinge is anticipated. The term axial strength of a compression member
is also not well defined (i.e., is it Pye or PCL?). Similarly, P is not defined except in an unrelated provision
for the NSP. ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.2 states that P for a linear analysis is PUF. The flexural strength will also
depend on the selected P-M interaction curve, which will use MCE (or MCL) at P = 0 as the anchor point.
Further, there is little need to have triggering language based on 10 percent axial load ratio because it
delineates no physical phenomenon and does not influence computing the yield chord rotation, y. In fact

18

ASCE 41 inadvertently states AISC 341.

3-20

this trigger, it adds complexity, which will be discussed subsequently in the Acceptance Criteria section.
ASCE 41 does not delineate between orthogonal buckling axes and non-flexural buckling limit states (e.g.,
torsional, local buckling) for its interaction verification. This can significantly affect the assessment of
beam-column members where a high in-plane moment is associated with a buckling limit state other than
in-plane flexural buckling. Beam-columns can be further penalized in linear assessment methods where PUF
is highly affected by selecting a value for J.
The expected tension strength of a member, QCE = TCE (= Qy), is computed as AcFye, where Ac is the crosssectional area of the member. ASCE 41 does not provide other tensile strengths, potentially brittle, similar
to AISC 360 Chapter D, e.g. net section fracture.
The expected shear strength of a panel zone, QCE = VCE (= Qy), is computed as 0.55 Fyedbtp. (ASCE 41
Equation 5-519). This strength equates to 0.92Vy from AISC 360 Chapter J10.6 with v = 1.0 and Fye in
lieu of Fy. ASCE 41 does not provide additional panel zone strength to account for column flange bending.
ASCE 41 does not provide explicit guidance on computing the expected strength, QCE, of a FR beam-to
column connection. The RBS beam-to-column connections were designed in accordance with AISC 358.
As such, the controlling mechanism is the moment at the center of the RBS. It is assumed that the acceptance
criteria for FR beam-to-column connections (m-factor) translated from results from the SAC project are
applicable at the face of the columnsee below. Therefore, the moment at the face of the column is used
as the demand, QUD, and the expected flexural strength of the connection, QCE = MCE, is computed as Mp at
the center of the RBS and projected to the face of the column (this value will always be less than using Mp
taken at the column face). Alternatively, the demand and acceptance criteria could be adjusted to the hinge
location (controlling mechanism) and the connection at the face of the column evaluated as force-controlled,
see ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4. ASCE 41 should clarify the intent of ASCE 41 Eq. 5-14 and express that is the
lower-bound strength of the connection evaluated at the column face compared to the expected strength of
the connection at the hinge location projected to the column face. As noted, AISC 358 design provisions
for an RBS connection satisfies this criteria. Because the plastic hinge is confined within the RBS and forms
away from the face of the column, the flexural demand at the center of the RBS should also be used to
check the plastic hinge as a beam hinge.
Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance criteria of members and connections for linear assessment follow ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2.
Flexure in Beams and Beam-to-Column Connections
The acceptance criteria for flexural action at expected locations of plastic hinging in beams (members with
axial load ratio less than or equal to 10 percent) are provided in ASCE 41 Table 5-5 and are dependent on
web and flange slenderness. The range of flange limits match AISC 341 limits for highly and moderately
ductile unstiffened compression elements. The range of web limits match AISC 341 limits for highly and

19

The reason the shear yield stress for a column web (assuming it can be designated as a beam) being defined as 0.6Fye is not
clear, but if the same column web is a panel zone, the shear yield stress is 0.55Fye.

3-21

moderately ductile stiffened compression elements taking at P = 0. The flange and web slenderness limits
for moderately ductile sections are taken as a compact compression element in AISC 360 (i.e., p). The
lower-bound web slenderness limit is taken as that capable of full section yielding in shear. These web
slenderness limits were introduced in FEMA 356 whereas flange limits were introduced in FEMA 273 and
subsequently modified in FEMA 356 (upper-bound limit was changed from a pure axial compression limit
to a compression from flexure limit).
In cases where the expected flexural strength of an unbraced segment is governed by instability (e.g., lateraltorsional buckling (LTB)) rather than full section yielding, the m-factors in ASCE 41 Table 5-5 shall be
reduced accordingly. Again, ASCE 41 inadvertently references AISC 341 for these calculations as well as
using the notation, Mr, which is no longer used in AISC 360.
The acceptance criteria for beam-to-column connections (flexural hinge is located within the connection)
are taken from Fully Restrained Moment Connections in ASCE 41 Table 5-5 and are dependent on
connection detailing, panel zone strength in a balanced yield condition, and member and cross-section
slenderness (see ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2, 4.1 to 4.4). It is assumed that the acceptance criteria for FR beam-to
column connections (m-factor) translated from results from the SAC project are applicable at the face of
the columnsee 3.2.1.2. Furthermore, the m-factors for beams are not applicable for flexural plastic
hinges within the region20 demarcating the beam-to-column connection when connection components
prevent the unobstructed spread of plasticity. However, because the plastic hinge is forced to develop in a
prescribed location away from the column face, thus allowing essentially unobstructed spread of plasticity
within the RBS zone, m-factors for a beam should also be used to check the performance of the hinge
itself. Unless evaluating at the IO performance level, the m-factor for the beam-to-column connection will
control over the m-factor for flexure in the RBSsee Table 3-10.
Table 3-10. Basic Acceptance Criteria for a W2484
SPL
CP
LS
IO

RBS Beam-to-Column
Connection
6.2-0.032d = 5.4
4.9-0.025d = 4.3
3.5-0.016d = 3.1

Beam
8
6
2

Flexure in Columns and Columns-to-Base Connections


The acceptance criteria for flexural action at expected locations of plastic hinging in columns (members
with axial load ratio greater than 10 percent) are provided in ASCE 41 Table 5-5 and are dependent on the
axial load ratio, PUF / PCL, and web and flange slenderness. As discussed above, ASCE 41 does not delineate
between orthogonal buckling axes and non-flexural buckling limit states (e.g., torsional, local buckling) for
computing PCL. Consequently, this can significantly affect the assessment of beam-column members where
a high in-plane moment is associated with a buckling limit state other than in-plane flexural buckling. If the
axial load ratio is greater than 0.5, then flexural action is considered force-controlled and the flexural
demand and strength are taken as MUF and MCL, respectively. Otherwise, the m-factor is adjusted for P-M

20

This region is also used in AISC 341 to define the protected zone.

3-22

interaction as shown in Figure 3-4 and the flexural demand and strength are taken as MUD and MCE,
respectively.

1.0
0.9
0.1

0.8

PUF
M UDx

1.0
2PCL mx M CEx

0.7

PUF
PCL

PUF
0.2
PCL

PUF
0.5
PCL

0.6

0.2

0.5

PUF 8 M UDx

1.0
PCL 9 mx M CEx
P
0.5 UF (mx = 1.0)
PCL

0.4
0.3

PUF M UFx

1.0
PCL M CLx

0.2
0.1

0.1

0.2

0
.3

0.0

0.
5

0
.4

with Fy = FyLB

mx

0.
7

1.
0

0.
9

0.
8

mx M C _ x

0.
6

MU _ x

PCL = Pn,AISC ( = 1.0)

Notes:
1. Knowledge Factor, , taken as unity.
2. m factors shown are not reduced to reflect compactness requirements or inelastic LTB.
3. Beam-Column with PUF / PCL < 0.1 can be treated as a beam.

Immediate Occupancy
Life Safety
Collapse Prevention

Figure 3-4. P-M Interaction on Section m-factor (in-plane) and Member Instability (Primary Component)

The flange slenderness limits for columns are the same as those for beams and are independent of axial
load. The lower-bound web slenderness range is essentially21 75 percent of the slenderness limits in AISC
341-02 (AISC 2002)taken from FEMA (2000c)at distinct axial force ratios (0.2 and 0.5). These ratios
are at the upper range of axial force ratios in ASCE 41, albeit PUF / Pye and PUF / PCL represent two physically
different phenomena in regards to plate buckling. The upper-bound web slenderness range is essentially the
slenderness limits in AISC 341-02 at distinct axial force ratios (0.1 and 0.2). These ratios are at the lower
range of axial force ratio in ASCE 41. Using fixed axial limits on slenderness can lead to excessive
conservatisms because of step function triggers, as illustrated in Figure 3-5 for the LS SPLAISC 341 web
compactness limits for highly (HD) and moderately (MD) ductile compression elements are included for
comparison. The spherical icons shown in the figure represent the web slenderness ratios for all wide-flange
sections currently available. Essentially, 35 percent of these sections do not satisfy the lower-bound criteria

21

Work to develop FEMA 356 was conducted at the same time as the SAC projectsee FEMA 350 series.

3-23

in ASCE 41 whereas this value reduces to 12 percent when using the AISC 341 criteria for highly ductile
elements. Ultimately, the step functions created by both the axial load ratios and the section compactness
requirements result in a highly complex formulation that is difficult to implement, as illustrated in Figure
3-6 for the LS SPL (plastic rotation is shown in lieu of m-factor). ASCE 41 could be simplified by
combining the acceptance criteria for beams and columns into one set of criteria with no 10 percent axial
load ratio trigger.
E
Fye
4.0 h

Life Safety

tw

Width-to-Thickness Ratio, h/tw

3.5
3.0

h
460

tw
Fye

Wide-Flange Sections
35% > Group A
1% > Group B
12% > AISC HD
3% > AISC MD

PCL Pn , AISC (c 1.0) 0.6 Pye


Fye Fy 50 ksi

h
400

tw
Fye

2.5

interpolate
between limits

h
418

tw
Fye

2.0
1.5

ASCE 41 Group A Compactness Limit


ASCE 41 Group B Compactness Limit
AISC 341-10 HD Compactness Limit
AISC 341-10 MD Compactness Limit

640
Fye

h
300

tw
Fye

h
260

tw
Fye

P
h
E
P
0.125
2.45

1 0.93

c Py
tw
Fy
c Py
AISC HD
h
E
P
E
P
0.125
0.77
2.93
1.49

c Py
tw
Fy
Fy
c Py

1.0

P
h
E
P
0.125
3.76

1 2.75

tw
Fy
c Py
c Py
AISC MD
h
E
P
E
P
P 0.125 t 1.12 F 2.33 P 1.49 F
w
y
c y
y
c y

0.12

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Axial Load Ratio, P/Pye


Figure 3-5. Compactness Requirements as a Function of Axial Load Ratio, LS Acceptance Criteria

In addition to the effect of P-M interaction on the m-factors (which is a section strength issue) for checking
flexural actions in a column in accordance with ASCE 41 3.4.2.2, member stability is also checked via
global interaction equations in accordance with ASCE 41 5.4.2.4, as shown in Figure 3-4see projection
of axial and moment ratios. The discontinuous curve is a result of variable P-M interaction equations, with
the discontinuity at PUF / PCL = 0.5 being smallest when MCL at PUF = 0 equals Mp, and gets larger as MUD /
MUF increases. Future efforts should simplify the ASCE 41 interaction curves for consistency and
applicability, including eliminating Fy,LB for a column that also uses Fye.
Axial compression action in a column is always force-controlled due to significant reduction in ductility
because of member and cross-sectional instability. Again, ASCE 41 is rather ambiguous when it comes to
steel columns. First, there is no guidance on computing MCE for a column. Although ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2
3-24

2 provides some information, it is not consistent with that required to define the expected flexural strength,
MCE. Second, the m-factor is reduced for beams to account for LTB. Since this failure mode is also
applicable to columns, the m-factor should similarly be reduced. However, a column that fails in LTB
should be avoided, and m = 1 adopted since LTB is not a ductile phenomenon. Also, is not in the
interaction equations similar to other verification procedures, and it is unclear if these equations have any
physical meaning because member stability and section yielding effects are combined. Moreover, these
equations can be conservative when weak-axis buckling is coupled with in-plane (strong-axis) bending.
E
Fye

Primary Component
Life Safety

4.0

Width-to-Thickness Ratio, h/tw

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5

PCL 0.6 Pye

1.0

Fye Fy 50 ksi

0.5
7

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.
4

0.
6

1.
0

Notes:
1. Knowledge Factor, , taken as unity.
2. Beam-Column with P / PCL < 0.1 can be treated as a beam.

Plastic Rotation, p = y

0.
8

Axial Load Ratio, P/PCL

ASCE 41 Group A Compactness Limit


ASCE 41 Group B Compactness Limit
AISC 341-10 HD Compactness Limit
AISC 341-10 MD Compactness Limit

Figure 3-6. Acceptance Criteria as a Function of Axial Load Ratio and Section Compactness, LS Acceptance Criteria

In terms of assessment, ASCE 41 does not explicitly address column hinges near the column-to-base
connections of a frame (similar to a beam-to-column connection). Columns are designed in accordance with
capacity design provisions in AISC 341. However, ASCE 41 does not similarly adopt a capacity design
approach for the assessment of MF columns.
Shear in Panel Zones

3-25

The acceptance criteria for shear action in panel zones are provided in ASCE 41 Table 5-5. The acceptance
criteria are not a function of the axial force demand in the panel zone.
Demand
The flexural demand, MUD, for the FR beam-to-column connections is taken as the moment at the face of
the column. The flexural demand, MUD, for the RBS (beam) is taken as the moment at the center of the
RBS. The flexural demand, MUD or MUF, and axial force, PUF, for the column are taken as the moment and
axial force at the face of the each beam (top and bottom).
Table 3-11 summarizes the basic m-factors for the components of the SMF for the linear procedures. Figure
3-7 through Figure 3-12 provide the load-independent m-factorstaking in to account force-controlled and
deformation-controlled classifications (force-controlled component actions are assigned an m-factor of
unity, see 3.1.4.1). These figures are referred to herein as Frame Capacity Schematics. The two values
given for a column represent the cases when PUF / PCL = 0.2 and 0.5, adjusted for section compactness
requirements. At PUF / PCL = 0.2 the interaction equation provides the same value when PUF / PCL < 0.2.
Table 3-11. Basic m-factors for Linear Procedures, SMF
Performance Level

Component - Action

LS

CP

Beam - Flexure
a)
b)

bf
2t f
bf
2t f

52
and
Fye

h
418

tw
Fye

65
Fye

h
640

tw
Fye

or

c) other
Column - Flexure

linear interpolation
for P UF / P CL < 0.2

a)
b)

bf
2t f
bf
2t f

h
300

52
and t
Fye
Fye
w

65
Fye

or

h
460

tw
Fye

c) other
for 0.2 P UF / P CL
bf

52

a)
and
2t f
Fye

b)

bf
2t f

65
Fye

or

h
260

tw
Fye
h
400

tw
Fye

c) other
Column Panel Zone - S hear
RBS - Flexure
1

1.25

linear interpolation
0.5

5 P
5 P
9 1
12 1

3 PCL
3 PCL

1.25

1.5

linear interpolation
8
11

4.9 - 0.025d

6.2 - 0.032d

m -fact ors shall be modified as indicat ed in ASCE 4 1 5.4.2.2.2, it em 4.

3-26

2.81

2.81

8.00
5.73, 1.49

2.82
8.00
6, 1.5

2.83
2.83
8.00

2.83
2.
83

2.84
2.84
8.00
6, 1.5

2.85
2.85
8.00

3.56
3.
56

3.57
3.57
8.00
6, 1.5

2.
2.85
85
8.00

2.
2.85
85

2.
2.85
85
8.00
6, 1.5

5.73, 1.49

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

3.55

3.55

3.56
11.00
8, 2

3.58
11.00

3.58

3.58
11.00
8, 2

3.60
11.00

4.50

4.50
11.00
8, 2

3.60
11.00

3.60

3.60
11.00
8, 2

11.00
7.64, 1.97

7.64, 1.97

8, 2

8, 2

Sym.

(a) Life Safety

(b) Collapse Prevention

(c) Key

Figure 3-7. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 4-Story SMF ELF

2.81

3.51

8.00
5.63, 1.48

3.52
8.00
6, 1.5

2.
2.81
81
8.00

3.
3.51
51

3.
3.52
52
8.00
6, 1.5

2.
2.81
81
8.00

3.
3.51
51

3.
3.52
52
8.00
6, 1.5

2.
2.81
81
8.00

3.
3.51
51

3.
3.52
52
8.00
6, 1.5

5.63, 1.48

5.63, 1.48

5.63, 1.48

(a) Life Safety

3.55

4.44

4.44
11.00
8, 2

55
3.
3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8, 2

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8, 2

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8, 2

11.00
7.49, 1.96

7.49, 1.96

7.49, 1.96

7.49, 1.96

(b) Collapse Prevention

Figure 3-8. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 4-Story SMF RSA

3-27

(c) Key

2.27

3.54

8.00
6, 1.5

3.55
8.00
6, 1.5

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6, 1.5

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6, 1.5

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6, 1.5

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6, 1.5

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6, 1.5

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6, 1.5

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

2.86

4.48

4.48
11.00
8, 2

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8, 2

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8, 2

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8, 2

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.81
11.00
8, 2

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8, 2

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8, 2

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8, 2

11.00
8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2
Sym.

(a) Life Safety

(b) Collapse Prevention

(c) Key

Figure 3-9. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 8-Story SMF ELF

1.95

3.05

8.00
4.48, 1.42

3.05
8.00
6, 1.5

2.44
8.00

3.05

3.05
8.00
6, 1.5

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6, 1.5

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6, 1.5

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6, 1.5

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6, 1.5

2.87
8.00

3.59

3.59
8.00
6, 1.5

2.87
8.00

2.87

2.88
8.00
6, 1.5

4.48, 1.42

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

2.47

3.86

3.86
11.00
8, 2

3.08
11.00

3.86

3.86
11.00
8, 2

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8, 2

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8, 2

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8, 2

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8, 2

3.63
11.00

4.54

4.54
11.00
8, 2

3.63
11.00

3.63

3.63
11.00
8, 2

11.00
5.92, 1.84

5.92, 1.84

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2
Sym.

(a) Life Safety

(b) Collapse Prevention

(c) Key

Figure 3-10. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 8-Story SMF RSA

3-28

2.31

3.60

8.00
2.37, 1.31

3.61
8.00
4.83, 1.44
3.61
8.00
4.83, 1.44

2.31
8.00

3.60

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6, 1.5

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

2.37, 1.31

4.13, 1.4

4.13, 1.4

4.83, 1.44

4.83, 1.44

5.74, 1.49

5.74, 1.49

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

2.91

4.55

11.00
3.03, 1.62

4.56
11.00
6.4, 1.88
4.56
11.00
6.4, 1.88

2.91
11.00

4.55

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8, 2

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

3.03, 1.62

5.44, 1.8

5.44, 1.8

6.4, 1.88

6.4, 1.88

7.64, 1.97

7.64, 1.97

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2
Sym.

(a) Life Safety

(b) Collapse Prevention

(c) Key

Figure 3-11. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 16-Story SMF ELF

3-29

2.31

2.88

8.00
2.37, 1.31

2.88
8.00
4.83, 1.44
3.61
8.00
4.83, 1.44

2.31
8.00

3.60

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
4.83, 1.44

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
4.83, 1.44

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6, 1.5

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6, 1.5

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6, 1.5

2.37, 1.31

4.13, 1.4

4.13, 1.4

4.13, 1.4

4.13, 1.4

4.91, 1.44

4.91, 1.44

5.74, 1.49

5.74, 1.49

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

6, 1.5

(a) Life Safety

2.91

3.64

11.00
3.03, 1.62

3.64
11.00
6.4, 1.88
4.56
11.00
6.4, 1.88

2.91
11.00

4.55

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
6.4, 1.88

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
6.4, 1.88

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8, 2

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8, 2

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8, 2

3.03, 1.62

5.44, 1.8

5.44, 1.8

5.44, 1.8

5.44, 1.8

6.51, 1.89

6.51, 1.89

7.64, 1.97

7.64, 1.97

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

8, 2

(b) Collapse Prevention

(c) Key

Figure 3-12. Frame Capacity Schematic (m-factor), LS and CP, 16-Story SMF RSA

3-30

Nonlinear Procedures
This section discusses the three primary component characteristics listed in Section 3.2.1 and computation
of the demand in the component for the nonlinear assessment procedures.
Stiffness, Strength, Acceptance Criteria, and Demand
Component characteristics follow that outlined previously for the linear procedures. Although component
stiffness is the primary characteristic in linear procedures, component strength is of equal importance in
nonlinear procedures.
The stiffnesses of all members and connections for nonlinear assessment follow ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.2 for
the NSP and 5.4.2.2.3 for the NDP. The strength of all members and connections for nonlinear assessment
follow ASCE 41 5.4.2.3.3 for the NSP and 5.4.2.3.4 for the NDP. The same analytical model is used for
both the NSP and NDPsee 3.1.3.2.
Compound elements with elastic and inelastic components are used for constructing all members in
PERFORM-3D. Elastic stiffness and strength characteristics for each component follow that outlined for
the linear procedures. Nonlinear components include the RBS beam-to-column connection modeled as a
beam flexural hinge, the column flexural hinge modeled with axial-moment (P-M) interaction, and the panel
zone modeled using the Krawinkler model (Krawinkler 1978). Figure 3-13 illustrates the analytical model
of a beam-to-column subassembly for nonlinear assessment procedures. In the figure, Default End Zones
are modeled with a flexural rigidity factor of two; a higher value is potentially too rigid to capture flexural
deformations within the joint region. Detailed information concerning all aspects of the analytical model
for nonlinear analysis can be found in PERFORM-3D Components and Elements (CSI 2011c).
The acceptance criteria in ASCE 41 for FR beam-to-column connections are derived from the results of the
SAC project (see FEMA 351 (FEMA 2000b) and FEMA 355D (FEMA 2000c)). Therefore, plastic rotation
is measured at the column face and the acceptance criteria include all effects inherent in the tested
assemblies (e.g., panel zone and column yielding). This can be problematic when distinguishing between
panel zone, beam, and column yielding effects. As the plastic rotation limits specified in ASCE 41 are
average values for the tested assembly classes, it seems appropriate to separate yielding effects in a
structural model. Therefore, beam and column hinge components and panel zone yielding components are
individually modeled for nonlinear analysis in this study. Further, acceptance criteria for RBS beam-to
column connections do not address composite action with the floor slab, thus beam properties used in the
nonlinear analysis model do not include this effect.
Flexural plasticity in beams and beam-columns is represented by nonlinear moment-curvature (MC)
relationships which in turn are based on moment-chord rotation (MR) relationships provided by ASCE 41
Table 5-6. This shift in basis highlights a discrepancy between ASCE 41 5.4.2.2.2-2 and the prescribed
acceptance criteria. Conversion between plastic rotation and plastic curvature is done using a defined plastic
hinge length, lp. An MC hinge is preferred in lieu of an MR hinge, as yield rotation, y, specified in ASCE
41 can lead to inconsistencies when beam models include rigid end offsets and when hinges are modeled
away from the column faces. Further, ASCE 41 does not provide guidance on an appropriate beam length,
lb (ASCE 41 Equation 5-1). Theoretically, there is no difference between an MC hinge and an MR hinge
3-31

model as long as the conversion procedure for all nonlinear model parameters between the two is
maintained. P-M interaction effects on a moment-curvature hinge are included in the analytical model
(discussed subsequently).

Section A-A
Moment-Curvature
PMM Hinge

Plastic
Hinge, lp
= dc

Panel Zone

Moment-Curvature Hinge
(from dummy inelastic beam)

Default
End Zone

node
Default
End Zone

Plastic
Hinge, lp
= dc

b/2

Plastic Hinge, lp = b

Elastic Beam, EIb

Elastic
Column,
EIc

Inelastic Beam

Figure 3-13. SMF Beam-to-Column Subassembly Analytical Schematic

Reduced beam sections are modeled within the beam member as elastic prismatic beam elements using the
geometric cross-section properties at the outer two-thirds of the RBS. An MC hinge is placed at the center
of the RBS with a plastic hinge length equal to the length of the RBS, b. Plastic rotation parameters
modeling the backbone curve of the FR beam-to-column connection are taken from ASCE 41 Table 5-6.
These values are converted to plastic curvature and subsequently adjusted from application at the column
face to the center of the RBS and other FR connection adjustments discussed next. Stiffness and strength
degradation are modeled based on calibrating the PERFORM-3D MODEL with experimental test data (see
Figure 3-14PERFORM-3D response is presented as Analysis). Intermediate anchor points defining the
full backbone curve are determined from calibration with experimental test data (see Figure 3-14 and Figure
3-2). The ultimate flexural strength of the MC hinge is taken as CprMCE in accordance with AISC 358
Cpr is defined in AISC 358. The residual strength ratio (c in ASCE 41 Table 5-6) is normalized to the yield
strength, MCE, not the ultimate strength as required in PERFORM-3D.
The acceptance criteria for beam-to-column connections (flexural hinge is located within the connection)
are taken from Fully Restrained Moment Connections in ASCE 41 Table 5-6 and are dependent on
connection detailing, panel zone strength in a balanced yield condition, and member and cross-section
slenderness (see ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3, 4.1 to 4.4). These reduction factors are also applied to the plastic
rotation values defining the backbone curve. This is done because the CP acceptance criteria for a primary
3-32

FR connection was taken to match asee Figure 3-2, and therefore any connection configuration that
affects the value for a also affects the acceptance criteria. Similarly, the acceptance criteria are converted
to plastic curvature and the application point is adjusted to the center of the RBS. Acceptance criteria for a
beam hinge should also be used to verify the performance of the plastic hinge in the RBS; however, as
discussed previously, it will not control unless evaluating the IO SPL. Therefore, this secondary check is
not performed in this study. Expanded commentary on beam-to-column connection versus beam hinge
acceptance criteria is needed in ASCE 41, as well as a discussion clarifying the reductions to the plastic
rotation values defining the backbone curve and acceptance criteria.
Specimen DB4 (Engelhardt et al. 1998)

Moment at Column Face (kip-in)

40000

Test Data
Analysis
Backbone

30000

W36194

20000
10000
0

-10000
-20000
-30000
-40000
-8

-6

-4

-2

Tip Displacement (inches)


Figure 3-14. PERFORM-3D RBS Calibration

PERFORM-3D flexural section strength flags (used to verify a design strength at a given location) are
placed at the column faces and at midspan of the beam to verify acceptable design of the beams and beam
to-column connections. Similarly, shear section strength flags are placed at the column faces and at the
center of the RBS to verify acceptable design of the beam-to-column connections. These section strength
flags are modified as needed for cross-section geometry, member strengths (does not typically control
beams), and design-assessment criteria prescribed in ASCE 41.
Panel zones are explicitly modeled at all beam-to-column joints using the Krawinkler model. This model
uses the force-deformation relationship intrinsic in the design equations prescribed in AISC 360 (see Figure
3-15PERFORM-3D response is presented as Analysis). However, the yield stress in the panel zone
model is taken as 0.55Fye in ASCE 41 in lieu of 0.6Fy as used in design. Figure 3-15 shows the range of
the expected demands on the panel zones (anchored to a shear strain ductility, / y, of 4). This range is
small because the probable flexural strength of the connection is used to check the panel zone strength in
design, and this connection strength is associated with Collapse Prevention (CP) of the beam-to-column
connection in ASCE 41. Only when an FR connection is strained past the CP level will the panel zone
deform outside this range; nevertheless, the CP acceptance criteria for a panel zone in ASCE 41 is three
times a shear strain ductility of 4.
3-33

900

Specimen A-2 (Krawinkler 1971)


Strength predicted by
AISC 360-10 Eq. J10-11
using 0.55Fye

600
300
0
-300

range of applicability

Difference in Beam Moments, M (kip-in)

1200

-600
-900

Test Data
Analysis

-1200
-32 -28 -24 -20 -16 -12 -8 -4

12 16 20 24 28 32

Shear Strain / Yield Shear Strain, /y


Figure 3-15. PERFORM-3D Panel Zone Calibration

Frame columns (i.e., beam-columns) are modeled similar to beams discussed previously, except that
flexural PMM MC hinges that capture the combined effects of axial force and biaxial moments are placed
near the joint region boundaries (see Figure 3-13). The plastic hinge length is assumed to be equal to the
depth of the column, dc. Out-of-plane moments are small relative to the in-plane moments in the SFRS
members because each SFRS is an isolated planar frame in the direction of loading. Plastic rotation
parameters of the flexural PMM hinges are taken from columns in ASCE 41 Table 5-6 and converted to
plastic curvature (no adjustment for hinge location is needed). Criteria for flexural hinges based on member
buckling strengths can be complex and problematic in capturing the in-plane nonlinear flexure behavior.
For example, yield rotation, y, for a column is based on section strength, Pye, while modeling parameters
and acceptance criteria (function of y) are based on member strength, PCL, without regard to the plane of
buckling. ASCE 41-13 took the first step in resolving some issues concerning steel columns by permitting
the modeling parameters to be determined using P / PCL in the plane of buckling. Still, P-M interaction
curves still require some clarification and guidance. In terms of assessment, ASCE 41 does not explicitly
address column hinges near the column-to-base connections of a frame (similar to a beam-to-column
connection).
In this study, modeling and acceptance criteria for the beam-column flexural hinges are taken as those
provided for columns in ASCE 41 Table 5-6. The P-M interaction effect on the in-plane flexural strength
of a column hinge, MCEx, where x denotes the in-plane bending axis, is modeled by the section strength of
the member (i.e., yield surface) using P / Pye in ASCE 41 Equation 5-4 (repeated below as Equation (3-15);
see Figure 3-16, Figure 3-18, and Figure 3-19). P-M interaction relationships provided in PERFORM-3D
for the yield surfaces of MC hinges in beam-columns are calibrated to approximate this curve as illustrated
in Figure 3-19.

3-34


P
M pe, x
M CEx 1.18M pe, x 1
Pye

(ASCE 41 Equation 5-4)

(3-15)

ASCE 41 Equation 5-4 is based on plastic design theory and applicable for the in-plane section strength
(strong-axis bending) of a wide flange section. AISC 360 Equation H1-1 can also be applied for computing
the in-plane section strength by using P / Pye in lieu of Pr / Pc as defined in AISC 360. Plastic design theory
also gives the out-of-plane section strength (weak-axis bending, with y denoting the out-of-plane bending
axis) of a wide flange section as Equation (3-16).

M CEy

P 2
1.19 M pe , y 1
M pe , y
Pye

(3-16)

P-M interaction effect on the plastic rotation parameters and acceptance criteria of a column hinge is
modeled by member strength using PCL, computed for buckling about any axis or failure mode independent
of the effect it may have on the in-plane flexure response of the column hinge (see Figure 3-16).
First, ASCE 41 requires a column (i.e., flexural hinge in the column) to be force-controlled for flexure when
P / PCL > 0.5 for the nonlinear procedures and references the same equation used for linear assessment. This
can be extremely problematic as separate strengths and interaction equations create discontinuities that
cannot be effectively addressed in analysis software (see Figure 3-16). This elastic interaction equation is
neglected in this study for nonlinear assessment and the hinge model obeys ASCE 41 Equation 5-4
independent of PCL. ASCE 41 Equation 5-12 is more applicable for checking member stability than defining
the section yield surface; Equation (3-17) rearranges ASCE 41 Equation 5-12 in terms of the moment
strength.

PCL

M CE M CL 1

(from ASCE 41 Equation 5-12)

(3-17)

Second, flexural hinge model parameters and associated acceptance criteria are a function of the axial load
ratio P / PCL. Provisions for this interaction in ASCE 41, however, create a discontinuity in the curve, as
shown in Figure 3-17, which cannot be effectively addressed in analysis software. PERFORM-3D provides
a simplified curve to model the variation in acceptance criteria with axial force, also shown in Figure 3-17.
The adopted curves in this study are conservative for P / PCL 0.2. Further, because of constraints on P-M
hinge models in PERFORM-3D, the model parameters (a in ASCE 41 Table 5-6 plus the elastic component
as shown in Figure 3-17, a plus elastic = DL in PERFORM-3Dsee Figure 3-2 for a and DL) do not
coincide for P / PCL > 0.2. A column hinge with high axial load can reach its peak strength (a plus elastic =
CP in this case) in regards to the provisions of ASCE 41 yet still be able to maintain its flexural strength.
In general, column hinges are not expected to be significantly strained; however, demands may affect the
performance of base hinges, which can have detrimental effects on the system upon loss of strength. More
detailed information can be found in the PERFORM-3D User Guide (CSI 2011d) and PERFORM-3D
Components and Elements (CSI 2011c). Lastly, it is of questionable validity to allow a primary column

3-35

component in a SFRS to have acceptance criteria based on a secondary component when based on a function
of P / PCL as was mentioned earlier
1.0

ASCE 41 Eq. 5-4


ASCE 41 Eq. 5-12
Single Curve Hinge Model

0.8

PCL = Pn,y = 0.6 Pye


MCL = (1.0/1.1) MCE

P / Pye

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

M / MCE
Figure 3-16. In-plane Flexural Hinge Yield Surface Model (Including Force-Controlled Response)

a + elastic - ASCE 41 Table 5-6


a + elastic - PERFORM-3D (= DL)
Life Safety AC - ASCE 41 Table 5-6
Life Safety AC - PERFORM-3D
Collapse Prevention AC - ASCE 41 Table 5-6
Collapse Prevention AC - PERFORM-3D

4000

Total Curvature ( x106 )

3500
3000

CP

2500

LS

2000
1500
1000

W18175
L = 18'-0"
PCL = Pn,y = 0.6 Pye

500
0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

P / PCL
Figure 3-17. Variation in Acceptance Criteria and Hinge Model for Axial Force

3-36

Primary Component
Life Safety

1.0
0.9

Axial Load Ratio, P/Pye

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

discontinuity in
interaction curve

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.2

0
.4

0.0

0.
6

0.
8

Moment Ratio, M/Mpe

1.
0

Notes:
1. Knowledge Factor, , taken as unity.
2. p = y values shown are not reduced to reflect compactness requirements.
3. Beam-Column with PUF / PCL < 0.1 can be treated as a beam.

Rotation Ductility

Limits, (y + p) / y

Yield Surface (ASCE 41 Eq. 5-4)


Rotation Ductility PCL = Pye
Rotation Ductility PCL = 0.85Pye
Rotation Ductility PCL = 0.75Pye
Rotation Ductility PCL = 0.60Pye

Figure 3-18. P-M Interaction on Plastic Rotation, LS Acceptance Criteria (Primary Component)

The ultimate flexural strength of the MC hinge is taken as 1.1 times MCE at P = 0. This flexural strength
increase is held constant for all values of axial force in PERFORM-3D. The residual strength ratio (c in
ASCE 41 Table 5-6) is normalized to the yield strength, MCE, at distinct P / PCL values (not P / Pye, which
is used to compute MCE) and not the ultimate strength as required in PERFORM-3D.
The column-to-base connection is modeled using an FR beam-to-column connection model in PERFORM
3D. It is reasonable to adopt an FR connection model (such as an improved welded WUF connection) to
represent the base connection because doing so will provide a lower-bound estimate of the plastic rotations
angle compared to that given explicitly for a column hinge, as shown in Table 3-12. Future research is
needed to develop acceptance criteria and modeling parameters for column-to-base connections, including
embedded connections.
Stability of a beam-column needs to be addressed in addition to capturing flexural plasticity. However,
ASCE 41 does not provide explicit provisions to check member stability when P / PCL 0.5 for nonlinear

3-37

procedures. When P / PCL > 0.5, ASCE 41 Equation 5-12 (primarily used for the linear procedures) can be
used, but is not recommended as discussed previously.
Table 3-12. Plastic Rotation Angles for Improved WUF and Column Hinge for a W18175
P=0
0.041
0.071
0.58

WUF AC
Column AC
Ratio

P = 0.1999PCL
0.038
0.065
0.58

P = 0.2PCL
0.031
0.053
0.58

P = 0.5PCL
0.0056
0.0097
0.58

In this study, section strength flags are applied to the frame columns as an indicator of member instability.
For in-plane buckling and strong axis bending, a PM strength flag is placed at the ends of the column using
AISC 360 H1.3(a) for the interaction curve using Pn,x as Pc. This approach closely aligns with ASCE 41
Equations 5-10, 5-11, and 5-12. The in-plane effective length of the column is taken as that computed for
design (i.e., adjusted K factor (see Chapter 2)). This is considered a conservative practice as the analysis
adjusts the stiffness matrix (only for material nonlinearity) at every time step and the leaning column effect
is explicitly included. However, geometric imperfections (system and member), residual stresses, and
epistemic uncertainties (i.e., factor) are not included in the mathematical model. Consequently, member
strengths based on the actual unbraced length (i.e., KLx = Lx) is of questionable validity, but so is using the
design value based on a vertical load-only load combination. Research is needed concerning in-plane
dynamic instability of inelastic members.
1.0

Axial Force Ratio (P / Pye )

0.8
ASCE 41 In-Plane Yield Surface
(Eq. 5-4)
AISC In-Plane Yield Surface
(H1-1, Pn = Pye )

0.6

PERFORM-3D In-Plane Yield Surface


( = 1.5, = 1.1)
Out-of-Plane Yield Surface
(H1-1, Pn = Pye )

0.4

PERFORM-3D Out-of-Plane Yield Surface


( = 2.5, = 1.1)

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Moment Ratio (M / Mpe )


Figure 3-19. P-M Interaction Curve (Section Yield Surface)

For out-of-plane buckling and strong axis bending, a PM strength flag is placed at the ends of the column
using AISC 360 H1.3(b) for the interaction curve and the effective length is taken as the actual unbraced
3-38

length (i.e., KLy = Ly). Adopting ASCE 41 Equations 5-10, 5-11, and 5-12 as an indicator of weak-axis
instability coupled with in-plane bending can be highly conservative. PERFORM-3D uses a single
continuous interaction curve as shown in Figure 3-20 which illustrates several interactions curves together
with the approximations from PERFORM-3D. Similar to beams, section strengths are modified as needed
based on cross-section geometry, member strengths (commonly controls columns in compression), and
design-assessment criteria prescribed in ASCE 41.

Axial Force Ratio (P / Pye )

1.0

0.8

ASCE 41 In-Plane Yield Surface


(Eq. 5-4)
AISC In-Plane Stability (Cb > 1)

0.6

PERFORM-3D In-Plane Stability (Truncated)


( = 1.75, = 1.0)
AISC Out-of-Plane Stability (Cb > 1)

0.4

PERFORM-3D Out-of-Plane Stability


( = 1.3, = 1.0)
AISC Out-of-Plane Stability (Cb > 1)

(H1-1, Pc = Pne,x )

(H1-1, Pc = Pne,y )

(H1-2, Pcy = Pne,y )


PERFORM-3D Out-of-Plane Stability
( = 1.0, = 1.5)
PERFORM-3D Out-of-Plane Stability (Truncated)
( = 2.5, = 1.25)

0.2

0.0
0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

Moment Ratio (M / Mpe )


Figure 3-20. P-M Interaction Curve (Member Strength)

Figure 3-21 through Figure 3-26 provide the load-independent acceptance criteriawith consideration of
force-controlled and deformation-controlled classifications. These figures are referred to herein as Frame
Capacity Schematics. The two values given for a column represent the cases when PUF / PCL = 0.2 and 0.5,
adjusted for section compactness requirements. At PUF / PCL = 0.2, the interaction equation does not provide
the same value when PUF / PCL < 0.2, as seen for the linear procedures.

3-39

Sym. About

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5732, 1054
LS T=B=4368, 826
YD T=B=288, 194

Beam Hinges
CP L=2541, R=3117
LS L=1986, R=2423
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3117
LS L=2423
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5247, 1030
LS T=B=4011, 808
YD T=B=275, 185

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5732, 1054
LS T=B=4368, 826
YD T=B=288, 194

Beam Hinges
CP L=R=2535
LS L=R=1978
YD L=R=197

Beam Hinges
CP L=2535
LS L=1978
YD L=197

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5247, 1030
LS T=B=4011, 808
YD T=B=275, 185

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5816, 1074
LS T=B=4440, 843
YD T=B=286, 193

Beam Hinges
CP L=R=2533
LS L=R=1976
YD L=R=194

Beam Hinges
CP L=2533
LS L=1976
YD L=194

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5069, 1018
LS T=B=3877, 799
YD T=B=272, 183

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5816, 1074
LS T=B=4440, 843
YD T=B=286, 193

Beam Hinges
CP L=R=2533
LS L=R=1976
YD L=R=194

Beam Hinges
CP L=2533
LS L=1976
YD L=194

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5069, 1018
LS T=B=3877, 799
YD T=B=272, 183

Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Panel Zones
CP 32544
LS 24408
YD 2712

RBS Beams = Total Curvature10


Panel Zones = Total Shear Strain106
Columns = Total Curvature106 (for P/PCL = 0.0, 0.5)

CP = Collapse Prevention, LS = Life Safety, YD = Yield


L = Left Hinge, R = Right Hinge, T = Top Hinge, B = Bottom Hinge
All values are for Primary Components
Figure 3-21. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 4-Story SMF ELF

Sym. About

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5722, 1066
LS T=B=4357, 834
YD T=B=290, 195

Beam Hinges
CP L=2541, R=3117
LS L=1986, R=2423
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3117
LS L=2423
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5521, 1068
LS T=B=4218, 837
YD T=B=281, 189

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5722, 1066
LS T=B=4357, 834
YD T=B=290, 195

Beam Hinges
CP L=2541, R=3117
LS L=1986, R=2423
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3117
LS L=2423
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5521, 1068
LS T=B=4218, 837
YD T=B=281, 189

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5722, 1066
LS T=B=4357, 834
YD T=B=290, 195

Beam Hinges
CP L=2541, R=3117
LS L=1986, R=2423
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3117
LS L=2423
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5521, 1068
LS T=B=4218, 837
YD T=B=281, 189

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5722, 1066
LS T=B=4357, 834
YD T=B=290, 195

Beam Hinges
CP L=2541, R=3117
LS L=1986, R=2423
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3117
LS L=2423
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=5521, 1068
LS T=B=4218, 837
YD T=B=281, 189

RBS Beams = Total Curvature106


Panel Zones = Total Shear Strain106
Columns = Total Curvature106 (for P/PCL = 0.0, 0.5)

Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Panel Zones
CP 32544
LS 24408
YD 2712

CP = Collapse Prevention, LS = Life Safety, YD = Yield


L = Left Hinge, R = Right Hinge, T = Top Hinge, B = Bottom Hinge
All values are for Primary Components
Figure 3-22. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 4-Story SMF RSA

3-40

Sym. About

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3945, 712
LS T=B=3024, 569
YD T=B=237, 159

Beam Hinges
CP L=2543, R=3119
LS L=1987, R=2425
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3119
LS L=2425
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3524, 668
LS T=B=2704, 534
YD T=B=222, 149

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3945, 712
LS T=B=3024, 569
YD T=B=237, 159

Beam Hinges
CP L=2543, R=3119
LS L=1987, R=2425
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3119
LS L=2425
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3524, 668
LS T=B=2704, 534
YD T=B=222, 149

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3582, 673
LS T=B=2748, 537
YD T=B=224, 150

Beam Hinges
CP L=2233, R=2741
LS L=1743, R=2129
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2741
LS L=2129
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3134, 639
LS T=B=2409, 511
YD T=B=212, 143

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3582, 673
LS T=B=2748, 537
YD T=B=224, 150

Beam Hinges
CP L=2233, R=2741
LS L=1743, R=2129
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2741
LS L=2129
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3134, 639
LS T=B=2409, 511
YD T=B=212, 143

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3468, 664
LS T=B=2662, 530
YD T=B=221, 148

Beam Hinges
CP L=2226, R=2733
LS L=1736, R=2121
YD L=R=172

Beam Hinges
CP L=2733
LS L=2121
YD L=172

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3048, 633
LS T=B=2344, 505
YD T=B=210, 141

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3468, 664
LS T=B=2662, 530
YD T=B=221, 148

Beam Hinges
CP L=2226, R=2733
LS L=1736, R=2121
YD L=R=172

Beam Hinges
CP L=2733
LS L=2121
YD L=172

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3048, 633
LS T=B=2344, 505
YD T=B=210, 141

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3391, 658
LS T=B=2604, 526
YD T=B=219, 147

Beam Hinges
CP L=R=2733
LS L=R=2121
YD L=R=172

Beam Hinges
CP L=2733
LS L=2121
YD L=172

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3048, 633
LS T=B=2344, 505
YD T=B=210, 141

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3391, 658
LS T=B=2604, 526
YD T=B=219, 147

Beam Hinges
CP L=R=2733
LS L=R=2121
YD L=R=172

Beam Hinges
CP L=2733
LS L=2121
YD L=172

Column Hinges
CP T=B=3048, 633
LS T=B=2344, 505
YD T=B=210, 141

RBS Beams = Total Curvature10


Panel Zones = Total Shear Strain106
Columns = Total Curvature106 (for P/PCL = 0.0, 0.5)

Roof

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Panel Zones
CP T=B=32544
LS T=B=24408
YD T=B=2712

CP = Collapse Prevention, LS = Life Safety, YD = Yield


L = Left Hinge, R = Right Hinge, T = Top Hinge, B = Bottom Hinge
All values are for Primary Components
Figure 3-23. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 8-Story SMF ELF

3-41

Figure 3-24. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 8-Story SMF RSA

3-42

Sym. About

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1904, 252
LS T=B=1472, 211
YD T=B=161, 108

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 339
LS T=B=1405, 280
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1904, 252
LS T=B=1472, 211
YD T=B=161, 108

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 339
LS T=B=1405, 280
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 295
LS T=B=1437, 245
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=1830, R=2747
LS L=1437, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 325
LS T=B=1302, 269
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 295
LS T=B=1437, 245
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=1830, R=2747
LS L=1437, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 325
LS T=B=1302, 269
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 315
LS T=B=145, 280
YD T=B=157, 106

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1899
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1899
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 315
LS T=B=145, 280
YD T=B=157, 106

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1899
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1899
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1785, 334
LS T=B=1382, 276
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1899
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1899
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1785, 334
LS T=B=1382, 276
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1899
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1899
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1701, 326
LS T=B=1318, 270
YD T=B=151, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1701, 326
LS T=B=1318, 270
YD T=B=151, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1650, 322
LS T=B=1279, 267
YD T=B=150, 101

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1650, 322
LS T=B=1279, 267
YD T=B=150, 101

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1615, 321
LS T=B=1252, 266
YD T=B=149, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1571, 316
LS T=B=1218, 262
YD T=B=147, 99

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 313
LS T=B=1191, 259
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1571, 316
LS T=B=1218, 262
YD T=B=147, 99

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 313
LS T=B=1191, 259
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1395, 302
LS T=B=1085, 250
YD T=B=140, 94

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 313
LS T=B=1191, 259
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1395, 302
LS T=B=1085, 250
YD T=B=140, 94

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 313
LS T=B=1191, 259
YD T=B=145, 98

RBS Beams = Total Curvature10


Panel Zones = Total Shear Strain106
Columns = Total Curvature106 (for P/PCL = 0.0, 0.5)

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Floor

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Floor

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Floor

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Floor

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Floor

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Floor

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

10th Floor

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Panel Zones
CP T=B=32544
LS T=B=24408
YD T=B=2712

CP = Collapse Prevention, LS = Life Safety, YD = Yield


L = Left Hinge, R = Right Hinge, T = Top Hinge, B = Bottom Hinge
All values are for Primary Components

Figure 3-25. Frame Capacity Schematic (Inelastic), YD, LS, and CP, 16-Story SMF ELF

3-43

Sym. About

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1904, 263
LS T=B=1472, 218
YD T=B=161, 108

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 357
LS T=B=1405, 293
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1904, 263
LS T=B=1472, 218
YD T=B=161, 108

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 357
LS T=B=1405, 293
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 309
LS T=B=1437, 255
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 357
LS T=B=1405, 293
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 309
LS T=B=1437, 255
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=2085, R=3125
LS L=1640, R=2429
YD L=R=207

Beam Hinges
CP L=3125
LS L=2429
YD L=207

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1815, 357
LS T=B=1405, 293
YD T=B=157, 106

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 309
LS T=B=1437, 255
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=2237, R=2747
LS L=1746, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1857, 309
LS T=B=1437, 255
YD T=B=159, 107

Beam Hinges
CP L=2237, R=2747
LS L=1746, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1719, 323
LS T=B=1328, 266
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=2237, R=2747
LS L=1746, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1719, 323
LS T=B=1328, 266
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=2237, R=2747
LS L=1746, R=2133
YD L=R=176

Beam Hinges
CP L=2747
LS L=2133
YD L=176

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1785, 351
LS T=B=1382, 289
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1889
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1889
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1630, 338
LS T=B=1264, 278
YD T=B=159, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1785, 351
LS T=B=1382, 289
YD T=B=155, 104

Beam Hinges
CP L=1992, R=2445
LS L=1556, R=1889
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1889
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1630, 338
LS T=B=1264, 278
YD T=B=159, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1728, 345
LS T=B=1338, 284
YD T=B=152, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1631, R=2445
LS L=1281, R=1889
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1889
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1630, 338
LS T=B=1264, 278
YD T=B=159, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1728, 345
LS T=B=1338, 284
YD T=B=152, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1631, R=2445
LS L=1281, R=1889
YD L=R=160

Beam Hinges
CP L=2445
LS L=1889
YD L=160

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1630, 338
LS T=B=1264, 278
YD T=B=159, 100

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1462, R=2192
LS L=1148, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 329
LS T=B=1191, 271
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1462, R=2192
LS L=1148, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 329
LS T=B=1191, 271
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1681, 342
LS T=B=1302, 281
YD T=B=151, 102

Beam Hinges
CP L=1462, R=2192
LS L=1148, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 329
LS T=B=1191, 271
YD T=B=145, 98

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1571, 333
LS T=B=1218, 274
YD T=B=147, 99

Beam Hinges
CP L=1787, R=2192
LS L=1395, R=1702
YD L=R=144

Beam Hinges
CP L=2192
LS L=1702
YD L=144

Column Hinges
CP T=B=1535, 329
LS T=B=1191, 271
YD T=B=145, 98

RBS Beams = Total Curvature10


Panel Zones = Total Shear Strain106
Columns = Total Curvature106 (for P/PCL = 0.0, 0.5)

Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Floor

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Floor

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Floor

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Floor

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Floor

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Floor

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

10th Floor

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Panel Zones
CP T=B=32544
LS T=B=24408
YD T=B=2712

CP = Collapse Prevention, LS = Life Safety, YD = Yield


L = Left Hinge, R = Right Hinge, T = Top Hinge, B = Bottom Hinge
All values are for Primary Components

Figure 3-26. Frame Capacity Schematic (inelastic), YD, LS and CP, 16-Story SMF RSA

3-44

Seismic Assessment Results


The results for the SMFs assessed using each of the four analysis procedures are presented in this section.
The following section highlights any failure to satisfy the acceptance criteria.
For the LSP and LDP, force-controlled column compression demands, PUF, are computed by taking J in
ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-2 as the minimum DCRas defined in ASCE 41of the component(s) (i.e., beam
hinges) delivering force to the member, but not less than 2.0. In this case, this method generally provides
the least conservative axial force demand estimates than that determined from a fully yielded capacity design
analysis per ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-1. However, ASCE 41 does not provide explicit guidance on performing
this capacity design analysis22 for a moment frame, as is done for an eccentrically braced frame in ASCE
41 5.5.3.4. The capacity design procedure used in this study models all beam hinges adjacent to columns
achieving Mpr. Axial force demand estimates from the capacity design procedure prescribed in AISC 341
for moment frames, which uses the system overstrength factor, , in ASCE 7 are included with those
determined from ASCE 41 in the respective analysis sections below. Force-controlled component actions
are assigned an m-factor of unity, see 3.1.4.1.
Analysis results (e.g., DCRN) for the NDP using the ground motion record set are statistically summarized
by the median, mean, 84th percentile, and mean plus one standard deviation response for both the LS BPL
(given the BSE-1 EHL) and the CP BPL (given the BSE-2 EHL). Mean and median response are presented
because (1) ASCE 41 does not discuss how to process the results in the event of a structural collapse under
a given record in the set, (2) new provisions under investigation for inclusion in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions
are being debated as to how to process results from eleven records (an increase from seven in ASCE 7-10),
and (3) the difference is small for well-performing systems that remain stable for all motions in a set. It is
the goal here that showing the mean and median will assist in developing future code provisions.
For comparison purposes only, the DCRN values obtained from the LSP, LDP, and NSP are superimposed
on the figures showing the results obtained from the NDP. Results from the NSP and NDP can be directly
compared because the basis of measurement is identical. However, caution should be used when comparing
linear and nonlinear results by inspection because the nature of the analysis is fundamentally different;
presenting them together here is not intended to imply they are equivalent. Results from the two are not
always directly comparable as linear results would first need to be converted to total demand where
applicable, and in certain cases not based on an interaction equation. Results from the linear assessment
procedures are presented alongside results from the nonlinear assessment procedures primarily to highlight
the distribution of performance predictions between the analytical methods.
For comparison purposes only, the base shears computed using the LSP and LDP are provided in 3.2.3.1.4.

22

ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-1 refers to this type of analysis as a limit state analysis.

3-45

Four-Story Moment Frame


3.2.2.1.1

Linear Static Procedure

3.2.2.1.1.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:

Figure 3-27 and Figure 3-28 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LSP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-29 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.

All component actions satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria except for the exterior beam-to-column
connections in the RSA-designed frame on the second and third floors. These connection failures are
primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR connection modifiers for panel zone strength and
clear span-to-depth limitations. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to
unity. This suggests that design rules and conventional practice (e.g., increase column sizes to offset the
use of doubler plates) can produce strong panel zones with regard to ASCE 41 criteria, which can adversely
affect the beam-to-column connection acceptance criteria. Current steel design practice, however, does not
enforce a balanced yield condition between a beam hinge and the adjacent panel zone. Moreover, it is not
logical that the FR connection reduction factors create a step function in performance. The 20 percent
reduction between the interior connections in the ELF-designed frame on the second and third floors in
Figure 3-27(b) is due to the change in the average story-height, h, when computing the panel zone
demandssee ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.2. Figure 3-27(b) and Figure 3-28(b) show that the frame columns
are deformation-controlled for flexure.
0.53

0.53

0.14
0.06

0.53
0.16
0.05

0.69
0.23

0.69

0.68
0.26
0.08

0.82
0.27

0.65

0.64
0.30
0.09

0.88
0.28

0.87

0.85
0.31
0.18

0.11

0.13

0.35

(a) DCRN

2.81

2.81

2.82
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

2.83

2.84
8.00
6.00

2.85
8.00

3.56

3.57
8.00
6.00

2.85
8.00

2.85

2.85
8.00
6.00

8.00
5.73

5.73

6.00

5.60

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-27. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

3-46

(c) Key

0.55

0.43

0.15
0.07

0.42
0.20
0.07

0.84
0.21

0.66

0.64
0.27
0.09

1.05
0.25

0.82

0.80
0.33
0.11

1.14
0.28

0.88

0.85
0.36
0.21

0.12

0.15

0.43

2.81

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

8.00
5.63

5.63

5.63

4.77

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-28. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)

Pmax (NDP)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

Pu,Capacity Design
3

PCL (ASCE 41)


3

Base

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-29. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.1.1.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-30 and Figure 3-31 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, at the LSP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values greater
than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can be
obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-32 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.

3-47

All component actions satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria except for a few beam-to-column connections
in the ELF- and RSA-designed frames on the second and third floors. As identified previously in
3.2.2.1.1.1, these connection failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR
connection modifiers for panel zone strength and clear span-to-depth limitations. Assessment results for the
panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1. Figure 3-30(b) and Figure 3-31(b)
show that the frame columns are deformation-controlled for flexure.
0.62

0.62

0.15
0.06

0.61
0.17
0.05

0.81
0.25

0.80

0.79
0.28
0.08

0.96
0.29

0.76

0.75
0.33
0.09

1.03
0.31

1.02

1.00
0.34
0.18

0.11

0.14

0.40

3.55

3.55

3.56
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

3.58

3.58
11.00
8.00

3.60
11.00

4.50

4.50
11.00
8.00

3.60
11.00

3.60

3.60
11.00
8.00

11.00
7.66

7.66

8.00

6.76

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-30. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

0.64

0.50

0.17
0.07

0.49
0.21
0.07

0.99
0.23

0.77

0.75
0.30
0.10

1.23
0.28

0.96

0.93
0.36
0.12

1.34
0.30

1.03

0.99
0.39
0.23

0.12

0.15

0.47

(a) DCRN

3.55

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

11.00
7.53

7.53

7.53

5.76

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-31. LSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-48

(c) Key

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)

Pmax (NDP)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

Pu,Capacity Design
3

PCL (ASCE 41)


3

Base

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-32. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-2

3.2.2.1.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure

3.2.2.1.2.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-33 and Figure 3-34 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-35 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All component actions satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria. Assessment results for the panel zones all
remained small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1. Figure 3-33(b) and Figure 3-34(b) show that the frame
columns are deformation-controlled for flexure.

3-49

0.45

0.46

0.12
0.06

0.45
0.13
0.05

0.56
0.18

0.56

0.55
0.21
0.07

0.66
0.21

0.53

0.52
0.24
0.08

0.75
0.24

0.74

0.72
0.27
0.16

0.09

0.12

0.31

2.81

2.81

2.82
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

2.83

2.84
8.00
6.00

2.85
8.00

3.56

3.57
8.00
6.00

2.85
8.00

2.85

2.85
8.00
6.00

8.00
5.73

5.73

6.00

5.89

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-33. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

0.47

0.37

0.13
0.06

0.36
0.17
0.06

0.69
0.17

0.54

0.53
0.22
0.08

0.85
0.20

0.67

0.65
0.27
0.10

0.97
0.24

0.76

0.73
0.30
0.20

0.10

0.14

0.38

(a) DCRN

2.81

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

2.81
8.00

3.51

3.52
8.00
6.00

8.00
5.63

5.63

5.63

5.05

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-34. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-50

(c) Key

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)

Pmax (NDP)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

Pu,Capacity Design
3

PCL (ASCE 41)


3

Base

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-35. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.1.2.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-36 and Figure 3-37 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-38 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All component actions satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria except the exterior beam-to-column
connections in the RSA-designed frame on the second floor. As identified previously in 3.2.2.1.1.1, these
connection failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR connection modifiers for
panel zone strength and clear span-to-depth limitations. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained
small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1. Figure 3-36(b) and Figure 3-37(b) show that the frame columns
are deformation-controlled for flexure.

3-51

0.53

0.53

0.13
0.06

0.52
0.15
0.05

0.66
0.20

0.65

0.65
0.23
0.08

0.78
0.23

0.61

0.61
0.26
0.09

0.88
0.26

0.87

0.85
0.29
0.18

0.11

0.13

0.37

3.55

3.55

3.56
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

3.58

3.58
11.00
8.00

3.60
11.00

4.50

4.50
11.00
8.00

3.60
11.00

3.60

3.60
11.00
8.00

11.00
7.66

7.66

8.00

7.09

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-36. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

0.55

0.43

0.14
0.07

0.41
0.18
0.06

0.80
0.18

0.63

0.61
0.24
0.09

0.99
0.22

0.78

0.75
0.29
0.11

1.14
0.26

0.88

0.85
0.33
0.21

0.12

0.15

0.46

3.55

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

3.55
11.00

4.44

4.44
11.00
8.00

11.00
7.53

7.53

7.53

6.00

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-37. LDP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)

Pmax (NDP)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

Pu,Capacity Design
3

PCL (ASCE 41)


3

Base

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

300

600

900

1200

1500

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-38. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 4-Story SMF, BSE-2

3-52

1800

2100

3.2.2.1.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure

In this section, the following apply:


Table 3-13 through Table 3-15 provide the computed NSP analysis and assessment parameters in
accordance with ASCE 41 3.3.3.
Figure 3-39 and Figure 3-40 illustrate the monotonic pushover curves for the ELF and RSAdesigned frames, respectively, at the BSE-2 EHL. Roof displacement is measured at the Center of
Mass (CoM). A significant change in base shear is due to component strength loss (e.g., plastic
hinges), notated in the figures. The softening of the pushover curve evident at about 12 inches of
roof displacement for each frame is due to column hinges developing at the base of the frames.
First-order and second-order responses, shown in these figures, aids in computing a physically
meaningful value for P- used in ASCE 41 Equation 3-17.
Figure 3-41 and Figure 3-42 illustrate the story drift ratios in terms of the roof drift ratio.
As discussed in 3.1.3.2.1, the NSP is permitted, but requires supplemental verification using the LDP
see 3.2.2.1.2. In this case, for both BSE-1 and BSE-2, the target displacement governs d for the ELF
frame whereas the displacement at the maximum base shear governs d for the RSA frame. The change in
d between BSE-1 and BSE-2 adds complexity to NSP process by changing the pushover variables. Axial
compression force in the exterior columns at the target displacement are shown previously in the linear
assessment sections.
Table 3-13. NSP General Information, 4-Story SMF (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

T1
1.81
2.19

K1
101.1
67.6

y
8.9
8.4

Vy
891
570

Ke
100.6
67.7

Te
1.82
2.18

h
1.09
1.12

peak
21.9
15.3

Vpeak
967.7
637.3

W
5172
5136

Cm
1.00
1.00

C0
1.28
1.28

Table 3-14. NSP Analysis Parameters, 4-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

Sa
0.50
0.43

R
2.90
3.86

C1
1.00
1.00

C2
1.00
1.00

t
20.6
25.5

Vt
967.7
579.5

d
20.6
15.3

P-

0.06
0.15

-0.28
-0.20

-0.01
-0.01

-0.06
-0.05

Rmax
7.61
9.33

R Rmax
OK
OK

Rmax
9.46
9.33

R Rmax
OK
OK

Table 3-15. NSP Analysis Parameters 4-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

Sa
0.33
0.29

R
1.93
2.57

C1
1.00
1.00

C2
1.00
1.00

t
13.8
17.0

Vt
945.4
636.6

d
13.8
15.3

3-53

P-

0.11
0.15

-0.18
-0.20

-0.01
-0.01

-0.04
-0.05

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


0.6

1.1

1.7

2.2

2.8

3.3

3.9

4.4

5.0

5.6
0.23

1100

0.21

Total Base Shear (Kips)

1000

0.19

(20.6,967.7)
(8.9,891.0)

900

0.17

800

0.15

700

0.14

B
Pt. A: 3 hinges reach CP on 1st Floor
Pt. B: Remaining 3 hinges reach CP on 1st Floor
Pt. C: 3 hinges reach CP on 2nd Floor

600
500

0.12

0.10

(36.3,534.6)

400

0.08

300

0.06

ELF (First-Order)
ELF (Second-Order)
ELF Idealized Backbone

200

Total Base Shear / W

1200

0.0

0.04

100

0.02

0.00
0

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

5.0

5.6
0.23

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-39. 4-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


0.0

0.6

1.1

1.7

2.2

2.8

3.3

3.9

1100

0.21

RSA (First-Order)
RSA (Second-Order)
RSA Idealized Backbone

1000

Total Base Shear (Kips)

4.4

0.19

900

0.18

800

0.16

700

0.14

(15.3,637.3)

600

(8.4,570.0)

500

0.12
B

0.10

400

0.08

300

(37.6,342.0)

Pt. A: 1 hinge reaches CP on 1st Floor


Pt. B: 1 hinge reaches CP on 1st Floor
Pt. C: 1 hinge reaches CP on 1st Floor
Pt. D: 1 hinge reaches CP on 2nd Floor

200

0.06
0.04

100

0.02

0.00
0

12

16

20

24

28

32

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-40. 4-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2

3-54

36

40

Total Base Shear / W

1200

3.0%

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
Roof

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-41. 4-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

3.0%

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
Roof

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-42. 4-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

3-55

2.0%

Of particular interest in the pushover curves is the large disparity between the peak base shears developed
in the ELF- and RSA-designed buildings (RSA / ELF = 637 / 968 = 0.66), a 34 percent change. At first
glance, this is greater than the 15 percent difference in design base shears allowed by ASCE 7. Upon further
inspection, it can be reasoned that the primary contribution to this disparity is due to the increase in strength
provided to the ELF-designed frame to satisfy drift provisions in ASCE 7 (i.e., 15 percent plus additional
strength)see NSP discussion in the 8-story results for more information.
Figure 3-43 illustrates which frame columns are force-controlled for flexure for both the NSP and NDP; all
flexural actions are deformation-controlled in these frames. Figure 3-44 through Figure 3-47 illustrate the
DCRN values if greater than unity for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames at the target displacement for the
LS BPL at the BSE-1 EHL and CP BPL at the BSE-2 EHL. These figures illustrate demands when the
system is loaded to the right. The only performance concern observed is the exterior beam-to-column
connections on the second floor in the RSA-designed frame at the BSE-2. As discussed previously in the
linear assessment sections, the acceptance criteria of these components are impacted by the FR connection
modifiers.
B

Sym. About

E
Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Fl o or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

A ll colum ns are deformationcontrolled (DC) for flexur e u nless


indicated as force-controlled (FC)
in figur e

Colu mn is f or ce-controlled for flexur e if


P > 0.5PCL, where P is computed at the
target displacement for the NS P and as
the maximum value f or the ND P

Figure 3-43. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 4-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)

3-56

Figure 3-44. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

E
Roof

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

DCRN 1.0

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

0.9 DCRN < 1.0


0.8 DCRN < 0.9

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

0.7 DCRN < 0.8


DCRN < 0.7

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Figure 3-45. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

Figure 3-46. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

3-57

Figure 3-47. NSP Assessment Results, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

3.2.2.1.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure

The earthquake record set used to assess the E-W direction of MC4 is shown in Appendix A. For the ELF
design, the analysis successfully completed for all 14 records at the BSE-1 and BSE-2 EHL. For the RSA
design, the analysis successfully completed for all 14 records at the BSE-1 EHL; however, four analyses
did not complete at the BSE-2 EHL due to excessive lateral drift. Maximum axial compression force in the
exterior column lines from the record set are shown previously in the linear assessment sections.
Figure 3-48 through Figure 3-51 show the performance of the beam hinges (i.e., beam-to-column
connections) at the BSE-1 (LS BPL) and BSE-2 (CP BPL) for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames,
respectively. The results from the LSP, LDP, and NSP (loaded to the right) are included in the figures.
Comparison discussions between the various procedures are addressed subsequently. As is evident from
the figures, the ELF-designed frame performs better than the RSA-designed frame. Results for the RSAdesigned frame indicate that the exterior beam-to-column connections have difficulty satisfying the CP
BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL (primarily based on mean response). In contrast to the mean
response, the median response generally indicates better performance because it is less influenced by large
deformations resulting from component strength loss potentially resulting in collapse of the system.
Consequently, the median is potentially a more stable performance metric when analyzing a large number
of ground motion records, but should be restrained relative to a mean value.
The average ratio of secondary to primary component acceptance criteria for an RBS beam-to-column
connection for all W18 sections and deeper is 1.49 for the CP SPL (1.47 for the LS SPL). The figures for
the RSA-designed frame illustrate that this value is exceeded in the exterior beam-to-column connections
at the BSE-2 EHL. This highlights the rapid analytical progression towards a collapsed state when several
components are strained past the deformation associated with their peak strengthsee 3.1.4.2.

3-58

Roof
1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

2
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge
Base

Bay B-C
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Bay C-D
0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Bay D-E
1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-48. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

Roof
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge
1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

Base

Bay B-C
0.0

0.5

1.0

Bay C-D

1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Bay D-E
2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-49. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-59

2.0

Roof
1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

2
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge
Base

Bay B-C
0.0

0.5

1.0

Bay C-D
1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

Bay D-E
1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-50. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

Floor ID

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Base

Bay B-C
0

Bay C-D
3

Bay D-E
3

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-51. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

The previous figures for the RSA-designed frame illustrate that the component strengths provided by drift
control measures in ASCE 7 at MCER (equal to the BSE-1 here) are not significant enough to overcome
the demands to satisfy the assessment criteria at the BSE-2 (taken here as MCER). In contrast, the ELFdesigned frame satisfies the assessment criteria at the BSE-2. First, strong panel zones reduce the allowable
deformations in the acceptance criteria and component model for the exterior beam-to-column connections.
Second, the increase in hinge demands in the lower floors is attributed primarily to design choices, as drift
is typically not a primary concern in these regions and thus beam strengths seldom get increased
3-60

significantly. Also contributing to this increase, to a lesser extent, is the distribution of the design forces
from the MRSA. This effect highlights the change in story demands as column base hinges develop, an
influence not addressed in elastic design analysis. However, a secondary design analysis to address the
effects of pinned column bases could be conductednot done in this study.
Figure 3-43 (see NSP section) illustrates which flexural actions in the frame columns are force-controlled
for both the NSP and NDP; all flexural actions are deformation-controlled in these frames. Figure 3-52 and
Figure 3-53 show the performance of the column hinges for the CP BPL criteria at the BSE-2 EHL (LS
BPL for the BSE-1 is not shown). Column hinges at the base experience inelastic strain demands (yield
corresponds to a DCRN 0.15 in the figures). However, the deformation demands are considerably lower
than the primary CP acceptance criteria.
The DCRN results for the LSP and LDP are based on an interaction equation and not from MUD / mMCE, or
MUF / MCL, which would be a more physically consistent metric for comparison against the results from the
nonlinear assessment procedures. Nonetheless, the linear results are applicable here because the columns
are also deformation-controlled for flexure in the linear assessment procedures. Though there is a
fundamental difference in how the DCRN is computed for the linear and nonlinear procedures, the linear
assessment results show similar distributions of demands and location of potential performance concerns.
Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

All columns are


deformation-controlled
for flexure

DCRN for the LSP and

Floor ID

LDP are based on


interaction equations.

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Base

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-52. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-61

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

All columns are


deformation-controlled
for flexural actions.

DCRN for the LSP and

Floor ID

Col. Line C

LDP are based on


interaction equations.

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Base

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-53. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Figure 3-54 and Figure 3-55 show the curvature ductility demand of the column hinges (i.e., section
strength) at the BSE-2 EHL. Figure 3-56 and Figure 3-57 show the elastic member strength interaction
results at the BSE-2 EHL. The results indicate that the columns in the ELF- and RSA-designed frames
satisfy the intended lower-bound acceptance criteria.
Roof

Col. Line B

Floor ID

Col. Line C

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP

LSP
LDP

All columns are


deformation-controlled
for flexural actions.

Base
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-54. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield

3-62

Roof

Col. Line C

Col. Line B

All columns are


deformation-controlled
for flexural actions.

Floor ID

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

Base
0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-55. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield

Roof

Col. Line B

All columns are deformation-controlled for flexure


Col. Line C
Col. Line D

Col. Line E
Median

Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP
LDP

Floor ID

Base
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

DCRN = P-M Interation Result


(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)
Figure 3-56. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-63

Roof

Col. Line B

All columns are deformation-controlled for flexure


Col. Line C
Col. Line D

Col. Line E
Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP
LDP

Floor ID

Base
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

DCRN = P-M Interation Result

(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)

Figure 3-57. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Figure 3-58 and Figure 3-59 show the performance of the panel zones for the CP BPL criteria at the BSE
2 EHL (LS BPL for the BSE-1 is not shown). The deformation demands are significantly lower than the
CP acceptance criteria. Converting the results to total deformation / yield deformation indicates that the
demands for the BSE-2 are consistently less than 4y. These results illustrate that the panel zones are
stronger than required by the assessment criteria, which may be the result of designing panel zones for the
probable connection strength in lieu of the nominal yield strength (i.e., My) as recommended in FEMA 350.
Also, upsizing column sizes to offset the need for doubler plates increases the shear strength of the panel
zones. Future research should investigate alternative design procedures for panel zones as well as the
variation in performance if columns sizes were not increased and doubler plates were added. This research
would include the variation in the performance of column base hinges or column-to-base connections.

3-64

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

Base

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-58. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 4-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

Base

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-59. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 4-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-65

Eight-Story Moment Frame


3.2.2.2.1

Linear Static Procedure

3.2.2.2.1.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:

Figure 3-60 and Figure 3-61 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LSP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-62 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.

All beam-to-column and panel zone component actions satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria except for
the exterior beam-to-column connections in the RSA-designed frame on the third through sixth floors.
These connection failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR connection modifiers
for panel zone strength and clear span-to-depth limitations. The 20 percent reduction between the interior
connections in the RSA-designed frame on the second and third floors in Figure 3-61(b) is due to the change
in the average story-height, h, when computing the panel zone demandssee ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.2.
These figures illustrate that drift and stability control in ASCE 7 provides a significant amount of member
overstrength so that beam-to-column connections in the ELF-designed frame easily satisfy the LS BPL
acceptance criteria. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee
3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several columns do not satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria using the interaction equation because they
are designated as force-controlled for flexure since PUF exceeds 0.5PCL. Force-controlled designation can
be particularly problematic for base columns where plastic hinges are expected to form. As discussed
previously in 3.2.2, PUF is determined by taking J (ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-2) as the minimum DCR of the
component(s) delivering force to the column, but not less than 2.0; interior columns are not applicable
because PE is essentially zero. This approach produces the least conservative PUF as compared to AISC 341
SMF column design requirements and the fully yielded system as prescribed in ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-1, as
shown in Figure 3-62. It does not seem justified that force-controlled response be triggered by PUF / PCL in
lieu of PUF / Pye, more so when PCL is governed by any buckling mode other than in-plane flexural buckling.
First, PCL can be controlled by flexural buckling about the weak-axis, which is a failure mode that should
be treated separately from the formation of a plastic hinge from in-plane bending. Second, PCL varies based
on the length of a member whereas Pye is constant. ASCE 41-13 took the first step in resolving this
inconsistency by permitting PUF / PCL to be computed in the plane of bending.

3-66

0.54

0.36

0.13
0.13

0.39
0.17
0.07

0.66
0.17

0.54

0.57
0.22
0.11

0.62
0.22

0.50

0.54
0.23
0.10

0.70
0.23

0.57

0.59
0.25
0.12

0.70
0.24

0.56

0.58
0.27
0.13

0.74
0.24

0.59

0.60
0.28
0.14

0.61
0.22

0.59

0.59
0.27
0.15

0.59
0.22

0.57

0.56
0.26
0.36

0.40

0.16

0.35

0.39

0.51

0.56

1.48

2.27

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6.00

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6.00

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
5.64

8.00
6.00

4.24

6.00

4.70

4.23

2.95

2.39

1.00

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-60. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

0.76

0.52

0.16
0.16

0.56
0.19
0.08

0.93
0.22

0.78

0.80
0.26
0.12

0.99
0.27

0.81

0.83
0.34
0.14

1.12
0.29

0.90

0.92
0.37
0.17

1.07
0.33

0.86

0.88
0.37
0.15

1.08
0.32

0.86

0.88
0.36
0.18

1.05
0.22

0.79

0.76
0.35
0.28

1.00
0.20

0.92

0.85
0.32
0.47

0.58

1.13

1.39

0.60

1.07

0.48

1.46

(a) DCRN

1.95

3.05

3.05
8.00
6.00

2.44
8.00

3.05

3.05
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6.00

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6.00

2.87
8.00

3.59

3.59
8.00
5.76

2.87
8.00

2.87

2.88
8.00
4.59

8.00
5.86

2.43

1.00

1.00

2.47

1.00

3.06

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-61. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-67

(c) Key

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])
8

Pmax (NDP)

7
6

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


8

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

Base

PUF (J = 1)

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-62. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.2.1.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-63 and Figure 3-64 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LSP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-65 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column and panel zone component actions satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria except for
the beam-to-column connections in the RSA-designed frame on the second through eighth floors. As
identified previously, in 3.2.2.2.1.1these connection failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a
result of the FR connection modifiers for panel zone strength and clear span-to-depth limitations.
Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several columns do not satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria using the interaction equation because they
are designated as force-controlled for flexure because of PUF exceeding 0.5PCL (see previous discussion
in 3.2.2.2.1.1). Further, comparing Figure 3-62 and Figure 3-65 illustrates that adopting a constant J factor
of 2.0 for both performance levels is inconsistent with the intent of capacity design because of the change
in the variation between PUF and PCapacity Design in the figures. Although a column can satisfy the criteria for
BSE-1, it may fail the criteria for BSE-2 because of an overly conservative value for PUF. Consequently, J
should vary between performance levels for consistency.

3-68

0.63

0.42

0.14
0.14

0.45
0.18
0.08

0.78
0.19

0.63

0.66
0.24
0.11

0.73
0.24

0.59

0.63
0.25
0.11

0.82
0.25

0.66

0.70
0.27
0.12

0.83
0.26

0.66

0.68
0.30
0.14

0.88
0.27

0.69

0.71
0.30
0.15

0.72
0.24

0.69

0.69
0.30
0.16

0.70
0.24

0.67

0.66
0.29
0.38

0.48

0.30

0.44

0.50

0.74

1.08

2.06

2.86

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8.00

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8.00

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.81
11.00
8.00

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8.00

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8.00

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
7.47

11.00
8.00

4.72

7.33

5.07

4.20

2.00

1.00

1.00

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-63. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

0.89

0.60

0.18
0.17

0.64
0.21
0.09

1.09
0.25

0.89

0.93
0.29
0.13

1.17
0.29

0.94

0.97
0.37
0.16

1.32
0.31

1.06

1.08
0.40
0.19

1.26
0.36

1.01

1.04
0.40
0.16

1.27
0.35

1.01

1.03
0.39
0.19

1.23
0.24

0.93

0.89
0.39
0.29

1.17
0.22

1.08

0.99
0.35
0.49

0.66

1.41

1.72

0.77

1.34

0.58

1.89

(a) DCRN

2.47

3.86

3.86
11.00
8.00

3.08
11.00

3.86

3.86
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8.00

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8.00

3.63
11.00

4.54

4.54
11.00
7.66

3.63
11.00

3.63

3.63
11.00
6.10

11.00
7.82

2.64

1.00

1.00

2.02

1.00

2.80

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-64. LSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-69

(c) Key

Roof

Roof

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


8

Pmax (NDP)

7
6

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

2
Base

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-65. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-2

3.2.2.2.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure

3.2.2.2.2.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-66 and Figure 3-67 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-68 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column connection and panel zone component actions satisfy the LS BPL for the ELF- and
RSA-designed frames. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee
3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several columns do not satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria using the interaction equation as they are
designated as force-controlled for flexure because of PUF exceeding 0.5PCL (see previous discussion in
3.2.2.2.1.1).

3-70

0.47

0.32

0.11
0.12

0.33
0.14
0.06

0.54
0.13

0.45

0.45
0.17
0.10

0.46
0.16

0.38

0.40
0.17
0.08

0.50
0.17

0.41

0.43
0.18
0.10

0.52
0.17

0.41

0.43
0.20
0.11

0.57
0.19

0.45

0.46
0.21
0.13

0.49
0.18

0.48

0.47
0.22
0.14

0.50
0.18

0.48

0.47
0.22
0.34

0.37

0.13

0.30

0.33

0.42

0.45

1.28

2.27

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6.00

3.03
8.00

3.78

3.79
8.00
6.00

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.05
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
6.00

3.81
8.00

3.81

3.81
8.00
5.66

8.00
6.00

4.49

6.00

5.17

4.85

3.78

3.33

1.00

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-66. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

0.71

0.49

0.15
0.15

0.50
0.18
0.07

0.78
0.18

0.66

0.67
0.21
0.10

0.75
0.19

0.61

0.62
0.25
0.12

0.82
0.21

0.66

0.67
0.26
0.15

0.78
0.24

0.63

0.64
0.27
0.13

0.81
0.24

0.65

0.66
0.27
0.16

0.83
0.17

0.63

0.60
0.28
0.27

0.84
0.17

0.77

0.71
0.27
0.45

0.52

0.68

1.18

0.48

0.66

0.40

0.84

(a) DCRN

1.95

3.05

3.05
8.00
6.00

2.44
8.00

3.05

3.05
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.83
8.00

3.54

3.55
8.00
6.00

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6.00

2.86
8.00

3.57

3.58
8.00
6.00

2.87
8.00

3.59

3.59
8.00
5.77

2.87
8.00

2.87

2.88
8.00
4.56

8.00
5.86

2.58

1.83

1.00

3.22

1.81

3.84

1.78

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-67. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-71

(c) Key

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

Pmax (NDP)

7
6

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


8

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

Base

PUF (J = 1)

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-68. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.2.2.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-69 and Figure 3-70 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-71 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column connection and panel zone component actions satisfy the CP BPL for the ELF- and
RSA-designed frames. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee
3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several columns do not satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria using the interaction equation as they are
designated as force-controlled for flexure because of PUF exceeding 0.5PCL (see previous discussion in
3.2.2.2.1.1).

3-72

0.58

0.38

0.12
0.13

0.40
0.16
0.07

0.64
0.15

0.52

0.54
0.19
0.11

0.54
0.17

0.44

0.47
0.18
0.09

0.60
0.18

0.48

0.51
0.20
0.11

0.62
0.19

0.49

0.50
0.22
0.12

0.67
0.20

0.53

0.54
0.23
0.13

0.58
0.20

0.56

0.55
0.24
0.14

0.59
0.20

0.57

0.55
0.24
0.35

0.44

0.25

0.36

0.40

0.52

0.58

1.77

2.86

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8.00

3.82
11.00

4.78

4.78
11.00
8.00

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.81
11.00
8.00

3.85
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8.00

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
8.00

4.81
11.00

4.81

4.82
11.00
7.50

11.00
8.00

5.14

7.83

6.02

5.43

3.67

2.88

1.00

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors

(c) Key

Figure 3-69. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

0.83

0.56

0.16
0.16

0.58
0.19
0.08

0.91
0.20

0.75

0.77
0.23
0.11

0.88
0.21

0.71

0.73
0.27
0.13

0.96
0.22

0.77

0.78
0.29
0.16

0.92
0.26

0.74

0.76
0.29
0.14

0.95
0.26

0.76

0.77
0.29
0.17

0.98
0.19

0.74

0.70
0.30
0.28

0.98
0.19

0.90

0.83
0.29
0.47

0.61

1.29

1.53

0.59

1.14

0.48

1.72

(a) DCRN

2.47

3.86

3.86
11.00
8.00

3.08
11.00

3.86

3.86
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.58
11.00

4.48

4.48
11.00
8.00

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8.00

3.61
11.00

4.51

4.52
11.00
8.00

3.63
11.00

4.54

4.54
11.00
7.67

3.63
11.00

3.63

3.63
11.00
6.05

11.00
7.82

2.79

1.00

1.00

3.12

1.00

3.96

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-70. LDP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-73

(c) Key

Roof

Roof
PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


8

PUF (J = 1)

PUF (J = 1)

Pmax (NDP)

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)

Pu,Capacity Design

PCL (ASCE 41)

Floor

Floor

P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

Base

Pmax (NDP)

Base
0

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

2100

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-71. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 8-Story SMF, BSE-2

3.2.2.2.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure

In this section, the following apply:


Table 3-16 through Table 3-18 provide the computed NSP analysis and assessment parameters in
accordance with ASCE 41 3.3.3.
Figure 3-72 and Figure 3-73 illustrate the monotonic pushover curves for the ELF- and RSAdesigned frames, respectively, and the associated pushover parameters from ASCE 41 at the BSE
2 EHL. Roof displacement is measured at the Center of Mass (CoM). A significant change in base
shear is due to component strength loss (e.g., plastic hinges), notated in the figures. The softening
of the pushover curve evident at about 20 inches of roof displacement for each frame is due to
column hinges developing at the base of the frames. First-order and second-order responses, shown
in these figures, aids in computing a physically meaningful value for P- used in ASCE 41
Equation 3-17.
Figure 3-74 and Figure 3-75 illustrate the story drift ratios in terms of the roof drift ratio.
As discussed in 3.1.3.2.1, the NSP is permitted, but requires supplemental verification using the LDP
see 3.2.2.2.2. In this case for both the BSE-1 and BSE-2 EHLs, the displacement at the maximum base
shear governs d for both the ELF- and RSA-designed frames. Axial compression force in the exterior
columns at the target displacement are shown previously in the linear assessment sections. Results indicate
that the NSP generally results in a lower estimate of the axial force demands compared to the other methods
used in this study. This is partly because the fundamental mode-based lateral force distribution does not
adequately capture higher mode effects. Also, the target displacement at the roof computed based on
fundamental mode properties may underestimate the story demands in the upper stories.
Figure 3-72 also includes a curve representing the force-displacement response if the column base hinges
did not develop, such as for the case when columns are oversized. In this case, the target displacement
3-74

controls d and P- would be zero (or even positive). The second-order curves shown in the figure illustrate
the potential sensitivity of NSP results when base column hinges develop in moment framesincluding
the effect of modeling parameters used for the hinges. Furthermore, the NSP is not permitted for assessment
of the E-W direction of MC8 for the RSA-designed frame since R > Rmax for the BSE-2 EHLresults are
provided here only for performance comparison between systems. However, the ratio of R / Rmax (= 1.01)
would likely be acceptable in practice.
Table 3-16. NSP General Information, 8-Story SMF (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

T1
2.79
3.60

K1
76.9
41.5

y
13.7
14.9

Vy
1050
623

Ke
76.9
41.7

Te
2.79
3.59

peak
19.1
26.3

h
1.15
1.19

Vpeak
1116.9
664.8

W
10618
10527

Cm
1.00
1.00

C0
1.32
1.33

Table 3-17. NSP Analysis Parameters, 8-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

Sa
0.33
0.26

R
3.37
4.35

C1
1.00
1.00

t
33.5
43.3

C2
1.00
1.00

Vt
1092.3
593.2

d
19.1
26.3

P-

0.16
0.09

-0.25
-0.31

-0.02
-0.10

-0.07
-0.14

Rmax
6.88
4.31

R Rmax
OK
R > Rmax

Rmax
6.88
4.31

R Rmax
OK
OK

Table 3-18. NSP Analysis Parameters 8-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch)
Sa
0.22
0.17

R
2.25
2.90

C1
1.00
1.00

t
22.4
28.8

C2
1.00
1.00

Vt
1113.0
660.7

d
19.1
26.3

P-

0.16
0.09

-0.25
-0.31

-0.02
-0.10

-0.07
-0.14

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


0.0

0.4

0.7

1.1

1.4

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.6
0.15

1400

0.13

1200

0.11

(19.1,1116.9)

1000

0.09

(13.7,1050.0)
A

800

Pt. A: Ext. column base hinge reaches CP, followed


by 2 hinges reach CP on 1st Floor
Pt. B: Remaining 4 hinges reach CP on 1st Floor
2 hinges reach CP on 2nd Floor
Pt. C: Remaining column hinges reach CP

600
400

0.08
B

ELF (First-Order)
ELF (Second-Order)
ELF Idealized Backbone
ELF (First-Order) No Column Hinges
ELF (Second-Order) No Column Hinges

200

0.06

(44.9,630.0)

0.04
0.02
C

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-72. 8-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2

3-75

45

50

Total Base Shear / W

1600

Total Base Shear (Kips)

Design
ELF
RSA

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


0.4

1.1

1.4

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.6
0.15

RSA (First-Order)
RSA (Second-Order)
RSA Idealized Backbone

1400

Total Base Shear (Kips)

0.7

0.13

1200

0.11

1000

0.09

800

0.08
(26.3,664.8)

600

0.06

(14.9,623.0)

A
B
C

400

Total Base Shear / W

1600

0.0

0.04

(48.6,373.8)
Pt. A: Ext. column base hinge reaches CP
Pt. B: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on both
1st and 2nd Floor
Pt. C: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on 3rd Floor

200

0.02

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-73. 8-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2

3.0%

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
5th Story
6th Story
7th Story
8th Story
Roof

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-74. 8-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

3-76

2.0%

3.0%

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
5th Story
6th Story
7th Story
8th Story
Roof

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-75. 8-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

Of particular interest in the pushover curves is the large disparity between the peak base shears developed
in the ELF- and RSA-designed buildings (RSA / ELF = 665 / 1117 = 0.6), a 40 percent change. At first
glance, this is greater than the 15 percent difference in design base shears allowed by ASCE 7. Upon further
inspection, it can be reasoned that the primary contribution to this disparity is due to the increase in strength
provided to the ELF-designed frame to satisfy drift provisions in ASCE 7 (i.e., 15 percent plus additional
strength). To a lesser extent, the distribution of the lateral forces in the NSP do not coincide with the
allocation of the story shear yield strengths (as shown in Figure 3-76 and Figure 3-77), which results in
capping the base shear if the initial story mechanism develops above the first story (as is the case for the
RSA-designed frame). The oval in these figures illustrates the first floor to develop its defined yield
strength, Vy, and the color-code for the expected plastic hinges match that provided in Figure 3-79.
Figure 3-78 illustrates which frame columns are force-controlled for flexure for both the NSP and NDP;
red circles indicate anticipated plastic hinge locations that are force-controlled for flexure at the target
displacement. As shown in the figure, the force-controlled columns do not align between the two frames
the axial load ratios, P / PCL, for the exterior base columns are 0.58 and 0.48 for the ELF- and RSA-designed
frames, respectively (0.26 and 0.64 at the fifth story). This illustrates the sensitivity of results due to
variations between the non-adaptive loading profile in the NSP and that used for design. Figure 3-79
through Figure 3-82 illustrate the DCRN values if greater than unity for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames
at the target displacement for the LS BPL at the BSE-1 EHL and CP BPL at the BSE-2 EHL. These figures
illustrate the demands when the system is loaded to the right. All component actions for the beam-to-column
connections and panel zones satisfy the LS and CP BPL acceptance criteria at the target displacements.
However, assuming deformation-controlled flexural actions, the exterior base column hinge for both frames
fail the CP BPL primary acceptance criteria. This is a corollary to a column plastic hinge model (section
3-77

strength) being a function of PCL (based on member stability) and not Pye (based on section strength), as
well as the adopted P-M interaction equation (see previous discussion on nonlinear model). This also
indicates that this may be the first hinge to experience significant strength loss (P / PCL = 0.28 for gravity
loads alonesee summary section for calculations). As it is an exterior base column, this could be
detrimental to the performance of the system.

Expected Story Strength, V


y

Roof

1st Mode Lateral Force Distribution


1st Mode Lateral Force Distribution
(at First Expected Story Strength)
Design Lateral Force Distribution

Building: MC8
SFRS: SMF (E-W)
Design: ELF

Floor ID

First Expected
Story Strength

or

Base

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Story Shear (kips)

(a) story shear comparison

(b) mechanism schematic

Figure 3-76. Story Shear Demand to Strength Comparison, ELF

Expected Story Strength, V


y

Roof

1st Mode Lateral Force Distribution


1st Mode Lateral Force Distribution
(at First Expected Story Strength)
Design Lateral Force Distribution

Building: MC8
SFRS: SMF (E-W)
Design: RSA

Floor ID

First Expected Story Strength

or

Base

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Story Shear (kips)

(a) story shear comparison

(b) mechanism schematic

Figure 3-77. Story Shear Demand to Strength Comparison, RSA

3-78

Several exterior columns, including those at the base of the ELF-designed frame, are force-controlled for
flexure at the target displacements. Force-controlled base columns are problematic for a region that is
expected to experience inelastic strain demands. Therefore, the acceptance criterion for these flexural
actions is based on the force-controlled lower-bound elastic P-M interaction (ASCE 41 Equation 5-12). As
discussed previously, variations in P-M interaction curves add complexity to nonlinear flexural hinge
model. Essentially, a nonlinear hinge based on the expected yield surface of the section must be
accompanied by another model that can measure the lower-bound strength of the member (one for each
axis of buckling). For simplicity, failing of the acceptance criteria (without computing interaction values)
is self-evident because of the development of plastic hinges in the frame columns. Because plastic hinges
have developed in the base columns in the ELF-design frame, flexural actions therefore do not satisfy the
intended elastic acceptance criteria. Conversely, the force-controlled columns in the RSA frame satisfy the
intended elastic acceptance criteriamember stability would still need to be verified.
B

Sym. About

E
Roof

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Floor
(ELEV = 102 ft.)
7th Floor
(ELEV = 88 ft.)
6th Floor
(ELEV = 74 ft.)

RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

5th Floor
(ELEV = 60 ft.)
4th Floor
(ELEV = 46 ft.)
3rd Flo or
(ELEV = 32 ft.)
2nd Flo or
(ELEV = 18 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


ELF NSP LS & CP

All colum ns are deformationcontrolled (DC) for flexure unless


indicated as for ce-controlled (FC)
in figur e

Column is f or ce-controlled for flexur e if


P > 0.5PCL, wher e P is computed at the
target displacement for the NSP and as
the maxim um value f or the NDP

Figure 3-78. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 8-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)

3-79

E
Roof
(ELEV = 116 ft.)
8th Flo or
(ELEV = 102 ft.)
7th Flo or
(ELEV = 88 ft.)
6th Flo or
(ELEV = 74 ft.)

DCRN 1.0

5th Flo or
(ELEV = 60 ft.)

0.9 DCRN < 1.0


0.8 DCRN < 0.9

4th Flo or
(ELEV = 46 ft.)

0.7 DCRN < 0.8


DCRN < 0.7

3rd Floor
(ELEV = 32 ft.)
2nd Flo or
(ELEV = 18 ft.)

(< 1.0 if DC) 2.45

(< 1.0 if DC)

4.01

Figure 3-79. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

E
Roof

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

DCRN 1.0

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

0.9 DCRN < 1.0


0.8 DCRN < 0.9

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

0.7 DCRN < 0.8


DCRN < 0.7

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Flo or

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

1.26

Figure 3-80. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

3-80

E
Roof
(ELEV = 116 ft.)
8th Flo or
(ELEV = 102 ft.)
7th Flo or
(ELEV = 88 ft.)
6th Flo or
(ELEV = 74 ft.)

DCRN 1.0

5th Flo or
(ELEV = 60 ft.)

0.9 DCRN < 1.0


0.8 DCRN < 0.9

4th Flo or
(ELEV = 46 ft.)

0.7 DCRN < 0.8


DCRN < 0.7

3rd Floor
(ELEV = 32 ft.)
2nd Flo or
(ELEV = 18 ft.)

(< 1.0 if DC) 6.42

(2.11 if DC)

9.43

Figure 3-81. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

E
Roof

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

DCRN 1.0

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

0.9 DCRN < 1.0


0.8 DCRN < 0.9

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

0.7 DCRN < 0.8


DCRN < 0.7

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Flo or

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

2.38

Figure 3-82. NSP Assessment Results, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

3-81

3.2.2.2.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure

The earthquake record set used to assess the E-W direction of MC8 is shown in Appendix A. For the ELF
design, the analysis successfully completed for all 14 records at the BSE-1 EHL; however, three analyses
did not complete at the BSE-2 EHL because of excessive lateral drift or solution non-convergence. For the
RSA design, the analysis successfully completed for 12 records at the BSE-1 EHL; however, nine analyses
did not complete at the BSE-2 EHL because of excessive lateral drift or solution non-convergence.
Maximum axial compression force in the exterior column lines from the record set are shown previously in
the linear assessment sections.
Figure 3-83 through Figure 3-86 show the performance of the beam hinges (i.e., beam-to-column
connections) at the BSE-1 (LS BPL) and BSE-2 (CP BPL) for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames,
respectively. The results from the LSP, LDP, and NSP (loaded to the right) are included in the figures.
Comparison discussions between the various procedures are addressed subsequently. As is evident from
the figures, the ELF-designed frame performs better than the RSAdesigned frame. Results for the RSAdesigned frame indicate that the beam-to-column connections have difficulty satisfying the CP BPL
acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL (primarily based on mean response). In contrast to the mean response,
the median response indicates better performance at all stories because it is less influenced by large
deformations resulting from component strength loss potentially resulting in collapse of the system.
Consequently, the median is potentially a more stable performance metric when analyzing a large number
of ground motion records, but should be restrained relative to a mean value. Further, there is a strong
probability that system response is triggered by the performance of the exterior base column hingessee
previous discussion in NSP section.
Roof

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

8
7

Floor ID

6
5
4

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

3
2
Base

Bay B-C
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Bay C-D
0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Bay D-E
0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-83. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

3-82

0.8

1.0

Roof

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base

Bay B-C
0

Bay C-D

Bay D-E
6

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-84. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

The average ratio of secondary to primary component acceptance criteria for an RBS beam-to-column
connection for all W18 sections and deeper is 1.49 for the CP SPL (1.47 for the LS SPL). The figures for
the both frames illustrate that this value is exceeded in the beam-to-column connections at the BSE-2 EHL.
This highlights the rapid progression towards a collapse state when several components are strained past
the deformation associated with their peak strengthsee 3.1.4.2.
Roof

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

8
7

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base

Bay C-D

Bay B-C
0

Bay D-E
6

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-85. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-83

Roof

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

8
7

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base

Bay B-C
0

Bay C-D
10

12

14

10

Bay D-E
12

14

10

12

14

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-86. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

The previous figures illustrate for both frames that the component strengths provided by drift and stability
control measures in ASCE 7 at MCER (equal to the BSE-1 here) are not significant enough to overcome
the demands to satisfy the assessment criteria at the BSE-2 (taken here as MCER). First, strong panel zones
reduce the allowable deformations in the acceptance criteria and component model for the exterior beam
to-column connections. Second, base hinge modeling could have a drastic effect on the performance of the
beam-to-column connections. This further highlights the change in story demands as column base hinges
develop, an influence not addressed in elastic design analysis. However, a secondary design analysis to
address the effects of pinned column bases could be conductednot done in this study.
Figure 3-78 (see NSP section) illustrates which flexural actions in the frame columns are force-controlled
for both the NSP and NDP. Figure 3-87 and Figure 3-88 show the performance of the column hinges for
the CP BPL criteria for the BSE-2 assuming deformation-controlled flexural actions (LS BPL for the BSE
1 is not shown). Column hinges at the base experience inelastic strain demands (yield corresponds to a
DCRN 0.15 in the figures). The deformation demands in these hinges are considerably higher than the CP
primary acceptance criteria, indicating a significant performance concern of the frame columns and the
SFRS. Similarly, the exterior base columns in the ELF-designed frame are force-controlled for flexure and
therefore do not satisfy the lower-bound elastic acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL. Moreover, the
columns in the RSA-designed frame on the fifth floor do not satisfy the acceptance criteria because they
are also force-controlled.
The DCRN results for the LSP and LDP are based on an interaction equation and not from MUD / mMCE, or
MUF / MCL, which would be a more physically consistent metric for comparison against the results from the
nonlinear assessment procedures. Nonetheless, the linear results are generally not applicable here because
most columns are force-controlled for flexure in the linear assessment procedures. Though there is a
fundamental difference in how the DCRN is computed for the linear and nonlinear procedures, the linear
assessment results show similar distributions of demands and location of potential performance concerns.
3-84

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line D

Col. Line C

Col. Line E

LDP are based on


interaction equations.

Floor ID

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

DCRN for the LSP and

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)

LDP (max)

5
4
3
2
Base

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-87. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

DCRN for the LSP and


LDP are based on
interaction equations.

Floor ID

6
Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

5
4
3
2
Base

10

10

10

10

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-88. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Figure 3-89 and Figure 3-90 show the curvature ductility demand of the column hinges (i.e., section
strength) at the BSE-2 EHL. Figure 3-91 and Figure 3-92 show the elastic member strength interaction
results at the BSE-2 EHL. The results indicate that the columns above the base in the ELF-designed frame
satisfy the intended lower-bound acceptance criteria whereas the columns in the RSA-designed frame
consistently do not satisfy these acceptance criteriaa result of the large number of analyses that did not
complete.

3-85

Roof

Col. Line C

Col. Line B

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

See NSP for


force-controlled
columns.

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

Col. Line E

Col. Line D

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base
0

8 10 12 14

8 10 12 14

8 10 12 14

8 10 12 14

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria


Figure 3-89. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line D

Col. Line C

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

See NSP for


force-controlled
columns.

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

Col. Line E

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base
0

10 15 20 25 30

10 15 20 25 30

10 15 20 25 30

10 15 20 25 30

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-90. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield

3-86

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
See LSP and LDP
for force-controlled
columns.

8
7

See NSP for


force-controlled
columns.

Floor ID

6
5

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP

LDP

4
3
2

Base
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

DCRN = P-M Interation Result


(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)
Figure 3-91. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
See LSP and LDP
for force-controlled
columns.

8
7

See NSP for


force-controlled
columns.

Floor ID

6
5

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP
LDP

4
3
2
Base
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

DCRN = P-M Interation Result


(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)
Figure 3-92. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2

Figure 3-93 and Figure 3-94 show the performance of the panel zones for the CP BPL criteria at the BSE
2 EHL (LS BPL for the BSE-1 is not shown). The deformation demands are significantly lower than the
CP acceptance criteria. Converting the results to shear ductility (total deformation / yield deformation, y)
indicates that the demands for the BSE-2 are consistently less than 4y. These results illustrate that the
panel zones are stronger than required by the assessment criteriasee discussion in the 4-story NDP
section. There is one outlier at the interior panel zones on the third floor in the RSA-designed frame. First,
3-87

the first hinges to form are on the third floor. Second, the mean results are biased toward the collapse state
of the frame for a given recorda result of the large number of analyses that did not complete.
Roof

Col. Line C

Col. Line B

Col. Line D

Col. Line E

8
7

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-93. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 8-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

Floor ID

6
5
4
3
2
Base

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-94. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 8-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-88

Sixteen-Story Moment Frame


3.2.2.3.1

Linear Static Procedure

3.2.2.3.1.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:

Figure 3-95 and Figure 3-96 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LSP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-97 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.

All beam-to-column and panel zone component actions satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria except for
the exterior beam-to-column connections in the RSA-designed frame on the 14th floor. These connection
failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR connection modifiers for panel zone
strength and clear span-to-depth limitations. These figures illustrate that drift and stability control in ASCE
7 provides a significant amount of member overstrength so that beam-to-column connections in the ELFdesigned frame easily satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria. Assessment results for the panel zones all
remained small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several exterior frame columns in the RSA-designed frame do not satisfy the LS BPL acceptance criteria
using the interaction equation because they are designated as force-controlled for flexure since PUF exceeds
0.5PCLsee 3.2.2.2.1 for more discussion. As discussed previously in 3.2.2, PUF is determined by
taking J (ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-2) as the minimum DCR of the component(s) delivering force to the column,
but not less than 2.0; interior columns are not applicable because PE is essentially zero. This approach
produces the least conservative PUF as compared to AISC 341 SMF column design requirements and the
fully yielded system as prescribed in ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2-1, as shown in Figure 3-97.

3-89

0.42

0.34

0.07
0.08
0.60
0.09

0.39

0.46
0.14
0.10

0.47
0.14

0.38

0.47
0.18
0.08

0.55
0.16

0.44

0.53
0.20
0.09

0.55
0.18

0.44

0.54
0.21
0.10

0.61
0.19

0.49

0.58
0.22
0.12

0.68
0.20

0.53

0.61
0.24
0.13

0.70
0.20

0.54

0.61
0.24
0.15

0.82
0.18

0.49

0.54
0.24
0.15

0.82
0.18

0.49

0.53
0.24
0.26

0.69
0.16

0.50

0.53
0.24
0.28

0.69
0.15

0.50

0.52
0.24
0.30

0.72
0.12

0.52

0.53
0.20
0.27

0.70
0.11

0.51

0.50
0.19
0.29

0.67
0.06

0.47

0.44
0.17
0.30

0.56
0.05

0.39

0.35
0.13
0.39

0.14

0.30

0.43

0.52

0.90

0.51

0.69

0.52

0.76

0.60

0.81

0.55

0.76

0.38

0.55

2.31

0.43
0.12
0.06

2.88

2.88
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6.00

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.84

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.56

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.29

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.70

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.49

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.31

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
4.67

8.00
4.01

4.01

3.77

2.79

2.41

1.00

2.67

1.52

2.45

1.00

1.72

1.00

2.04

1.00

3.89

2.92
Sym.

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-95. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

3-90

(c) Key

0.44

0.37

0.07
0.08

0.48
0.13
0.07

0.67
0.11

0.45

0.53
0.17
0.11

0.97
0.12

0.62

0.69
0.22
0.15

1.13
0.14

0.71

0.78
0.25
0.32

0.74
0.21

0.59

0.68
0.27
0.12

0.76
0.22

0.62

0.72
0.27
0.13

0.83
0.23

0.67

0.75
0.29
0.15

0.86
0.23

0.68

0.76
0.29
0.28

0.78
0.23

0.62

0.69
0.28
0.25

0.77
0.23

0.61

0.68
0.27
0.28

0.99
0.20

0.61

0.66
0.26
0.31

0.95
0.19

0.59

0.62
0.25
0.35

0.82
0.17

0.51

0.55
0.20
0.27

0.76
0.15

0.47

0.50
0.18
0.29

0.59
0.10

0.44

0.44
0.16
0.31

0.51
0.08

0.37

0.36
0.13
0.41

0.16

0.29

0.43

0.58

0.96

0.55

0.89

0.86

0.96

0.91

1.05

0.88

0.95

0.73

1.15

2.31

2.88

2.88
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
4.55

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
5.80

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.96

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.60

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.26

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
4.93

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.64

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.38

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.15

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
4.46

8.00
4.01

4.01

3.84

2.97

1.85

1.00

2.17

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Sym.

(a) DCRN

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-96. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-91

(c) Key

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

6000

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

7000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-97. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.3.1.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-98 and Figure 3-99 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LSP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-100 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column and panel zone component actions satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria except for
several exterior beam-to-column connections in the RSA design on several floors. These connection failures
are due to reduced m-factors as a result of the FR connection modifiers for panel zone strength and clear
span-to-depth limitations. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained small compared to unity
see 3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several exterior frame columns in the ELF- and RSA-designed frames do not satisfy the CP BPL acceptance
criteria using the interaction equation because they are designated as force-controlled for flexure since PUF
exceeds 0.5PCLsee 3.2.2.2.1 for more discussion. Further, comparing Figure 3-97 and Figure 3-100
illustrates that adopting a constant J factor of 2.0 for both performance levels is inconsistent with the intent
of capacity design because of the change in the variation between PUF and PCapacity Design in the figuressee
3.2.2.2.1 for more discussion.

3-92

0.49

0.39

0.08
0.09

0.50
0.13
0.07

0.70
0.10

0.44

0.53
0.16
0.10

0.56
0.15

0.45

0.55
0.20
0.09

0.65
0.17

0.51

0.62
0.21
0.10

0.65
0.19

0.52

0.63
0.23
0.11

0.72
0.21

0.57

0.68
0.24
0.13

0.80
0.22

0.62

0.72
0.26
0.14

0.83
0.22

0.64

0.72
0.26
0.17

0.97
0.20

0.58

0.64
0.27
0.25

0.97
0.19

0.57

0.63
0.26
0.28

0.81
0.17

0.59

0.62
0.26
0.30

0.82
0.17

0.59

0.61
0.26
0.33

0.85
0.13

0.62

0.63
0.22
0.28

0.82
0.13

0.60

0.59
0.20
0.30

0.79
0.07

0.56

0.52
0.18
0.31

0.66
0.05

0.46

0.41
0.14
0.41

0.15

0.35

0.53

0.71

1.19

0.97

1.17

0.93

1.02

0.97

1.09

0.91

1.02

0.51

1.29

(a) DCRN

2.91

3.64

3.64

11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.94

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.51

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.14

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.79

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.39

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.13

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.92

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.09

11.00
5.48

5.48

4.50

2.91

1.90

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

3.24

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-98. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-93

(c) Key

0.51

0.42

0.08
0.09

0.55
0.14
0.07

0.79
0.12

0.51

0.62
0.19
0.12

1.15
0.13

0.72

0.80
0.25
0.16

1.33
0.15

0.83

0.91
0.27
0.34

0.88
0.23

0.69

0.80
0.30
0.13

0.90
0.24

0.73

0.85
0.30
0.14

0.99
0.25

0.78

0.88
0.32
0.16

1.02
0.25

0.80

0.89
0.32
0.30

0.92
0.25

0.72

0.82
0.30
0.27

0.91
0.25

0.72

0.80
0.29
0.30

1.17
0.22

0.72

0.78
0.29
0.33

1.12
0.20

0.69

0.73
0.27
0.38

0.97
0.18

0.60

0.64
0.22
0.29

0.90
0.16

0.56

0.59
0.20
0.31

0.69
0.11

0.52

0.51
0.17
0.33

0.60
0.09

0.44

0.42
0.14
0.44

0.33

0.34

0.52

0.98

1.28

1.00

1.20

1.15

1.28

1.22

1.42

1.18

1.27

0.98

1.59

(a) DCRN

2.91

3.64

3.64

11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
5.91

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
7.52

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
7.74

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
7.21

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
6.74

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
6.28

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.28

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.93

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.64

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
5.70

11.00
5.48

3.02

4.63

3.24

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-99. LSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-94

(c) Key

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6

Base

6000

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7

Base

7000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-100. LSP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-2

3.2.2.3.2

Linear Dynamic Procedure

3.2.2.3.2.1

BSE-1 Earthquake Hazard Level (LS BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-101 and Figure 3-102 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-1 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-103 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column connection, panel zone, and column component actions satisfy the LS BPL for the
ELF- and RSA- designed frames. Contrary to the LSP results, all exterior frame columns in the ELFdesigned frame are deformation-controlled for flexural action for the LDP, whereas only a few more are
deformation-controlled for the RSA-designed frame. Assessment results for the panel zones all remained
small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1.

3-95

0.50

0.41

0.08
0.09

0.43
0.13
0.06

0.63
0.09

0.41

0.43
0.13
0.10

0.42
0.12

0.34

0.39
0.15
0.07

0.43
0.12

0.36

0.41
0.15
0.09

0.41
0.13

0.34

0.39
0.15
0.09

0.44
0.14

0.36

0.41
0.16
0.10

0.48
0.14

0.38

0.43
0.16
0.11

0.49
0.14

0.38

0.43
0.16
0.13

0.58
0.13

0.35

0.38
0.17
0.13

0.59
0.13

0.35

0.38
0.17
0.24

0.50
0.11

0.37

0.38
0.17
0.26

0.52
0.11

0.38

0.38
0.17
0.28

0.56
0.09

0.40

0.40
0.15
0.25

0.56
0.09

0.40

0.40
0.15
0.27

0.56
0.05

0.39

0.36
0.14
0.28

0.48
0.04

0.33

0.30
0.11
0.37

0.15

0.28

0.40

0.45

0.60

0.42

0.51

0.41

0.48

0.45

0.52

0.42

0.47

0.30

0.42

(a) DCRN

2.31

2.88

2.88
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
6.00

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.97

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.69

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.42

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.80

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.58

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.37

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
4.69

8.00
4.01

4.01

3.79

2.94

2.78

1.72

3.42

2.53

3.50

2.70

3.02

2.31

3.34

2.78

4.85

4.05

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-101. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

3-96

(c) Key

0.51

0.43

0.09
0.09

0.46
0.13
0.07

0.69
0.10

0.46

0.49
0.16
0.11

0.86
0.10

0.56

0.57
0.19
0.14

0.90
0.10

0.58

0.60
0.19
0.30

0.55
0.16

0.45

0.49
0.20
0.10

0.55
0.16

0.45

0.51
0.19
0.12

0.58
0.16

0.47

0.52
0.20
0.13

0.60
0.16

0.48

0.52
0.20
0.25

0.54
0.16

0.43

0.48
0.19
0.14

0.54
0.16

0.44

0.48
0.19
0.26

0.71
0.14

0.45

0.47
0.19
0.28

0.70
0.14

0.44

0.45
0.18
0.32

0.62
0.12

0.39

0.41
0.15
0.25

0.60
0.12

0.37

0.39
0.14
0.27

0.49
0.08

0.36

0.36
0.13
0.29

0.44
0.07

0.32

0.30
0.11
0.38

0.16

0.28

0.41

0.51

0.81

0.45

0.55

0.56

0.77

0.61

0.83

0.61

0.76

0.47

0.97

(a) DCRN

2.31

2.88

2.88
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
6.00

2.31
8.00

3.60

3.61
8.00
4.60

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
6.00

3.07
8.00

3.83

3.84
8.00
5.91

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
6.00

3.17
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.73

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.40

2.54
8.00

3.97

3.97
8.00
5.07

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.76

2.61
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.50

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
5.27

3.26
8.00

4.07

4.07
8.00
4.58

8.00
4.01

4.01

3.85

3.07

2.16

1.00

2.81

2.06

1.96

1.00

1.60

1.00

1.51

1.00

2.78

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-102. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

3-97

(c) Key

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6

Base

6000

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7

Base

7000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-103. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-1

3.2.2.3.2.2

BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard Level (CP BPL)

In this section, the following apply:


Figure 3-104 and Figure 3-105 provide the DCRN and load-dependent m-factor values for the ELF
and RSA designs, respectively, for the LDP at the BSE-2 EHL. In these figures, DCRN values
greater than unity are highlighted in red and underlined. DCR values, as defined by ASCE 41, can
be obtained by multiplying DCRN by m and , see Eq. 3-6.
Figure 3-106 provides the maximum axial compression demands, PUF, in the exterior column lines
for various analysis methods and the column capacity, PCL.
All beam-to-column and panel zone component actions satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria except for
several exterior beam-to-column connections in the RSA- designed frame in the upper floors. As identified
previously in 3.2.2.3.1.1, these connection failures are primarily due to reduced m-factors as a result of
the FR connection modifiers for panel zone strength and clear span-to-depth limitations. Assessment results
for the panel zones all remained small compared to unitysee 3.2.2.1.1.1.
Several exterior frame columns in the RSA-designed frames do not satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria
using the interaction equation because they are designated as force-controlled for flexure since PUF exceeds
0.5PCLsee 3.2.2.2.1 for more discussion.

3-98

0.58

0.46

0.09
0.09

0.50
0.14
0.07

0.73
0.09

0.47

0.50
0.15
0.11

0.50
0.13

0.40

0.45
0.16
0.07

0.51
0.13

0.41

0.47
0.16
0.09

0.49
0.14

0.39

0.46
0.16
0.10

0.52
0.15

0.42

0.48
0.17
0.11

0.57
0.15

0.44

0.50
0.18
0.12

0.58
0.15

0.45

0.50
0.18
0.14

0.68
0.14

0.41

0.45
0.18
0.14

0.69
0.14

0.41

0.45
0.18
0.25

0.59
0.12

0.43

0.45
0.19
0.27

0.61
0.12

0.45

0.45
0.19
0.30

0.66
0.10

0.48

0.48
0.17
0.26

0.65
0.10

0.48

0.47
0.16
0.28

0.65
0.06

0.46

0.42
0.15
0.30

0.56
0.04

0.39

0.35
0.12
0.39

0.32

0.33

0.48

0.56

0.97

0.52

0.92

0.52

0.82

0.59

0.85

0.54

0.80

0.38

0.55

(a) DCRN

2.91

3.64

3.64
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
8.00

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
8.00

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.78

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.41

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.05

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.59

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.31

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.04

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.14

11.00
5.48

3.02

4.55

3.19

2.65

1.00

3.22

1.00

3.14

1.00

2.28

1.00

2.72

1.00

5.15

3.83

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-104. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-99

(c) Key

0.60

0.49

0.09
0.10

0.53
0.15
0.07

0.82
0.11

0.53

0.57
0.17
0.11

1.02
0.11

0.64

0.67
0.20
0.14

1.07
0.11

0.67

0.70
0.21
0.32

0.65
0.17

0.52

0.58
0.21
0.11

0.65
0.17

0.53

0.60
0.21
0.12

0.69
0.17

0.55

0.61
0.22
0.14

0.71
0.17

0.56

0.61
0.22
0.26

0.64
0.17

0.51

0.56
0.21
0.24

0.64
0.17

0.51

0.56
0.20
0.27

0.84
0.16

0.52

0.56
0.20
0.30

0.83
0.15

0.51

0.53
0.20
0.33

0.74
0.14

0.46

0.48
0.17
0.26

0.71
0.13

0.44

0.46
0.15
0.28

0.58
0.09

0.43

0.42
0.14
0.30

0.51
0.07

0.38

0.36
0.12
0.41

0.32

0.33

0.49

0.64

1.04

0.56

0.95

0.90

0.99

0.94

1.09

0.91

0.99

0.77

1.31

(a) DCRN

2.91

3.64

3.64
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
8.00

2.91
11.00

4.55

4.56
11.00
6.02

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
8.00

3.87
11.00

4.84

4.84
11.00
7.74

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
7.96

4.01
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
7.47

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
7.02

3.21
11.00

5.01

5.02
11.00
6.58

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.52

3.29
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
7.18

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
6.88

4.11
11.00

5.14

5.14
11.00
5.94

11.00
5.48

3.00

4.66

3.45

1.97

1.00

2.62

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(b) m-factors
Figure 3-105. LDP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-100

(c) Key

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

6000

7000

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

PUF (J = Max[min DCR,2])


PUF (J = 1)
Pmax (NDP)
P (NSP)
Pu,Omega (ASCE 7, AISC 341)
Pu,Capacity Design
PCL (ASCE 41)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

Axial Load Demand, P (kips)

(a) ELF

(b) RSA

Figure 3-106. LDP Assessment Results, Compression in Exterior Columns, 16-Story SMF, BSE-2

3.2.2.3.3

Nonlinear Static Procedure

In this section, the following apply:


Table 3-19 through Table 3-21 provide the computed NSP analysis and assessment parameters in
accordance with ASCE 41 3.3.3.
Figure 3-107 and Figure 3-108 illustrate the monotonic pushover curves for the ELF- and RSAdesigned frames, respectively, and the associated pushover parameters from ASCE 41 at the BSE
2 EHL. Roof displacement is measured at the Center of Mass (CoM). A significant change in base
shear is due to component strength loss (e.g., plastic hinges), notated in the figures. The softening
of the pushover curve evident at about 30 inches of roof displacement for each frame is due to
column hinges developing at the base of the frames. First-order and second-order responses, shown
in these figures, aids in computing a physically meaningful value for P- used in ASCE 41
Equation 3-17.
Figure 3-109 and Figure 3-110 illustrate the story drift ratios in terms of the roof drift ratio.
As discussed in 3.1.3.2.1, the NSP is permitted, but requires supplemental verification using the LDP
see 3.2.2.3.2. In this case, the target displacement governs d for the ELF-designed frame for both BSE-1
and BSE-2 and the RSA-designed frame for BSE-1, whereas the displacement at the maximum base shear
governs the RSA-designed frame for BSE-2. The change in d between BSE-1 and BSE-2 adds complexity
to NSP process by changing the pushover variables. Further, when d is governed by the target
displacement, the system can show decreased values for Rmax between BSE-1 and BSE-2. Axial
compression force in the exterior columns at the target displacement are shown previously in the linear
assessment sections. Results indicate that the NSP generally results in a lower estimate of the axial force
demands compared to the other methods used in this study. This is partly because of the fundamental modebased lateral force distribution not capturing higher mode effects. Also, the target displacement at the roof
computed based on fundamental mode properties may underestimate the story demands in the upper stories.
3-101

Table 3-19. NSP General Information, 16-Story SMF (kip, inch)


Design
ELF
RSA

T1
4.12
4.67

K1
64.0
45.5

y
24.6
25.8

Vy
1571
1177

Ke
63.8
45.6

Te
4.13
4.66

peak
62.3
41.1

h
1.21
1.23

Vpeak
1617.0
1203.6

W
21782
21649

Cm
1.00
1.00

C0
1.29
1.36

Table 3-20. NSP Analysis Parameters, 16-Story SMF BSE-2 CP (kip, inch)
Design
ELF
RSA

Sa
0.22
0.20

R
3.04
3.60

C1
1.00
1.00

C2
1.00
1.00

t
47.4
56.7

Vt
1617.0
1196.3

d
47.4
41.1

P-

0.03
0.04

-0.45
-0.34

0.00
-0.02

-0.09
-0.08

Rmax
6.58
7.09

R Rmax
OK
OK

Rmax
10.53
7.54

R Rmax
OK
OK

Table 3-21. NSP Analysis Parameters, 16-Story SMF BSE-1 LS (kip, inch)
Sa
0.15
0.13

R
2.03
2.40

C1
1.00
1.00

C2
1.00
1.00

t
31.6
37.8

Vt
1581.9
1202.9

d
31.6
37.8

P-

0.02
0.05

-0.25
-0.31

0.00
-0.02

-0.05
-0.07

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


2200

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7
0.101
ELF (First-Order)
ELF (Second-Order)
ELF Idealized Backbone

2000
1800

0.092
0.083
0.073

1600
(24.6,1571.0)

1400

0.064

A
B

1200

0.055

0.046

1000
(71.0,942.6)

800

Pt. A: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on both


6th and 7th Floor
Pt. B: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on 5th Floor
Pt. C: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on 8th Floor
Pt. D: Remaining hinges reach CP on both
6th and 7th Floor

600
400

0.037
0.028
0.018
0.009

200

0.000

0
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-107. 16-Story SMF ELF Pushover, BSE-2

3-102

Total Base Shear / W

(47.4,1617.0)

Total Base Shear (Kips)

Design
ELF
RSA

Roof Drift Ratio at CoM (%)


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7
0.102

2000
1800

Total Base Shear (Kips)

0.092

RSA (First-Order)
RSA (Second-Order)
RSA Idealized Backbone

0.083

1600

0.074

1400

0.065
(41.1,1203.6)

1200

0.055

(25.8,1177.0)

1000

0.046
B

800
600

0.037

(73.5,706.2)

0.028

Pt. A: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on 7th Floor


Pt. B: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on both
8th and 9th Floor
Pt. C: Ext. hinges (2) reach CP on 10th Floor
Pt. D: Remaining hinges reach CP on both
8th and 9th Floor

400
200

0.018
0.009

0.000
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

Roof Displacement at CoM (Inches)


Figure 3-108. 16-Story SMF RSA Pushover, BSE-2

3.0%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
5th Story
6th Story
7th Story
8th Story
9th Story
10th Story
11th Story
12th Story
13th Story
14th Story
15th Story
16th Story
Roof

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-109. 16-Story SMF ELF Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

3-103

Total Base Shear / W

2200

3.0%

1st Story
2nd Story
3rd Story
4th Story
5th Story
6th Story
7th Story
8th Story
9th Story
10th Story
11th Story
12th Story
13th Story
14th Story
15th Story
16th Story
Roof

Story Drift Ratio (%)

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

Roof Drift Ratio (%)


Figure 3-110. 16-Story SMF RSA Pushover Story Drift Ratios BSE-2

Of particular interest in the pushover curves is the large disparity between the peak base shears developed
in the ELF- and RSA-designed buildings (RSA / ELF = 1204 / 1617 = 0.74), a 26 percent change. At first
glance, this is greater than the 15 percent difference in design base shears allowed by ASCE 7. Upon further
inspection, it can be reasoned that the primary contribution to this disparity is due to the increase in strength
provided to the ELF-designed frame to satisfy drift provisions in ASCE 7 (i.e., 15 percent plus additional
strength). See NSP discussion in the 8-story results for more information.
Figure 3-111 illustrates which frame columns are force-controlled for flexure for both the NSP and NDP;
red circles indicate anticipated plastic hinge locations that are force-controlled for flexure at the target
displacement. As shown in the figure, the force-controlled columns do not align between the two frames
the axial load ratios for the exterior base columns are 0.39 and 0.59 for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames,
respectively. This illustrates the sensitivity of results due to variations between the non-adaptive loading
profile in the NSP and that used for design. Figure 3-112 through Figure 3-115 illustrate the DCRN values
if greater than unity for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames at the target displacement for the LS BPL at
the BSE-1 EHL and CP BPL at the BSE-2 EHL. These figures illustrate the demands when the system is
loaded to the right. All component actions for the beam-to-column connections, columns (assuming
deformation-controlled), and panel zones satisfy the LS and CP BPL acceptance criteria at the target
displacements for both designs.
Several exterior columns, including those at the base of the frame for the RSA-designed frame, are forcecontrolled for flexure at the target displacement. Force-controlled base columns are problematic for a region
that is expected to experience inelastic strain demands. Therefore, the acceptance criterion for these flexural
actions is based on the force-controlled lower-bound elastic P-M interaction (ASCE 41 Equation 5-12). As
discussed previously, variations in P-M interaction curves add complexity to nonlinear flexural hinge
3-104

model. Essentially, a nonlinear hinge based on the expected yield surface of the section must be
accompanied by another model that can measure the lower-bound strength of the member (one for each
axis of buckling). For simplicity, failing of the acceptance criteria (without computing interaction values)
is self-evident because of the development of plastic hinges in the frame columns. Because plastic hinges
have developed in the base columns in the ELF-design frame, flexural actions therefore do not satisfy the
intended elastic acceptance criteria. Conversely, the force-controlled columns in the RSA frame satisfy the
intended elastic acceptance criteria; however, member stability would still need to be verified.
B

Sym. Abou t

E
Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Floor

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Floor

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Floor

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Floor

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Floor

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

11th Floor

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

10th Floor

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP

9th Floor

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P C P

8th Floor

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

7th Floor

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

6th Floor

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP
ELF NSP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

5th Floor

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

4th Floor

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

ELF NDP LS & CP


RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

3rd Flo or

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

RS A NDP CP

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

RS A NDP LS & CP
RS A NS P LS & CP

All colum ns are deformationcontrolled (DC) for flexur e unless


indicated as force-controlled (FC)
in figure

Column is force-controlled for flexure if


P > 0.5PCL, where P is computed at the
target displacement for the NS P and as
the maximum value for the NDP

Figure 3-111. Schematic of Flexural Actions in Columns, 16-Story SMF (NSP and NDP)

3-105

E
Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Flo or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Flo or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Flo or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Flo or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Flo or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Flo or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

DCRN 1.0
0.9 DCRN < 1.0

10th Flo or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

0.8 DCRN < 0.9


0.7 DCRN < 0.8

9th Flo or

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

DCRN < 0.7

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Figure 3-112. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

3-106

E
Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Flo or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Flo or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Flo or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Flo or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Flo or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Flo or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

DCRN 1.0
0.9 DCRN < 1.0

10th Flo or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

0.8 DCRN < 0.9


0.7 DCRN < 0.8

9th Flo or

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

DCRN < 0.7

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Figure 3-113. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS (+push to right)

3-107

E
Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Flo or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Flo or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Flo or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Flo or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Flo or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Flo or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

DCRN 1.0
0.9 DCRN < 1.0

10th Flo or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

0.8 DCRN < 0.9


0.7 DCRN < 0.8

9th Flo or

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

DCRN < 0.7

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Figure 3-114. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

3-108

E
Roof

(ELEV = 228 ft.)

16th Flo or

(ELEV = 214 ft.)

15th Flo or

(ELEV = 200 ft.)

14th Flo or

(ELEV = 186 ft.)

13th Flo or

(ELEV = 172 ft.)

12th Flo or

(ELEV = 158 ft.)

11th Flo or

(ELEV = 144 ft.)

DCRN 1.0
0.9 DCRN < 1.0

10th Flo or

(ELEV = 130 ft.)

0.8 DCRN < 0.9


0.7 DCRN < 0.8

9th Flo or

(ELEV = 116 ft.)

DCRN < 0.7

8th Flo or

(ELEV = 102 ft.)

7th Flo or

(ELEV = 88 ft.)

6th Flo or

(ELEV = 74 ft.)

5th Flo or

(ELEV = 60 ft.)

4th Flo or

(ELEV = 46 ft.)

3rd Floor

(ELEV = 32 ft.)

2nd Floor

(ELEV = 18 ft.)

Figure 3-115. NSP Assessment Results, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP (+push to right)

3-109

3.2.2.3.4

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure

The earthquake record set used to assess the E-W direction of MC16 is shown in Appendix A. For the ELF
design, the analysis successfully completed for all 14 records at the BSE-1 and BSE-2 EHL. For the RSA
design, the analysis successfully completed for all 14 records for the BSE-1 EHL; however, four analyses
did not complete at the BSE-2 EHL because of excessive lateral drift or solution non-convergence.
Maximum axial compression force in the exterior column lines from the record set are shown previously in
the linear assessment sections.
Figure 3-116 through Figure 3-119 show the performance of the beam hinges (i.e., beam-to-column
connections) at the BSE-1 (LS BPL) and BSE-2 (CP BPL) for the ELF- and RSA-designed frames,
respectively. The results from the LSP, LDP, and NSP (loaded to the right) are included in the figures.
Comparison discussions between the various procedures are addressed subsequently. As is evident from
the figures, the ELFdesigned frame performs better than the RSA-designed frame; however, recall that the
ELF procedure is not permitted in this case. Results of the RSA-designed frame indicate that the beam-to
column connections have difficulty satisfying the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL (based on
mean response). In contrast to the mean response, the median response indicates better performance because
it is less influenced by large deformations resulting from component strength loss potentially resulting in
collapse of the system. Consequently, the median is potentially a more stable performance metric when
analyzing a large number of ground motion records, but should be restrained relative to a mean value.

Floor ID

The average ratio of secondary to primary component acceptance criteria for an RBS beam-to-column
connection for all W18 sections and deeper is 1.49 for the CP SPL (1.47 for the LS SPL). The figures for
the RSA-designed frame illustrate that this value is exceeded in the beam-to-column connections at the
BSE-2 EHL. This highlights the rapid progression towards a collapse state when several components are
strained past the deformation associated with their peak strengthsee 3.1.4.2.
Roof

16

15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.0

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

Bay B-C
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Bay C-D
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Bay D-E
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-116. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-1 LS

3-110

1.0

Floor ID

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

Bay B-C

Bay C-D

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge
1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)

Bay D-E

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total LS Acceptance Criteria

Floor ID

Figure 3-117. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-1 LS

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

Bay B-C
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Bay C-D
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Bay D-E
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-118. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

3-111

1.2

Floor ID

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

1-Median
1-Mean
1-84th
1-Mean+1std
2-Median
2-Mean
2-84th
2-Mean+1std
1-NSP
2-NSP
LSP (max)
LDP (max)
1 = Left Hinge
2 = Right Hinge

Bay C-D

Bay B-C
0

Bay D-E
7

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-119. NDP Assessment Results, Beam Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

The previous figures illustrate for the RSA-designed frame that the component strengths provided by drift
and stability control measures in ASCE 7 at MCER (equal to the BSE-1 here) are not significant enough
to overcome the demands to satisfy the assessment criteria at the BSE-2 (taken here as MCER). First, strong
panel zones reduce the allowable deformations in the acceptance criteria and component model for the
exterior beam-to-column connections. Second, base hinge modeling could have a drastic effect on the
performance of the beam-to-column connections. This further highlights the change in story demands as
column base hinges develop, an influence not addressed in elastic design analysis. In contrast, the results
indicate that the ELF-designed frame satisfies the criteria by a considerable margin.
Figure 3-111 (see NSP section) illustrates which flexural actions in the frame columns are force-controlled
for both the NSP and NDP. Figure 3-120 and Figure 3-121 show the performance of the column hinges for
the CP BPL criteria at the BSE-2 EHL assuming deformation-controlled flexural actions (LS BPL for the
BSE-1 is not shown unless assessment at BSE-2 illustrates performance concerns). Column hinges at the
base experience inelastic strain demands (yield corresponds to a DCRN 0.15 in the figures). Mean response
results also indicate column hinges develop up the height of the frame. However, this phenomenon is more
likely associated to the number of collapses rather than a trigger mechanism initiating a structural collapse;
median results may be a more stable metric in this case. Similarly, the exterior base columns in the RSA
frame are force-controlled for flexure. The DCRN results for the LSP and LDP are based on an interaction
equation and not from MUD / mMCE, or MUF / MCL, which would be a more physically consistent metric for
comparison against the results from the nonlinear assessment procedures. Nonetheless, the linear results
are generally not applicable here because most columns are force-controlled for flexure in the linear
assessment procedures. Though there is a fundamental difference in how the DCRN is computed for the
linear and nonlinear procedures, the linear assessment results show similar distributions of demands and
location of potential performance concerns.
3-112

Floor ID

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

LDP are based on


interaction equations.

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

DCRN for the LSP and

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Col. Line E

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Floor ID

Figure 3-120. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5

Base

Col. Line B

Col. Line D

Col. Line C

Col. Line E

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

DCRN for the LSP and


LDP are based on
interaction equations.

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-121. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Figure 3-122 and Figure 3-123 show the curvature ductility demand of the column hinges (i.e., section
strength) at the BSE-2 EHL. Figure 3-124 and Figure 3-125 show the elastic member strength interaction
results at the BSE-2 EHL. The results indicate that the columns above the base in the ELF-designed frame
satisfy the intended lower-bound acceptance criteria whereas the columns in the RSA-designed frame
consistently do not satisfy these acceptance criteriaa result of the number of analyses that did not
complete.
3-113

Floor ID

Roof
16

15

14

13
12
11
10
9
8

Base

Col. Line D

Col. Line C

Col. Line B

See LSP and LDP


for force-controlled
columns.

Col. Line E

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP

LDP

See NSP for


force-controlled
columns.

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria

Floor ID

Figure 3-122. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 Yield

See LSP and LDP for force-controlled columns.


Col. Line C
Col. Line B

Roof
16

15

14

13

12

11

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

See NSP for force-controlled columns.


Col. Line D
Col. Line E

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP
0

Total Deformation / Total YD Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-123. NDP Assessment Results, Column Hinges, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 Yield

3-114

Floor ID

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10

7
6
5
4
3

2
Base
0.0

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
See LSP and LDP
for force-controlled
columns.
See NSP for
force-controlled
columns.

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP

LDP

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

DCRN = P-M Interation Result


(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)

Floor ID

Figure 3-124. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof
16

15

14
13
12

11

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.0

Col. Line B

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E
See LSP and LDP
for force-controlled
columns.
See NSP for
force-controlled
columns.
Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
LSP
LDP

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

DCRN = P-M Interation Result


(NDP = max of either axis, LSP / LDP = interaction equations from ASCE 41)
Figure 3-125. NDP Assessment Results, Column Members, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

Figure 3-126 and Figure 3-127 show the performance of the panel zones for the CP BPL criteria at the BSE
2 (LS BPL for the BSE-1 is not shown). The deformation demands are significantly lower than the CP
acceptance criteria. Converting the results to total deformation / yield deformation indicates that the
demands for the BSE-2 are consistently less than 4y. These results illustrate that the panel zones are
stronger than required by the assessment criteriasee discussion in the 4-story NDP section.
3-115

Floor ID

Roof
Col. Line B
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8

6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP

LSP

LDP

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Floor ID

Figure 3-126. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 16-Story SMF ELF, BSE-2 CP

Roof
Col. Line B
16

15

14

13

12
11
10
9
8
7

Base
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Col. Line C

Col. Line D

Col. Line E

Median
Mean
84th
Mean+1std
NSP
LSP
LDP

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

DCRN = Total Deformation / Total CP Acceptance Criteria

Figure 3-127. NDP Assessment Results, Panel Zones, 16-Story SMF RSA, BSE-2 CP

3-116

Seismic Assessment Discussion


The discussion in this section focuses on the following component design actions:

Beam-to-column connection flexure (e.g., RBS)


Panel zone shear
Beam and column flexure within anticipated plastic hinge zones (section strength)23
Column axial-moment interaction strength (e.g., member strength)

ASCE 41 requires all frame components that do not satisfy the acceptance criteria to be retrofitted or
replaced, even if only a small percentage of the total components fail the criteria (see ASCE 41 5.4.2.5).
Therefore, a building can only satisfy a selected BPL when all structural components satisfy the
corresponding SPL. Building behavior is rarely governed by the response of a single component, with the
one notable exception being collapse resulting from failure of a column. It can be argued that a shortcoming
of ASCE 41 is the focus on component performance to ensure that all elements pass the evaluation, when
failures of individual elements may not lead to catastrophic failure.
Design choices, constructability considerations, code requirements, nonseismic loads, analytical modeling
assumptions, and other project specific requirements may add strength to critical components in a frame.
Further, allocation of component strengths within the frame because of the lateral force distribution adopted
in design can cause deviations of the component strengths from one story to another. Thus, capturing all
possible permutations, in essence, would create an infinitely large design space. Nonetheless, the change in
component strengths can significantly influence the DCRN values obtained from the ASCE 41 assessments.
Linear Assessment Procedures
The following discusses the analytical results for the noted components from the linear procedures for each
archetype building.
As noted previously, the LSP cannot be used to assess the E-W component of MC16. This assessment is
included for comparison purposes and the results are shown as shaded in the tables in this section.
3.2.3.1.1

Beam-to-Column Connections

Table 3-22 provides a summary of the performance of the FR beam-to-column connections (RBS) for each
linear assessment procedure and each BPL. The number listed in parentheses denotes the number of failed
components in the frameshown as bolded text. Also shown in the table is the percentage of failed
components compared to the total number of similar components. The results indicate that the RSAdesigned frame has difficulty satisfying the acceptance criteria when using the LSP for both the LS and CP
BPL whereas only the 4-story ELF-designed frame fails the CP BPL. In contrast, the performance of both

23

Beam hinges within the RBS are included in assessment of Type FR connection (controlling mechanism).

3-117

frames improves when using the LDP, although the 4- and 16-story RSA-designed frames fail the CP BPL
acceptance criteria by a slight margin.
Table 3-22. Performance Summary of FR Connections (BC) per Frame, Linear Procedures
Archetype

Design

LSP
LS

LDP
CP
Ext. BC Fail (2)
Int. BC Fail (2)
17%

LS

CP

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

ELF

All BC Pass

RSA

Ext. BC Fail (4)


Int. BC Pass
17%

Ext. BC Fail (4)


Int. BC Fail (2)
25%

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (2)


Int. BC Pass
8%

ELF

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

RSA

Ext. BC Fail (8)


Int. BC Pass
17%

Ext. BC Fail (14)


Int. BC Fail (14)
58%

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

ELF

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

RSA

Ext. BC Fail (2)


Int. BC Pass
2%

Ext. BC Fail (10)


Int. BC Pass
10%

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (4)


Int. BC Pass
4%

4-Story

8-Story

16-Story

Performance failures are generally increased by reduced acceptance criteria (i.e., m-factors) attributed to
panel zones strength, connection detailing, and span-to-depth ratio, Lc / db. Section compactness
requirements in ASCE 41 match that required for design of highly ductile elements in AISC 341except
ASCE 41 uses expected in lieu of nominal material properties. As such, section compactness generally will
not trigger a reduction in new building designs. However, continuity plates in one-sided connections
designed in accordance with AISC 341 and AISC 360 can trigger a reduction if tcf < bbf / 7 with tcp tbf / 2,
but also tcp < tbf. Further, AISC 358 requires that Lc / db 7 for an RBS beam-to-column connection in an
SMF, but ASCE 41 requires a reduction in acceptance criteria when Lc / db > 10. Additionally, increasing
column sizes to offset the need for doubler plates can be problematic with regards to connection
performance (assuming adjacent beams are not similarly increased). Nonetheless, it is debatable if reduction
factors based on (cumulative) step functions are appropriate for components expected to experience
inelastic straining. Further research is needed to justify the fixed reductions to acceptance criteria for beam
to-column connections. The commentary for ASCE 41 should reference FEMA 355D (FEMA 2000c) in
lieu of FEMA 355F (FEMA 2000d) for connection detailing recommendations.
The results for the 16-story archetype buildings indicate that drift and strength control (via stability
verification) in ASCE 7 provides a significant amount of member overstrength so that beam-to-column
connections more easily satisfy the acceptance criteria (compared to the 8-story which was primarily drift
controlled).
The easiest retrofit option for these frames is to increase the flexural strength (and hinge strength in the
beam) of the distressed connections so to offset any reductions due to panel zone strength and continuity
plates (see Rehabilitation Strategies in ASCE 41 2.5). However, this may adversely affect the performance
of other components of the frame (e.g., columns). In terms of ASCE 41 assessment performance, using
3-118

doubler plates in lieu of upsizing the columns and keeping the beam span-to-depth ratio less than 10 (but
greater than 7 if using linear procedures or 8 if using nonlinear procedures) may be more effective.
Additional cost-benefit analyses are needed to validate the seismic performance of an SMF with these
constraints (assuming performance metrics and analysis are reflective of realistic conditions).
3.2.3.1.2

Panel Zones

Table 3-23 provides a summary of the performance of the panel zones for each linear assessment procedure
and each BPL. The results indicate that the panel zones consistently satisfy the performance criteria for the
LS and CP BPL for both procedures. The DCRN values all remained low, 0.10.3, indicating that panel
zone design based on the probable connection strength, Mpr, as well as conventional practice (e.g., increase
column sizes to offset the need for doubler plates) may tend toward producing strong panel zones under
ASCE 41. As noted above, this can adversely affect the beam-to-column connection acceptance criteria.
Table 3-23. Performance Summary of Panel Zones (PZ) per Frame, Linear Procedures
Archetype
4-Story
8-Story
16-Story

Design
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

LSP
LS
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass

LDP
CP
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass

LS
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass

CP
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass
All PZ Pass

Take for example a one-sided connection where a W2476 beam frames to a W18106 column. The ratio
of shear in the panel zone at the probable flexural strength of the connection to shear yielding of the panel
zone is conservatively 0.98 (see Equation (3-18)) and increase to 1.07 when using 0.55Fy for Vy. This
indicates that the panel zone may not yield until the connection approaches its peak strength, generally
associated with CP. Research (FEMA 350 (FEMA 2000a)) has suggested that a balanced yield condition
between beam hinge and adjacent panel zone can increase the inelastic deformation capacity of a
connection. This condition has been adopted in ASCE 41. Current steel design practice in accordance with
AISC 341 does not impose a balanced yield condition.
C pr Z x 1.1Fy

594
0.95d b
V pr

0.98
Vy
0.6 1.1Fy d c twc 605

3.2.3.1.3

(3-18)

Member Cross-section Strength (flexural hinge) and Global Strength (member stability)

Table 3-24 provides a summary of the performance of the column members for each linear assessment
procedure and each BPL. Hinges in beam members that are part of the beam-to-column connection are
discussed above and not addressed in this section. The number listed in parentheses denotes the number of
failed components in the frameshown as bolded text. Also shown in the table is the percentage of failed
components compared to the total number of similar components. Recall that section strength and member
strength of a column is combined into a single P-M interaction equation for linear assessment procedures
in ASCE 41 (see ASCE 41 Equations 5-10, 5-11, and 5-12.) Consequently, identifying an efficient retrofit
3-119

option for a column can be challenging because understanding and isolating the failure mechanism of the
column can be difficult.
Table 3-24. Performance Summary of Column Members (CM) per Frame, Linear Procedures
Archetype

Design

LSP

LDP

LS

CP

LS

CP

ELF

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

RSA

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

ELF

Ext. CM Fail (2)


Int. CM Pass
6%

Ext. CM Fail (4)


Int. CM Pass
13%

Ext. CM Fail (2)


Int. CM Pass
6%

Ext. CM Fail (2)


Int. CM Pass
6%

RSA

Ext. CM Fail (8)


Int. CM Pass
25%

Ext. CM Fail (8)


Int. CM Pass
25%

Ext. CM Fail (2)


Int. CM Pass
6%

Ext. CM Fail (8)


Int. CM Pass
25%

ELF

All CM Pass

Ext. CM Fail (12)


Int. CM Pass
19%

All CM Pass

All CM Pass

RSA

Ext. CM Fail (4)


Int. CM Pass
6%

Ext. CM Fail (20)


Int. CM Pass
31%

All CM Pass

Ext. CM Fail (6)


Int. CM Pass
9%

4-Story

8-Story

16-Story

Several columns do not satisfy the assessment criteria using the interaction equation because of high axial
force and moment in the 8-story and 16-story archetype buildings. These members are all force-controlled
for both axial force and flexure because PUF exceeds 0.5PCLgenerally associated with weak-axis flexural
buckling. As such, MUF and MCL are used in the interaction equation (ASCE 41 Equation 5-12).
Determination of MUF is subject to the same limitations as PUF (see sections on assessment results). There
are columns where the force-controlled requirement does not result in a performance failure (e.g., some 16
story SMF columns). As noted previously, the force distribution used in the LSP directly contributes to the
increased column forces. However, generally speaking, the estimated axial load demands in the columns
are the least conservative approximations, as compared to more rigorous analysis procedures (see the axial
load figures, e.g., Figure 3-71). Exterior base columns in these frames consistently fail the acceptance
criteria. This result is problematic because flexure hinges are expected to develop at the base of these
columns. ASCE 41 does not provide guidance on how to assess column-to-base connections similar to
beam-to-column connections.
As discussed previously, it is of debatable validity that force-controlled response be triggered with PUF /
PCL in lieu of PUF / Pye, as was done in FEMA 273. The interaction equation in ASCE 41 used for the case
of out-of-plane instability and in-plane flexure is also debatable; ASCE 41 would benefit from following
AISC 360 in this regard (see AISC 360 H1.3). ASCE 41 would also benefit from decoupling the single
interaction curve for member stability and section strength into two separate interaction equations as done
in AISC ASD Chapter N, Plastic Design (AISC 1989). Decoupling the stability and strength would provide
a clearer picture of potential retrofit schemes for frame columns. Nonetheless, some member stability
equations were derived from beam-columns test results where column ends did not translate relative to each
other. Future research is required to justify updated interaction equations for assessment of beam-columns

3-120

with ASCE 41, as well as a critical examination of the acceptance criteria in regard to experimental test
results.
In addition to the above performance observations, the effects of additional strengthening of columns in
design should be recognized. The columns in the 4-story frames are somewhat oversized from that required
from analysis to satisfy section compactness requirements in AISC 341, and therefore, the columns
efficiently satisfy the acceptance criteria, regardless of estimation of PCL. All the frame columns in the 4
story frames are deformation-controlled for flexure. As a side note, there is also considerably less scatter in
the axial load demands in the columns from the various approximation methods.
3.2.3.1.4

Summary

Table 3-25 summarizes the performance of the archetype buildings in reference to the BSO for both linear
procedures. Table 3-26 provides the base shears computed with the linear assessment procedures. Column
performance (primarily at the base) from both assessment procedures controls the overall assessment of the
SMF frames. Base column failure in this analytical context is more detrimental to the overall structural
performance than beam-to-column connection performance. As noted above, additional research is needed
concerning assessment criteria for beam-to-column connections and columns. The qualitative ratings are
assigned primarily based on the performance of the column members and a few cases coupled with the
performance of the beam-to-column connections. In the end, the 4- and 16-story ELF-designed frames
satisfy the seismic performance objective only using the LDP (recall from Chapter 2 that the ELF procedure
is not permitted for design of the 16-story SMF).
Table 3-25. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings, Linear Procedures
Archetype
4-Story
8-Story
16-Story

Design
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

BC
Fail
Fail
Pass
Fail
Pass
Fail

LSP
CM
Pass
Pass
Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail

PZ
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass

Design
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

BC
Pass
Fail
Pass
Pass
Pass
Fail

LDP
CM
Pass
Pass
Fail
Fail
Pass
Fail

PZ
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass

The assessment results from the LSP and LDP illustrate that, on average, the ELF-designed SMF performs
better than the RSA-designed SMF for all archetype buildings. This can be attributed to the increased
strength and stiffness provided to the ELF-designed frames (see Table 2-4) by differences in the ELF and
RSA procedures, including associated scaling provisions, in ASCE 7.
The LDP consistently results in lower DCRN values than the LSP for both the ELF- and RSA-designed
frames for all archetype buildings, an indication that a more accurate distribution of seismic demands (based
on elastic modes) is better captured in taller frames. However, assessment of the RSA-designed frame
consistently illustrates inferior performance using the LSP compared to the LDP because of the variation
between the distribution of seismic demands and the allocation of component strengths within the frame.
This variation is not as substantial when assessing the ELF-designed frame with the LDP. Moreover, the
lateral force distribution in the LSP does not capture higher modes well, leading to conservative estimates

3-121

of column forces in the taller frames. This can be problematic for beam-columns due to the lower-bound
estimate of compressive strength, PCL.
Table 3-26. Summary of Base Shears, Linear Procedures (kips)
EHL
BSE-1
BSE-2

Routine
LSP
LDP
Ratio
LSP
LDP
Ratio

4-Story
ELF
RSA
1696
1380
1585
1334
0.93
0.97
2545
2070
2377
2000
0.93
0.97

8-Story
ELF
RSA
2176
1646
1974
1545
0.91
0.94
3264
2470
2996
2318
0.92
0.94

16-Story
ELF
RSA
2977
2574
2710
2382
0.91
0.93
4466
3862
4065
3573
0.91
0.93

Analytical results based on component-level performances obtained from the LSP and LDP suggest that
special moment frames designed in accordance with ASCE 7 and its referenced standards have difficulty
achieving the selected seismic performance objective of an existing building intended to be equivalent to a
new building. This notion is driven by the performance of the columns and beam-to-column connections.
The results for the columns can be enhanced by more mechanistically consistent column provisions and
analytical modeling parameters. Although the acceptance criteria for a connection are derived from a highly
vetted testing program, enhancement to the transference of nonlinear test results to linear acceptance criteria
and the supplementary (cumulative) adjustment factors could be investigated.
Nonlinear Assessment Procedures
The following discusses the analytical results for the noted components from the nonlinear procedures for
each archetype building.
As noted previously, the NSP is permitted for the frames but requires supplemental verification using the
LDP. The following summaries for the NSP reflect results only from the NSP (see previous for the linear
verification using the LDP). For the NDP, results are mainly discussed in reference to the mean response
from the set of records except where noted otherwise.
3.2.3.2.1

Beam-to-Column Connections

Table 3-27 provides a summary of the performance of the FR beam-to-column connections (RBS) for each
nonlinear assessment procedure and each BPL. The number listed in parentheses denotes the number of
failed components in the frameshown as bolded text. Also shown in the table is the percentage of failed
components compared to the total number of similar components. Similar to the results from the linear
procedures, the RSA-designed frames have difficulty satisfying the acceptance criteria when using the NDP
for both the LS and CP BPL. Although the median response is biased less by a collapsed state of a given
frame than the mean response, the results are not significantly improved, except for the 16-story SMF. The
NDP consistently indicates poorer performance of the connections than that given by the NSP alone. The
ELF-designed frames consistently satisfy the performance criteria for both the LS and CP BPL for both
procedures, except for the 8-story frame under the BSE-2 EHL using the NDP, which has a special situation
described subsequently.

3-122

The notable performance concerns of the beam-to-column connections is due to the cumulative penalty
associated with strong panel zones and connection detailing per AISC 341 (i.e., continuity plate thickness
in one-sided connections)see LSP and LDP assessment results discussions. Further, the span-to-depth
ratio requirements change between linear and nonlinear procedures. In many cases, the span-to-depth ratio
triggered a reduction to the linear criteria but not similarly to the nonlinear criteria. Moreover, base hinges
in the exterior columns in the 8-story frames directly influenced the rapid progression toward a collapsed
state and, in turn, the poor performance of the beam-to-column connections.
Table 3-27. Performance Summary of FR Connections (BC) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures
Archetype

NSP

Design

NDP
(based on mean response of record set)
LS
CP

LS

CP

ELF

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All Pass

All Pass

RSA

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (2)


Int. BC Pass
8%

Ext. BC Fail (2)


Int. BC Pass
8%

Ext. BC Fail (8)


Int. BC Fail (16)
100%

ELF

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (6)


Int BC Fail (12)
38%

RSA

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (8)


Int BC Fail (16)
50%

Ext. BC Fail (10)


Int BC Fail (20)
63%

ELF

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

RSA

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

All BC Pass

Ext. BC Fail (30)


Int. BC Fail (56)
90%

4-Story

8-Story

16-Story

3.2.3.2.2

Panel Zones

Table 3-28 summarizes the performance of the panel zones for each nonlinear assessment procedure for the
CP BPL. Similar to the results from the linear procedures, panel zones consistently satisfy the performance
criteria for the LS and CP BPL for both procedures. The number listed in parentheses denotes the number
of failed components in the frameshown as bolded text. Also shown in the table is the percentage of
failed components compared to the total number of similar components. The DCRN values all remained
small compared to unity (see LSP and LDP assessment results discussions). The panel zones consistently
do not achieve four times the yield shear strain at BSE-2 EHLthe deformation associated with the panel
zone strength given in AISC 360 J. This strain level is associated with panel zone design given in AISC
360 J at 2/3MCER (taken here to be BSE-1 EHL) using Mpr. The third floor of the 8-story RSA-designed
SMF is the only frame that shows a potential issue with panel zones. As discussed previously, this is a
corollary of beam-to-column connection performance and base column hinging and not a panel zone
performance concern. It is not yet fully understood whether good performance of panel zones is strictly due
to increased strengths resulting from drift criteria, conservative design approaches (for the panel zones), or
industry practice of increasing column size.

3-123

Table 3-28. Performance Summary of Panel Zones (PZ) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures
Archetype

NSP

Design

NDP
(based on mean response of record set)
LS
CP

LS

CP

ELF

--

All PZ Pass

--

All PZ Pass

RSA

--

All PZ Pass

--

All PZ Pass

ELF

--

All PZ Pass

--

All PZ Pass

RSA

--

All PZ Pass

---

Ext. PZ Pass
Int. PZ Fail (2)
6%

ELF

--

All PZ Pass

--

All PZ Pass

RSA

--

All PZ Pass

--

All PZ Pass

4-Story

8-Story

16-Story

3.2.3.2.3

Member Cross-section Strength (flexural hinge) and Global Strength (member stability)

Table 3-29 provides a summary of the performance of the column hinges for each nonlinear assessment
procedure for the CP BPL Hinges in beam members that are part of the beam-to-column connection are
discussed above and not addressed in this section. The number listed in parentheses denotes the number of
failed components in the frameshown as bolded text. Also shown in the table is the percentage of failed
components compared to the total number of similar components. In addition to assessment results, the
strong-column weak-beam (SCWB) philosophy prescribed in AISC 341 was verified to confirm locations
of expected hinges at the BSE-2 EHL (CP BPL).
Base column hinges at the exterior of the 8-story frames consistently fail the performance criteria. These
failures are a corollary of the modeling parameters for P-M hinges in ASCE 41 (see linear discussion).
These columns are force-controlled for flexure in the 8-story ELF-designed frame and the 16-Story RSAdesigned frame (shaded in the table) for the NSP and NDP. Still, the axial force demand, Pmax, is from an
individual record and is, therefore, biased by the behavior of the frame to that record. As such, it is difficult
to capture record-to-record variability on force- and deformation-controlled response directly in the analysis
for a set of ground motion records. Recall that the linear procedures also identified concerns with these
columns.
Establishing the in-plane column hinge model and performance metrics as a function of the out-of-plane
flexural buckling strength, when governs PCL, can be problematic for wide-flange columns. More so, when
the gravity load alone produces an axial force greater than 0.2PCL, which is the case in the exterior base
columns in the 8-story frames (see calculations below). These column base hinges reach the CP deformation
limit prior to the adjacent beam-to-column connections. The maximum axial force from the NDP in this
column (and hinge component) is 992 kips, which provides an axial load ratio, P / PCL, of 0.6 (which would
3-124

require force-controlled action). The axial load ratio based on the section axial strength using expected
material properties, P / Pye, is 0.35 (which would require deformation-controlled action). Consequently,
modeling the section flexural strength of a column hinge using the section axial strength of that section
would not result in a force-controlled condition. This was the approach taken in FEMA 273, the predecessor
of ASCE 41. Further, it is theoretically inconsistent to model the component strengths within the same
column as a function of both Pye and PCL. As is evident in the 8-story frame response, base column failures
can initiate a rapid progression towards a collapsed state, analytically speaking.
W18175 (8-Story ELF-designed SMF Exterior Base Column):

Pgravity = Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Unreduced Live Floor = 457 kips

PCL = Pn,y = 1639 kips (1724 kips using Fye)

Pye = 2822 kips

Pgravity / PCL = 0.28 > 0.2 (Pgravity / PCLe = 0.27)


Pgravity / Pye = 0.16

Table 3-29. Performance Summary of Column Hinges (CH) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures
Archetype

NSP

Design

NDP
(based on mean response of record set)
LS
CP

LS

CP

ELF

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

RSA

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

ELF

--

Ext. CH Fail (2)


Int. CH Pass
3%
SCWB ok

---

Ext. CH Fail (4)


Int. CH Pass
6%
SCWB Not ok

RSA

---

Ext. CH Fail (2)


Int. CH Pass
3%
SCWB ok

---

Ext. CH Fail (4)


Int. CH Pass
6%
SCWB Not ok

ELF

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

RSA

--

All CH Pass
SCWB ok

---

Ext. CH Fail (22)


Int. CH Fail (12)
27%
SCWB ok

4-Story

8-Story

16-Story

Table 3-30 summarizes the performance of the column member strength for each nonlinear assessment
procedure for the CP BPL. ASCE 41 does not provide guidance on checking column member stability when
using the nonlinear procedures unless the column is designated as force-controlled. It is mechanistically
inconsistent to adjust material properties between section strength and member stability for a given column
3-125

(i.e., hinge uses Pye and member uses PCL). Except for the 8-story ELF- and RSAdesigned frames, which
indicate column hinges form in the upper stories using the NDP, analytical results of the member stability
interaction curves indicate that column members satisfy the performance criteria. Nonetheless, the in-plane
stability of a column with plastic hinges from in-plane flexure is highly complex and is a topic that is not
well understood in the literature or implicitly or explicitly addressed in ASCE 41 for the nonlinear
procedures. Experimental testing on deep wide-flanged steel beam-columns has illustrated that the weakaxis buckling strength of a wide-flange is not affected by plastic hinges from in-plane flexure.
Table 3-30. Performance Summary of Column Members (CM) per Frame, Nonlinear Procedures
Archetype
4-Story
8-Story
16-Story

3.2.3.2.4

NDP
(based on mean response of record set)
LS
CP
--
All CM Pass

NSP

Design
ELF

LS
--

CP
All CM Pass

RSA

--

All CM Pass

--

All CM Pass

ELF

--

All CM Pass

--

All CM Pass

RSA

--

All CM Pass

--

All CM Pass

ELF

--

All CM Pass

--

All CM Pass

RSA

--

All CM Pass

--

All CM Pass

Summary

Table 3-31 summarizes the performance of the archetype buildings in reference to the BSO for both
nonlinear procedures. Column hinge performance, primarily in the base columns, from both assessment
procedures controls the overall assessment of the frames. Base column failure is more detrimental to the
overall structural performance than beam-to-column connection performance. As noted above, additional
research is needed on assessment criteria for beam-to-column connections and columns. In the end, only
the 4- and 16-story ELF-designed frames satisfy the seismic performance objective using either nonlinear
procedure (recall from Chapter 2 that the ELF procedure is not permitted for design of the 16-story SMF).
The shaded area in the table indicates which frames do not satisfy the NSP criteria due to supplemental
verification using the LDP (see linear discussion above). The qualitative ratings are assigned primarily
based on the performance of the column members and, for a few cases, the performance of the columns
coupled with the performance of the beam-to-column connections.
Table 3-31. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings, Nonlinear Procedures
Archetype
4-Story
8-Story
16-Story

NSP

Design
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

BC
Pass
Fail
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass

CH
Pass
Pass
Fail
Fail
Pass
Pass

Design
PZ
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass

ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

NDP
(based on mean response of record set)
BC
CH
PZ
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Fail
Pass
Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Fail
Fail

The assessment results from the NSP and NDP illustrate that on average the ELF-designed SMF performs
better than the RSA-designed SMF for all archetype buildings. This can be attributed to the increased
3-126

strength and stiffness provided to the ELF-designed frames (see Table 2-4 and Table 2-5) by differences in
the ELF and RSA procedures, including associated scaling provisions, in ASCE 7.
The NSP (without supplemental verification) consistently results in lower DCRN values than the NDP for
both the ELF- and RSA-designed frames for all archetype buildings, an indication that a more accurate
distribution of seismic demands is not well captured in taller frames using the NSP (LDP results are
consistently greater than NSP, albeit a direct comparison is problematic as discussed previously). Nonlinear
results indicate that the NSP has a tendency to underestimate the demands in the upper stories. This occurs
primarily because of the differences in the distribution of seismic demands and the lack of modal
representation other than the fundamental mode in the NSP. This effect was also noticed in NIST GCR 10
917-9: Applicability of Nonlinear Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Modeling for Design (NIST 2010c).
The results from the NDP are sensitive to excitation input, analysis parameters, and component modeling.
In this study, generalized component models were incorporated with degradation effects calibrated to an
experimental test. Future research should critically examine the applicability of the generalized modeling
parameters for steel components in ASCE 41. Experimental research has shown that subassembly tests can
have large scatter in acceptable performance given the stochastic variations in the type of loading, that being
cyclical, near-fault, random, etc. (e.g., SAC project). Future research should investigate the influence of the
loading protocol adopted to establish the deterministic acceptance criteria for connections and member
hinges.
Analytical results based on component-level performances obtained from the NSP and NDP suggest that
special moment frames designed in accordance with ASCE 7 and its referenced standards have difficulty
achieving the selected seismic performance objective of an existing building intended to be equivalent to a
new building. This notion is driven by the performance of the columns and beam-to-column connections.
The results for the columns can be enhanced by more mechanistically consistent column provisions and
analytical modeling parameters. Although the acceptance criteria for a connection are derived from a highly
vetted testing program, enhancement to the (cumulative) adjustment factors to the criteria could be
investigated.
Comparison between Linear and Nonlinear Assessment Results
Table 3-32 summarizes the performance of the archetype buildings for each analysis procedure. The results
indicate that the linear procedures consistently provide DCRN values greater than that given by the nonlinear
procedures, highlighting the conservatism in the linear assessment procedures. As discussed previously,
direct comparison of results between linear and nonlinear procedures can be problematic, except for direct
comparison of the distribution of results. Still, on average, the LSP and LDP are capable of identifying
potential performance concerns within critical areas of the frame as compared to the results from the NSP
and NDP. Consistency is evident in the global performance rating of the 8-story SMF as well as frames
designed per the MRSA procedure among the various assessment procedures. However, not all component
performance failures align between the procedures. The conservatism of the linear procedures is also
apparent, as expected.

3-127

The nonlinear procedures provide a more rigorous assessment approach as compared to the linear
procedures. The results from the LSP, and to a lesser extent the LDP, indicate more performance failures
in components than identified using the nonlinear procedures. The results presented emphasize the inherent
conservatism in the linear procedures. However, this conservatism is coupled with a reduction in required
resources and analytical proficiency. Certainly for the NDP, the effects of ground motion selection and
scaling can be significant, including the number of records adopted to achieve a reasonable level of
statistical confidence and the method by which the records were chosen with a bias to achieve an unfairly
beneficial binary outcome. Moreover, some of the higher mode periods fall directly in localized high energy
regions of the response spectrum resulting in increased demands that cannot be captured efficiently in a
linear analysis using a smooth generalized spectrum. Furthermore for the NSP, the force distribution is
potentially inadequate for frames that exhibit increased higher mode participation, either elastically or
triggered by nonlinearity.
Table 3-32. BSO Performance Summary of Archetype Buildings

Archetype

4-Story
8-Story
16-Story

Design

LSP

LDP

NSP

ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA

Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail
Fail

Pass
Fail
Fail
Fail
Pass
Fail

Pass
Fail
Fail
Fail
Pass
Fail

NDP
(based on mean
response of
record set)
Pass
Fail
Fail
Fail
Pass
Fail

In contrast to the nonlinear procedures, the linear analysis model and assessment is implied to be less
rigorous and more conservative. As already discussed, the linear procedures yielded more conservative
results for the deformation-controlled components. The linear procedures can also illustrate the trend in
demands but may fail to highlight critical performance zones within a given frame.
The columns that failed the linear criteria are typically force-controlled because of high axial loads, a result
of using PUF / PCL in lieu of PUF / Pye to model flexural hinge strength and trigger force-controlled response.
In comparison to the results from the NDP, the linear procedures produced conservative estimates of poor
performance. On average, the linear procedures slightly overestimate the axial force demand in the exterior
columns. Although there is general agreement between the procedures on which members may pose a risk,
the results from the NDP illustrate that the column hinges can satisfy the performance criteria if the hinges
were not force-controlled using PCL, which is generally governed by out-of-plane flexural buckling.
Enhancements to the assessment of beam-columns could consider using a dual assessment criterion that
evaluates stability and flexural hinging separately (as is done for the NDP in this study).

3-128

Summary, Conclusions, and


Recommendations

This report presents the results of a study investigating the correlation between the seismic performance of
an ASCE 7 code-compliant building and its performance as quantified using ASCE 41 analysis procedures
and structural performance metrics. This investigation is performed by evaluating a suite of structural steel
buildings in a high seismicity region that are designed using ASCE 7 and evaluated using ASCE 41. The
basic question is whether the standards for designing new steel buildings and assessing existing steel
buildings provide consistent levels of performance. An additional outcome of this research is to advance
the state-of-knowledge in PBSD and assessment of buildings using ASCE 41. Further, results provide the
technical background for provisions that target equivalent seismic performance between a new building and
an existing building that is required to meet the seismic performance objective of a new building.
This chapter highlights significant observations and conclusions from the seismic assessment of the
archetype buildings using four assessment procedures prescribed in ASCE 41. General findings and
recommendations are based on the collective results for the seismic force-resisting system. More in-depth
findings specific to the system are in the relevant subsections in this chapter, as well as in relevant sections
of the assessment discussion in Chapter 3. Although the primary emphasis of this study is on benchmarking
ASCE 41 assessment procedures, questions arise that may be more applicable to the design criteria used
rather than to the assessment resultsthese items are identified in the section about future research.

4.1

Summary of Project Work

This report presents the results of the structural seismic performance assessment using ASCE 41 procedures
and performance measures of buildings utilizing steel special moment frames (SMF) as the lateral forceresisting system (LFRS).
A suite of archetype buildings that incorporate SMFs along one principal direction of the buildings is
designed in accordance with ASCE 7. The suite consists of 4-, 8-, and 16-story buildings designed using
both the Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure and Modal Response Spectrum Analysis. Both analysis
procedures are used to provide a generally applicable range of LFRS strength within the selected seismic
intensity region. As such, a LFRS may include significant overstrength to resist nonseismic loads or satisfy
other design criteria. A design space of varied building parameters is used to investigate the effects of
building height, design methodology, and other LFRS-specific geometric modifications on seismic
performance. In reality, the design space is infinitely large and many design choices made in this study can
also have different configurations to evaluate the variation in performance specific to a design choice (e.g.,
study of a range of doubler plate thicknesses in an SMF and their influence on frame column performance).
The seismic performance assessment of the building suite is conducted using both linear and nonlinear
analysis procedures prescribed in ASCE 41:
4-1

Linear Static Procedure (LSP)

Linear Dynamic Procedure (Response Spectrum) (LDP)

Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP)

For this study, the performance assessment targets the Basic Safety Objective (BSO) prescribed in ASCE
41 with the interrelated goals of Life Safety (LS) Building Performance Level (BPL) at the Basic Safety
Earthquake-1 (BSE-1) earthquake hazard level (EHL) and Collapse Prevention (CP) BPL at the BSE-2
EHL. This performance objective is chosen to align with the intended structural performance objective of
an ordinary building in ASCE 7, which is qualitatively defined here as life safety provided by collapse
prevention of the building, given a maximum considered earthquake (MCE) event.
To evaluate seismic assessment criteria, each component of the SMFs is designated as a primary component
in accordance with ASCE 41. Similarly, quantitative performance measures (i.e., acceptance criteria) for
primary components are used for all assessment procedures, although performance measures for secondary
components are permitted for some primary components. The consistent use of primary acceptance criteria
keeps all components and associated assessment results correlated among the assessment procedures for
this study.
As stated earlier, the goals of this research are as follows:

Assess new structural steel buildings utilizing SMFs designed per ASCE 7 requirements and, in
turn, evaluated using ASCE 41,
Develop a qualitative link between the performance implied in ASCE 7 in light of the performance
identified by ASCE 41 procedures and performance measures,
Provide guidance or technical support for improved or new provisions in ASCE 41 (and to a lesser
extent, ASCE 7),
Reduce uncertainty in first-generation PBSD procedures for performance-based seismic
assessment, and
Identify any inconsistencies, ambiguities, and confusing provisions in ASCE 41

In reference to developing a link between ASCE 7 and ASCE 41, the primary difficulty in equating the two
standards is rooted in their disjointed performance objectives. That is, acceptance criteria for a component
in ASCE 41 are not directly calibrated to the seismic performance objective of ASCE 7, which is a 10
percent probability of partial or total collapse given an MCE eventthat is MCER (or one percent
probability of partial or total collapse in 50 years). Equating the two objectives of the standards would imply
that only one structural performance level with an associated earthquake hazard level can be coupled: that
being, CP at the MCER. However, this would be difficult based on a member-level binary performance
solution. Consequently, the question becomes what percentage of components needs to fail the associated
CP SPL to achieve a 10 percent probability of total or partial collapse given an MCER event? Future research
should assess the archetype buildings in FEMA P695 analysis to ascertain the collapse probability in
relation to the ASCE 7 performance objective. Results from that study can be used to probabilistically relate
the R-factor in ASCE 7 to the m-factors and inelastic deformations using story drift. Clearly, the study
presented in this report presumes that the R-factor used for design has been derived to provide the intended
4-2

collapse performance objective. As such, the analysis results do not necessarily reflect satisfactory or
unsatisfactory performance in relation to the seismic performance objective of ASCE 7.
A consequence of a deterministic-type component evaluation (i.e., pass or fail) is that analytical results,
depending on the accuracy of the model and analysis algorithms, can be independent of the behavior of the
system. Individual member performance and the potential need to retrofit or replace it are therefore based
on an analysis output rather than the influence of the component performance on the system performance.
This is a challenging issue to overcome, and only recently has there been some progress made (e.g., FEMA
P695 and FEMA P-58 (FEMA 2012)) toward having the ability to probabilistically correlate member
performance to system performance. However, these efforts are not without their limitations and debatable
performance metrics. It is still yet to be determined whether practitioners will accept these developing
methods because of the time and resources needed to successfully apply their recommendations. However,
ASCE 41 is available and being used for performance-based seismic engineering of building systems and
components. In many cases, the acceptance criteria in ASCE 41 are being used to justify computed seismic
performance to buildings officials as being satisfactory. The question is what seismic performance is being
justified: the objective defined in ASCE 41 or that intended in ASCE 7? If satisfying ASCE 7, then this
would infer that the CP SPL associated with the MCER (taken as the BSE-2) defined in ASCE 41 matches
the intended collapse performance of ASCE 7. A significant effort is still needed to bring ASCE 41 to the
state-of-the-art and equivalent to ASCE 7. In this regard, assessment provisions are meaningless without
the technical support provided by experimental research and subsequent case studies that evaluate how the
research findings affect component and system performance.

4.2

Assumptions and Limitations of this Study

The following discussion summarizes notable assumptions employed in this study and other limitations of
the work that could impact the results, which form the basis for the conclusions and observations.
Building System and Component Characteristics for Design and Assessment
The archetype buildings are representative of a specific type of building, which uses a seismically
designed system to resist lateral loads and deformations. The selected system in this study
represents one design option out of the many available for steel framed buildings. In designing the
SFRS, there are many specific design assumptions made that play an important role in resisting
lateral loads and deformations. Different selections for frame configuration, plan layout, bay
spacing, height, connection details, and magnitude of non-seismic loads all could affect the
assessment results.
The buildings are regular in layout and configuration as defined in both ASCE 7 and ASCE 41.
Irregular building configurations can affect seismic performance and are not addressed in this
study, as they could complicate the comparisons that are being made.
The archetype buildings are simple in concept and do not contain stairwells, elevator cores,
architectural setbacks, atriums or other features found in typical buildings. The goal here is to study
the basic performance of the SFRS in resisting lateral loads and deformations without the
complexity posed by other attributes found in buildings today.

4-3

Strength and stiffness of specific secondary components, as defined in ASCE 41, were not fully
represented in the mathematical model for linear and nonlinear analyses (e.g., shear tab connection
for gravity framing, faade, stairs, etc.). This assumption, while reasonable from an analysis
standpoint, highlights a difference in requirements between ASCE 7 provisions for design and
ASCE 41 provisions for assessment (ASCE 7 12.7 and ASCE 41 3.2.2).
Composite action developed between primary and secondary structural components and the portion
of slab they support was not included in the mathematical model for seismic design or assessment.
This approach is consistent with that used by many practitioners and provides presumably
conservative results because floor slabs are not active in providing composite action and added
moment capacity. Composite action was included for the moment frame beams for verifying elastic
story drifts under service-level wind loading.
The column-to-base connections of the SFRS and the seismic base of the buildings were assumed
to be horizontally, vertically, and rotationally restrained, resulting in a fixed connection to the
ground. The base of non-SFRS columns were rotationally unrestrained. Soil-structure interaction
effects, modeling the flexibility of the soil and / or the foundation components, and modelling
partially-restrained column-to-base connections were not included in this study. Inclusion of these
effects would likely affect the assessment results. However, inclusion of the effects of the soilfoundation flexibility into the analysis is complex and not well established at the present time.
Moreover, current design practice commonly does not include soil-foundation effects; column-to
base connections to the building foundations are often idealized models, as is done in this study.
No formal investigation was included in this study to evaluate the accuracy of the quantitative
modeling parameters for nonlinear analysis or acceptance criteria for linear and nonlinear analysis
provided in ASCE 41 for primary or secondary component models. There is a project currently
ongoing with ATC (ATC-114: Development of Accurate Models and Efficient Simulation
Capabilities for Collapse Analysis to Support Implementation of Performance Based Seismic
Engineering) that will examine the component modelling parameters and acceptance criteria for
specific components.
Structural Analysis
No formal investigation was included in this study to evaluate the accuracy of the analysis
algorithms in the software packages used for structural analysis. These software packages are the
same as those used by practitioners. The stability of solution algorithms when the stiffness and
strength of the component models have significantly degraded can vary between software packages.
Therefore, any software accuracy limitations encountered in this study are consistent with those
present in design offices.
The methodology used in this study for ground motion selection and scaling resulted in a set of
earthquake records that may not be applicable or suitable for a specific site. A different record set
selected by engineering judgment, selected by revising the parameters of the methodology, or
developed from an alternative methodologycould affect the assessment results. However, the
process employed here is consistent with that used in practice, representing a typical building site
in an area with a high level of seismicity.

4-4

No formal investigation was included in this study to evaluate all potential sources of uncertainty or error,
or whether multiple sources of error are correlated. The question of uncertainties in the analytical models,
solution algorithms, material properties and even potential as-built final dimensions and positions of
members are all beyond the scope of this study. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) philosophy
in use for structural design today are based on pioneering work on uncertainties in material and load
characterizations performed starting in the 1950s. Whether a new similar large national effort to that
conducted for LRFD is required today is not clear. Quantifying the effect of any source of uncertainty or
error, as it relates to the design or assessment of buildings to resist earthquake motions, is a significant issue
and would require its own research program to study all of the aspects.

4.3

Conclusions and Observations

This section highlights significant observations and conclusions from the seismic assessment of the
archetype buildings. Topics are categorized as general or system specific. Additionally, more in-depth
discussions of the observations and conclusions specific to the SFRS are in the relevant subsections in this
chapter as well as in relevant summary sections of the assessment discussion.

ASCE 41
The following observations and conclusions can be drawn from this study. Topics are grouped by either
general applicability to ASCE 41 assessment procedures or specific to the structural system.
General
The following general topics focus on observations identified by the assessment provisions for the selected
assessment methods:
The LSP generally results in more conservative normalized demand to capacity ratios, DCRN,
values than that of the LDP, because of the differences in the distribution of seismic demands and
the lack of modal representation other than the fundamental mode in the LSP.
The NSP generally results in less conservative DCRN values than that of the NDP, contrary to what
would be expected with increasing the analytical complexity, because of the differences in the
distribution of seismic demands and the lack of modal representation other than the fundamental
mode in the NSP.
The nonlinear procedures provide a more rigorous assessment approach as compared to the linear
procedures. The results from the LSP, and to a lesser extent the LDP, indicate more performance
failures in components than identified using the nonlinear procedures. The results presented
emphasize the inherent conservatism in the linear procedures. However, this conservatism is
accompanied by a reduction in required analytical resources and proficiency of the analyst.
The linear procedures can illustrate the trend in demands but may fail to highlight critical
performance zones within a given frame.

4-5

Special Moment Frames


The following significant observations and conclusions are based on the collective results obtained from
the assessment of the special moment frames. More details about the specific items are in the relevant
sections of the assessment discussion in Chapter 3.
Analytical results based on component-level performances indicate that new SMFs designed in
accordance with ASCE 7, and its referenced standards, have difficulty achieving the ASCE 41 BSO
for an existing building intended to be equivalent to a new building. This observation is driven by
the performance of the columns and beam-to-column connections.
Assuming the archetype buildings meet the collapse performance objective of ASCE 7, the results
of the assessment procedures indicate that ASCE 41 is generally conservative for SMFs. ASCE 41
analysis would require retrofit or replacement of specific components of a code-compliant SFRS
to satisfy the CP BPL given an MCE event. The results highlight that columns (i.e., beam-columns)
with high axial and flexural demands and beam-to-column connections with a reduced beam section
(RBS) have difficulty in satisfying the performance criteria in ASCE 41. Future research is needed
to couple the collapse performance objectives of the two standards, as well as other performance
objectives associated with a seismic hazard with a lower return period.
A significant number of columns, primarily at the exterior of the frames, did not satisfy the ASCE
41 acceptance criteria. These failures are in beam-columns classified by analysis as force
controlled, which can be particularly problematic when the columns are located at the base of a
frame. The results for columns can be enhanced by more mechanistically consistent assessment
provisions and analytical modeling parameters for columns. Refinement of the relevant interaction
equations to evaluate specific failure mechanisms could assist by allowing what would be a forcecontrolled column to be classified as deformation-controlled.
A significant number of RBS beam-to-column connections, primarily at the exteriors of the frames,
did not satisfy the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria for the LSP and NDP. Although the nonlinear
acceptance criteria and detailing recommendations in ASCE 41 were derived from experimental
test data, the rationale for the quantitative development of the cumulative reduction factors on these
criteria (i.e., 0.8 multipliers in ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3-4) is unclear. The analytical results indicate that
step function-based cumulative reduction factors can have a significant impact on the performance
of an SMF. Further, reduction factors for the span-to-depth ratio limitations for beam-to-column
connections have potentially opposing effects that could impact the results between linear and
nonlinear assessment procedures.
Assessment results illustrate that panel zones designed per ASCE 7 and its referenced standards,
including the common practice of upsizing columns to offset the need for doubler plates and/or
continuity plates, consistently satisfied the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria by a large margin.
Consequently, the panel zones are deemed stronger than required by ASCE 41. Specifically,
upsizing columns can impact the strength of panel zones in reference to the balance yield approach
adopted by ASCE 41 and in turn can influence the performance of the beam-to-column connections.
Components of the special moment frames that do not satisfy the CP acceptance criteria would
need to be strengthened to achieve the performance required by ASCE 41. However, the results
from the various assessment procedures were seen to be inconsistent in some cases for a given
design routine (i.e., LSP vs. NDP) or the same assessment procedure was inconsistent between
4-6

design routines (i.e., ELF and RSA). This makes it difficult to definitively suggest that using ASCE
41 to design a new SMF would produce a system capable of achieving the seismic performance
objective of ASCE 7. Future research is needed to evaluate the collapse probability of a new system
strengthened by ASCE 41 relative to the seismic performance objective of ASCE 7. The same is
required for a new system that has component strengths reduced from that required by ASCE 7 to
meet an ASCE 41 performance objective. Further, the adequacy of the components of the enhanced
frame (those required to satisfy ASCE 41) would be dependent upon which analysis procedure is
used to iterate between design and assessment, and therefore the fidelity of the analytical model
and analysis parameters.
Results of this study indicate that for ASCE 41 to be used as a seismic design procedure for new
steel buildings, as a performance-based alternative to ASCE 7 (see ASCE 7 1.3.1.3), acceptance
criteria for the various analysis methods must be calibrated to each other to consistently result in a
uniform collapse risk. Additionally, ASCE 41 would need to reference material-specific design
standards (e.g., AISC 341) for their seismic design requirements, as well as consistent requirements
for defining acceptance criteria for a component (e.g., plastic rotation).

4.4

Recommendations for Future Research

The following sections identify items for future research. The recommendations are grouped by the
applicable standard: ASCE 41, ASCE 7, and AISC 341 / 360 / 358.

ASCE 41
General
The following items are general considerations for future studies to enhance ASCE 41 assessment
provisions:
The archetype buildings should be analyzed using the methodology formulated in FEMA P695.
This will provide the requisite data to identify the collapse probability of the systems (or frames)
in relation to the intended collapse objective of ASCE 7. However, the same seismic performance
factors as used in design should be used in the analysis. Results from this study can be used to
probabilistically relate the R-factor in ASCE 7 to m-factors and inelastic deformations using story
drift.
Research should investigate the implementation of risk-targeted collapse assessment criteria into
ASCE 41 similar to the design philosophy introduced in ASCE 7-10. As such, comparison of
system fragility curves should be done to correlate the risk-target of ASCE 7 and the risk-target of
an existing building intended to be equivalent to a new building.
Research should evaluate the influence of gravity framing (e.g., partially restrained shear tab
connections) on assessment results of the primary components of the SFRS.
Research should investigate alternative lateral force distributions for taller systems for the NSP,
including comparison between adaptive and non-adaptive loading.

4-7

Research should be conducted to determine the number of components that do not need to satisfy
the ASCE 41 component acceptance criteria while still permit the building to be classified as
meeting a performance objective.
Research should evaluate the systems used in this study by measuring demands against acceptance
criteria for secondary components to quantify variations in performance results; for example, the
RBS beam-to-column connections in the MC8 buildings. Even if secondary component criteria
were implemented, the DCRN values still indicate unsatisfactory performance in the lower floors.
The primary acceptance criteria for the nonlinear procedures has been removed in ASCE 41-13.
Based on some trends seen in this study, this should be done only if the acceptance criteria for
linear and nonlinear procedures have been correlated and calibrated.
Enhanced commentary is needed in ASCE 41, similar to the effort used to develop FEMA 274.
Commentary can be used to explain differences in component strengths between ASCE 41 and
ASCE 7 and its reference standards (e.g., AISC 341 and AISC 360). This effort would include
cleaning up incorrect references (e.g., AISC 341 or AISC 360, FEMA 355F or FEMA 355D).
Similarly, the commentary can detail the experimental tests used to derive the acceptance criteria.
Consideration should be given to reorganize Chapter 5 (Chapter 9 in ASCE 41-13) to remove
system-to-system references, most notably when they are not applicable. For example, a forcecontrolled column in an EBF cannot reference provisions for a column in a moment frame. This
chapter would benefit with an outline similar to AISC 341, where the section on member strength
is outlined similar to AISC 360. Therefore, the individual systems would reference a member
strength in lieu of another system that may or may not be applicable.
Fully Restrained Moment Frames
The following items are considerations for future studies to enhance ASCE 41 assessment provisions for
FR moment frames:
Case studies should examine the seismic performance and cost of SMFs with lighter column sizes
that include doubler plates. This cost-benefit analysis will shed light on relating construction costs
to seismic performance and post-earthquake repair costs for various regions of the country.
Research should investigate the assessment of panel zones in relation to the design methodology
using AISC 341, as well as a critical examination of the acceptance criteria in regard to
experimental test results. This research can be linked with the above study on the use of double
plates and lighter columns.
Case studies should investigate the frame design using the Direct Analysis Method in AISC 360
and the associated seismic assessment results. Some aspects of the Direct Analysis Method have
been introduced in ASCE 41-13.
Research is needed to develop acceptance criteria and modeling parameters for column-to-base
connections, including embedded connections.
Research is required to justify updated interaction equations for assessment of beam-columns using
ASCE 41, as well as a critical examination of the acceptance criteria in regard to experimental test
results. Decoupling interaction equations into specific failure mechanisms and referencing highly
vetted design standards should be considered. Removing PCL as the basis for force-controlled

4-8

response and acceptance criteria for a column hinges (i.e., revert back to FEMA 273) and using PCE
when Fye is used to assess a flexure hinge in the same column should be considered.
Research should critically examine the applicability of the generalized modeling parameters in
ASCE 41 for plastic hinges in beams, beam-to-column connections, and columns for use in the
nonlinear procedures.
Research should investigate the influence of the loading protocol adopted to establish the
deterministic acceptance criteria for connections and member hinges.
Research is needed to justify the fixed reductions (i.e., 0.8 factor) to acceptance criteria of FR beam
to-column connections based on connection detailing.
Research should investigate the correlation between acceptance criteria for the linear and nonlinear
procedures.

ASCE 7
The following items are considerations for future studies to enhance ASCE 7 provisions:
The assessment results illustrate that on average the ELF-designed frames perform better than the
RSA-designed frames for all archetype buildings. However, the ELF procedure is not permitted in
some cases. Research should investigate the applicability of the analysis limitations in terms of the
intended collapse objective of ASCE 7.
Research should investigate the lateral design force distributions in ASCE 7 and modal scaling
provisions, and their influence on the allocation of component strengths within a frame. Research
has indicated that higher modal base shear scaling may be warranted (NIST 2010b and NIST 2012).
Potential modifications to the MRSA procedure could also include scaling provisions to
additionally account for higher mode effects resulting from nonlinear response. Provisions can be
directly transferred to the linear procedures in ASCE 41.
Research efforts should evaluate incorporating other performance levels for design into ASCE 7
(NIST 2012).

AISC 341 / 360 / 358


Special Moment Frames
The following items are considerations for future studies to enhance AISC 341 provisions of special
moment frames:
In general, the SCWB provision in AISC 341 adequately limits column hinges (other than at the
column-to-base connection) at the MCER. However, assessment results suggest that this provision
may need adjustment for taller frames with increased participation of higher modes. Strictly
speaking, assessment results depend on the design methodology adopted for the beam-columns
(i.e., adjusted K factor that is dependent on the deformed shape of the column at buckling,
computation of the nominal flexural capacity of the column, and interaction formula). Furthermore,
column hinges above the base may have been produced by other phenomenon and thus column
hinging is a supplementary indicator of frame collapse. Similarly, the yield surface model for the
4-9

section flexural strength of a wide-flange column adopted in the nonlinear analysis (as well as that
prescribed in ASCE 41) is slightly different than that prescribed for the SCWB provision, which is
a conservative yield surface to cover many different column types. Efforts could couple the two
standards in terms of yield surfaces used to define the section flexural strength of a column.
Analysis results indicate that the axial force demand prescribed in the SCBW provision (i.e., using
o) is a reasonably conservative approximation compared to a full yield mechanism and results
from the NDP. The conservatism increases as the aspect ratio of the frame increases. Research
should investigate the applicability of a full yield mechanism for design.
Design of the frame columns was based on two interaction equations in accordance with AISC 360
H1.3 using the Effective Length Method. On average, this method provided acceptable minimum
sizes for column strength. In the upper stories of taller frames where drift control was not as
significant, a few (slender) column sizes were governed by out-of-plane stability (AISC 360
Equation H1-2) and also SCWB (i.e., Mnc < Mpc). However, research is needed to examine the
effects of the Lateral-Torsional Buckling Modification Factor, Cb, including the influence of axial
load and pre-curvature on Cb when computing the buckling strength of SMF columns. Similarly,
research should investigate the influence of a plastic hinge on deep wide-flange column stability
see NIST GCR 11-917-13: Research Plan for the Study of Seismic Behavior and Design of Deep,
Slender Wide-Flange Structural Steel Beam-Column Members (NIST 2011c).

4-10

Appendix A
Analysis

A.1

Ground Motions for Response History

Ground Motion Record Set

The far-field record set (22 records, each with two horizontal components) from FEMA P695 (FEMA
2009a) is selected as the input motion database for the NDP; 14 of the 44 horizontal component records are
selected as the ground motion set for each archetype building, with no two records coming from the same
station. The records are normalized for magnitude, distance, and source conditions as discussed in FEMA
P695.
The scaled record set (see Ground Motion Selection and Scaling section below) for each archetype building
is taken directly as the Basic Safety Earthquake-2 (BSE-2) earthquake hazard level (EHL). Although this
EHL is not strictly the same as having a two percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, it is comparable,
and anticipated future changes in ASCE 41-13 will likely match the seismic hazard defined in ASCE 7-10
(see Chapter 3). The scaled record set is factored by two-thirds to represent the BSE-1 EHL in lieu of
explicitly determining the ground motion parameters with a ten percent probability of exceedance in 50
years. No spectral shape modifier, , is used to adjust the seismic demands for either BSEs (FEMA 2009a;
Haselton et al. 2009), this is a topic of needed research.
As a side note, the goal initially was to analyze the archetype buildings using seven scaled pairs of ground
motion records along each principal axis of the structure (14 records in each direction). However, because
of complications in scaling orthogonal pairs for the maximum direction of response when a structure has
significantly different periods along the principal axes, it was decided to analyze 14 unique records
independently along each principal axissee above. This is permitted by ASCE 41 since requirements for
considering multidirectional seismic effects are not triggered in this studysee ASCE 41 3.2.7. Further,
there is no guidance regarding the application of scaled ground motion pairs for the maximum direction of
response when a structure has significantly different periods along the principal axes. Future research is
needed to provide provisions on scaling and application of ground motion pairs.

A.2

Ground Motion Selection and Scaling

The ground motion selection and scaling procedure for each archetype building is described below. This
procedure was developed in consultation with select members of the peer review team. Each set of records
(14 total) is used for both the equivalent lateral force (ELF) and response spectrum analysis (RSA) designs
to gauge performance between the two. The process is as follows:
1. Determine the fundamental lateral mode period, T1, of the building in the direction being
considered not including gravity load effects (i.e., first-order period) for both the ELF and RSA
A-1

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

designs. Second-order periods may also be computed with expected point-in-time gravity loads
rather than factored loads. Determine the average (arithmetic mean) of the periods for the ELF and
RSA designs, T1,avg. This will keep the scaling of the two designs consistent.
For each of the 44 far-field component records (not the records computed from the square root of
the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the two horizontal components of an event), compute the error
between Sa from the recorded spectrum and Sa from the maximum considered earthquake (MCER)
design spectrum at each period between 0.2T1,avg and 1.5T1,avg. The period step used here is 0.01
second. The error at each period ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 being an identical match.
Sum the error values over the periods between 0.2T1,avg and 1.5T1,avg to get a single composite
error value for each record.
Scale each record to minimize the total error from step 3.
Select the 14 records with least total error. If both horizontal components of a specific station are
in the set, then remove the record with the larger error of the pair and select the next unique record
from the remaining record set. This step is repeated as needed until all records selected are from
different stations.
Compute the average spectrum from the record set (14 total) from step 5.
Scale the average spectrum from step 6 so that no value between 0.2T1,avg and 1.5T1,avg is less
than the MCER spectrum. The 1.3 factor in ASCE 41 1.6.2 is not included here, so as to address
the change of spectrum parameters from geomean to maximum direction response in ASCE 7 (this
factor will be removed in ASCE 41-13).
Scale the record set from step 5 by the value computed in step 7. Therefore, there are two scaling
factors: step 4 and step 7.
Apply the total scaling factor (step 4 times step 7) to each component record in the set from step 5
and perform analysis.

For comparison purposes, the process in ASCE 41 1.6.2.2 is summarized as follows:


1. Select a minimum of three recorded events (each event is a data set), each with two horizontal
components.
2. Take the SRSS of the two horizontal components of each selected data set from step 1.
3. Select a scaling factor for each SRSS from step 2. Note that application of a scaling factor to the
unscaled SRSS is equivalent to taking the SRSS of the similarly scaled components.
4. Compute the average of the scaled SRSS spectra from step 3 for all selected events.
5. Scale the average spectrum from step 4 so that no value between 0.2T1,avg and 1.5T1,avg is less
than 1.3 times the design spectrum.
6. Apply the total scaling factor (step 3 times step 5) to each component record in an event and perform
analysis.
The selection and scaling procedure in this study differs slightly from that found in ASCE 41. Because this
study investigates a generalized SDC Dmax analysis without a specific location, it is difficult to select a site
and apply common selection and scaling processes typically performed by a geotechnical engineer. In lieu
of taking the SRSS of the two horizontal components of an event and having 22 SRSS spectra and in turn
computing the error of the SRSS records and associated scaling factor for the event, the error and scaling
factor were computed for each component (44 spectra). 14 unique records were selected per principal
A-2

direction and the average of this set scaled to meet the target spectrum. In summary, steps 1 to 5 in the
process identify the best fit to the ASCE 41 code spectrum (which matches ASCE 7). The average of this
set is computed and scaled similarly to that in ASCE 41without the 1.3 factor.
Other ground motion selection and scaling methods are discussed in NIST GCR 11-917-15: Selecting and
Scaling Earthquake Ground Motions for Performing Response-History Analyses (NIST 2011d).

A.3

Four-Story Archetype Building


4-Story Special Moment Frame

Table A-1 summarizes the 14 strong motion records used for the nonlinear dynamic procedure (NDP) for
the E-W direction of MC4 special moment frame (SMF). Figure A-1 illustrates the set of acceleration
response spectra, original and scaled, and the scaled average spectrum. Figure A-2 illustrates the
acceleration response spectra, original and scaled, for each select record. For comparison, the ASCE 41
code spectrum is shown in the figures. All records completed for the BSE-1 and BSE-2 for the ELF design.
All records completed for the BSE-1 for the RSA design. All analyses except those using records 1, 4, 7, 9,
and 12 completed for the BSE-2 for the RSA design.
Table A-1. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC4
ID

EQ No.

Event Name

Station

Comp.1

Error2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

34
12
31
10
5
28
17
15
22
3
14
41
29
7

Superstition Hills
Imperial Valley
Superstition Hills
Imperial Valley
Duzce, Turkey
Loma Prieta
Kocaeli, Turkey
Kobe, Japan
Landers
Northridge
Kobe, Japan
San Fernando
Manjil, Iran
Hector Mine

Poe Road (temp)


El Centro Array #11
El Centro Imp. Co.
Delta
Bolu
Gilroy Array #3
Duzce
Shin-Osaka
Yermo Fire Station
Canyon Country-WLC
Nishi-Akashi
LA - Hollywood Stor
Abbar
Hector

2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1

28
30
31
32
34
39
41
41
45
46
47
51
52
52

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

BSE-2
Scaling3
3.055
4.115
2.839
2.433
2.021
2.018
2.562
3.028
4.479
2.094
3.020
5.010
2.839
4.617

Component Number. See FEMA P-695 Appendix A for additional parameters associated to each component of an event.
Single composite error value computed in Step 3.
Scaling factor for the component for the BSE-2 or BSE-1 EHL (BSE-1 = BSE-2).
Time step in seconds.
Total time of record in seconds.

A-3

BSE-1
Scaling3
2.037
2.744
1.893
1.622
1.347
1.345
1.708
2.019
2.986
1.396
2.013
3.340
1.893
3.078

Step4

Time5

0.010
0.005
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.005
0.005
0.010
0.020
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.020
0.010

23
40
40
100
56
40
28
41
44
20
41
28
54
46

7
Code
121222
120622
121211
120612
120411
121022
120811
120721
120912
120121
120712
121511
121111
120521
Average

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Original EQ

Code
121222
120622
121211
120612
120411
121022
120811
120721
120912
120121
120712
121511
121111
120521
Average

Scaled EQ

5
4
3
2
1
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Scaled Average Spectrum


Scaled to 100% of MCEr

between 0.2 and 1.5T1,avg


Code
Average
0.2T1,avg
1.5T1,avg

T1,avg

0
0

Period (sec)

Figure A-1. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W Direction of MC4

A-4

Code
121222 Scaled
121222 Unscaled

EQ 3
Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 2
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 1
2

4
Code
120622 Scaled
120622 Unscaled

2
Code
121211 Scaled
121211 Unscaled

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Code
120612 Scaled
120612 Unscaled

EQ 5

Code
120411 Scaled
120411 Unscaled

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Code
120721 Scaled
120721 Unscaled

2
Code
120912 Scaled
120912 Unscaled

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

EQ 9

Period (sec)

0
1

EQ 8

0
0

EQ 7

Code
121022 Scaled
121022 Unscaled

Code
120811 Scaled
120811 Unscaled

Period (sec)

0
0

Period (sec)

EQ 6

0
1

Period (sec)

EQ 4
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

4.0
3.5

Code
120121 Scaled
120121 Unscaled

EQ 11

EQ 12

3.0

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 10

3
Code
120712 Scaled
120712 Unscaled

2.5
Code
121511 Scaled
121511 Unscaled

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

0
0

0.0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

EQ 14

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 13
4
Code
121111 Scaled
121111 Unscaled

Code
120521 Scaled
120521 Unscaled

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Figure A-2. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W Direction of MC4

A-5

A.4

Eight-Story Archetype Building


8-Story Special Moment Frame

Table A-2 summarizes the 14 strong motion records used for the NDP for the E-W direction of MC8 (SMF).
Figure A-3 illustrates the set of acceleration response spectra, original and scaled, and the scaled average
spectrum. Figure A-4 illustrates the acceleration response spectra, original and scaled, for each select
record. For comparison, the ASCE 41 code spectrum is shown in the figures. All records completed for the
BSE-1 for the ELF design. All analyses with records except 8, 10, and 13 completed for the BSE-2 for the
ELF design. All analyses except those using records 8 and 14 completed for the BSE-1 for the RSA design.
All analyses except those using records 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, and 14 completed for the BSE-2 for the
RSA design.
Table A-2. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC8
I
D
1
2
3
4
5
6

Time5

0.005
0.020
0.010
0.005
0.010
0.010

40
44
100
40
56
23

1
1
2
1
1
1

63
63
66
67
74
74

3.034
4.768
6.846
8.760
5.307
2.844

2.023
3.179
4.564
5.840
3.538
1.896

0.020
0.005
0.010
0.005
0.010
0.005

54
90
28
30
46
40

2
2

80
88

9.476
0.993

6.318
0.662

0.005
0.005

37
90

Event Name

Station

Comp.1

Error2

12
21
10
27
5
34

Imperial Valley
Landers
Imperial Valley
Loma Prieta
Duzce, Turkey
Superstition
Hills
Manjil, Iran
Chi-Chi, Taiwan
San Fernando
Kocaeli, Turkey
Hector Mine
Superstition
Hills
Friuli, Italy
Chi-Chi, Taiwan

El Centro Array #11


Yermo Fire Station
Delta
Gilroy Array #3
Bolu
Poe Road (temp)

2
1
2
1
1
2

Abbar
TCU045
LA - Hollywood Stor
Arcelik
Hector
El Centro Imp. Co.
Tolmezzo
CHY101

7
8
9
10
11
12

29
39
42
19
7
31

13
14

44
38

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

BSE-1
Scaling3
2.575
1.894
1.581
3.656
1.358
2.088

Step4

29
56
58
59
61
62

BSE-2
Scaling3
3.862
2.842
2.371
5.483
2.036
3.132

EQ No.

Component Number. See FEMA P-695 Appendix A for additional parameters associated to each component of an event.
Single composite error value computed in Step 3.
Scaling factor for the component for the BSE-2 or BSE-1 EHL (BSE-1 = BSE-2).
Time step in seconds.
Total time of record in seconds.

A-6

12
Code
120622
120911
120612
121021
120411
121222
121111
121421
121512
120821
120912
121211
121712
121412
Average

10

Scaled EQ

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Original EQ

Code
120622
120911
120612
121021
120411
121222
121111
121421
121512
120821
120912
121211
121712
121412
Average

11

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Scaled Average Spectrum


Spectral Acceleration (g)

Scaled to 100% of MCEr


between 0.2 and 1.5T1,avg

2
Code
Average
0.2T1,avg
1.5T1,avg

T1,avg

0
0

Period (sec)

Figure A-3. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W Direction of MC8

A-7

Code
120622 Scaled
120622 Unscaled

EQ 3
Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 2
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 1
4

Code
120911 Scaled
120911 Unscaled

2
Code
120612 Scaled
120612 Unscaled

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

12

Period (sec)

11

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 4

9
8
7

Code
121021 Scaled
121021 Unscaled

6
5
4
3
2

EQ 5

EQ 6

Spectral Acceleration (g)

10

Code
120411 Scaled
120411 Unscaled

Code
121222 Scaled
121222 Unscaled

1
0

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

EQ 8

4
Code
121111 Scaled
121111 Unscaled

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 7

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Period (sec)

Code
121421 Scaled
121421 Unscaled

4
3
2

EQ 9

3
Code
121512 Scaled
121512 Unscaled

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Code
120821 Scaled
120821 Unscaled

4
3
2

EQ 12
Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 11
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 10
5

2
Code
120912 Scaled
120912 Unscaled

2
Code
121211 Scaled
121211 Unscaled

1
0

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

10

EQ 13

EQ 14
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

8
7
6

Code
121712 Scaled
121712 Unscaled

5
4
3
2

Code
121412 Scaled
121412 Unscaled

1
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Figure A-4. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W Direction of MC8

A-8

A.5

Sixteen-Story Archetype Building


16-Story Special Moment Frame

Table A-3 summarizes the 14 strong motion records used for the NDP for the E-W direction of MC16
(SMF). Figure A-5 illustrates the set of acceleration response spectra, original and scaled, and the scaled
average spectrum. Figure A-6 illustrates the acceleration response spectra, original and scaled, for each
select record. For comparison, the ASCE 41 code spectrum is shown in the figures. All analyses completed
for the BSE-1 and BSE-2 for the ELF design. All records completed for the BSE-1 for the RSA design. All
analyses except those using records 1, 2, 5, and 10 completed for the BSE-2 for the RSA design.
Table A-3. Ground Motion Records for E-W Direction of MC16
Comp.

ID

EQ No.

Event Name

Station

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

12
29
19
7
9
22
5
42
17
32
14
27
16
37

Imperial Valley
Manjil, Iran
Kocaeli, Turkey
Hector Mine
Imperial Valley
Landers
Duzce, Turkey
San Fernando
Kocaeli, Turkey
Superstition Hills
Kobe, Japan
Loma Prieta
Kobe, Japan
Chi-Chi, Taiwan

El Centro Array #11


Abbar
Arcelik
Hector
Delta
Yermo Fire Station
Bolu
LA - Hollywood Stor
Duzce
El Centro Imp. Co.
Nishi-Akashi
Gilroy Array #3
Shin-Osaka
CHY101

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Error2

2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1

66
74
83
88
93
94
97
97
103
105
106
108
118
121

BSE-2
Scaling3
3.664
3.295
8.383
4.992
3.061
3.089
2.724
7.119
1.673
2.940
4.286
6.015
7.346
1.241

Component Number. See FEMA P-695 Appendix A for additional parameters associated to each component of an event.
Single composite error value computed in Step 3.
Scaling factor for the component for the BSE-2 or BSE-1 EHL (BSE-1 = BSE-2).
Time step in seconds.
Total time of record in seconds.

A-9

BSE-1
Scaling3
2.443
2.197
5.589
3.328
2.041
2.059
1.816
4.746
1.115
1.960
2.857
4.010
4.897
0.827

Step4

Time5

0.005
0.020
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.020
0.010
0.010
0.005
0.005
0.010
0.005
0.010
0.005

40
54
30
46
100
44
56
28
28
40
41
40
41
90

13
Code
120622
121111
120821
120521
120611
120912
121512
120411
120811
121212
120712
121021
120722
121411
Average

11

Scaled EQ

10

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Original EQ

Code
120622
121111
120821
120521
120611
120912
121512
120411
120811
121212
120712
121021
120722
121411
Average

12

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Scaled Average Spectrum


Spectral Acceleration (g)

Scaled to 100% of MCEr


between 0.2 and 1.5T1,avg

2
Code
Average
0.2T1,avg
1.5T1,avg

T1,avg

0
0

Period (sec)

Figure A-5. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original, Scaled, and Scaled Average Spectrum for E-W Direction of MC16

A-10

Code
120622 Scaled
120622 Unscaled

4
Code
121111 Scaled
121111 Unscaled

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Code
120521 Scaled
120521 Unscaled

2
Code
120611 Scaled
120611 Unscaled

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Code
120912 Scaled
120912 Unscaled

0
2

EQ 6
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 5

EQ 4

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Code
120821 Scaled
120821 Unscaled

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 3
Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 2
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 1
4

Period (sec)

6
4

Code
121512 Scaled
121512 Unscaled

3
2

EQ 8

EQ 9

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 7
5

Code
120411 Scaled
120411 Unscaled

Code
120811 Scaled
120811 Unscaled

1
0

0
0

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

13
12

11

EQ 11
Code
121212 Scaled
121212 Unscaled

EQ 12

10

5
4

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 10

Code
120712 Scaled
120712 Unscaled

3
2

9
8

Code
121021 Scaled
121021 Unscaled

7
6
5
4
3

1
0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

EQ 14
Spectral Acceleration (g)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

EQ 13
4
Code
120722 Scaled
120722 Unscaled

Code
121411 Scaled
121411 Unscaled

0
0

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Figure A-6. Acceleration Response Spectra: Original and Scaled for Each Selected Record for E-W Direction of MC16

A-11

A.6

FEMA P-695 Far-Field Record Set

Figure A-7 through Figure A-50 illustrate the recorded ground motion, Fourier amplitude (frequency and
period), and the five percent damped response spectra (displacement, velocity, acceleration) for each
component.

Acceleration (g)

0.2
0
-0. 2
-0. 4
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ1-NORTHR/MUL009 - Respons e Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ1-NORTHR/ MUL009
0.4

80

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Amplitude

Ac celeration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure A-7. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Beverly Hills, Mulholland Drive Station, Comp. 009

-0. 5
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ2-NORTHR/MUL279 - Respons e Spectra - 5% Damping

80

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Ac celeration (g)

3
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ2-NORTHR/ MUL279
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-8. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Beverly Hills, Mulholland Drive Station, Comp. 279

A-12

Acceleration (g)

0.2
0
-0. 2
-0. 4
2

10
12
Time (sec.)

14

16

18

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ3-NORTHR/LOS000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ3-NORTHR/ LOS000
0.4

60

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-9. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Canyon Country WLC Station, Comp. 000

EQ4-NORTHR/ LOS270

EQ4-NORTHR/LOS270 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

-0. 5
2

10
12
Time (sec.)

14

16

18

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

2
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure A-10. 1994 Northridge Earthquake at Canyon Country WLC Station, Comp. 270

A-13

EQ5-DUZCE/BOL000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

0
-0. 5
10

20

30
Time (sec.)

40

50

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

20

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ5-DUZCE/BOL000
0.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-11. 1999 Duzce, Turkey Earthquake at Bolu Station, Comp. 000

0
-0. 5
10

20

30
Time (sec.)

40

50

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.5

15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ6-DUZCE/BOL090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

80

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ6-DUZCE/BOL090

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-12. 1999 Duzce, Turkey Earthquake at Bolu Station, Comp. 090

A-14

0
-0. 2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

45

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

Acceleration (g)

0.2

10

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ7-HECTOR/HEC000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ7-HECTOR/ HEC000

40

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.8

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-13. 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake at Hector Station, Comp. 000

0
-0. 2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

45

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.2

10

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ8-HECTOR/HEC090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

60

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ8-HECTOR/ HEC090

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-14. 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake at Hector Station, Comp. 090

A-15

-0. 2
10

20

30

40

50
60
Time (sec.)

70

80

90

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

Acceleration (g)

20

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ9-IMPVALL/H-DLT262 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ9-IMPVALL/H-DLT262
0.2

40

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.8

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-15. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at Delta Station, Comp. 262

-0. 2
10

20

30

40

50
60
Time (sec.)

70

80

90

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

60

20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.2

30

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ10-IMPVALL/H-DLT352 - Respons e Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ10-IMPVALL/H-DLT352

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-16. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at Delta Station, Comp. 352

A-16

Acceleration (g)

0.2
0
-0. 2
-0. 4
0

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ11-IMPVALL/H-E11140 - Respons e Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ11-IMPVALL/H-E11140
0.4

40

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-17. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at El Centro Array Station #11, Comp. 140

0
-0. 2
0

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

-0. 4

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

30

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

2
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.2

Displacement (inches)

EQ12-IMPVALL/H-E11230 - Respons e Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ12-IMPVALL/H-E11230
0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure A-18. 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake at El Centro Array Station #11, Comp. 230

A-17

Acceleration (g)

-0. 5
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ13-KOBE/NIS000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ13-KOBE/NIS000
0.5

80

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-19. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Nishi-Akashi Station, Comp. 000

-0. 5
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ14-KOBE/NIS090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

60

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

2
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ14-KOBE/NIS090
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure A-20. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Nishi-Akashi Station, Comp. 090

A-18

0.1
0
-0. 1
-0. 2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ15-KOBE/SHI000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


10

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ15-KOBE/SHI000
0.2

40

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.5

Figure A-21. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Shin-Osaka Station, Comp. 000

EQ16-KOBE/SHI090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

-0. 2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

0.8
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ16-KOBE/SHI090
0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-22. 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake at Shin-Osaka Station, Comp. 090

A-19

0.2
0
-0. 2
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ17-KOCAELI/DZC180 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


40

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ17-KOCAELI/DZC180

60

30
20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-23. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Duzce Station, Comp. 180

0
-0. 2
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.2

20

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ18-KOCAELI/DZC270 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

60

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec)

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec)

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec)

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Ac celeration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ18-KOCAELI/DZC270

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec .)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-24. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Duzce Station, Comp. 270

A-20

EQ19-KOCAELI/ARC000 - Res ponse Spectra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

0
-0.2
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ19-KOCAELI/ARC000
0.2

6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

15
10
5
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.8

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-25. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Arcelik Station, Comp. 000

-0.1
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

40

20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

0.8
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.1

30

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ20-KOCAELI/ARC090 - Res ponse Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ20-KOCAELI/ARC090

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-26. 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake at Arcelik Station, Comp. 090

A-21

0.1
0
-0. 1
-0. 2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ21-LANDERS/YER270 - Res pons e Spec t ra - 5% Damping


30

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ21-LANDERS/YER270
0.2

60

20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.8

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-27. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Yermo Fire Station, Comp. 270

0
-0. 1
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.1

20

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ22-LANDERS/YER360 - Res pons e Spec t ra - 5% Damping

30

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

0.8
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ22-LANDERS/YER360

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-28. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Yermo Fire Station, Comp. 360

A-22

0
-0.2
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ23-LANDERS/CLW -LN - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ23-LANDERS/ CLW -LN


0.2

30

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-29. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Coolwater Station, Longitudinal Direction

0
-0.2
-0.4
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.2

10

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ24-LANDERS/CLW -TR - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

60

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ24-LANDERS/ CLW -TR


0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-30. 1992 Landers Earthquake at Coolwater Station, Transverse Direction

A-23

Acceleration (g)

-0. 5
5

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ25-LOMAP/CAP000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ25-LOMAP/CAP000
0.5

60

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-31. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Capitola Station, Comp. 000

0.2
0
-0. 2
-0. 4
5

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

Displacement (inches)

EQ26-LOMAP/CAP090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ26-LOMAP/CAP090
0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-32. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Capitola Station, Comp. 090

A-24

Displacement (inches)

EQ27-LOMAP/G03000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

-0.5
5

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ27-LOMAP/G03000
0.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-33. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Gilroy Array Station #3, Comp. 000

0
-0.2
5

10

15

20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

-0.4
0

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

40

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

2
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.2

Displacement (inches)

EQ28-LOMAP/G03090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ28-LOMAP/G03090
0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure A-34. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake at Gilroy Array Station #3, Comp. 090

A-25

Acceleration (g)

-0. 5
5

10

15

20

25
30
Time (sec.)

35

40

45

50

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ29-MANJIL/ABBAR--L - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ29-MANJIL/ABBAR--L
0.5

40

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-35. 1990 Manjil, Iran Earthquake at Abbar Station, Longitudinal Direction

-0. 5
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

40

45

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

60

20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

3
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

Displacement (inches)

EQ30-MANJIL/ABBAR--T - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


30

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ30-MANJIL/ABBAR--T
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-36. 1990 Manjil, Iran Earthquake at Abbar Station, Transverse Direction

A-26

0
-0.2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

Acceleration (g)

0.2

15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ31-SUPERST/B-ICC000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ31-SUPERST/B-ICC000

40

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.5

Figure A-37. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at El Centro, Imperial County, Comp. 000

0
-0.1
-0.2
5

10

15

20
25
Time (sec.)

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.1

20

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ32-SUPERST/B-ICC090 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

60

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

0.8
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ32-SUPERST/B-ICC090
0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-38. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at El Centro, Imperial County, Comp. 090

A-27

0.2
0
-0. 2
-0. 4
5

10
Time (sec.)

15

20

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ33-SUPERST/B-POE270 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


10

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ33-SUPERST/B-POE270
0.4

60

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-39. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at Poe Road, Comp. 270

0
-0. 2
5

10
Time (sec.)

15

20

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.2

15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ34-SUPERST/B-POE360 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

30

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ34-SUPERST/B-POE360

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-40. 1987 Superstition Hills Earthquake at Poe Road, Comp. 360

A-28

EQ35-CAPEMEND/RIO270

EQ35-CAPEMEND/RIO270 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
5

10

15
20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

0.4

30
20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-41. 1992 Cape Mendocino Earthquake at Rio Dell Overpass, Comp. 270

-0.5
5

10

15
20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

Displacement (inches)

EQ36-CAPEMEND/RIO360 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

3
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ36-CAPEMEND/RIO360
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

2
1
0

Figure A-42. 1992 Cape Mendocino Earthquake at Rio Dell Overpass, Comp. 360

A-29

EQ37-CHICHI/CHY101-E - Res pons e Spec tra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

0.2
0
-0. 2
10

20

30

40
50
Time (sec.)

60

70

80

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ37-CHICHI/ CHY101-E

40
30
20
10
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

80
60
40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.5

Figure A-43. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at CHY101 Station, E-W Component

0
-0. 2
-0. 4
10

20

30

40
50
Time (sec.)

60

70

80

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

0.2

100

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ38-CHICHI/CHY101-N - Res pons e Spec tra - 5% Damping

150

50

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

100
50
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ38-CHICHI/ CHY101-N
0.4

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-44. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at CHY101 Station, N-S Component

A-30

10

20

30

40
50
Time (sec.)

60

70

80

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

-0.5

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

20

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ39-CHICHI/TCU045-E - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

EQ39-CHICHI/TCU045-E
0.5

60

15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
20
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-45. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at TCU045 Station, E-W Component

EQ40-CHICHI/ TCU045-N - Respons e Spect ra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

-0.5
10

20

30

40
50
Time (sec.)

60

70

80

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

40
30
20
10
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ40-CHICHI/TCU045-N
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-46. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake at TCU045 Station, N-S Component

A-31

Acceleration (g)

0.1
0
-0. 1
-0. 2
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Displacement (inches)

EQ41-SFERN/PEL090 - Response Spec tra - 5% Damping


15

Velocity (inches/sec)

EQ41-SFERN/PEL090
0.2

30

10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.8

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-47. 1971 San Fernando Earthquake at Los Angeles Hollywood Store Station, Comp. 090

EQ42-SFERN/PEL180 - Response Spec tra - 5% Damping


Displacement (inches)

0
-0. 1
5

10

15
Time (sec.)

20

25

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

0.1

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

15
10
5
0

Acceleration (g)

0.8
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ42-SFERN/PEL180

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Figure A-48. 1971 San Fernando Earthquake at Los Angeles Hollywood Store Station, Comp. 180

A-32

Displacement (inches)

EQ43-FRIULI/A-TMZ000 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping

0.2
0
-0.2
5

10

15
20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

3
2
1
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

30

Velocity (inches/sec)

Acceleration (g)

EQ43-FRIULI/ A-TMZ000

20
10
0

Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-49. 1976 Fruili, Italy Earthquake at Tolmezzo Station, Comp. 000

0.2
0
-0.2
5

10

15
20
Time (sec.)

25

30

35

Amplitude

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Frequency (hz)

3.5

4.5

Velocity (inches/sec)

Displacement (inches)

EQ44-FRIULI/A-TMZ270 - Response Spectra - 5% Damping


6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec )

3.5

4.5

60
40
20
0

Acceleration (g)

1.5
Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

EQ44-FRIULI/ A-TMZ270

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
Period (sec.)

3.5

4.5

1
0.5
0

Figure A-50. 1976 Fruili, Italy Earthquake at Tolmezzo Station, Comp. 270

A-33

A-34

Appendix B
Examples

Supplemental Design Information and Design

This appendix presents supplemental information and details on the design of each archetype building.
Section B.1 provides information about the following:

Wind forces both for strength and drift analyses


Effective seismic weights and story gravity forces
Seismic forces both for strength and drift analyses
Lateral story drifts and displacements (ASCE 7 2.8.6)
ASCE 7 stability verification (ASCE 7 12.8.7)

Section B.2 provides information regarding horizontal and vertical irregularities of the SFRS.
Section B.3 provides information regarding the AISC 360 frame stability calculation (B2 for the effective
length method) for the moment frame designs.
Section B.4 provides example calculations for the strength design of a few specific members and
components:

B.1

SMF beam and RBS beam-to-column connection


SMF column
SMF panel zone

Horizontal Design Forces


Wind Forces

Table B-1 through Table B-3 provide the horizontal wind forces for the 700-year wind for strength design
of the members and components of the MWFRS and wind forces for the 10-year wind for verification of
serviceability criteria for each archetype building. In these tables, Fx represents wind forces in the E-W
direction and Fy represents wind in the N-S direction. Slight differences in applied wind forces are due to
stiffness variations between the ELF and RSA designs.

B-1

Table B-1. Wind Forces on MC4 (kips)

Level

Elevation
(ft)

Roof
4
3
2
Base

60
46
32
18
0

Diaphragm Forces (kips), Applied at Geometric Center


700-Year Wind (Design)
10-Year Wind (Drift)
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
36.09
52.43
35.30
52.43
14.82
22.46
14.67
35.48
50.50
33.98
50.50
13.99
21.63
13.69
33.21
47.53
31.81
47.53
13.09
20.36
12.82
34.36
49.60
32.91
49.60
13.55
21.25
13.26
139.14
200.06
134.01
200.06
55.46
85.71
54.44

Fy
22.46
21.63
20.36
21.25
85.71

Table B-2. Wind Forces on MC8 (kips)

Level

Elevation
(ft)

Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

116
102
88
74
60
46
32
18
0

Diaphragm Forces (kips), Applied at Geometric Center


700-Year Wind (Design)
10-Year Wind (Drift)
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
46.18
63.44
44.19
63.33
18.47
27.03
18.00
27.03
49.32
63.10
45.43
62.89
18.55
26.74
17.64
26.74
47.98
61.52
44.20
61.31
18.05
26.07
17.16
26.07
46.48
59.75
42.81
59.54
17.49
25.32
16.62
25.32
44.76
57.72
41.23
57.52
16.84
24.46
16.00
24.46
42.72
55.31
39.35
55.12
16.07
23.44
15.28
23.44
40.18
52.31
37.01
52.13
15.12
22.17
14.37
22.17
41.88
55.02
38.58
54.83
15.76
23.32
14.98
23.32
359.49
468.19
332.81
466.67
136.35
198.54
130.04
198.54

Table B-3. Wind Forces on MC 16 (kips)

Level

Elevation
(ft)

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

228
214
200
186
172
158
144
130
116
102
88
74
60
46
32
18
0

Diaphragm Forces (kips), Applied at Geometric Center


700-Year Wind (Design)
10-Year Wind (Drift)
RSA
ELF
RSA
ELF
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
Fx
Fy
56.78
77.60
55.35
77.48
22.58
32.73
22.22
32.73
62.23
78.96
59.41
78.72
23.22
32.81
22.50
32.81
61.44
78.03
58.66
77.80
22.93
32.42
22.22
32.42
60.61
77.06
57.86
76.83
22.62
32.02
21.92
32.02
59.74
76.04
57.03
75.81
22.29
31.59
21.60
31.59
58.81
74.95
56.14
74.73
21.95
31.14
21.27
31.14
57.82
73.79
55.20
73.58
21.58
30.66
20.91
30.66
56.76
72.55
54.19
72.34
21.18
30.15
20.53
30.15
55.62
71.21
53.10
71.00
20.76
29.59
20.11
29.59
54.37
69.75
51.91
69.54
20.29
28.98
19.66
28.98
53.00
68.14
50.60
67.94
19.78
28.31
19.16
28.31
51.46
66.33
49.12
66.13
19.20
27.56
18.61
27.56
49.69
64.26
47.44
64.07
18.54
26.70
17.97
26.70
47.60
61.81
45.44
61.62
17.76
25.68
17.21
25.68
44.98
58.74
42.94
58.57
16.79
24.41
16.26
24.41
47.26
62.28
45.12
62.09
17.64
25.88
17.09
25.88
878.18
1131.51
839.50
1128.26
329.11
470.62
319.23
470.62

B-2

Seismic Forces
Effective Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces
Table B-4 through Table B-6 provide the effective seismic weights lumped at each story as well as the
lumped gravity force acting on each story for each building design. The gravity force is computed using the
two load combinations as discussed in Chapter 2.
Table B-4. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC4 (kips)
Level, x
Roof
4
3
2
Total
1
2
3

wx 1
1091
1339
1346
1364
5140

RSA
Pstory 2
1309
2925
4547
6192

Px 3
1091
2470
3854
5257
-

wx 1
1095
1345
1359
1377
5176

ELF
Pstory 2
1314
2936
4574
6235

Px 3
1095
2479
3877
5293
-

Inertial weight computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.2Floor Live.

Computed from 1.2Dead + 1.2Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load

Computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load

Table B-5. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC8 (kips)

Level, x
Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Total

wx 1
1081
1324
1333
1338
1349
1353
1367
1390
10536

RSA
Pstory 2
1297
2893
4501
6114
7741
9373
11021
12697
-

Px 3
1081
2443
3815
5192
6580
7973
9378
10807
-

wx 1
1084
1328
1346
1355
1364
1368
1380
1402
10627

ELF
Pstory 2
1300
2901
4525
6158
7803
9452
11115
12806
-

1. Inertial weight computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.2Floor Live


2. Computed from 1.2Dead + 1.2Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load
3. Computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load

B-3

Px 3
1083
2450
3835
5229
6631
8038
9457
10898
-

Table B-6. Effect Seismic Weights and Story Gravity Forces, MC16 (kips)
Level, x
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Total

wx 1
1083
1327
1332
1337
1349
1354
1359
1363
1370
1374
1379
1384
1395
1403
1414
1445
21667

RSA
Pstory 2
1296
2893
4496
6105
7728
9358
10993
12634
14282
15936
17595
19260
20939
22627
24328
26067
-

Px 3
1080
2444
3812
5184
6570
7960
9355
10754
12160
13570
14986
16406
17837
19276
20726
22207
-

wx 1
1083
1327
1342
1349
1357
1360
1366
1370
1379
1384
1389
1394
1402
1410
1425
1462
21800

ELF
Pstory 2
1297
2895
4509
6133
7766
9403
11046
12695
14355
16020
17691
19369
21056
22754
24469
26227
-

Px 3
1081
2444
3822
5208
6601
7997
9399
10806
12221
13641
15066
16496
17935
19381
20843
22341
-

1. Inertial weight computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.2Floor Live


2. Computed from 1.2Dead + 1.2Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load
3. Computed from Dead + Superimposed Dead + 0.25Floor Live gravity load

Horizontal Seismic Forces, E-W Direction


B.1.2.2.1

MC4 (Special Moment Frame)

Table B-7 and Table B-8 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each building design
for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically illustrated in Figure
B-1 through Figure B-3. In these tables, Fx represents the seismic forces acting in the E-W direction only.
The equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story shears computed via a modal
combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide a comparison basis for
evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-7. Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC4
RSA
Level, x
Roof
4
3
2

Fx

Vi

ELF
Vi

Fx

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

145
68
46
56

145
213
259
316

138
121
77
38

138
259
336
374

B-4

VELF /
VRSA
1.05
0.82
0.77
0.84

Wind (700-Year)
Fx
Vi
(kips)

(kips)

36
35
33
34

36
72
105
139

36

35

Floor

Roof

138 145

68

33

46

77

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)
2

34 38

36

138
145

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

121

Floor

Roof

72

213

105

259

56

Base
40

80

120

160

336

139

Base
0

259

139

100

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

200

316

374

316

374

300

400

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral Forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-1. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

Table B-8. Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC4


RSA
(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

76
36
24
30

76
112
136
166

11.82
9.94
7.21
3.82

13

1415

0.011
0.016
0.020
0.018

76

14

i / hsx

(inch)
1.88
2.73
3.39
3.82

15

Floor

ELF
i

Vi

Roof
4
3
2

Roof

Fx

36

24

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

89
70
39
15

89
159
198
213

12.13
9.85
6.85
3.51

Roof

89

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

20

40

60

80

100

Wind (10-Year)
Vi
Fx

i / hsx
0.014
0.018
0.020
0.016

15
29
42
55

159

136

55

198

166

55

50

(kips)

15
14
13
14

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)
112

42

(kips)

89

29

Base

Base

(inch)
2.28
3.00
3.33
3.51

76

30

15

70

39

Fx

Floor

Level, x

166

100

150

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

(a) Lateral Forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-2. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

B-5

213

213

200

250

Roof

0.0112

Roof

0.0136

11.8

RSA
ELF

RSA
ELF

0.0179

0.0198

Base
0.010

0.0163

0.0177

0.0163

0.0177

0.015

0.0202

0.020

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

9.9

Floor

0.0162

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

Floor

12.1

9.8

7.2 6.8

3.8 3.5

Base
0

10

12

14

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

(a) Story Drift Ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-3. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

Table B-9 and Table B-10 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and ASCE 12.8.7 for each archetype building design. The
following formulas were used in these calculationssee ASCE 7, where is the story drift and is the
story drift ratio as defined in ASCE 7.
x
i x x 1

2i

C d xe
Ie

(B-1)

Cd
xe ( x 1) e
Ie

(B-2)

Px i I e Px xe ( x 1) e

Vi hsx Cd
Vi hsx

(B-3)

2i
1 2i

(B-4)

1i

Table B-9. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC4 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

418
615
749
911

1091
2470
3854
5257

1.88
2.73
3.39
3.82

168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.011
0.016
0.020
0.018

0.029
0.065
0.104
0.102

0.028
0.061
0.094
0.093

0.39
0.54
0.63
0.70

0.232
0.168
0.143
0.129

B-6

Table B-10. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC4 ELF
Level, x

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

488
874
1088
1171

1095
2479
3877
5293

2.28
3.00
3.33
3.51

168
168
168
216

ROOF
4
3
2

B.1.2.2.2

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.014
0.018
0.020
0.016

0.030
0.051
0.071
0.074

0.030
0.048
0.066
0.069

0.39
0.44
0.50
0.53

0.231
0.208
0.183
0.172

MC8 (Special Moment Frame)

Table B-11 and Figure B-12 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each archetype
building design for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically
illustrated in Figure B-4 through Figure B-6. In these tables, Fx represents the seismic forces acting in the
E-W direction only. The equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story shears
computed via a modal combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide a
comparison basis for evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-11. Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC8
RSA
Level, x
Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

135
192
231
268
299
326
357
394

108
108
86
65
47
30
17
7

108
216
302
367
413
444
460
467

108

49

39

Floor

(kips)

135
57
39
37
31
26
31
37

46

31

26 30

17

31

57

46

4547

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

43

(kips)

46
49
48
46
45
43
40
42

46
96
143
190
235
277
318
359

96

231

268

235

4
3

37 42

Base

302

190

40

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

192 216

143

65

(kips)

108 135

86

46

Wind (700-Year)
Fx
Vi

VELF /
VRSA
1.25
0.89
0.77
0.73
0.72
0.73
0.77
0.84

Roof

135

108

48

37

ELF
Vi

Fx

Floor

Roof

Vi

Fx

367

299

277

326

318

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

359

100

200

444

357

359

Base
0

413

300

460

394

467

394

467

400

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral Forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-4. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

B-7

500

600

Table B-12. Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC8


RSA
Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

66
28
19
18
15
13
15
18

66
93
112
131
146
159
174
192

21.48
19.64
17.26
14.52
11.59
8.69
5.70
2.84

Roof

i / hsx

(inch)
1.84
2.38
2.75
2.92
2.90
2.99
2.86
2.84

0.011
0.014
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.017
0.013

18

19

1819

Floor

ELF
i

66

28

15 17

4
7

(kips)

(inch)

71
68
51
36
24
14
7
2

71
139
190
226
250
264
271
273

22.95
20.70
17.87
15.06
12.06
9.00
5.89
2.93

Roof

71

18

(inch)
2.25
2.83
2.81
3.00
3.06
3.11
2.96
2.93

37

73

20

40

60

80

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

226

146

105

250

159

121

136

50

100

264

174

136

Base

18
37
55
73
89
105
121
136

190

89

Base

(kips)

18
19
18
17
17
16
15
16

131

16 18

(kips)

139

112

15

0.013
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.019
0.018
0.014

93

55

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

Wind (10-Year)
Fx
Vi

i / hsx

6671

36

1314 16

(kips)

68

24

Vi

51

17
18

Fx

Floor

Level, x

Fx

150

271

192

192

200

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-5. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

B-8

273

273

250

300

RSA
ELF

Roof

0.0134

0.0142

0.0168

0.0163

Floor

0.0167

0.0174

0.0173

0.0178

0.0170

2
Base
0.000

0.005

0.010

0.0132

0.0136

0.0132

0.0136

0.015

0.0179

0.0182

0.0185

21.5

RSA
ELF

19.6

17.3

Floor

0.0110

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

Roof

14.5

11.6

8.7

0.0176

5.7

2.8

22.9

20.7

17.9

15.1

12.1

9.0

5.9

2.9

Base
0.020

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

12

16

20

24

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

(a) Story Drift ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-6. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

Table B-13 and Table B-14 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and 12.8.7 for each archetype building design.
Table B-13. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC8 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

361
513
619
718
801
872
956
1055

1081
2443
3815
5192
6580
7973
9378
10807

1.84
2.38
2.75
2.92
2.90
2.99
2.86
2.84

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.011
0.014
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.017
0.013

0.033
0.067
0.101
0.126
0.142
0.163
0.167
0.135

0.032
0.063
0.092
0.112
0.124
0.140
0.143
0.119

0.53
0.68
0.67
0.71
0.62
0.63
0.60
0.60

0.172
0.134
0.136
0.128
0.147
0.145
0.151
0.152

Table B-14. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC8 ELF
Level, x
ROOF
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

392
763
1043
1243
1375
1453
1491
1503

1083
2450
3835
5229
6631
8038
9457
10898

2.25
2.83
2.81
3.00
3.06
3.11
2.96
2.93

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.013
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.019
0.018
0.014

0.037
0.054
0.062
0.075
0.088
0.102
0.112
0.098

0.036
0.051
0.058
0.070
0.081
0.093
0.101
0.089

0.37
0.51
0.43
0.48
0.46
0.48
0.47
0.45

0.246
0.180
0.210
0.190
0.199
0.190
0.192
0.200

B-9

B.1.2.2.3

MC16 (Special Moment Frame)

Table B-15 and Table B-16 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each archetype
building design for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically
illustrated in Figure B-7 through Figure B-9. In these tables, Fx represents the seismic forces acting in the
E-W direction only. The equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story shears
computed via a modal combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide a
comparison basis for evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-15. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, E-W MC16
RSA
Level, x

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

196
95
54
46
45
41
33
31
33
33
29
26
29
38
44
37

196
292
346
391
436
477
510
541
573
607
636
662
691
729
773
810

133
144
127
111
95
80
67
55
44
34
26
18
12
7
3
1

133
278
405
515
611
691
758
813
857
891
917
935
947
954
957
958

57

133
62

95

46

61

45

60

58

31
44

53

26

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

51

29

50
38

3
1

67

54

2629

80

56

33
34

12

111
95

5557

33

18

127

59

33

196
144

54 61

41

ELF
Vi
VELF / VRSA

Fx

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Fx

48
44
45

37

47

50

100

150

200

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

Wind (700-Year)
Fx
Vi
(kips)

(kips)

57
62
61
61
60
59
58
57
56
54
53
51
50
48
45
47

57
119
180
241
301
360
417
474
530
584
637
689
738
786
831
878

1.47
1.05
0.85
0.76
0.71
0.69
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.76
0.81
0.85

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

57

133

196

119

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

278
292
180

346
241

405
391

301

515
436

360

611
477

417

691
510

474

758
541

813

530 573

857

584607

891
636
637

729

947
786
773

200

400

600

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-7. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

B-10

935

691 738

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

917

662689

954
831

957

810

878

810

878

800

958
958

1000

Table B-16. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, E-W MC16


RSA

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Roof
16

15
14

13

12

11

10

9
8
7
6

Base

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

71
35
20
17
16
15
12
11
12
12
11
9
11
14
16
13

71
106
126
142
159
174
186
197
209
221
232
241
252
266
282
295

29.39
28.11
26.42
24.42
22.41
20.51
18.52
16.43
14.33
12.29
10.22
8.15
6.21
4.47
2.80
1.31

(inch)
1.28
1.69
2.00
2.02
1.89
1.99
2.09
2.10
2.04
2.07
2.07
1.94
1.75
1.67
1.49
1.31

23

20

16

22

15

22

11
17

(inch)

52
109
158
202
239
270
296
318
335
348
358
365
370
373
374
375

38.12
36.36
34.20
31.89
29.39
26.77
23.96
21.05
18.21
15.57
12.97
10.40
7.89
5.52
3.32
1.49

71
56

50

37
31
26

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

20

19
11

19
14

1
0

(kips)

52
56
50
43
37
31
26
21
17
13
10
7
5
3
1
0

20

10
11

(kips)

21

1213

18
1617

13

18

20

40

60

Vi

21
21

12

Fx

43

22

12

35

23
23

0.008
0.010
0.012
0.012
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.006

52

23

17

i / hsx

Floor

Level, x

ELF

Fx

80

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

Roof

16
15

14

13

12

11

10
9
8
7

2
Base

23

52

Wind (10-Year)
Fx
Vi

i / hsx

(inch)
1.76
2.16
2.30
2.51
2.62
2.81
2.92
2.84
2.64
2.60
2.57
2.51
2.37
2.20
1.83
1.49

0.010
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.014
0.013
0.011
0.007

(kips)

(kips)

23
23
23
23
22
22
22
21
21
20
20
19
19
18
17
18

23
46
69
91
114
136
157
178
199
219
239
258
277
295
311
329

71

46

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

106
109
69

126
91

158
142

114

202
159

136

239
174

157

270
186

296

178 197

318

199209

335

219
221

348

239
232

358

241 258

50

100

150

200

250

Figure B-8. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

373
311

282

(b) Story Shears

B-11

370
295

266

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

365
277

252

374

295

329

375

295

329

375

300

350

400

0.0105
0.0100

0.0128
0.0119

0.0137

0.0120

0.0149

0.0113

0.0156

0.0119

0.0167

0.0125

0.0174

0.0125

RSA
ELF

0.0169

0.0122

0.0157

0.0123

0.0155

0.0123

0.0153

0.0116
0.0104

0.0131

0.0089
0.0069

0.0061

0.0069

0.005

0.0150
0.0141

0.0099

0.0061

Floor

0.0076

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.000

0.0109

0.010

0.015

0.020

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

29.4

38.1

28.1

36.4

26.4

34.2

24.4

31.9

22.4

29.4

20.5

26.8

18.5

24.0

16.4
14.3

18.2

12.3

15.6

10.2
8.2
6.2
4.5
2.8
1.3

21.0

13.0
10.4

RSA
ELF

7.9

5.5

3.3

1.5

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

(a) Story Drift ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-9. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

Table B-17 and Table B-18 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and ASCE 7 12.8.7 for each building design.
Table B-17. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC16 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

392
583
692
783
874
956
1022
1084
1149
1216
1275
1327
1386
1462
1549
1622

1080
2444
3812
5184
6570
7960
9355
10754
12160
13570
14986
16406
17837
19276
20726
22207

1.28
1.69
2.00
2.02
1.89
1.99
2.09
2.10
2.04
2.07
2.07
1.94
1.75
1.67
1.49
1.31

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.008
0.010
0.012
0.012
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.006

0.021
0.042
0.066
0.079
0.085
0.099
0.114
0.124
0.129
0.138
0.145
0.143
0.134
0.131
0.118
0.083

0.021
0.040
0.062
0.074
0.078
0.090
0.102
0.110
0.114
0.121
0.126
0.125
0.118
0.116
0.106
0.077

0.52
0.68
0.78
0.81
0.65
0.67
0.68
0.68
0.67
0.67
0.68
0.68
0.63
0.61
0.60
0.54

0.173
0.133
0.116
0.112
0.139
0.137
0.134
0.134
0.135
0.135
0.133
0.134
0.143
0.149
0.150
0.169

B-12

Table B-18. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, E-W MC16 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

287
597
870
1108
1313
1486
1630
1748
1843
1916
1971
2010
2036
2051
2058
2061

1081
2444
3822
5208
6601
7997
9399
10806
12221
13641
15066
16496
17935
19381
20843
22341

1.76
2.16
2.30
2.51
2.62
2.81
2.92
2.84
2.64
2.60
2.57
2.51
2.37
2.20
1.83
1.49

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.010
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.014
0.013
0.011
0.007

0.040
0.053
0.060
0.070
0.078
0.090
0.100
0.104
0.104
0.110
0.117
0.123
0.124
0.124
0.110
0.075

0.038
0.050
0.057
0.065
0.073
0.082
0.091
0.095
0.094
0.099
0.105
0.109
0.110
0.110
0.099
0.069

0.47
0.61
0.58
0.64
0.69
0.74
0.78
0.78
0.71
0.69
0.71
0.72
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.59

0.194
0.150
0.157
0.142
0.131
0.123
0.117
0.116
0.128
0.131
0.127
0.126
0.121
0.125
0.128
0.154

Horizontal Seismic Forces, N-S Direction


B.1.2.3.1

MC4 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame)

Table B-19 and Table B-20 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each archetype
building design for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically
illustrated in Figure B-10 through Figure B-12. In these tables, Fy represents the seismic forces acting in
the N-S direction only. Lastly, the equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story
shears computed via a modal combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide
a comparison basis for evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-19. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC4
RSA
Level, x
Roof
4
3
2

Fy

Vi

Fy

ELF
Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

261
219
153
91

261
480
633
723

293
272
188
104

293
565
753
857

B-13

VELF /
VRSA
0.89
0.85
0.84
0.84

Wind (700-Year)
Fy
Vi
(kips)

(kips)

36
35
33
34

36
72
105
139

Roof

52

50

219

48

153

50

91

Roof

293

188

Base
0

40

80

120

160

200

240

280

261 293

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)
103

480

633

753

200

Base

320

565

150

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

104

52

272

Floor

Floor

261

723

200

100

857

723

200

300

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

400

500

600

700

857

800

900

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-10. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

Table B-20. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC4


RSA

Roof

22

22

20

21

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

226
190
132
78

226
416
549
627

4.88
3.85
2.63
1.35

(inch)
1.02
1.22
1.28
1.35

Fy
(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

0.006
0.007
0.008
0.006

270
249
170
93

270
519
689
782

5.41
4.21
2.70
1.39

226

190

132

78

Vi

Roof

270

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

Base
40

80

120

160

200

240

280

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

(inch)
1.20
1.51
1.31
1.39

226

i / hsx

Wind (10-Year)
Vi
Fy

0.007
0.009
0.008
0.006

(kips)

(kips)

15
14
13
14

15
29
42
55

270

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

44

416

519

64

549

627

86

100

300

400

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-11. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

B-14

782

627

200

500

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

689

86

Base

22

249

170

93

i / hsx

Floor

Floor

Roof
4
3
2

ELF

Vi

Fy

Level, x

600

782

700

800

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

0.0071
0.0061

Floor

RSA
ELF
4

0.0073
0.0090

0.0078 0.0076

Roof

0.0065 0.0063

Base
0.000

3.9

2.6

0.0065 0.0063

0.005

4.9

0.010

0.015

5.4

RSA
ELF

Floor

Roof

1.4

4.2

2.7

1.4

Base

0.020

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

(a) Story Drift ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-12. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

Table B-21 and Table B-22 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and ASCE 12.8.7 for each archetype building design.
Table B-21. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC4 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

1130
2082
2743
3135

1091
2470
3854
5257

1.02
1.22
1.28
1.35

168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.006
0.007
0.008
0.006

0.006
0.009
0.011
0.010

0.006
0.009
0.011
0.010

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

Table B-22. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC4 ELF
Level, x
ROOF
4
3
2

B.1.2.3.2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

1351
2597
3446
3909

1095
2479
3877
5293

1.20
1.51
1.31
1.39

168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.007
0.009
0.008
0.006

0.006
0.009
0.009
0.009

0.006
0.008
0.009
0.009

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

MC8 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame)

Table B-23 and Table B-24 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each archetype
building design for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically
illustrated in Figure B-13 through Figure B-15. In these tables, Fy represents the seismic forces acting in
the N-S direction only. Lastly, the equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story

B-15

shears computed via a modal combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide
a comparison basis for evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-23. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC8
RSA
Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

63

63

Floor

7
6

59
60

58

55

5255

27

55

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

239
174
94
59
70
93
100
76

239
414
508
566
636
729
829
904

216
225
190
154
119
86
55
27

216
441
631
785
904
990
1045
1073

216

174

62

ELF
Vi

Fy

94

119

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

86 93

(kips)

46
49
48
46
45
43
40
42

46
96
143
190
235
277
318
359

216239

508

248

306

40

80

120

160

200

240

904

729

990

829

468

Base

636

413

Base

785

361

76

631

566

100

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

414441

188

154

(kips)

127

190

70

63

225

Wind (700-Year)
Fy
Vi

VELF /
VRSA
1.11
0.94
0.80
0.72
0.70
0.74
0.79
0.84

Roof

239

Floor

Roof

Vi

Fy

Level, x

904

468

200

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

400

1045

1073

904

600

800

1073

1000

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-13. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

Table B-24. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC8


RSA
Level, x
Roof
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Fy

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

168
122
66
41
49
65
70
53

168
290
356
397
446
511
581
633

10.93
9.42
7.79
6.12
4.58
3.20
2.11
1.06

ELF
i

(inch)
1.51
1.62
1.68
1.54
1.37
1.10
1.04
1.06

i / hsx

Fy
(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

0.009
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005

161
163
133
104
77
52
31
13

161
324
458
562
638
690
721
735

14.59
12.56
10.33
8.16
6.17
4.17
2.60
1.22

B-16

Vi

(inch)
2.03
2.23
2.17
1.99
2.00
1.57
1.39
1.22

i / hsx
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
0.009
0.008
0.006

Wind (10-Year)
Fy
Vi
(kips)

(kips)

18
19
18
17
17
16
15
16

18
37
55
73
89
105
121
136

1200

27

27

26

25

24

23

22

13

Roof

161 168

122

66

77

52

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

65

31

23

80

356

105

446

153

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

511

690

581

199

Base
0

638

175

Base

562

130

53

458

397

70

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

290 324

104

49

161
168

54

133

41

27

163

Floor

Floor

Roof

633

199

100

735

633

200

300

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

721

400

500

600

735

700

800

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-14. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

RSA
ELF

0.0097

Floor

0.0118

0.0082

0.0119

0.0065

Base
0.000

0.0129

0.0092

0.0133

0.0100

0.0062

0.0049

0.0056

0.0049

0.0056

0.005

Roof

0.0121

0.0093

10.9

RSA
ELF

7.8

0.0083

4.6

3.2

2.1

0.010

0.015

0.020

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

1.1

12.6

10.3

6.1

14.6

9.4

Floor

0.0090

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

Roof

8.2

6.2

4.2

2.6

1.2

Base
0

12

16

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

(a) Story Drift ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-15. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

Table B-25 and Table B-26 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and ASCE 12.8.7 for each archetype building design.

B-17

Table B-25. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC8 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

838
1449
1778
1985
2229
2555
2903
3167

1081
2443
3815
5192
6580
7973
9378
10807

1.51
1.62
1.68
1.54
1.37
1.10
1.04
1.06

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.009
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005

0.012
0.016
0.021
0.024
0.024
0.020
0.020
0.017

0.011
0.016
0.021
0.023
0.024
0.020
0.020
0.017

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

Table B-26. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC8 ELF
Level, x
ROOF
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

B.1.2.3.3

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

805
1622
2288
2808
3192
3452
3606
3673

1083
2450
3835
5229
6631
8038
9457
10898

2.03
2.23
2.17
1.99
2.00
1.57
1.39
1.22

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.012
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
0.009
0.008
0.006

0.016
0.020
0.022
0.022
0.025
0.022
0.022
0.017

0.016
0.020
0.021
0.022
0.024
0.021
0.021
0.016

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

MC16 (Special Concentrically Braced Frame)

Table B-27 and Table B-28 provide the horizontal seismic forces and story shears for each archetype
building design for the seismic strength analysis and the drift analysis. The data are also graphically
illustrated in Figure B-16 through Figure B-18. In these tables, Fy represents the seismic forces acting in
the N-S direction only. Lastly, the equivalent story forces for the RSA design are backed out from the story
shears computed via a modal combination procedure. Although not theoretically correct, the forces provide
a comparison basis for evaluating variations in the vertical distribution.
Table B-27. Summary of Seismic Strength Design Forces, N-S MC16
RSA
Level, x
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Fy

Vi

Fy

ELF
Vi
VELF / VRSA

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

(kips)

190
172
115
73
45
33
31
33
41
50
58
66
68
62
50
33

190
362
477
550
595
628
658
692
733
783
841
907
975
1037
1087
1120

159
177
161
144
128
112
98
83
70
57
46
35
25
17
10
4

159
336
497
641
769
881
979
1062
1132
1190
1235
1270
1296
1312
1322
1326

B-18

1.19
1.08
0.96
0.86
0.77
0.71
0.67
0.65
0.65
0.66
0.68
0.71
0.75
0.79
0.82
0.84

Wind (700-Year)
Fy
Vi
(kips)

(kips)

57
62
61
61
60
59
58
57
56
54
53
51
50
48
45
47

57
119
180
241
301
360
417
474
530
584
637
689
738
786
831
878

78

159

79
78

115

161

7377
45

112

74

33

98

73
41

83

70
71
50 57
46

70

58

68

35

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

66
66

25

6468

17

62
62

10

128

75

31

144

76

33

50
33

190
172177

Floor

Floor

Roof
16

15
14

13

12

11

10

9
8
7
6

Base

59
62

40

80

120

160

200

Roof
16
15

14

13

12

11

10
9
8
7

2
Base

78

159190
157

RSA
ELF
Wind (700-Year)

336
362
235

477
497
312

550
388

641
595

463

769

628
536

881

658
609

979

692

1062

680 733

1132

750783

1190

818
841

1235
884
907

1270
949
975

1296

1010
1037

1312

1069
1087

200

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

400

600

800

1000

1322

1120
1132

1326

1120
1132

1326

1200

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

Figure B-16. Strength Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

Table B-28. Summary of Seismic Drift Forces, N-S MC16


RSA
Level, x
Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Fy

Vi

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

160
145
97
62
38
28
26
28
35
42
49
55
57
53
42
28

160
305
402
464
502
530
555
584
619
661
710
766
823
875
917
945

16.00
15.00
13.84
12.63
11.41
10.29
9.21
8.13
7.08
6.03
5.02
4.09
3.20
2.29
1.45
0.76

ELF
i

(inch)
1.01
1.15
1.21
1.23
1.12
1.08
1.08
1.05
1.05
1.01
0.93
0.89
0.91
0.84
0.69
0.76

i / hsx

Fy
(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.004
0.004

142
155
139
122
107
92
78
65
54
43
33
24
17
10
6
2

142
296
435
557
664
757
835
900
954
997
1030
1054
1071
1082
1087
1089

24.43
22.90
21.12
19.20
17.21
15.32
13.50
11.76
10.11
8.48
6.95
5.47
4.11
2.82
1.71
0.84

B-19

Vi

(inch)
1.53
1.78
1.91
1.99
1.89
1.82
1.74
1.65
1.63
1.53
1.48
1.36
1.29
1.11
0.86
0.84

i / hsx
0.009
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.005
0.004

Wind (10-Year)
Vi
Fy
(kips)

(kips)

23
23
23
23
22
22
22
21
21
20
20
19
19
18
17
18

23
46
69
91
114
136
157
178
199
219
239
258
277
295
311
329

1400

33

142

33
32

97

32

122
107

28 31

92

26 31

78

2830

65

30 35

54

29

42
43

28 33

55

27

57

26

53

24

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

49

24 28

10

155

139

62

32 38

17

160

145

Floor

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

42

2628

40

80

120

160

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

33

142
160
66

RSA
ELF
Wind (10-Year)

296
305
98

402435
130

464

162

557
502

193

664

530

223

757

555

254

835

584

283

900
619

312

954
661

340

997
710

1030

368

766

395

1054
823

420

1071
875

445

200

1087

471

945

1089

471

945

1089

400

Lateral Force, Fx (kips)

1082
917

600

800

1000

1200

Story Shear, Vx (kips)

(a) Lateral forces

(b) Story Shears

0.0060

0.0091

0.0069

0.0106

0.0072

0.0114

0.0073

0.0119

0.0067

0.0112

0.0064

0.0108

0.0064

0.0104

0.0062

0.0098

0.0063

0.0097

0.0060

0.0091

0.0055

0.0088

0.0053

0.0081

0.0054

0.0077

0.0050
0.0041

0.0066

RSA
ELF

0.0051

0.0035

0.0039

0.0035

0.0039

Floor

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base
0.000

Allowable Story Drift Ratio, a / hsx

Floor

Figure B-17. Drift Design Lateral Forces and Story Shears

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Roof
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Base

16.0

24.4

15.0

22.9

13.8

21.1

12.6

19.2

11.4

17.2

10.3

15.3

9.2

13.5

8.1

11.8

7.1

10.1

6.0
5.0
4.1

2.3

0.8

6.9
5.5

3.2

1.5

8.5

RSA
ELF

4.1
2.8

1.7

0.8

12

16

20

Expected Floor Displacement, x (inch)

Expected Story Drift Ratio, x / hsx

(a) Story Drift ratios at Center of Mass

(b) Floor Displacements at Center of Mass

Figure B-18. Story Drift Ratios and Deflected Shape

B-20

24

Table B-29 and Table B-30 provide the tabulated data for verifying the allowable story drifts and the seismic
stability coefficient per ASCE 7 12.8.6 and 12.8.7 for each archetype building design.
Table B-29. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC16 RSA
Level, x
ROOF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

800
1524
2010
2320
2508
2646
2775
2916
3090
3302
3548
3824
4109
4372
4581
4721

1080
2444
3812
5184
6570
7960
9355
10754
12160
13570
14986
16406
17837
19276
20726
22207

1.01
1.15
1.21
1.23
1.12
1.08
1.08
1.05
1.05
1.01
0.93
0.89
0.91
0.84
0.69
0.76

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.004
0.004

0.008
0.011
0.014
0.016
0.017
0.019
0.022
0.023
0.025
0.025
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.022
0.019
0.017

0.008
0.011
0.013
0.016
0.017
0.019
0.021
0.022
0.024
0.024
0.023
0.022
0.023
0.021
0.018
0.016

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

Table B-30. ASCE 7 Allowable Drift and Stability Verification, N-S MC16 ELF
Level, x
ROOF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

B.2

Vi Cd

Px

hsx

(kips)

(kips)

(inch)

(inch)

706
1479
2170
2782
3316
3775
4167
4493
4762
4975
5140
5261
5345
5398
5425
5435

1080
2444
3821
5206
6598
7994
9396
10802
12217
13636
15061
16491
17929
19375
20836
22334

1.52
1.78
1.91
1.99
1.88
1.82
1.74
1.65
1.63
1.53
1.47
1.36
1.29
1.11
0.86
0.84

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

i / hsx

2i

max,i

0.009
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.005
0.004

0.014
0.017
0.020
0.022
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.026
0.025
0.026
0.024
0.020
0.016

0.014
0.017
0.020
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.024
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.023
0.019
0.016

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

Horizontal and Vertical Irregularities


Special Moment Frame

Table B-31 through Table B-34 provide the results for the horizontal (type 1) and vertical (type 1 and 5)
irregularity verifications.

B-21

Table B-31. Horizontal Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification

Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

max / avg a
MC4
MC8
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
1.016
1.011
1.013
1.009
1.012
1.008
1.011
1.007
1.007
1.006
1.009
1.006
1.006
1.004
1.008
1.005
1.005
1.004
1.008
1.006
1.004
1.003
1.006
1.004

MC16
ELF
RSA
1.015
1.012
1.011
1.009
1.012
1.008
1.011
1.007
1.010
1.008
1.010
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.008
1.007
1.009
1.007
1.008
1.006
1.008
1.007
1.007
1.006
1.007
1.007
1.011
1.009
1.004
1.005

a. Values include accidental torsion with Ax = 1.0.

Table B-32. Vertical Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification (Exception 1)

Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

ELF
1.32
1.11
0.82

( / hsx) x / ( / hsx) x+1 a


MC4
MC8
RSA
ELF
RSA
1.26
1.20
0.99
1.07
1.07
1.02
1.02
0.95
1.35
1.02
1.00
1.19
0.95
0.94
0.67
0.77
0.60

MC16
ELF
1.22
1.07
1.09
1.04
1.07
1.04
0.97
0.93
0.99
0.99
0.98
0.94
0.93
0.83
0.63

RSA
1.27
1.13
0.97
0.89
1.02
1.02
0.98
0.95
1.00
0.98
0.93
0.88
0.94
0.90
0.67

a. is taken at the center of mass per ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Vy,i
h

2 M pr , j
j1

(B-5)

hsx hsx1
2

B-22

(B-6)

Table B-33. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, ELF (kip, feet)
Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2
a.
b.
c.

hc
7
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14 / 7
14
14
14
14 / 7
14
14
16

Mpr a
491.1
679.7
754.6
754.6

MC4
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x
421.0
291.3
0.69
323.4
1.11
283.0
0.88

Mpr a
491.1
491.1
951.8
951.8
1161.6
1161.6
1161.6
1161.6

MC8
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x
421.0
210.5
0.50
407.9
1.94
407.9
1.00
497.8
1.22
497.8
1.00
497.8
1.00
435.6
0.88

Mpr a
491.1
491.1
951.8
951.8
1242.1
1242.1
1242.1
1242.1
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3

MC16
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x
421.0
210.5
0.50
407.9
1.94
407.9
1.00
532.3
1.31
532.3
1.00
532.3
1.00
532.3
1.00
712.4
1.34
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
623.3
0.88

Mpr is for a single beam plastic hinge at the center of the RBS.
Vyx is computed neglecting the plastic moment strength of the adjacent columns.
h is taken as the distance from midheight of a story to mid-height of the story above ( hsx).

Table B-34. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, RSA (kip, feet)
Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2
a.
b.
c.

hc
7
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14 / 7
14
14
14
14 / 7
14
14
16

Mpr a
491.1
491.1
491.1
491.1

MC4
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x
421.0
210.5
0.50
210.5
1.00
184.2
0.88

Mpr a

358.7
358.7
491.1
491.1
679.7
679.7
754.6
754.6

MC8
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x

307.5
153.7
0.50
210.5
1.37
210.5
1.00
291.3
1.38
291.3
1.00
323.4
1.11
283.0
0.88

Mpr a
491.1
491.1
491.1
491.1
951.8
951.8
951.8
951.8
1242.1
1242.1
1242.1
1242.1
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3
1662.3

MC16
Vy,x b
Vy,x+1 / Vy,x
421.0
210.5
0.50
210.5
1.00
210.5
1.00
407.9
1.94
407.9
1.00
407.9
1.00
407.9
1.00
532.3
1.31
532.3
1.00
532.3
1.00
532.3
1.00
712.4
1.34
712.4
1.00
712.4
1.00
623.3
0.88

Mpr is for a single beam plastic hinge at the center of the RBS.
Vyx is computed neglecting the plastic moment strength of the adjacent columns.
h is taken as the distance from mid-height of a story to mid-height of the story above ( hsx).

Special Concentrically Braced Frame


Table B-35 through Table B-38 provide the results for the horizontal (type 1) and vertical (type 1 and 5)
irregularity verifications.

B-23

Table B-35. Horizontal Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification


max / avg a
MC4
MC8
ELF
RSA
ELF
RSA
1.079
1.084
1.081
1.086
1.073
1.077
1.073
1.082
1.078
1.096
1.084
1.083
1.071
1.056
1.069
1.075
1.040
1.064
1.089
1.091
1.044
1.045
1.076
1.078

Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

MC16
ELF
RSA
1.097
1.100
1.073
1.071
1.072
1.086
1.079
1.075
1.077
1.083
1.073
1.073
1.089
1.089
1.063
1.073
1.098
1.094
1.060
1.070
1.102
1.097
1.057
1.060
1.103
1.105
1.059
1.056
1.127
1.129
1.077
1.080

a. Values include accidental torsion with Ax = 1.0.

Table B-36. Vertical Irregularity Type 1 (a and b) Verification (Using Exception 1)

Floor (x)
Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

ELF

1.26
0.87
0.83

( / hsx) x / ( / hsx) x+1 a


MC4
MC8
RSA
ELF
RSA

1.10
1.11

0.97
1.03

0.92
0.91

1.00
0.88
1.14
0.79
0.77
1.02
0.88
0.93
0.63
0.68
0.61

MC16
ELF
1.17
1.07
1.04
0.95
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.99
0.94
0.96
0.92
0.95
0.86
0.78
0.76

RSA
1.20
1.08
1.02
0.91
0.94
1.00
0.94
0.99
0.93
0.91
0.93
1.01
0.91
0.82
0.85

a. is taken at the center of mass per ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Vy,i Pbr ,C Pbr ,T

b
2

b
2 hsx 2
2

[b = 20 ft. for MC4 and MC8, b = 30 ft. for MC16]

B-24

(B-7)

Table B-37. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, ELF (kip, feet)
MC4
a

Floor (x)

hsx

Pbr,C

Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
18

78.3
131.7
252.8
239.0

Pbr,T

MC8

Vy,x

249.2
255.9
403.2
484.4

190.4
225.3
381.3
351.3

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x

1.18
1.69
0.92

Pbr,C

Pbr,T

MC16
Vy,x

131.7
131.7
252.8
252.8
252.8
252.8
343.3
296.9

255.9
255.9
403.2
403.2
403.2
403.2
480.2
480.2

225.3
225.3
381.3
381.3
381.3
381.3
478.7
377.4

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x

1.00
1.69
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.26
0.79

Pbr,T b

Vy,x

99.4
99.4
132.7
132.7
207.5
207.5
240.2
240.2
297.9
297.9
297.9
297.9
297.9
297.9
469.2
419.4

255.9
255.9
284.8
284.8
403.2
403.2
484.4
484.4
480.2
480.2
480.2
480.2
480.2
480.2
679.0
679.0

259.7
259.7
305.3
305.3
446.5
446.5
529.7
529.7
568.9
568.9
568.9
568.9
568.9
568.9
839.4
703.1

Pbr,C

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x
1.00
1.18
1.00
1.46
1.00
1.19
1.00
1.07
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.48
0.84

a. Design compression strength.


b. Design tension strength.

Table B-38. Vertical Irregularity Type 5 (a and b) Verification, RSA (kip, feet)
MC4
a

Floor (x)

hsx

Pbr,C

Roof MC16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9 (Roof MC8)
8
7
6
5 (Roof MC4)
4
3
2

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
18

67.6
131.7
166.5
206.6

Pbr,T

197.9
255.9
284.8
403.2

MC8
Vy,x

154.3
225.3
262.3
296.1

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x

1.46
1.16
1.13

Pbr,C

Pbr,T

MC16
Vy,x

131.7
131.7
166.5
166.5
252.8
252.8
343.3
296.9

255.9
255.9
284.8
284.8
403.2
403.2
480.2
480.2

225.3
225.3
262.3
262.3
381.3
381.3
478.7
377.4

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x

1.00
1.16
1.00
1.45
1.00
1.26
0.79

Pbr,T b

Vy,x

99.4
99.4
132.7
132.7
207.5
207.5
207.5
207.5
207.5
207.5
240.2
240.2
297.9
297.9
469.2
419.4

255.9
255.9
284.8
284.8
403.2
403.2
403.2
403.2
403.2
403.2
484.4
484.4
480.2
480.2
679.0
679.0

259.7
259.7
305.3
305.3
446.5
446.5
446.5
446.5
446.5
446.5
529.7
529.7
568.9
568.9
839.4
703.1

Pbr,C

Vy,x+1 /
Vy,x
1.00
1.18
1.00
1.46
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.19
1.00
1.07
1.00
1.48
0.84

a. Design compression strength


b. Design tension strength.

B.3

SMF AISC Frame Stability (Effective Length Method)

Table B-39 through Table B-44 provide the results from AISC 360, appendix 7 Effective Length Method
verifications.

B-25

Table B-39. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 4-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch)
Pstory a
1314
2936
4574
6235

H b
2.24
2.92
3.21
3.38

H
499.9
897.8
1120.0
1208.0

L
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
35716
49223
55854
73615

B2
1.04
1.06
1.09
1.09

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Table B-40. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 4-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch)
Pstory a
1309
2925
4547
6192

H b
2.51
3.50
3.97
4.13

H
435.5
765.8
938.0
999.6

L
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
27764
35055
37806
49870

B2
1.05
1.09
1.14
1.14

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Table B-41. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 8-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch)
Pstory a
1300
2901
4525
6158
7803
9452
11115
12806

H b
2.15
2.68
2.64
2.79
2.81
2.83
2.68
2.66

H
392.5
764.5
1045.2
1244.9
1377.1
1455.0
1493.0
1505.3

L
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
29312
45678
63361
71414
78453
82282
89151
116595

B2
1.05
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.11
1.13
1.14
1.12

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Table B-42. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 8-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch)
Pstory a
1297
2893
4501
6114
7741
9373
11021
12697

H b
5.76
7.62
8.56
8.74
8.11
7.72
6.83
6.44

H
665.9
1297.1
1770.7
2107.1
2330.3
2462.1
2526.7
2547.5

L
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
18506
27284
33134
38612
46054
51065
59299
81474

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6.

B-26

B2
1.08
1.12
1.16
1.19
1.20
1.22
1.23
1.18

Table B-43. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 16-Story SMF ELF (kip, inch)
H b
1.62
1.97
2.09
2.26
2.34
2.49
2.57
2.50
2.31
2.27
2.24
2.18
2.05
1.91
1.60
1.32

Pstory a
1297
2895
4509
6133
7766
9403
11046
12695
14355
16020
17691
19369
21056
22754
24469
26227

H
278.1
578.3
843.4
1073.9
1272.1
1439.8
1579.7
1694.0
1785.7
1856.8
1909.9
1947.6
1972.5
1987.2
1994.5
1996.8

L
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
27566
47016
64592
76131
86953
92517
98355
108744
123781
131214
136851
143441
154360
167096
199929
311432

B2
1.05
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.14
1.09

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6.

Table B-44. AISC 360 Frame Stability (Effective Length Method), 16-Story SMF RSA (kip, inch)
H b
2.83
3.88
4.75
4.89
4.56
4.71
4.83
4.73
4.45
4.34
4.17
3.78
3.25
2.94
2.50
2.16

Pstory a
1296
2893
4496
6105
7728
9358
10993
12634
14282
15936
17595
19260
20939
22627
24328
26067

H
390.9
812.9
1182.8
1503.8
1781.0
2015.7
2211.3
2371.3
2499.2
2598.5
2672.7
2725.3
2760.2
2780.8
2790.8
2794.1

L
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
216

Rm
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954
0.954

Pe story
22100
33576
39868
49305
62558
68592
73302
80383
90046
95899
102632
115496
136170
151337
178505
267012

B2
1.06
1.09
1.13
1.14
1.14
1.16
1.18
1.19
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.20
1.18
1.18
1.16
1.11

a. Pstory is computed from 1.2Dead + 0.25Floor Live.


b. H and H are determined from a first-order static analysis using ASCE 7 12.8.6

Table B-45. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 4-Story SMF


ELF
Story
4
3
2
1
a.

K2x (note a)
Exterior
2.23
2.44
2.54
2.42

K2x (note a)
Interior
2.98
3.26
3.37
3.21

RSA
K2x (note a)
K2x (note a)
Exterior
Interior
2.46
3.08
2.99
3.74
3.08
3.86
2.58
3.23

x designates in-plane buckling about x-axis as depicted in AISC 360 Part 1.

B-27

Table B-46. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 8-Story SMF


Story
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

K2x (note a)
Exterior
2.18
2.12
2.09
2.04
2.04
1.99
2.09
2.03

ELF
K2x (note a)
Interior
2.75
2.67
2.80
2.74
2.88
2.81
3.21
3.11

K2x (note a)
Exterior
2.59
2.61
2.26
2.16
2.20
2.27
2.44
2.24

RSA
K2x (note a)
Interior
2.74
2.76
3.21
3.08
3.38
3.48
3.82
3.51

a. x designates in-plane buckling about x-axis as depicted in AISC 360 Part 1.

Table B-47. Adjusted Effective Length Factors 16-Story SMF


ELF
Story
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

K2x (note a)
Exterior
3.09
3.33
2.66
2.46
2.29
2.20
2.05
2.01
1.97
2.07
2.03
1.97
2.08
2.07
2.69
2.62

K2x (note a)
Interior
2.46
2.65
2.80
2.59
2.52
2.43
2.49
2.43
2.70
2.84
3.21
3.12
3.21
3.20
3.25
3.17

RSA
K2x (note a)
K2x (note a)
Exterior
Interior
2.51
2.64
2.41
2.53
2.11
2.73
2.02
2.61
2.17
2.66
2.29
2.81
2.11
2.90
2.05
2.81
2.21
2.89
2.32
3.04
2.22
3.43
2.09
3.22
2.88
3.11
3.79
4.09
3.48
4.20
2.62
3.17

a. x designates in-plane buckling about x-axis as depicted in AISC 360 Part 1.

B-28

B.4

Example Design Calculations

The examples presented detail the strength design calculations for the following members and components
of each SFRS for the RSA-designed 8-story buildings (MC8):

SMF beam and beam-to-column connection, MC8 RSA

SMF column , MC8 RSA

SMF panel zone, MC8 RSA

Example calculations for components of the SCBF can be found in Volume 2 (Harris and Speicher 2015).

Special Moment Frame Example


Member Selection

W18119
W18143
W18192
W18192

W18175

W18106

W1871

W1855

After several design and analysis iterations, the final member sizes are shown in Figure B-19.

Figure B-19. SMF Member Sizes, 8-story RSA

B-29

SMF Beam and RBS Beam-to-Column Connection


The second floor frame beam (No. 1) along grid line 1 between grid lines B and C is selected for this
example (see circled element in Figure B-19):

W2484 with reduced beam sections


L = 30 ft. (centerline)
A992 Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Ry = 1.1, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11200 ksi

B.4.1.2.1

Flexural Demand

The flexural demand from the controlling load combination from ASCE 7 at the center of the RBS is:
M u 5696 kip-in. = 475 kip-ft.

B.4.1.2.2

Flexural Strength

The controlling beam strength is at the center of the RBS (a = 4.75 in., b = 16 in., and c = 2.25 in.see
AISC 358). Composite action is neglected in the design for positive moment strength. The effective plastic
modulus at the center of the RBS is:

Z e Z x 2ct f d t f 224 2 2.25 0.77 24.1 0.770 143.16 in.3


The nominal beam capacity at the reduced section is:

b M n b Fy Z e 0.9 50 143.16 6442 kip-in. = 536 kip-ft.


b M n M u (ratio = 1.12)

The beam is braced along its length per AISC 360 and AISC 341.

Lb L p 1.76ry

E
E
40.4ry 0.086ry
45.3ry (note that AISC 360 is more strict)
Fye
Fye

M p Z x Fy 224 50 11200 kip-in = 933 kip-ft.


b M n M u

B-30

B.4.1.2.3

Fully Restrained Connection

The moment capacity at the face of the column needs to be verified (the expected moment capacity at the
face of the column needs to be greater than the probable maximum moment at the center of the fully yielded
and strain hardened RBS projected to the face of the column).
The expected moment capacity at the column face is:
M pe Z b R y Fy 224 1.1 50 12320 kip-in. (AISC 358 Equation 5.8-7)

The probable moment at the RBS is:


M pr C pr R y Fy Z e 1.15 1.1 50 143.16 9055 kip-in. (AISC 358 Equation 5.8-5)

The moment at the column face resulting from the Mpr at the RBS is:

0.0829 12.75
wS 2
VRBS S h h 9057 70.7 12.75
9962 kip-in.
2
2
2

M f M pr

VRBS

2M pr wL 2 9057 0.0829 314.3

70.7 kips
L
2
314.3
2

where VRBS is the probable shear force at the center of the RBS.

b M pe 1.0 12320 12320 M f 9962


The shear strength is computed as:
h
29000
42.5 2.24
53.9 Cv 1.0
tw
50

Vn 0.6 Fy Aw Cv 0.6 50 15.56 1.0 = 467 kips

vVn 1.0 467 467 VRBS 70.7


SMF Column
The first story column (No. 1) at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected for this example (see
circled element in Figure B-19):

W18175

hsx = 18 ft.(Lb of the column is conservatively taken as hsx)

B-31

A992 Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Ry = 1.1, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11200 ksi

B.4.1.3.1

Axial and Flexural Demand

The demands in the column from the controlling load combinations from ASCE 7 are presented in Table
B-48maximum/minimum values for an individual action displayed with bolded text.
Table B-48. Controlling Load Combinations (kips, feet)
LC Index
163
117
134
66
107
173

Pu,A
-123.90
-757.01
-212.09
-676.27
-449.00
-433.82

Pu,B
-123.90
-753.18
-209.62
-672.98
-445.17
-431.90

Mu,A,x
672.20
-689.41
685.32
-702.53
666.02
-683.23

Mu,B,x
168.81
-137.83
-140.51
171.49
179.93
-148.95

Max/Min Action
Pu,min
Pu,max
Mu,A,min
Mu,A,max
Mu,B,min
Mu,B,max

Pr = 757 kips and Mr,x = 690 kip-ft.from the load combination selected for this example (#117 in Table
B-48).
SMF column design is also governed by the capacity design requirements specified in AISC 341 D1.4a
(2), which permits flexural forces resulting from seismic drift of the frame to be neglected in this case.

Pu, o 1065 kips


B.4.1.3.2

Axial Strength

The axial compression strength of the column is calculated per AISC 360 E3.

Pn Ag Fcr
Flexural Buckling about the y-axis (out-of-plane):
K y Ly

Fy

ry

Fe , y

1.0 216
2.76

2E
K y Ly
r
y

F
Fcr 0.658 y

50
3.25 4.71
29000

2 29000

1.0 216

2.76

Fe , y

46.7 ksi

F 32.0 ksi

c P n , y 0.9 51.3 32.0 0.9 1639 1475


kips governs
B-32

Flexural Buckling about the x-axis (in-plane):


K2x = 2.59 computed using the story buckling method in AISC 360 (assuming only vertical loads
triggers story bucklingindependently of the stories above and below).
K x Lx
rx
Fe, x

Fy
E

2.59 216
8.20

2E
K x Lx

rx

F
Fcr 0.658 y

50
2.83 4.71
29000

2 29000

2.59 216

8.20

Fe , x

61.5 ksi

F 35.6 ksi

c Pn , x 0.9 51.3 35.6 0.9 1825 1643 kips see c P


n, y
B.4.1.3.3

Flexural Strength

The flexural capacity of the column is:


M n Cb M p

0.7Fy S x Lb L p / Lr L p
M p

0.7 50 344 15.7 9.7

M n 1.99 1658 1658


1.99 1548 3080 M p 1658 kip-ft.

46.8

9.7
12

b M n b M p 0.9
1658 kip-ft. = 17900 kip-in.

B.4.1.3.4

Strength Check

The interaction equation check is done using AISC 360 H1.3.

(a) In-plane stability (AISC 360 Equation H1-1a) using LC #117see Table B-48
Pr
757

0.46

Pn , x 1643

For Pr / Pn,x 0.2, the interaction equation in AISC 360 H1.1 is:

Pu
8 M u,x

c Pn , x 9 b M n , x

757 8 8273



0.46 0.41 0.87 1.0
1643
9
17900

B-33

(b) Out-of-plane stability (AISC 360 Equation H1-2) using LC #117see Table B-48

P
Pr
757
u
0.51

Pcy c Pn , y 1475

P
Pu
1.5 0.5 u
c Pn, y
c Pn, y


M u,x

Cbb M n,LTB, x

8273
0.511.5 0.5 0.51

1.99(0.9) 18576

0.63 0.062 0.69 1.0

(c) Amplified seismic load with system overstrength factor from ASCE 7

Pr,o

c Pn, y

1065
0.72 1.0
1475

SMF Panel Zone


The panel zone at the top of the first story column located at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected
for this example (see circled element in Figure B-19):

Column = W18175 (No. 1)

Beam = W2484 (No. 1)

A992 Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Ry = 1.1, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11200 ksi

B.4.1.4.1

Shear Demand

The panel zone demand is determined using the projected probable moment strength at the center of the
RBS (AISC 341 E3.6e (1) states expected moments; however, most design examples use the probable
moment because of prequalification testing).
M pr C pr R y Fy Z RBS 1.15 1.1 50 143.16 9057 kip-in = 755 kip-ft.

Projecting this demand to the face of the column:


M f M pr VRBS S h 9057 70.7 12.75 9956 kip-in = 830 kip-ft.

The approximate panel zone demand is:

Vu , PZ

M1 f ,L

tf1

M f ,R

t f 2

Vc

B-34

Vc

M f ,L M f ,R
0 9956

51.9 (assumes inflection point at mid-height of columns)


h
h
216
b t
168


2 2
2 2

Vu , PZ 0

9956

51.9 375 kips


24.1 0.77

Mf,R is the moment from the right beam and Mf,L = 0 since the panel zone is part of a one-sided
beam-to-column connection.
Alternatively, the shear demand can be approximated with ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2.

VPZ
B.4.1.4.2

M
db

L h db 830 / 12 360 192 24.1

24.1 360 20 192 382 kips

L dc h

Shear Strength

The panel zone strength is calculated from AISC Equation J10-11:

3bcf tcf 2
3bcf tcf 2
Vn 0.60Fy dc tw 1
Vy 1

db d c tw
db d c tw

V y 0.60 Fy d c t w 0.60 50 20.0 0.89 534 kips


2

3 11.4 1.59
534(1.2) 642 kips
Vn Vy 1
24.1 20.0 0.89

B.4.1.4.3

Strength Check

The panel zone strength check is:


Vr

Vn

375
0.58 1.0 (using probable moment)
1.0 642

Also,
Vr 375

0.7 1.0 (using probable moment)


Vy 534

Therefore, the panel zone is not expected to yield at the probable moment.

B-35

SMF Strong-Column / Weak-Beam


AISC 341 E3.4a requires that the sum of the nominal flexural strengths of SMF columns at a joint
projected to the jointbe stronger than the expected flexural strengths of the beam-to-column connections
at the jointprojected to the joint.

M
M

pc

1.0 (AISC 341 Equation (E3-1))

pb

AISC 341 E3.4a permits the use of a straight line interaction equation to determine the column flexural
strength, Mpc (which is a lower-bound nominal plastic section strength). This moment strength is projected
to the beam centerline assuming that the shear in column, Vc, is in equilibrium with Mpc:

pc

Pr ,top ht
Pr ,bot hb
Z x ,top Fy

Z x ,bot Fy

Ag h db
Ag h db

Because this is the base column, the assumption that the inflection point occurs at mid-height of the first
story is likely invalid due to the fixity of the column-to-base connection. A more accurate estimate can be
obtained by a nonlinear static analysis or by taking moments from the elastic analysis. Using Load
Combination #117see Table B-48, the point of inflection, z, from the base is approximately:

M bot
z

M bot M top
and

hb 216

689
L
192 158 in.
689 138

24.1
158 46 in.
2

The inflection point at the second story is assumed to be at mid-height; therefore,

pc

907
84
1065
46

398 50
398 50
30790 kip-in.


51.3 46 24.1 2
51.3 84 24.1 2

The sum of the projections of the expected flexural strengths of the beams is:

pb

M pr M uv

Mpr is the sum of the probable moments produced at each RBS centerline determined previously. Muv is
the sum of the moments produced at the column centerline by the shear at the plastic hinges:

B-36

VRBS

2M pr wL 2 9057 0.0829 314.3

70.7 kips

L
2
314.3
2

16 20
b d

VRBS a c 70.7 4.75 70.7 22.75 1608 kip-in.


2 2
2
2

uv

pb

9057 1608 10665 kip-in. = 889 kip ft.

Therefore,

M
M

pc

pb

30790
2.9 1.0
10665

The previous calculations intend to protect the column against from hinging but does not also check the
column against instability at the probable strength of the beam-to-column connection(s). The low ratio
result suggests that column instability will not be a concern.
Assuming adequate lateral bracing at the ends of the columns, using AISC 360 Equation H1-2 for out-of
plane buckling with in-plane moments:

Pr,o
P
1.5 0.5 u

Pn, y
Pn, y

M u,x

Cb M n, LTB, x

M pc , x Cb M n,LTB, x 1

1.0

Pr,o
Pr,o
1.5 0.5
Pn, y
Pn, y

1065
1065
1.99(18576) 1
1.5 0.5

1638
1638

M pc , x 36966 1 0.65 1.5 0.5(0.65) 18000 kip-in = 1500 kip-ft.


Similarly, using AISC 360 Equation H1-1a for in-plane buckling with in-plane moments,

Pr,o
Pn, x

8 M pc , x
1.0 (Pn,x uses KxLx = Lx)

9 M n, x

Pr ,o
9
M pc , x M n , x 1

8
Pn , x

9 1065
(19900) 1
9323 kip-in. = 777 kip-ft. governs

8 1825

Both values for Mpc associated with the axis of buckling above must be less than Mpc computed from the
chosen yield surface, which can be approximated using AISC 360 Equation H1-1a.

B-37

Pr,o
Py

8 M pc , x
1.0

9 M p ,
x

9 Pr ,o
M pc , x M p , x 1
8
Py

9
1065
(19900) 1
13092 kip-in. = 1092 kip-ft.

8 51.3(50)

For the column above, Mpc,x = 12637 kip-in. Thus,

M
M

pc

pb

pc

pb

84
46
12637
9323
27380 kip-in.
84 24.1 2
46 24.1 2

10665 kip-in.

27380
2.6 1.0
10665

The above calculations assume that a plastic hinge formed at the column base does not influence the
interaction curves and conservatively assumes Kx for in-plane buckling is invariant to that used for design
(which conservatively encompasses all load combinations and load patterns).

B-38

Appendix C

Example Assessment Calculations

The examples presented in this appendix detail the assessment calculations for the following primary
members and connections of each SFRS for the RSA-designed 8-story buildings (MC8):

SMF beam and beam-to-column connection, MC8 RSA

SMF column, MC8 RSA

SMF panel zone, MC8 RSA

Linear assessment example calculations are provided in C.1, and examples for the nonlinear assessment
example calculations are provided in C.2.

C.1

Linear Assessment Examples

The following example provides guidance to how the linear assessment calculations were conducted in
this study. Linear assessment of the selected components is performed for the following criteria:

Linear Dynamic Procedure (LDP)


Collapse Prevention (CP) Building Performance Level (BPL) for the BSE-2 Earthquake Hazard
Level (EHL)

SMF Frame Beam and RBS Beam-to-Column Connection


The second floor frame beam (No. 1) along grid line 1 between grid lines B and C is selected for this
example (see circled element in Figure B-19).

W2484 with reduced beam sections

L = 30 ft. (centerline)

A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi

Flexural Demand

C.1.1.1.1

Frame Beam

Flexural actions in the beam are deformation-controlled (assuming small axial loads); therefore,
M UD M G M E (ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.1)

Based on the controlling load combination, the moment at the center of each RBS is:
MUD,L = 2336 kip-ft. left

MUD,R = 2130 kip-ft. right


C-1

C.1.1.1.2

FR Connection

Flexural action in a FR connection is deformation-controlled, therefore:


M UD M G M E (ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.1)

Based on the controlling load combination, the moment at the face of each column is:
MUD,L = 2533 kip-ft. left

MUD,R = 2327 kip-ft. right

Flexural Strength
C.1.1.2.1

Beam

Per ASCE 41 5.4.2.3.2.1, the flexural strength is determined from AISC 360 Chapter F. Because this is
new construction designed in accordance with AISC 360 and AISC 341, the beam is braced sufficiently to
develop its plastic moment strength.

Lb Lp 1.76ry

E
E
40.4ry 0.086ry
45.3ry (note that AISC 360 is more strict)
Fye
Fye

M CE M n M p Z x Fye 224 55 12320 kip-in = 1027 kip-ft.

The controlling beam strength is at the center of the RBS (a = 4.75 in., b = 16 in., and c = 2.25 in., see AISC
358). The effective plastic modulus at the center of the RBS is:

Z e Z x 2ct f d t f 224 2 2.25 0.77 24.1 0.770 143.2 in.3


The expected plastic moment at the center of the RBS is:
M CE M pe Z e Fye 143.2 55 7876 kip-in. = 656 kip-ft.

C.1.1.2.2

Fully Restrained Connection

Per ASCE 41 5.4.2.4-4, QCE shall be taken as the capacity of the critical connection component. The
acceptance criteria in ASCE 41 for beam-to-column connections are applicable for demands at the face of
the column. Thus, QCE is taken as the expected flexural strength of the RBS projected to the column face.
The corresponding moment strength at the face of the column is:

C-2

M CE

Lclear
314
7876
= 8512 kip-in. = 709 kip-ft.
M f M pe
16
b

Lclear 2 a 2
314 2 4.75 2

where Lclear is the clear distance between column faces.


Acceptance Criteria
C.1.1.3.1

Beam

The m-factor for the RBS defined as a beam (primary) is taken from ASCE 41 Table 5-5.

bf
2t f

5.86

52
Fye

=7.01

h
418
45.9
56.4
tw
Fye
m 8

C.1.1.3.2

Fully Restrained Connection

The initial m-factor for the RBS beam-to-column connection (primary) is taken from ASCE 41 Table 5-5.

mi 6.2 0.032d 6.2 0.032 24.1 5.43


Per ASCE 41 Table 5-4, the RBS is considered a fully restrained (FR) connection and thus the acceptance
criteria is subject to the following acceptance criteria modifications in ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3 (each modifier
is taken as here).
Continuity Plate Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.1)

tcf 1.59 in. and tcp 0.5 in. at both connections, bbf 9.02 in. and tbf 0.77 in.
bbf
7

tcf

bbf
5.2

and continuity plates with t

tbf
2

1.29 tcf 1.73 and t cp 0.39


CP 1.0 for both connections

C-3

Panel Zone Strength Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.2)


The shear demand in the panel zone is:

VPZ

M
d

y ,beam

L h
db

L dc h

where My,beam is the moment at the face of the column, projected from the flexural yield strength of the
critical connection component (i.e, SFye).
The reduced moment of inertia, Ix, and the elastic section modulus, Sx, at the center of the RBS are:
1
I x I x ct f 4t f 2 6dt f 3d 2 1427 in.4
3

S x 2I x d 118 in.3

M y , RBS Fye S x 1.1 50 118 6512 kip-in. = 543 kip-ft.

The moment at the column face isneglecting small gravity load contributions:

Lclear
M f M y ,beam M y , RBS
7040 kip-in. = 587 kip-ft.
Lclear 2 a b 2

The average story height of the columns is:


h

168 216
192 in.
2

Therefore, the panel zone demands (left and rights) are:


VPZ , L

VPZ , R

7040 360 192 24.1

271 kips
24.1 360 20 192

7040 7040
24.1

360 192 24.1

541 kips
360
20 192

The panel zone strengths (left and right) are:

Vy , L 0.55Fyetcw dc 538 kips

Vy , R 0.55Fyetcw dc 592 kips

The panel zone strength ratios (left and right) are:


C-4

PZ

Vy 0.50 0.6
L

PZ

Vy 0.91 0.9
R

PZ 0.80 for both connections since the ratios are outside the range of 0.6 VPZ Vy 0.9 .

Clear Span-to-Depth Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.3)


Lc 340

14.1 10
d 24.1

LD 1.4 0.04

Lc
340
1.4 0.04
0.836
d
24

(The clear span-to-depth ratio is used differently for nonlinear analysis procedures.)
Beam Web and Flange Slenderness Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.4)
ASCE 41 is not clear if these compactness requirements are applicable at the column face or at the critical
connection component (i.e., center of RBS). It is assumed here that the measurements are applicable at the
face of the column because such an applicability provides the largest element slenderness values.

bf
2t f

5.86

52
Fye

7.01

h
418
45.9
56.4
tw
Fye
SL 1.0

Therefore, the adjusted m-factors for the left and right beam-to-column connection are:

m miCP PZ LD SL 5.431.0 0.80 0.8361.0 3.63


Acceptance Criteria Check
C.1.1.4.1

Beam

The acceptance criteria check for the beam (done at the center of the RBS) is:

DCRN , L

M UD
2336
DCR

0.45 1.0
m
m M CE 8 656

C-5

DCRN , R

M UD
DCR
2130

0.41 1.0
m
m M CE 8 656

The left and right beam hinges satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL.
C.1.1.4.2

Fully Restrained Connection

The acceptance criteria check for the beam-to-column connection (done at the face of the column) is:

DCRN , L

M UD
DCR
2533

0.98 1.0

m
m M CE 3.63 656 1.08

DCRN , R

M UD
DCR
2326

0.90 1.0
m
m M CE 3.63 709

To check force-controlled action at the face of the column:

QCLc QCEb

(ASCE 41 Eq. 5-14)

50
QCLc M p 1027 934 kip-ft.
55

QCEb 830 kip-ft. (= Mf see previous beam-to-column connection calculation)


QCLc QCEb OK
In general, the deformation-control check at the center of the RBS (or converted to the face
of the column as illustrated above) will control over the force-control check because of the
strength requirements in AISC 358 at the face of the column. ASCE 41 should clarify this
provision. For example, should the material strength change when the same member is
used for the beam and connection calculations.
The left and right beam-to-column connections satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL.

SMF Column
The first story column (No. 1) at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected for this example (see
circled element in Figure B-19):

W18175

hsx = 18 ft.(Lb of the column is conservatively taken as hsx)

A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi

C-6

Axial Demand
The axial force in the column is force-controlled by default per ASCE 41:
PUF PG

PE
C1C2 J

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2)

where
C1 = 1.0 (T > 1.0 sec.) per ASCE 41 3.3.1.3.1
C2 = 1.0 (T > 0.7 sec.) per ASCE 41 3.3.1.3.1

min DCR
J max
2.05 (min(DCR) roof beam = 0.832.47 = 2.05) (ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2)
2.0

where DCR is the demand-to-capacity ratio of any component in the load path delivering force to the
column. For the column in this example, this is interpreted to be all beam-to-column connection DCRs on
the column line at and above the second floor. The minimum value of 2.0 allowed in ASCE 41 was selected
because the building is considered to be in a zone with a high level of seismicity.
Based on the controlling load combination, the demand on the column is:

PG 1.1 PD 0.25PL PS 1.1 400 0.25 217 0 499 kips

PE 1.0Ex 0.3Ey 869 kips


PUF 499

869
926 kips
1.0 1.0 2.05

Axial Strength
In accordance with ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2, the lower-bound compression strength is determined as Pn from
AISC 360 E3 using c = 1 and Fy = Fy,LB = 50 ksi. Flexural buckling about the minor axis (y-axis) governs.

PCL Pn, y Ag Fcr , y


K y Ly

Fy , LB

ry

1.0 216
2.76

50
3.25 4.71
29000

C-7

Fe , y

2E
K y Ly

ry

F
Fcr , y 0.658 y

2 29000
1.0 216

2.76

Fe

46.7 ksi

F 32.0 ksi
y

PCL 51.3 32.0 1639 kips


PUF
926

0.56 0.50 column is force-controlled for flexure


PCL 1639

PUF ,G
PCL

P
499
0.30 UF 0.20 m is reduced for P-M interaction
1639
PCL

PUF
926

0.33 column would be deformation-controlled for flexure per


Pye 1.1(50)51.3

FEMA 273

Flexural Demand
The force-controlled flexure in the column is:
M UF M G

ME
C1C2 J

(ASCE 41 3.4.2.1.2)

Based on the controlling load combination, the moment at the bottom of the column is:

M UF 10

47052
23087 kip-in. = 1924 kip-ft.
1.0 1.0 2.05

Flexural Strength
Per ASCE 4 Section 5.4.6.4.3.2.2, the lower-bound flexural strength, MCL, is determined as Mn from AISC
360 F1 and F2 using b = 1.0 and Fy = Fy,LB = 50 ksi.
M CL M n Cb M p

0.7Fy , LB S x Lb L p / Lr L p M p

0.7 50 344 15.7 9.7


M CL 1.44 1658 1658
1.44 1548 2229 kip-ft

12

46.8 9.7

C-8

M CL M p 1658 kip-ft.
Acceptance Criteria Check
The column acceptance criteria check is:
DCRN

PUF M UF
926 1924

0.56 1.16 1.72 1.0


PCL M CL 1639 1658

(ASCE 41 5.4.2.4)

Therefore, the column fails to satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL. However, it is
uncertain what physical phenomenon is represented by this resultdoes a plastic hinge form in the column
or does the column buckle out-of-plane.

SMF Panel Zone


The panel zone at the top of the first story column at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected for
this example (see circled elements in Figure B-19):

Column = W18175 (No. 1)


Beam = W2484 (No. 1)
A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi
Shear Demand

The panel zone demand is obtained from summing the beam moments framing into the panel zone and then
subtracting out the associated column sheargravity loads are ignored for simplicity:

VUD

M1
M2
29835

0 180 1099 kips


Vc
24.1 0.77
d1 t f 1 d2 t f 2

M1 is the moment from the right beam and M2 = 0 because this panel zone is part of a one-sided beam-to
column connection.
Shear Strength
The panel zone strength is calculated from ASCE 41 Equation 5-5:

VCE Vye 0.55Fyetcw dc 538 kips (recall that no doubler plates are used in this study)
Acceptance Criteria
The m-factor is taken from ASCE 41 Table 5-5:

C-9

m = 11
Acceptance Criteria Check
The panel zone acceptance criteria check is:
DCRN

V
DCR
1099
UD
0.19 1.0
m mVCE 11 538

Therefore, the panel zone satisfies the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL.

C.2

Nonlinear Assessment Examples

The following example provides guidance to how the nonlinear assessment calculations were conducted
in this study. Nonlinear assessment of the selected components is performed for the following criteria:

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP) or Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP)


Median value of the record set is used for the NDP
Collapse Prevention Building Performance Level for the BSE-2 EHL

SMF Beam
The second floor beam along grid line 1 between grid lines B and C is selected for this example (see circled
element in Figure B-19).

W2484 with reduced beam sections


L = 30 ft. (centerline)
A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi

The demands for the SMF beam are taken from the median value of the record set from the NDP.
Deformation Demand
Total curvature demand (plastic plus elastic) in the beam-to-column connection (measured at the center of
the RBS) is obtained directly from the moment-curvature response of the beam hinge in the PERFORM
3D model. The total curvature demand for the left connections is:

UD , L 0.02842 in./in.
Additionally, the moment demand is:

M UD , L 9056 kip-in.

C-10

Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance criteria in terms of plastic rotation are given in ASCE 41, Table 5-6. To compare against
the moment-curvature results coming from PERFORM-3D, the plastic rotation is converted to total
curvature:

plastic

total , AC

p , AC
lp

elastic

y pe

M pe

EI RBS

MUD M pe

EI

RBS

pe

where lp is the plastic hinge length (taken as the length of the RBS), is the total FR connection modifier
considering the items described below, and is the modifier that shifts the acceptance criteria from the face
of the column to the centerline of the RBS. Per ASCE 41 Table 5-6, the initial plastic rotation acceptance
criterion for a primary member with a RBS connection is:

p , AC 0.05 0.00030d 0.05 0.00030(24.1) 0.0428 rad.


Per ASCE 41 Table 5-4, the RBS is considered an FR connection and thus the acceptance criteria is subject

to the following acceptance criteria modifications in ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3 (each modifier is taken as here).

Continuity Plate Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3-4.1)

Refer to the linear analysis calculations above.

CP 1.0 for both connections


Panel Zone Strength Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.3-4.2)
Refer to the linear analysis calculations above.

PZ 0.80 for both connections since the ratio is outside the range of 0.6 VPZ Vy 0.9 .
Clear Span-to-Depth Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2-4.3)
Lc 340

14.1 8
d
24.1

C-11

LD 1.0
Beam Web and Flange Slenderness Modifier (ASCE 41 5.4.2.4-4.4)
Refer to the linear analysis calculations above.
SL 1.0

Therefore, the adjusted m-factors for the left and right beam-to-column connections are:

CP PZ LD SL 1.0 0.80 1.0 1.0 0.8


Additionally, is:

Lclear 28.32

1.081
L
26.19

where L is the distance between RBS centerlines. This can be determined by using a simple cantilever

model to convert rotation to the RBS to keep the same tip displacement.

Therefore, the acceptance criterion is:

0.0428
0.002313 in/in.
16

p 0.8 1.081

M pe ZFye 7874 kip-in.

7874
0.000194 in/in.
29000 1397

pe

9056 7874
0.0000292 in/in.
29000 1397

total , AC 0.002313 0.000194 0.0000292 0.002535 in/in.


Acceptance Criteria Check
The beam-to-column connection acceptance criteria check is (based on the median of the record set):

DCRN , L

plastic elastic

y pe p , AC

0.02842
11.1 1.0
1.0 0.002535
C-12

The left beam-to-column connection does not satisfy the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHL.

SMF Column
The first story column (No. 1) at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected for this example (see
circled element in Figure B-19):

W18175
hsx = 18 ft.(Lb of the column is conservatively taken as hsx)
A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi

Given that the axial-moment demand changes for each earthquake record when doing the NDP, the
demands for this example are taken from the NSP at the target displacement.
Axial Demand
The compressive axial load in the column at the target displacement is:
P 780.1 kips

Axial Strength
In accordance with ASCE 41 5.4.2.4.2, the lower-bound compression strength is determined as Pn from
AISC 360 E3 using c = 1 and Fy = Fy,LB = 50 ksi. Flexural buckling about the minor axis (y-axis) governs.

PCL Pn, y 51.3(32.0) 1639 kips refer to the linear analysis calculations above
P 780.1

0.48 0.50 column is considered deformation-controlled for flexure


PCL 1639
Deformation Demand
Total curvature demand (plastic plus elastic) in the column hinge is obtained directly from the momentcurvature response of the column hinge in the PERFORM-3D model. The total curvature demand is:

UD 0.00123 in./in.
Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance criteria in terms of plastic rotation are given in ASCE 41 Table 5-6. To compare against
the moment-curvature results coming from PERFORM-3D, the plastic rotation is converted to total
curvature:

C-13

P
0.48 0.2
PCL
bf
2t f

3.58

52
Fye

=7.01

h
260
18.0
35.1
tw
Fye
5 P
p, AC 111
y 2.27 y
3 PCL
From ASCE 41 Equation 5-2:
Pye Fye A 55 51.3 2822 kips

@ P 0
y

ZFyelc
P
780.1
y
1
0.00788 1
0.00570 rad.
2822
6EI c Pye

However, to be consistent with the P-M interaction curve used to model the plastic hinge response, y, is
taken as:

P
y y @ P0 1 0.007881.1 1 0.2761.5 0.00683 rad. (a 20% increase from ASCE 41)
P
ye
Therefore:

p , AC 2.27 0.00683 0.0155 rad.


Therefore, the acceptance criterion is:
plastic

total , AC

elastic

p , AC

y pe

y @ P0

lp

M pe
EI

21890
0.000219 in./in.
29000 3450

C-14


P
M CE 1.18 1
M 1.18 1 0.276 21890 18701 kip-in
Pye pe

(ASCE 41 Eq 5-4)

However, ASCE 41 Equation 5-4 is impossible to implement in PERFORM-3D. Thus to be consistent with
the P-M interaction curve used to model the plastic hinge response, the following is used:

M CE

P
M pe 1
21890 1.1 1 0.2761.5 18984 kip-in.
P
ye

M CE
18984

0.000190 in./in.
EI
29000 3450

pe

(see PERFORM-3D)

M t M CE 20205 18984

0.0000122 in./in.
EI
29000 3450

Therefore,

total , AC

plastic

elastic

0.0155

0.000190 0.0000122 0.0009783 in./in.


20.0

Acceptance Criteria Check


The column hinge acceptance criteria check is:

DCRN

plastic elastic

y pe p , AC

0.00123
1.26 1.0
1.0 0.000978

Therefore, the column fails to satisfy CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHLfor the NSP.

SMF Panel Zone


The panel zone at the top of the first story column at the intersection of grid lines 1 and B is selected for
this example (see circled element in Figure B-19).

Column = W18175 (No. 1)


Beam = W2484 (No. 1)
A992 Steel: Fy,LB = Fy = 50 ksi, Fye = 55 ksi, E = 29000 ksi, G = 11154 ksi

The demands for the panel zone are taken from the NSP at the target displacement.

C-15

Deformation Demand
The panel zone demand taken as the total shear deformation (plastic plus elastic) is obtained directly from
the shear-shear strain response of the shear hinge in the PERFORM-3D model. The total shear strain
demand is:

UD 0.00187 rad.
Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance criteria in terms of plastic shear angle are given in ASCE 41 Table 5-6. To compare against
the strain results coming from PERFORM-3D, the plastic shear angle is converted to total shear angle:

p, AC 11 y rad.
where y is the angular shear deformation of the panel zone.

y y

y
G

0.55 Fye
G

0.55 55
11154

0.00271 rad.

p , AC 11 0.00271 0.0298

total , AC 0.00271 0.0298 0.0325


Acceptance Criteria Check
The panel zone acceptance criteria check is:
DCRN

UD
0.00187

0.057 1.0
AC 0.0325

Therefore, the panel zone satisfies the CP BPL acceptance criteria at the BSE-2 EHLfor the NSP.

C-16

Appendix D

References

AISC (1989). Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design.
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (1999). Wide-Flange Column Stiffening at Moment Connections Design Guide 13. American
Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2002). Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings ANSI/AISC 341-02. American Institute
of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2005). Specification for Structural Steel Buildings ANSI/AISC 360-05. American Institute of Steel
Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2010a). Specification for Structural Steel Buildings ANSI/AISC 360-10. American Institute of
Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2010b). Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings ANSI/AISC 341-10. American Institute
of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2010c). Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic
Applications ANSI/AISC 358-10. American Institute of Steel Construction, Construction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2013). Stability Design of Steel Buildings Design Guide 28. American Institute of Steel
Construction, Chicago, IL.
ASCE (2005). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE/SEI 7-05. American
Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
ASCE (2006). Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings ASCE/SEI 41-06. American Society of Civil
Engineers, Reston, VA.
ASCE (2010). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE/SEI 7-10. American
Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
ASCE (2014). Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings ASCE/SEI 41-13. American Society
of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
ASCE (2016). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE/SEI 7-16. American
Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. In Progress.

D-1

CBSC (2010) California Code of Regulations, Part 2 California Building Standards Code Title 24.
California Building Standards Commission, Sacramento, California.
CSI (2011a). ETABS (Version 9.7.4) [Computer Software]. Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA.
CSI (2011b). PERFORM-3D (Version 5.0) [Computer Software]. Computers and Structures, Inc.,
Berkeley, CA.
CSI (2011c). Components and Elements for PERFORM-3D and PERFORM-COLLAPSE (Version 5.0).
Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA.
CSI (2011d). User Guide PERFORM-3D (Version 5.0). Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA.
Engelhardt, M.D., Winneberger, T., Zekany, A.J., and Potyraj, T.J. (1998). Experimental Investigation of
Dogbone Moment Connections. Engineering Journal, AISC, 4th Quarter, pp. 128-139.
FEMA (1997). NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings FEMA 273. Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000a). Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment Frame Buildings FEMA
350. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000b). Recommended Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Welded Steel
Moment Frame Buildings FEMA 351. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000c). State of the Art Report on Connection Performance FEMA 355D. Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000d). State of the Art Report on Performance Prediction and Evaluation FEMA 355F. Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000e). Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings FEMA 356.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2000f). Global Topics Report on the Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation
of Buildings FEMA 357. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2005). Improvements of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures FEMA 440. Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2009a). Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors FEMA P695. Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2009b). NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures
FEMA P-750. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
D-2

FEMA (2009c). Effects of Strength and Stiffness Degradation on Seismic Response FEMA P-440A.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2012). Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings FEMA P-58. Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2015). NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures. Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. In Progress.
GSA (2012). Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service PBS-P100. U.S. General Services
Administration, Washington, D.C.
Harris, J.L. and Speicher, M.S. (2015). Assessment of First Generation Performance-Based Design
Methods for New Steel Buildings, Volume 2: Special Concentrically Braced Frames NIST TN 1863-2.
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
Haselton, C.B., Kircher, C.A., and Liel, A.B. (2009). Concept Paper on Utilizing the FEMA P695 (ATC
63) Ground Motion Spectral Shape Guidelines to Adjust the Target Displacement in the ASCE/SEI 41
Nonlinear Static Procedure Proc.: ATC & SEI 2009 Conference on Improving the Seismic Performance
of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, San Francisco, CA Dec. 9-11, 2009.
ICC (2012a). International Existing Building Code (IEBC). International Code Council, Washington, DC.
ICC (2012b). International Building Code (IBC). International Code Council, Washington, DC.
Krawinkler, H., Bertero, V.V., and Popov, E.P. (1971). Inelastic Behavior of Steel Beam-to-Column
Subassemblages Report No. UCB/EERC-71/07. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of
California, Berkeley, CA, October 1971.
Krawinkler, H. (1978). Shear in Beam Column Joints in Seismic Design of Steel Frames. Engineering
Journal, AISC, 3rd Quarter, pp. 82-91.
Lee, D., Cotton, S.C., Dexter, R.J., Hajjar, J.F., Ye, Y. and Ojard, S.D. (2002). Column Stiffener Detailing
and Panel Zone Behavior of Steel Moment Frame Connections Report No. ST-01-3.2. Dept. of Civil
Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2002.
NIBS (2013). National Performance-Based Design Guide for Buildings. National Institute of Building
Sciences, Washington, D.C.
NIST (2009a). Research Required to Support Full Implementation of Performance-Based Seismic Design
NIST GCR 09-917-2. Produced by the Building Seismic Safety Council for the National Institute of
Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2009b). Seismic Design of Steel Special Moment Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers, NEHRP
Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 2 NIST GCR 09-917-3. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint
D-3

Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research
in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2010a). Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design: A Guide for Practicing Engineers,
NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 4 NIST GCR 10-917-5. Produced by the NEHRP
Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of
Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and
Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2010b). Evaluation of the FEMA P-695 Methodology for Quantification of Building Seismic
Performance Factors NIST GCR 10-917-8. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a
partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in
Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2010c). Applicability of Nonlinear Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Modeling for Design NIST GCR 10
917-9. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology
Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National
Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2011a). Standards of Seismic Safety for Existing Federally Owned and Leased Buildings: ICSSC
Recommended Practice 8 (RP 8) NIST GCR 11-917-12. Produced by the Building Seismic Safety Council
of the National Institute of Buildings Sciences for the National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2011b). Seismic Design of Composite Steel Deck and Concrete-filled Diaphragms: A Guide for
Practicing Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 5 NIST GCR 11-917-10. Produced
by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the
Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2011c). Research Plan for the Study of Seismic Behavior and Design of Deep, Slender Wide-Flange
Structural Steel Beam-Column Members NIST GCR 11-917-13. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants
Joint Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for
Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg,
MD.
NIST (2011d). Selecting and Scaling Earthquake Ground Motions for Performing Response-History
Analyses NIST GCR 11-917-15. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of the
Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering,
for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2012). Tentative Framework for Development of Advanced Seismic Design Criteria for New
Buildings NIST GCR 12-917-20. Produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of

D-4

the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake
Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
NIST (2013). Seismic Design of Steel Special Concentrically Braced Frame Systems: A Guide for
Practicing Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 8 NIST GCR 13-917-24. Produced
by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the
Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
Paret, T.F., Searer, G.R., and Freeman, S.A. (2011). ASCE 31 and 41: Apocalypse Now. Proc.: Structures
Congress 2011, Las Vegas, NV, April 14-16, 2011.
Pekelnicky, R. and Poland, C. (2012). ASCE 41-13: Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit Rehabilitation of
Existing Buildings. Proc.: 2012 SEAOC-SEANM Convention, Santa Fe, NM, Sept. 12-15, 2012.
SEAONC (2010) Perspectives on ASCE 41 for Seismic Rehabilitation of Building Survey by the
Structural Engineers Association of Northern California. Structures Magazine, Oct. 2010.
Toranzo-Dianderas, L.A. (2009). Evaluation of the ASCE 41 Linear Elastic Procedure for Seismic Retrofit
of Existing Structures: Pros and Cons of the Method. Proc.: ATC & SEI 2009 Conference on Improving
the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, San Francisco, CA Dec. 9-11, 2009.
Troup, E. (1999). Effective C o n t r a c t a n d Shop Drawings f o r S t r u c t u r a l S t e e l . Proc.: North American
Steel Construction Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 19-21, 1999.
White, D.W. and Hajjar, J.F. (1997). Design of Steel Frames without Consideration of Effective Length.
Engineering Structures, Vol. 19(10), pp. 797-810.

D-5