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Chapter Twenty

Second Description of Brahms Creation

|| 3.20.1||
aunaka uvca
mah pratihm adhyasya
saute svyambhuvo manu
kny anvatihad dvri
aunaka said: O son of Romaharaa! When Svyambhuva
accepted the earth as his shelter, what did he do to manifest
the living beings after the appearance of the Kumaas?
The secondary creation previously described in detail is again
partially in the Twentieth Chapter, in order to relate the lineage
stemming from Svyambhuva Manu.
Pratihm means shelter. O son of Romaharaa (saute)! What
did he do to manifest the jvas who took birth after the Kumras as
a pastime of the Lord (avara-janmanm)? How did he create the
more recent living beings?
|| 3.20.2-4||
katt mah-bhgavata
kasyaikntika suht
yas tatyjgraja ke
spatyam aghavn iti
dvaipyand anavaro
mahitve tasya dehaja
sarvtman rita ka
tat-par cpy anuvrata
kim anvapcchan maitreya
virajs trtha-sevay
upagamya kuvarta
sna tattva-vittamam
Vidura, was the greatest friend and devotee of Ka, who
gave up his elder brother along with his son who would not
listen to Kas advice since he was an offender, and who
was born of Vysa and consequently not less than him,
Taking shelter of Ka with body, mind and words, he
would approach the Lords devotees. After purifying himself
by visiting many holy places, what did he inquire from
Maitreya, living in Haridvra, who knew about Ka?

Please tell us the questions and answers that took place in the
conversation between Vidura and Maitreya? Vidura rejected his
elder brother along with his sons headed by Duryodhana. Anavara
means not less. Viraj means purified of passion. This was
caused by visiting holy places. The holy places also became pure by
association with him. Kuvarta is Haridvra.
|| 3.20.5||
tayo savadato sta
pravtt hy amal kath
po gg ivgha-ghnr
hare pdmbujray
The two must have spoken only pure topics of the Lord,
which destroy sin like the water of the Gag which takes
shelter of the Lords lotus feet.
The topics are pure because both were devotees. The topics were
thus devoid of any subject other than Ka and his devotees. The
water of the Gag (gagya) destroys sin.
|| 3.20.6||
t na krtaya bhadra te
rasaja ko nu tpyeta
hari-llmta piban
O Sta! All auspiciousness to you! Please sing to us the
topics of the Lords activities which are worthy of being
chanted. What relisher of rasa could be fully satisfied on
drinking the nectar of the Lords pastimes?
Out of great eagerness to hear, the sages give blessings to Sta.
Please chant the topics in which there are great pastimes of the
Lord, or please chant the topics of the Lord who has great pastimes
worthy of being praised.
|| 3.20.7||
evam ugrarav pa
ibhir naimiyanai
bhagavaty arpitdhytmas
tn ha ryatm iti
When asked by the sages at Naimiraya, Sta,
concentrating his mind on the Lord, then said, Please

Adhytmam means mind.

|| 3.20.8||
sta uvca
harer dhta-kroa-tano sva-myay
niamya gor uddharaa rastalt
ll hiraykam avajay hata
sajta-haro munim ha bhrata
Sta said: O sages! Hearing how Varha lifted the earth
from the Garbhodaka Ocean with complete sincerity and
casually killed Hirayka, Vidura, with hairs standing on
end, inquired from Maitreya.
Sv-amyay means with no deceit at all. The Lord eternally is
situated (dhta) in the form of the boar. Dhta belongs to the tuddi class of verbs and means situated. Go means of the earth.
Bhrata means Vidura.
|| 3.20.9||
vidura uvca
prajpati-pati sv
praj-sarge prajpatn
kim rabhata me brahman
prabrhy avyakta-mrga-vit
Vidura said: O brhmaa! Knower of the truth about the
Lord! Please tell me what Brahm did after creating the
|| 3.20.10||
ye marcy-dayo vipr
yas tu svyambhuvo manu
te vai brahmaa det
katham etad abhvayan
How did the brhmaas headed by Marci and Svyambhuva
Manu create the living beings according to the order of
How did they create (abhvayan) the universe?
|| 3.20.11||
sa-dvity kim asjan
svatantr uta karmasu
ho svit sahat sarva
ida sma samakalpayan

How did they create along with their wives? Did they do this
independently or together?
Sadvity means with their wives. Did they do creation
(karmau) so without depending on others or did they do so
depending on many others?
|| 3.20.12||
maitreya uvca
daivena durvitarkyea
parenimiea ca
jta-kobhd bhagavato
mahn sd gua-trayt
Maitreya said: The mahat-tattva arose from prakti made of
three guas, by disturbance caused by time, the Lord, and
the inexplicable karmas of the jvas, through the Lords
In answer to the question about creation in verse 9, Maitreya
answers by describing the secondary creation. Though this was
already previously described, it is described in summary here for
completing the narration. Daivena means by the karmas of the
The root of the karmas cannot be understood
(durvitarkena). Prakti was disturbed by the karmas of the jvas,
the desire of the SupremeLord to create (parena), and time
From this pradhna arose the mahat-tattva.
Bhagavata means by the glance of the lord.
|| 3.20.13||
raja-pradhnn mahatas
tri-ligo daiva-coditt
jta sasarja bhtdir
viyad-dni pacaa
From mahat-tattva in the mode of rajogua, arose ahakra
with its three guas by the instigation of the Lord. From this
arose the five gross elements, the five tan-mtras, the five
action and five knowledge senses and their devats.
Mahat-tattva is initially predominantly in sattva, but at the time of
producing ahakra, it becomes predominated by rajas. This form of
mahat-tattva is called stra. Ahakra (bhtdi) has three guas.
Viyad-dni means gross elements, and then the subtle elements or
tanmtras such as sound, the knowledge senses, the action senses,
and their devats, all in groups of five.
|| 3.20.14||

tni caikaikaa sraum

asamarthni bhautikam
sahatya daiva-yogena
haimam aam avsjan
These elements, which individually could not create, were
combined together by the energy of the Lord, and created
the golden egg of the universe.
The elements joined together by the addition of the energy of the
|| 3.20.15||
so ayibdhi-salile
akoo nirtmaka
sgra vai vara-shasram
anvavtst tam vara
The universe, without life, lay in the Kraa Ocean for over a
thousand years. Then the Lord inhabited it.
The universe lay in the Kraa Ocean without life, since the mass of
jvas had not woke up. For a little over (sgram) a thousand years it
lay there. After that (anu) the Lord, Garbodakay, dwelled in it.
|| 3.20.16||
tasya nbher abht padma
yatra svayam abht svar
From the navel of Viu arose a lotus, shining like a
thousand suns, which was the abode of all the jvas. In this
lotus appeared Brahm.
From the navel (nabhe) arose the lotus. In the lotus (yatra) arose
Brahm (svar).
|| 3.20.17||
so nuvio bhagavat
ya ete salilaye
loka-sasth yath prva
nirmame sasthay svay
As directed by Viu lying on the Garbhodaka Ocean,
Brahm created all the planets as previously with their
names and forms.

Regulated by the Lord, who was lying in the water, Brahm created.
Inspired by the Lord, he created the planets with proper
arrangement (svay sasthay), with names and forms.
|| 3.20.18||
sasarja cchyayvidy
paca-parvam agrata
tmisram andha-tmisra
tamo moho mah-tama
First Bram created ignorance of five types by his shadow:
tamas, moha mahtamas tmisram, and andha-tmisram.
In creating the Yakas, Rkasas, devats and humans, false
identity must arise in the jvas. Without ignorance this is not
possible. Thus first the functions of ignorance appeared on their
own, through Brahm. Tamas is the original form of ignorance. This
verse describes how Brahm created them by tamas which took the
form of a shadow. In succession, tamas, moha, mahmoha, tmsira
and andh-tmisra were created. Tamas means ignorance. Moha
means egoism. Mahmoha means attachment. Tmisra means
hatred. Andha-tmisra means absorption in material pleasure.
|| 3.20.19||
visasarjtmana kya
nbhinandas tamomayam
jaghur yaka-raksi
rtri kut-t-samudbhavm
Not satisfied with his body which became full of ignorance,
Brahm gave up that body. This body transformed into
night, which gives rise to hunger and thirst. Yakas and
Rkasas respected the night.
He was not pleased with the shadow body. Ah! I have been covered
with ignorance at the beginning of creation! Criticizing himself, he
gave up that body. That rejected body became night. The demons,
who had arisen from Brahm at that time, accepted the night. This
means that avidy and adharma, varaa and vikepa, are superior
to the Yakas and Rkasas. Then Brahm gave up that body which
produced hunger and thirst. ruti says s tamisrbhavat: that
became tamisra. When it says that Brahm gave up his body, it
means that he gave up the mentality of that body, since Brahm
lives for a hundred years. The sequence is as follows. (First tamas
arose). Anger and the rest, the mentality arising from tamas,
appeared in the mind of Brahm. From that, the Yakas and
Rkasas appeared. That mentality of tamas (when Brahm rejected
it) then became the night. The Yakas and Rkasas accepted it.

Though Brahm accepted and rejects different bodies by his power

of yoga to carry out creation, this does not disrupt his life of a
hundred years. Some also say that even the devats like Indra
accept and reject bodies for material enjoyment.
|| 3.20.20||
kut-tbhym upass te
ta jagdhum abhidudruvu
m rakataina jakadhvam
ity cu kut-t-ardit
The Yakas and Rkasas, being afflicted with hunger and
thirst, pursued Brahm to devour him. Pained by hunger
and thirst they said, Do not protect him. Eat him!
They ran after Brahm (tam) to eat him (jagdhum). Some said, Do
not protect him out of compassion. Eat him. Jak means to eat or
to laugh.
|| 3.20.21||
devas tn ha savigno
m m jakata rakata
aho me yaka-raksi
praj yya babhvitha
Frightened, Brahm said, O Yakas and Rkasas! You are
my sons. Do not eat me. Protect me.
Deva means Brahm. Do you eat me but protect me.
indicates astonishment. O Yakas and Rkasas!


|| 3.20.22||
devat prabhay y y
dvyan pramukhato sjat
te ahrur devayanto
vis t prabhm aha
Shining with his effulgence, Brahm then created the chief
The devats accepted that effulgence which
Brahm gave up, and which became the day, and they
played with it.

Brahm shone with an effulgent body composed of sattva. He

created the chief devats. Y refers to te. They accepted that
effulgent body which he gave up, which took the form of the day.
Why? They accepted the day in order to play with it. Just as the
night resides with the Yakas and Rkasas, the day is the abode of
the devats. Jva Gosvm says that div, belonging to the cur class
of verbs, means to wish for. The devats wished for or requested
the day. Purity, the mentality of sattva appeared in the mind of
Brahm. From that the devats appeared. That purity became the
day. The devats then accepted the day. That is the sequence.
|| 3.20.23||
devo dev jaghanata
sjati smtilolupn
ta ena lolupatay
Brahm created the Daityas from his buttocks. They were
lusty for women and, desiring sex, pursued Brahm.
Then in Brahms mind lust, the mentality of rajas, appeared. From
that the demons appeared. That mentality became the sandhy.
The demons accepted that sandhy. Adevn refers to the demons.
ruti says sa jaghand asurn asjata: he created the demons from
his buttocks. From lust arises great evil: they pursued Brahm.
|| 3.20.24||
tato hasan sa bhagavn
asurair nirapatrapai
anvyamnas taras
kruddho bhta parpatat
Brahm first laughed, and then, on being pursued by the
shameless demons, he became angry. Becoming frightened,
he fled.
Parpatat means he fled.
|| 3.20.25||
sa upavrajya varada
prapannrti-hara harim
anugrahya bhaktnm
He then approached the Supreme Lord, giver of
benedictions, who removes suffering from the surrendered
souls, and who reveals himself according to the devotees
desire to give them mercy.

Brahm mentally approached the Lord and then made a request.

This is understood but not stated.
|| 3.20.26||
phi m paramtmas te
preaensja praj
t im yabhitu pp
upkrmanti m prabho
O supreme soul! O Lord!
By your order I created the
offspring. These sinful beings are chasing me for sex.
Please protect me!
They desire sex even though I am a male.
|| 3.20.27||
tvam eka kila lokn
klin klea-nana
tvam eka kleadas tem
ansanna-pad tava
O Lord! You alone are the remover of suffering for devotees
who suffer. You alone give suffering to those who do not
take shelter of your lotus feet.
You give suffering to the non-devotees, those who do not take
shelter of your feet. This implies You destroy the suffering of the
devotees, those who take shelter of your feet. You alone (eka)
have this nature of being affectionate to your devotees. Others do
not have this nature. You alone give suffering to those who do not
take shelter of your feet in the form of time, karma and malefic
But if they take shelter of your feet suddenly, you
immediately destroy their suffering. This means that the devotees
are not subject to time and karma. You do not treat the jvas
unequally, since you are like a desire tree.
|| 3.20.28||
so vadhrysya krpaya
vimuctma-tanu ghorm
ity ukto vimumoca ha
The Lord, who knows for certain the hearts of all others,
understanding the misery of Brahm, said, Give up your
terrible body. Brahm then gave up that body.

Viviktam means discriminating. The Lord has knowledge of others

hearts very accurately (adhytma-daranam). Having told Brahm
to give up the body, Brahm did so.
|| 3.20.29-31||
t kvaac-carambhoj
suns sudvij snigdhahsa-llvalokanm
ghant vraytmna
upalabhysur dharma
sarve sammumuhu striyam
The lusty demons imagined the twilight to be a woman and
were delighted. They said, The ankle bells on her feet are
jingling. Her eyes quiver in intoxicating. Her hips are
covered with fine cloth and a belt. Her breasts rub against
each other, and are raised, without space between. Her
nose and teeth are beautiful and her smile and glance are
affectionate. Is she covering herself with the edge of her
cloth out of shyness? The locks of her hair are black. In this
way the demons became bewildered by the twilight whom
they imaged was a woman.
Verse 37 explains that this woman was imaginary. They took the
twilight to be a woman. They imagined the sound of birds returning
to their nests in the twilight to be the sound of the ankle bells. They
imagined the clouds with specific shapes to be the womans feet,
eyes, hips and breasts. This is suggested by the word payodhara,
which means a cloud as well as a breast. The pink color of the
sunset was her pink dress. Rodhas can mean the hips as well as a
bank of clouds. Because of rubbing together the breasts became
raised, without space between them. The disappearance of the
clouds was her act of hiding in shyness. Her smile and glance were
like a small amount of the suns rays. Her black hair extending from
her head to her feet was a towering, black cloud. O Vidura
(dharma)! The demons, thinking of (upalabhya) the twilight as a
woman, became bewildered.
|| 3.20.32||
aho rpam aho dhairyam

aho asy nava vaya

madhye kmayamnnm
akmeva visarpati
What a beautiful form! What astounding patience she has!
What fresh youth she has! We all desire here but she moves
among us as if detached.
The demons talk under the influence of illusion created by lust.
|| 3.20.33||
vitarkayanto bahudh
t sandhy pramadktim
abhisambhvya virambht
paryapcchan kumedhasa
The foolish demons, thinking of the twilight as a woman,
speculating about here, welcomed her and then with
affection questioned her.
Is she attracted to us or not? Is she a goddess or a human? Is she a
prostitute or a woman of strict vows? In this way they speculated.
They received her properly (abhisambhvya).
|| 3.20.34||
ksi kasysi rambhoru
ko vrthas te tra bhmini
durbhagn no vibdhase
O beautiful woman! Who are you? Whose daughter are you?
Why are you in this place? Why do you torture us
unfortunate beings by putting your priceless beauty for
Your beauty is a priceless artefact. It is to be sold, but instead you
give us pain. We are unfortunate, and deserve to be your slaves.
Binding us up, you desire to take us into your association. Or you
give us pain, because you do not sell your beauty. Thus we are
|| 3.20.35||
y v kcit tvam abale
diy sandarana tava
kanduka-kray mana

Whoever you are, we are fortunate to see you. But you

agitate our minds by playing with a ball, while we watch.
Utsunosi means you agitate. They imagined the ball of the setting
sun to be red ball.
|| 3.20.36||
naikatra te jayati lini pda-padma
ghnanty muhu kara-talena patat-patagam
madhya vidati bhat-stana-bhra-bhta
nteva dir amal suikh-samha
O praiseworthy woman! You play by striking the bouncing
ball with your hand again and again and, in doing so, your
feet do not stay in one place. It seems you are tired with
your thin waist fatigued, bent because of the weight of your
breasts. Your glance is pure and languid, and your hair is
This verse describes her playing with a ball. O praiseworthy woman!
Your feet do not remain still. Patatpatagam means a bouncing ball
and the setting sun. Because your waist is thin, it appears to be
getting weak with the weight of your breasts. Your glance is without
desire (amala) though internally you have desire. It appears languid
(rnt) because of playing ball. Your hair appears splendid, being
bound up. Su can stand as an indeclinable meaning beautifully.
|| 3.20.37||
iti syantan sandhym
asur pramadyatm
pralobhayant jaghur
matv mha-dhiya striyam
In this way the foolish demons accepted the twilight which
stimulates lust to a woman of lusty conduct.
They imagined the twilight to be a woman of lusty conduct.
|| 3.20.38||
prahasya bhva-gambhra
jighrantytmnam tman
knty sasarja bhagavn
gandharvpsaras gan
Smiling to reveal his inscrutable intention, Brahm then
created the Gandharvas and Apsars by his beauty which he
had relished.

When Brahm remembered beauty, the Gandharvas appeared and

the beauty became moon light. The Gandharvas accepted the light.
Because of the custom of identifying the beauty with the possessor
of beauty, it is stated that his beauty smelled itself by itself (though
Brahm smelled). Smiling and smelling are signs of relishing his own
|| 3.20.39 ||
visasarja tanu t vai
jyotsn kntimat priym
ta eva cdadu prty
Brahm gave up that body of beauty which became moon
light, and the Gandharvas headed by Vivvasu accepted it
|| 3.20.40||
sv bhta-pic ca
bhagavn tma-tandri
dig-vsaso mukta-ken
vkya cmlayad dau
Creating the Bhtas and Picas from laziness, and seeing
them naked and with loosened hair, Brahm closed his eyes.
One time Brahm felt lazy. From that the Bhtas and Picas
appeared. That laziness became yawning and sleep. The Bhtas
accepted that. The effect of laziness (tandr) is called tandri.
|| 3.20.41||
jaghus tad-vis t
jmbhakhy tanu prabho
nidrm indriya-vikledo
yay bhteu dyate
yenocchin dharayanti
tam unmda pracakate
When Brahm gave up his body called laziness, the Bhtas
and Picas accepted it. O Vidura! That body in which the
senses become contaminated is called sleep and by that
contamination, Bhtas attack the contaminated persons.
That condition is called madness.
By sleep moistening of the mouth and other senses takes place. By
that, the Bhtas attack contaminated persons. That attack is called
madness. In others people are called mad when attacked by the

|| 3.20.42||
rjasvanta manyamna
tmna bhagavn aja
sdhyn gan pit-gan
parokesjat prabhu
Then Brahm, thinking himself powerful, created the
Sdhyas and then, by his invisibility, he created the Pits.
One time, Brahms power and invisibility appeared. They became
the Sdhyas and Pits. Their oblations also appeared. This is
explained in two verses. From his strength appeared the Sdhyas.
From his invisibility appeared the Pits.
|| 3.20.43||
ta tma-sarga ta kya
pitara pratipedire
sdhyebhya ca pitbhya ca
kavayo yad vitanvate
The Sdhyas and Pits accepted those bodies, by which the
wise make offerings to the Sdhyas and Pits.
They, the Sdhyas and the Pitrs, accepted the appropriate bodies.
By these bodies, the wise offer havya to the Sdhyas and kavya to
the Pits with faith.
|| 3.20.44||
siddhn vidydhar caiva
tirodhnena so sjat
tebhyo dadt tam tmnam
antardhnkhyam adbhutam
Brahm produced the Siddhas and Vidydharas by his
disappearance. He gave them that body.
One time, Brahm disappeared.
Vidhdharas appeared.

From that the Siddhas and

|| 3.20.45||
sa kinnarn kimpurun
pratytmyensjat prabhu
mnayann tmantmnam
tmbhsa vilokayan
Looking at his reflection in a mirror and thinking it beautiful,
he created the Kinnara and Kimpuruas from his reflection.

His reflection appeared. From that the Kinnaras and Kimpuruas

Pratytmyena means reflection. He thought I am
beautiful (tman tmnam mnayan). tm-bhsam means a
|| 3.20.46||
te tu taj jagh rpa
tyakta yat paramehin
mithun-bhya gyantas
tam evoasi karmabhi
They accepted that body of reflection cast off by Brahm. In
couples, they praise Brahm for his actions in the dawn.
The reflection displayed men and women together. They accepted
that reflection.
|| 3.20.47||
dehena vai bhogavat
ayno bahu-cintay
sarge nupacite krodhd
utsasarja ha tad vapu
Seeing that the creation was not satisfactory, Brahm lay
down with limbs spread out, in a worried state. Then when
anger appeared, he rejected that body.
By his mind he rejected the body while lying down. That body
became snakes. Bhogavat means spreading out his feet and
other limbs He was worried that the creation was not satisfactory.
He thought, How can I make the creation successful? While
thinking thus, he lost his power of discrimination. Then great anger
appeared. After that he gave up that body.
|| 3.20.48||
ye hyantmuta ke
ahayas te ga jajire
sarp prasarpata krr
ng bhogoru-kandhar
The hair which fell from that rejected body became ahi,
sarpa, and nga with hoods, which are all cruel.
From that body (amuta) the hair which fell (ahi) became ahi or
snakes. From that body, the hands and feet that fell off became
sarpa, those which move on restricted feet. Since they have hoods
and no hair, others are called nga. They have wide shoulders
because of their hoods. Because they have anger, they are all cruel.
These are the different types of snakes.

|| 3.20.49||
sa tmna manyamna
kta-ktyam ivtmabh
tad mann sasarjnte
manas loka-bhvann
Thinking himself successful, finally Brahm created by his
mind Manu and others for increasing the population.
When Brahm desired to create a couple and became blissful,
thinking that his creation was complete, the Manus appeared and
took the form of humans for completing the creation. This is
explained in two verses. Though Manus are mentioned here, at this
time only Svyambhuva Manu became visible. Others became
visible at the appropriate time. The creation of the Manus took
place last (ante). Therefore, the creation of the sages which will be
described after this actually took place before the creation of Manu.
In the Tenth, Twelfth and Twentieth Chapters sometimes the events
are in proper sequence and sometimes some elements are omitted
or put in a different order. The proper sequence of the creation is as
follows: first creation of animals with five joints, then the creation of
trees and plants, then the creation of snakes, then the creation of
cows and buffalos, then the creation of Yakas, Rkasas, Asuras,
Kinnaras, Kimpuruas, then the creation of the Kumras and then
the creation of the humans. Finally the Manus were created. All the
forms previously created increased through the forms of male and
|| 3.20.50||
tebhya so sjat svya
pura puruam tmavn
tn dv ye pur s
praaasu prajpatim
Brahm gave to Manu his own human form. Those who were
created previously glanced at Manu and began to praise
Brahm gave up that body (puram) in the form of a human, and
Manu accepted it.
|| 3.20.51||
aho etaj jagat-sraa
sukta bata te ktam
pratihit kriy yasmin
skam annam adma he
Creator of the universe! You have done excellent work in
creating Manu.
By this, the sacrificial actions will be

established and we will be able to eat the remnants of

sacrifice together.
O creator of the universe! Creation of Manu by you (te) is well done.
In creating Manu (yat), actions such as sacrifice will be established,
since Manu will protect everything. We will eat the offerings of food
together (skam).
|| 3.20.52||
tapas vidyay yukto
yogena susamdhin
n ir hkea
sasarjbhimat praj
Endowed with austerity, worship, aga-yoga, jna and
vairgya, controlling his senses, Brahm created the sages,
his dear offspring.
This describes Brahms creation of the sages when he was
engaged in worship. Vidyay means by worship. Yogena means
by aga-yoga. Susamdhi means by jna and vairgya.
Controlling his senses, he created the sages such as the Kumras.
|| 3.20.53||
tebhya caikaikaa svasya
dehasyam add aja
yat tat samdhi-yogarddhitapo-vidy-viraktimat
Brahm gave separate portions of his body endowed with
detachment to each of the various sages.
This verse describes what portions of his body he gave to the
different sages. Those portions of his body which had knowledge
(samdhi), yoga, siddhis (ddhi), austerity, worship and detachment
he gave to the various sages. After this, iva appeared, and Marci
and others, according to the description in the Twelfth Chapter.
Thus ends the commentary on Twentieth Chapter of the Third Canto
of the Bhgavatam for the pleasure of the devotees, in accordance
with the previous cryas