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Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

FINAL ACCOUNTS
WHAT ARE ASSETS-A resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events and from which future
economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise. In other words anything which is.
cash
convertible into cash
future benefits
An asset is a possession of a business that will bring the business benefits in the future

An asset is anything that will add future value to your business. Employees can even be seen as assets.
What is the test of whether something is considered an asset for your business? Well, one asks, Is the _______
something I own, and will it brings me benefits in the future?
What about a motor vehicle is this an asset? Does it have benefits for your business,
and if so, what are they?
Answer: Yes, there are benefits for your business... You can use the motor vehicle to
pick up and deliver goods. So yes, this is also an asset.(convertible into cash)
What about cash? Is cash an asset? Answer: cash is certainly an asset. What are
the benefits of having cash? Simple: you can pay for things! That is certainly useful (and
indeed essential) for a business.
Test of whether something is an asset is:
1. DOES YOUR BUSINESS OWN/CONTROL IT?
2. WILL IT BRING YOUR BUSINESS BENEFITS IN THE FUTURE?
3. CAN YOU VALUE IT ACCURATELY?
The cost of an asset includes all costs necessary to get it to the business premises and into
a condition in which it can be sold. So the cost of an asset can include the following:
- Purchase price, Import duties,
- Transport costs to get it to your premises,
- Installation or set-up costs.
LIABILITY-Amount owed by the business to the outsiders and to the proprietors .
A debt of the business.

Obligation of the
Payable By business
enterprise

YOU --------------------> OWE --------------------> BANK


the debt will result in assets (usually cash) leaving the business in the future.The most common liability is a loan.
Another common liability is called creditors.
WHAT IS OWNERS EQUITY-The residual interest in the assets of the enterprise after deducting all its liabilities.
The owners equity is simply the owners share of the assets of a business.

Assets can only belong to two types of people: the first type is people outside the business you owe money to
(liabilities), and the second is the owner himself (owners equity).
MANUFACTURING.BUSINESSES:Manufacturing means to make a product, whether by hand or by machine or
both. The word manufacture originates from Latin manu faceremeaning "make by hand"; (manus = "hand"
andfacere = "to make").Unlike trading businesses, manufacturing businesses do not buy products at a low price
and sell at a higher price. Instead manufacturing businesses make products, which they then sell.

The

formula

above

was

based

on

the calculation

of

the

value

of

closing

inventories:

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

Finished goods: Inventories that have been fully manufactured and are ready for sale.
In a manufacturing business the closing value of finished goods are calculated as
follows:

The cost of finished goods that were sold (cost of sales) is thus calculated by saying:

1.

Trading Account: The account which is prepared to determine the gross profit or gross loss of a business
concern is called trading account (during a specific period).
2. Profit and loss a/c-The account, through which annual net profit or loss of a business is ascertained, is
called profit and loss account. Gross profit or loss of a business is ascertained through trading account
and net profit is determined by deducting all indirect expenses (business operating expenses) from the
gross profit through profit and loss account. Thus profit and loss account starts with the result provided
by trading account.
3. Balance Sheet: Balance sheet is a financial mirror of the company showing financial position (assets,
liabilities) at a particular time. It is list of the accounts having debit balance or credit balance in the ledger.
On one side it shows the accounts that have a debit balance (assets) and on the other side the accounts
that have a credit balance (capital liabilities).
Difference between Trial Balance and Balance Sheet:
Trial Balance
Balance Sheet
1- To verify the arithmetical accuracy of books of a/c.
1-Show true financial position of the business.
2- Prepared with balances of all the ledger accounts.
2- Prepared with the balances ofAssets/liab. A/c.
3-It is not a part of final accounts.
3-It is an important part of final accounts.
4-There is no rule for arranging the ledger balances in it.
4- A & L must be according to the rule of
marshaling.
Revenue: Revenue is the monetary expression of the aggregate of products or services transferred by an
enterprise to its customers during a period of time. The revenue for a given period is equal to the inflow of cash
and receivables (debtors) from sales made in that period. ThusRevenue = Amount received in cash + Receivable
Sources of Revenue:
1. Sale proceeds of goods or services (Sales A/C).
2. Interest received on investment (Interest A/C credit balance).
3. Dividend received on share (Dividend A/C).
1. Discount received from creditors (Discount received account credit balance)
2. Operational Sources or Major Sources or Direct Sources of Revenue: The revenue earned out of normal
business activities belongs to this source. For example, for a trader, sale proceeds of goods is a major source of
revenue; for a property dealer, commission earned is a major source of revenue, for a lawyer, fees earned is a
major source of revenue.
3. Financial Sources or Minor Sources or Indirect Sources of Revenue: Any revenue arising from sources other
than normal business activities belongs to this category. e.g. interest, dividend, profit on sale of fixed assets
etc. Thus for a trader;

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

EXPENSES -means the expired costs incurred for earning revenue of a certain accounting period. They are the
cost of the goods and services used up in the process of obtaining revenue. Expenses are mainly divided into two
categories:
1. Direct expenses
2. Indirect expenses
Direct Expenses: Expenses connected with purchases and manufacturing of goods are known as direct
expenses. For example, freight, insurance, of goods in transit, carriage, wages, custom duty, import duty, octroi
duty etc. Such expenses are collectively known as direct expenses.
Indirect Expenses: All expenses other than direct expenses are assumed as indirect expenses. Such expenses
have no relationship with purchase of goods. Examples of direct expenses include rent of building, salaries to
employees, legal charges, insurance of building, depreciation, printing charges etc. So

TRADING ACCOUNT: The account which is prepared to determine the gross profit or gross loss of a business
concern is called trading account. Features:
1. First stage of final accounts of a trading concern.
2. Prepared on the last day of an accounting period.
3. Only direct revenue and direct expenses are considered in it.
4. Expenses are recorded on its debit side and revenue on its credit side.
5. Expenses and revenue concerning current year are taken into account.
Purpose of Preparing Trading Account:
1. Gross profit (since all business expenses are met out of it).
2. The amount of net sales.
3. Percentage of gross profit on net sales (gross profit ratio)..
4. Inventory or stock turnover ratio.
TRADING ACCOUNTS

DEBIT SIDE

CREDIT SIDE

DIRECT EXPANCES

EXPANCES RELATED TO---PURCHASE


MANUFACTURING
FACTORY

DIRECT INCOMES

INCOMES RELATED TO ---SALES


SERVICE PROVIDED
++++
CLOSING STOCK

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT: The account through which annual net profit or loss of a business is ascertained, is
called profit and loss account. Thus profit and loss account starts with the result provided by trading account. Only

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

indirect expenses and indirect revenues are considered in it. All indirect expenses are transferred on the debit
side of this account and all indirect revenues on credit side. Sequence of Expenses in Profit and Loss Account:
There is no hard and fast rule as to the order in which the items of expenses are shown in profit and loss
account. Generally, the items of expenses are shown in the following sequence:
Office and Administration Expenses: These are the expenses with the management of the business e.g. salaries of
manager, accountant and office clerks, office rent, office stationary, office electric charges, office telephone etc.
Selling and Distribution Expenses: These are the expenses which are directly or indirectly connected with the sale of
goods. These expenses vary with the sales i.e. they increase or decrease with the increase or decrease of sale of goods.
Examples are advertisements, carriage outward, salesmen's salaries and commission, discount allowed.
Financial and Other Expenses: All other expenses excepting those mentioned above are considered under this class.
Features of Profit and Loss Account;
1. Prepared on the last day of an account year.
2. Second stage of the final accounts.
3. Only indirect expenses and indirect revenues are shown.
4. It starts with gross profit or gross loss.
5. All items of revenue concerning current year - whether received in cash or not - and all items of expenses
- whether paid in cash or not - are considered in this account.
PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNTS

DEBIT SIDE

CREDIT SIDE

INDIRECT
EXPANCES

INDIRECT
INCOMES

EXPANCES RELATED TO----

INCOMES RELATED TO ----

SALES

BUSINESS INCOME
FINANCIAL
INCIDENTAL
ABNORMAL GAIN
(OTHER THAN DIRECT INCOMES)

OFFICE
FINANCIAL
ABNORMAL
(OTHER THAN DIRECT EXPANCES)

Difference between Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account:


Trading Account
Profit and Loss Account
First stage of final accounts.
Second stage of the final accounts.
Shows the gross profit or loss.
Shows the net profit or loss.
All direct expenses (expenses connected with
All expenses connected with sales and administration
purchase or production of goods) are
(indirect expenses) of business is considered.
considered in it.
Starts with (gross profit or gross loss).
Does not start with the balance.
Its balance is transferred to capital account.
Its balance is transferred to P&L a/c.
Gross Profit or Loss:
Gross profit is ascertained by deducting cost of goods sold (all direct expenses like purchases, carriage, custom
duty, sock charges, octroi duty etc.) from sales. Gross profit = Total sales - All direct expenses or cost of goods sold
For example, suppose Mr. X purchased some goods for Rs.10,000 and paid Rs.200 on account of carriage and
Rs.100 as octroi duty. He sold the goods for Rs.1,4000. Now, the cost of goods sold will be Rs.10,300 (10,000 + 200
+ 100) and gross profit will be Rs.3,700.
Gross profit = Total sales - Cost of goods sold = 14000 10300 =3,700
Thus the account which is prepared to determine the gross profit or gross loss of a business concern is
called trading account.
NET PROFIT OR LOSS: It is ascertained by deducting all indirect expenses (the expenses incurred for running the
business and selling the goods) from the gross profit.
Net profit = Gross profit - All indirect expenses
Suppose in the above example, Mr. X paid Rs.1,000 as salaries and Rs.500 as rent. His net profit will be Rs.2,200.
Net profit = Gross profit - All indirect expenses = 3,700 - 1,500 = 2,200
Thus the account which is prepared to determine the net profit or net loss of a business concern is called
profit and loss account.
Following are the main points of difference between gross profit and net profit:

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

Gross Profit
Net Profit
It is the excess of net sales over cost of
It is the excess of gross profit over all indirect
purchase or manufacture of goods.
expenses.
It is not true profit of the business
It is true profit of the business.
It shows credit balance of the trading account
Shows credit balance of the P&L a/c.
The progress of the business can be judged
Profitability of the business can be measured by
by the comparison of gross profit with net
the comparison of net profit with net sales.
sales
Balance Sheet - Last Stage in Final Accounts:
Balance sheet is a list of the accounts having debit balance or credit balance in the ledger. The purpose of a
balance sheet is to show a true and fair financial position of a business at a particular date. Every business
prepares a balance sheet at the end of the account year. A balance sheet may be defined as:
1. "It is a statement of assets, liabilities and owner's equity (capital) on a particular date".
2. "It is a statement of what a business concern owns and what it owes on a particular date". What is owns
are called assets and what it owes are called liabilities.
3. "It is a statement where all the ledger account balances which remain open after the preparation of
trading and profit and loss account, find place".
Balance sheet is so called because it is prepared with the closing balance of ledger accounts at the end of the year.
It has two sides - assets side or left hand side and liabilities side or right hand side. The accounts have a debit
balance are shown on the asset side and those have a credit balance are shown on the liabilities side and the total
of the two sides will agree.
ASSETS MEAN all the things and properties under the ownership of the business i.e. building, plant, Assets also
include anything against which money or service will be received i.e. creditors accrued income, prepaid expenses
etc.
LIABILITIES MEANS our dues to others or anything against which we are to pay money or render service, i.e.
creditors, outstanding expenses, amount payable to the owner of the business (capital) etc.
Balance sheet reveals the financial position of the firm on a particular date at a point of time, so it is also called
"position statement". Features:
last stage of final accounts
Prepared on the last day of an a/c year.
It is not an account but a statement only.
It has asset side and liabilities side.(it does not have Debit and Credit side as in case of ledger)
The total of both sides are always equal.
No expense accounts and revenue accounts are shown here.
It discloses the financial position and solvency of the business.
Classification of Assets:
Assets may be classified as follows:

Real Assets: Assets which have some market value are called real assets, e.g. building, machinery, stock.
Fixed Assets: Assets which have long life and which are bought for use for a long period of time are called "fixed
assets". These are not bought for selling purposes, e.g. land, building, plant, machinery, furniture etc. Fixed assets
are again sub-divided into two:
1. Tangible Assets: Assets which have physical existence and which can be seen, touched and felt are called
"tangible assets", e.g. building, plant, machinery, furniture etc.
2. Intangible Assets: Assets which have no physical existence and which cannot be seen, touched or felt are
called "intangible assets", e.g. goodwill, patent right, trade mark etc.
Current Assets: Assets which are short-lived and which can be converted into cash quickly to meet short term
liabilities are called "current assets", e.g. stock debtors, cash etc. Such assets change their form repeatedly and so,
they are also known as circulating or floating assets.

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

Out of current assets those which can be converted into cash very quickly or which are already in the form of cash
are called liquid or quick assets e.g. debtors, cash in hand, cash at bank etc. (CA-stock-prepaid exp.).
Fictitious Assets: Assets which have no market value are called fictitious assets. Examples of fictitious assets
include preliminary expenses, loss on issue of shares etc. They are also known as nominal assets.
Besides these, there is another type of assets whose value gradually reduce on account of use and finally exhaust
completely. This type of assets is called wasting assets e.g. mine, forest etc.
Classification of Liabilities:

Internal Liabilities: The total amount of debts payable by a business to its owner is called internal liability e.g.
Owner's equity (capital), reserve etc. From practical view point internal liabilities should not be regarded as
liabilities, since there is no question of meeting such liabilities as long as the business continues.
External Liabilities: All debts payable by a business to the outsiders (other than the owner) are called external
liabilities e.g. creditors, debentures, bills payable etc. External liabilities are further divided into two.
Fixed or Long Term Liabilities: The liabilities which are payable after a long period of time are called fixed or
long term liabilities e.g. debentures, loan on mortgage etc.
Current or Short Term Liabilities: The debts which are repayable within a short period of time are called
current or short-term liabilities e.g. creditors, bills payable, bank overdraft etc. Current liabilities may again be
divided into two:
1. Deferred Liabilities: Debts which are repayable in the course of less than one year but more than one
month are called deferred liabilities e.g. Short term loan etc.
2. Liquid or Quick Liabilities: Debts are repayable in the course of a month are called liquid or quick
liabilities e.g. Bank overdraft, outstanding expenses, creditors etc.
Besides the above, there is another type of liability which is known as contingent liability. It is one which is not a
liability at present, but which may or may not become a liability in future. It depends upon certain future
event. For example, suppose, the buyer of goods filed a suit in the court against the seller claiming damage of
Rs.10,000 for breach of contract. To the buyer, this is a contingent asset. Both contingent liability and contingent
asset are not recorded in the balance sheet. They are generally mentioned in the balance sheet as a note.
Grouping and Marshaling -An arrangement is made in which assets and liabilities are shown in the
balance sheet. Such an arrangement is called marshaling of assets and liabilities. There are three methods
of marshaling:
1. Permanency Preference Method
2. Liquidity Preference Method

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

(Liquidity preference method is exactly reverse of the first method)


BALANCE SHEET
LIABILITIES
SIDE

ASSET SIDE

CAPITAL +LIABILITY

ASSET+PROPERTIES

FIXED ASSETS

CAPITAL--INITIAL

LIABILITY--LONG TERM

ADDITIONAL
(CAPITAL) ........
+NET PROFIT
+INTEREST ON CAP.

RESERVE
AND
SURPLUS

-WITHDRAWING
-INT. ON WITHD.
-INCOME TAX

DEBENTURE
BANK LOAN
SHORT TERM
CREDITOR

LAND & BUILDING


PLANT & MACHINERY
INVESTMENTS
CURRENT ASSETS
CASH

BILL PAYABLE

BANK
DEBTOR

O/S EXPANCES

MISC.EXPENDITURES
PRELINIMARY EXPANCES

-NET LOSS

LOSS ON ISSUE OF SEC.


Capital and Revenue Payments:It may be noted that there is a difference between an expenditure and payment.
Expenditure is the full amount spent by a business whether paid or yet to be paid while payment means the
amount actually paid. For example, a machinery is purchased for Rs.50,000 from Saleem & Co., Rs.30,000 were
paid to them in cash, agreeing to pay Rs.20,000 after one month. In this case, total amount spent is Rs.50,000 but
the payment is Rs.30,000 only.
Capital Payments: This is an amount which is actually paid on account of a CE.
Revenue Payments: This is an amount which is actually paid on account of some RE. For example, we purchase
goods of Rs.30,000, this is a RE of Rs.30,000. We paid cash to the supplier only Rs.20,000, this is a revenue
payment. If the whole amount is paid in cash, then both the RE as well as revenue payment will be Rs.30,000.
CE (capital expenditures)-An expenditure which results in the acquisition of permanent asset which is intended
to be permanently used in the business for the purpose of earning revenue is known as CE. These expenditures
are 'non-recurring' by nature. Moreover, any expenditure which is incurred for the purpose of increasing profit
earning capacity or reducing cost of production is a CE. Examples:
1. Purchase of furniture, motor vehicles, electric motors, loose tools and other tangible assets.
2. Cost of acquiring intangible assets like goodwill, patents, copy rights, trade marks, patterns and designs.
3. Addition or extension of assets.
RE (Revenue Expenditure)-All the expenditures which are incurred in the day to day conduct and
administration of a business and the effect-of which is completely exhausted within the current accounting year
are known as "REs". These expenditures are recurring by nature . These expenditures is always short-lived. RE
also includes the expenditure incurred for the purchase of raw material and stores required for manufacturing
saleable goods and the expenditure incurred to maintain the- fixed assets in proper working conditions i.e. repair
of machinery, building, furniture etc. Examples:
1. Wages paid to factory workers. Expenditure incurred in the ordinary conduct and administration of
business, i.e. rent, , carriage on saleable goods, salaries, wages manufacturing expenses, commission, legal
expenses, insurance, advertisement, free samples,
RE
CE
1. Its effect is temporary.

1.

Its effect is long-term.

2. Neither an asset is acquired nor is the value of an 2.


asset increased.

An asset is acquired or the value of an existing asset is


increased.

3. It has no physical existence.

It has physical existence except intangible assets.

3.

4. It is recurring and regular and it occurs repeatedly. 4.

It does not occur again and again. It is nonrecurring and


irregular.

5. It does not appear in the balance sheet.

It appears in the balance sheet .

5.

When REs are not regarded as REs? (Revenue expenditure)

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

There are some items of expenditure which are revenue by nature, yet they are not regarded as RE. Such
expenditures may be divided into two groups:
1. Deferred RE
2. Capitalized RE
1. Deferred RE:This is a RE, the benefit of which is not confined to one accounting year - it extends to future
accounting year or years also. However, this expenditure does not result in the acquisition of any fixed asset. Exheavy advertisement expenditure, RE chargeable in the current a/c year and the remaining portion is temporarily
treated as CE and shown on the Asset side of the Balance Sheet. Below are a few examples of such expenditure:
(a) Expenditure incurred to the formation of a joint stock company i.e. Preliminary Expenses.
(b) Expenditure on research and experiment connected with the introduction of a new product.
2. Capitalized Expenditures: Expenditures connected with fixed assets and spent directly on the acquisition of
fixed assets. Such expenditures are added to the cost of assets and are called "Capitalized Expenditures". For
example, we buy a second-hand plant for Rs.50,000. A further sum of Rs.5,000 is spent on its repair and
overhauling in order to bring the plant into proper working order. Thus, a RE which increases the utility or
productive capacity of an asset, is treated as capitalized expenditure.
(a) Expenditure on installing an asset. I.e. installation charges.
(b) Expenditure on repair to property, if the production capacity or utility of the property is increased.
(c) Expenditure incidental to purchase of fixed assets, e.g. freight, clearing charges, customs duty,
Example:
1. Preliminary expenses paid in the formation of a company.
2. Heavy advertisement expenses paid to introduce a new product in the market.
3. Wages paid for the installation of a machinery.
4. Carriage paid on the purchase of a machinery.
No. Nature
of Reason
Expenditure
1.

Deferred RE.

At the time of formation of a company certain expenses are incurred which are revenue
by nature e.g. cost of preparing documents, registration fee, cost of stamp etc. Such
expenditures are large in amount and it will be logical to spread such expenditures
over a number of years.

2.

Deferred RE.

It is ordinarily a RE. But if heavy advertisement expenses are paid to introduce a new
product, then, the benefit will be received for a number of years, so it is treated as
deferred RE.

3.

Capitalized
expenditure.

This expenditure is regarded as a part of the cost of machinery, so it is regarded as a


capitalized expenditure.

4.

Capitalized
Carriage paid on machinery is also regarded as an additional cost of the machinery,
expenditure.
therefore, treated as a expenditure.
Note: Both deferred RE and capitalized expenditure are shown on the asset side of the Balance Sheet
Capital Receipt: Receipts which are non-recurring (not received again and again) by nature and whose benefit is
enjoyed over a long period are called "Capital Receipts", e.g. money brought into the business by the owner
(capital invested), loan from bank, sale proceeds of fixed assets etc. Capital receipt is shown on the liabilities side
of the B/s
Revenue Receipt: Receipts which are recurring (received again and again) by nature and which are available for
meeting all day to day expenses (RE) of a business concern are known as "Revenue receipts", e.g. sale proceeds of
goods, interest received, commission received, rent received, dividend received etc.
Distinction between Capital Receipt and Revenue Receipt:
Revenue Receipt
Capital Receipt
1. Short-term effect. Benefit is within one a/c period.
1. Long-term effect. The benefit is for many years in
future.
2. It is recurring and regular
2. It is nonrecurring and irregular.
3. Shown in P & L a/c on the credit side.
3. It is shown in the Balance Sheet on the liability side.
4 not increase or decrease the value of asset or liability 4. Decreases the value of asset or increases the value of
liability .
Example:
1. Amount realized from sale of old furniture.
2. Money borrowed from a bank to acquire fixed assets.
3. Amount received from a debtor whose account was previously written off as bad.
4. Rs.20,000 received from sale of old machinery which had cost Rs.12,000.
5. A motor car, whose book value is Rs.8,000 was sold for Rs.60,000.
Solution:
No.
Nature of Items
Reasons
1.

Capital Receipt.

DAKSH ACADEMY

When furniture was purchased it was a CE. Therefore, the sale of furniture will
be a capital receipt now.

Feel free to mail me: csamitkumar@ymail.com

Page 2

Amit Kumar (Amicus Curiae)

JAY MATA DI

# 9717841557

2.

Capital Receipt.

Money is borrowed to acquire fixed assets, that will benefit the business for
many years, so it is a capital receipt.

3.

Revenue Receipt.

When debtor's account was previously written off, it was treated as a revenue
loss (expenditure), now, amount received from him will be treated as a revenue
receipt.

4.

(a) Rs.20,000, Capital Receipt


(b) Rs.8000, Capital Profit.

Furniture of Rs.12,000 was sold for Rs.20,000 and there was a profit of
Rs.8,000. Therefore, Rs.20,000 is a Capital Receipt and the profit of Rs.8,000 is
regarded as Capital Profit.

5.

(a) Capital Receipt Rs.60,000


(b) Capital loss Rs.20,000

A motor car of the book value of Rs.80,000 is sold for Rs.60,000 and so there is
a loss of Rs.20,000. The full amount received Rs.60,000 is a capital receipt and
loss of Rs.20,000 is a capital loss, because this is not a loss which occurred in
the ordinary course of the business.

CAPITAL PROFITS: Capital profit is a profit which is earned, on the sale of a fixed asset or profit earned on raising
capital for a company (by issuing shares at premium). This is not a regular profit of the business and is not earned
in the ordinary trade of the business.
REVENUE PROFITS: This is a profit which is earned during the ordinary course of business e.g. profit on sale of
goods, rent received, interest received etc.
CAPITAL LOSS: This is a Joss suffered by a business on the sale of a fixed asset or it is incurred on raising capital
of a joint stock company. This is not a recurring loss and is not made in the ordinary course of the business.
Capital loss is sown in the Balance Sheet on the asset side as a fictitious asset.
REVENUE LOSS: This loss is made in the ordinary course or day to day operation of a business such as loss on sale
of goods etc. Revenue loss appears in the profit and loss account or income statement in the year in which it
occurs.

DAKSH ACADEMY

Feel free to mail me: csamitkumar@ymail.com

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