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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Traffic Control Devices Manual


Version 2.0 - November 2014
Abu Dhabi City Municipality
PO Box 263
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Copyright 2014, Abu Dhabi City Municipality. All Rights Reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Abu Dhabi City Municipality

Version 2.0

November 2014

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
1.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS
1.2.1 REGULATION AND MANAGEMENT
1.2.2 UNIFORMITY OF ATTRIBUTES
1.2.3 PLACEMENT

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2 MOVEMENT REGULATION SIGNS

2.1 GENERAL
2.2 MOVEMENT CONTROL SIGNS
2.2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2.2 STOP SIGN 301
2.2.3 GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302
2.2.4 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 303
2.2.5 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS SIGN 303A
2.2.6 NO ENTRY SIGN 304
2.2.7 ONE WAY SIGNS 305 TO 307
2.3 MANDATORY MOVEMENT SIGNS
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION
2.3.2 AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321
2.3.3 TURN RIGHT ONLY SIGN 322 AND TURN LEFT ONLY SIGN 323
2.3.4 TURN RIGHT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 AND TURN LEFT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 325
2.3.5 PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326
2.3.6 KEEP RIGHT SIGN 327 AND KEEP LEFT SIGN 328
2.3.7 ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329
2.3.8 U-TURN SIGN 330
2.4 MOVEMENT PROHIBITION SIGNS
2.4.1 INTRODUCTION
2.4.2 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 339 TO 344
2.4.3 DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN ASSEMBLY 345
2.4.4 MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN 346A AND MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT ENDS SIGN 346B
2.4.5 NO LEFT TURN SIGN 346 AND NO RIGHT TURN SIGN 347
2.4.6 NO U-TURN SIGN 348
2.4.7 NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349
2.4.8 NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS SIGN 350
2.4.9 NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN 351
2.4.10 NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352
2.4.11 NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353
2.4.12 NO HORNING SIGN 354
2.4.13 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 355
2.4.14 MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT SIGN 356
2.4.15 LARGE MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 357
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2.4.16 QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN 365


2.5 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS
2.5.1 INTRODUCTION
2.5.2 NO STOPPING SIGNS 370 TO 373
2.5.3 TIME LIMITED NO STOPPING SIGNS 374 TO 376
2.5.4 NO PARKING SIGNS 377 TO 379
2.5.5 TIME LIMITED NO PARKING SIGNS 377 TO 379
2.5.6 PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING SIGNS 383 TO 385
2.5.7 PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS SIGNS 386 TO 388
2.5.8 PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS 389 TO 391
2.5.9 BUS STOP SIGN 392
2.5.10 TAXI STAND SIGN 393
2.5.11 DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY SIGN 394
2.5.12 SCHOOL BUS PARKING ONLY SIGN 395
2.5.13 SCHOOL BUS ONLY DROP OFF / PICK UP SIGN 396
2.5.14 LOADING AND UNOADING SIGN 397
2.6 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS
2.6.1 BEGINNING OF FREEWAY SIGN 398
2.6.2 END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399

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3 WARNING SIGNS

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3.1 GENERAL
3.2 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS
3.2.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2.2 JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401 TO 406
3.2.3 NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS 407 TO 409
3.2.4 MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 AND 411
3.2.5 CURVE RIGHT AHEAD SIGN 412 AND CURVE LEFT AHEAD SIGN 413
3.2.6 REVERSE BENDS AHEAD SIGNS 414 AND 415
3.2.7 TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416
3.2.8 LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 AND 418
3.2.9 U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419
3.2.10 ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN 420
3.2.11 ROAD NARROWS AHEAD SIGNS 421 TO 423
3.2.12 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD SIGN 424
3.2.13 MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 425
3.2.14 CHILDREN PRESENT SIGN 426
3.2.15 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD SIGN 427
3.2.16 STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 428
3.2.17 GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 429
3.2.18 TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD SIGN 430
3.2.19 QUAYSIDE SIGN 431
3.2.20 DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN 432
3.2.21 ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433
3.2.22 LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN 434
3.2.23 SPEED HUMP SIGN 435

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3.2.24 TUNNEL AHEAD SIGN 436
3.2.25 FALLING ROCKS SIGN 437
3.2.26 SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438
3.2.27 STEEP GRADIENT SIGN 439 AND 440
3.2.28 OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE SIGN 441
3.2.29 SCHOOL ZONE GATE SIGN 446
3.2.30 GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450
3.2.31 HIGH VEHICLE WARNING SIGN 495
3.3 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS
3.3.1 HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451 AND 452
3.3.2 SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT SIGN 454 AND SINGLE CHEVRON LEFT SIGN 455
3.3.3 MULTIPLE CHEVRONS RIGHT SIGN 456 AND MULTIPLE CHEVRONS LEFT SIGN 457
3.3.4 T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN 458
3.4 DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS
3.4.1 OVERVIEW
3.4.2 LANE DROP FROM THE RIGHT SIGN 465 AND LANE DROP FROM THE LEFT SIGN 466
3.4.3 BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN SIGNS 472 AND 473
3.4.4 ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 AND 481
3.4.5 JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 AND 483
3.4.6 TRUCK LANE USE SIGNS 484 AND 485
3.4.7 LANE USE DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION SIGN 486
3.4.8 LANES MERGE SIGNS 490 AND 492

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4 GUIDE SIGNS

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4.1 PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE


4.1.1 METHOD OF PROVIDING GUIDANCE
4.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDE SIGNS
4.1.3 ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM
4.1.4 PRIMARY DESTINATIONS
4.1.5 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATIONS
4.1.6 COLOUR CODING
4.1.7 INFORMATION TO BE DISPLAYED ON SIGNS
4.1.8 TRAILBLAZING SIGNING
4.2 GENERAL STANDARDS FOR GUIDE SIGNS
4.2.1 LANGUAGE AND LETTERING STYLES
4.2.2 AMOUNT OF LEGEND
4.2.3 AMOUNT AND CONSISTENCY OF SIGNS
4.2.4 SIZE OF LETTERING
4.2.5 SIGN BORDERS
4.2.6 INTERNAL SPACING
4.2.7 ARROWS
4.2.8 ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS
4.2.9 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS
4.3 ROUTE MARKER SIGNS
4.3.1 USE OF ROUTE MARKER
4.3.2 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER SIGN 501

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4.3.3 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER SIGN 502


4.4 TRAILBLAZING SIGNS
4.4.1 USE OF TRAILBLAZING
4.4.2 AIRPORT TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 503
4.4.3 CITY CENTRE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 504
4.4.4 EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 505
4.4.5 ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 506
4.4.6 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 507
4.4.7 FREEWAY TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 508
4.4.8 PARKING TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 509
4.5 AT-GRADE JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS
4.5.1 TYPES OF AT-GRADE JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS
4.5.2 ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK SIGN 511
4.5.3 ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN 512
4.5.4 ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513
4.5.5 ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL SIGN 514
4.5.6 CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN 515
4.6 GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS
4.6.1 TYPES OF GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS
4.6.2 ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 551
4.6.3 EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552
4.6.4 ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN 553
4.6.5 GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND 556
4.6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 557
4.7 GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS
4.7.1 OFFICIAL VEHICLES ONLY SIGN 584
4.7.2 DISTANCE SIGN 585
4.7.3 HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586
4.7.4 TEXT SIGN 588
4.7.5 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 589
4.7.6 FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 590
4.7.7 GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591
4.7.8 PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS SIGN 592
4.7.9 DO NOT LITTER SIGN 599
4.8 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE SIGNS
4.8.1 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 595
4.8.2 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER SIGN 596
4.8.3 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE SIGN 597
4.8.4 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT SIGN 598
4.9 MANAGED LANE SIGNS
4.9.1 BUS LANE SIGN 5004
4.9.2 TRAM LANE SIGN 5005

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5 PAVEMENT MARKINGS

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5.1 GENERAL
5.1.1 FUNCTION

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5.1.2 MARKING TYPES
5.1.3 COLOUR
5.1.4 CONFIGURATION
5.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE
5.2 REGULATORY PAVEMENT MARKINGS
5.2.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2.2 STOP LINE MARKING 601
5.2.3 GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602
5.2.4 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING MARKING 603
5.2.5 NO PASSING LINE MARKING 611
5.2.6 CHANNELIZING LINE MARKING 612
5.2.7 EDGE LINE MARKING 613
5.2.8 LANE DIRECTION ARROW MARKINGS 614 TO 619
5.2.9 PARKING ENVELOPE LINE MARKING 620
5.2.10 PARKING SPACE LINE MARKING 621
5.2.11 EXCLUSIVE LANE OR PARKING SPACE MARKING 623
5.2.12 YELLOW BOX MARKING 624
5.2.13 ZIG-ZAG MARKING 625
WARNING MARKINGS
5.2.14 INTRODUCTION
5.2.15 RUMBLE STRIP MARKING 650
5.2.16 SPEED HUMP MARKING 651
5.2.17 DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652
5.2.18 LANE LINE MARKING 654
5.2.19 LANE END ARROW MARKING 656
5.2.20 CHEVRON MARKING 657
5.2.21 HATCH MARKING 658
5.2.22 SCHOOL ZONE GATE MARKING 670
5.3 GUIDANCE MARKINGS
5.3.1 GUIDE LINE MARKING 680
5.3.2 CONTINUITY LINE MARKING 681
5.4 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS (RPM)
5.4.1 GENERAL
5.4.2 RETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING R
5.4.3 NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING N
5.5 KERB PAINTING
5.5.1 STANDARD KERB COLOUR
5.5.2 PAID PARKING ZONE MARKING 690
5.5.3 VISIBILITY PAINTING MARKING 691
5.6 FIRE HYDRANT KERB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKING
5.6.1 FIRE HYDRANT MARKING 695
5.6.2 FIRE HYDRANT KERB AND PAVEMENT MARKINGS ADJACENT TO PARKING SPACES
5.7 TEXT PAVEMENT MARKINGS
5.7.1 TEXT SYMBOL MARKING 695
5.8 RAIL/TRANSIT CROSSING MARKINGS
5.8.1 GENERAL
5.8.2 RAIL CROSSING MARKING 1101
5.8.3 RAIL CROSSING CLEAR ZONE MARKING 1102
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6 OBJECT MARKERS AND DELINEATORS

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6.1 OBJECT MARKERS


6.2 DELINEATORS

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7 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

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8 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

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8.1 GENERAL
8.2 AT-GRADE JUNCTIONS
8.2.1 ROAD JUNCTIONS IN COMMUNITY AREAS
8.2.2 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURN AND LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION
8.2.3 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFT TURN AT LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION
8.2.4 SERVICE ROAD CONNECTIONS TO AN ARTERIAL
8.2.5 LARGE ROUNDABOUT
8.2.6 LARGE SIGNALISED ROUNDABOUT
8.2.7 SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
8.2.8 FREEWAY CROSSROAD WITH SMALL ROUNDABOUTS
8.2.9 FREEWAY CROSSROAD AT A SIGNALISED DIAMOND INTERCHANGE
8.2.10 SMALL ROUNDABOUTS
8.3 GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTIONS
8.3.1 FREEWAY WITH ONE-LANE EXIT, NO LANE DROP
8.3.2 FREEWAY WITH TWO-LANE EXIT, ONE LANE DROP
8.3.3 INTERCHANGE WITH A C-D ROAD
8.3.4 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH TWO CLOSELY SPACED EXITS
8.3.5 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH A TWO LANE EXIT AND RAMP SPLIT
8.3.6 FREE-FLOW RAMP CONDITIONS
8.4 SCHOOL ZONE

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9 TRAFFIC SIGNALS

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10 RAIL AND BUSWAY LEVEL CROSSINGS

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10.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES


10.1.1 INTRODUCTION
10.1.2 STANDARDISATION AND UNIFORMITY
10.1.3 LEVEL CROSSING ELIMINATION
10.1.4 ILLUMINATION AT LEVEL CROSSINGS
10.2 RISK MITIGATION
10.3 SIGNS AND MARKINGS AT RAIL CROSSINGS
10.3.1 GENERAL
10.3.2 RAIL CROSSING WARNING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY 1001
10.3.3 RAIL CROSSING STOP ASSEMBLY 1002
10.3.4 RAIL CROSSING AND SIGNALS AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1003
10.3.5 RAIL CROSSING ON INTERSECTING ROAD ASSEMBLY 1004

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10.4 SIGNS AND MARKINGS LRT CROSSINGS
10.4.1 EXCLUSIVE LRT CROSSING WARNING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY 1011
10.4.2 LRT CROSSING AND SIGNALS AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1013
10.5 SIGNS AND MARKINGS AT URBAN LRT CROSSINGS
10.5.1 TRAFFIC SIGNAL AT LRT CROSSING AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1014
10.5.2 LRT CROSSING ON SIDE ROAD ASSEMBLY 1015
10.5.3 ADVANCE WARNING OF LRT CROSSING (STOP-CONTROLLED, NO SIGNAL OR GATE)
10.5.4 STOP CONTROL ASSEMBLY 2016

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11.1 PRINCIPLES
11.1.1 SCOPE
11.2 CYCLE LANE SIGNAGE
11.2.1 APPLICATION AND PLACEMENT
11.2.2 CYCLE LANE STARTS SIGN 8-1X
11.2.3 CYCLE LANE REGULATORY SIGN 8-2X
11.2.4 CYCLE LANE TIME PLATE SIGN 8-3X
11.2.5 CYCLE LANE ADVANCE WARNING SIGN 8-4X
11.2.6 ADVISORY WITH-FLOW CYCLE LANE SIGN 8-5X
11.2.7 MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE SIGN 8-6X
11.2.8 MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE REQULATORY SIGN 8-7X
11.2.9 MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE PLATE SIGN 8-8X
11.2.10 CYCLE LANE PEDESTRIAN WARNING SIGN 8-9X
11.2.11 ADVISORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE REGULATORY SIGN 8-10X
11.2.12 SHARED CYCLE/PEDESTRIAN TRACKS SIGNS 8-11X AND 8-12X
11.2.13 END OF CYCLE LANE SIGNS 8-13X AND 8-14X
11.2.14 CYCLE GUIDE SIGNS
11.3 CYCLE LANE PAVEMENT MARKINGS
11.3.1 APPLICATION AND PLACEMENT
11.3.2 MANDATORY CYCLE LANE MARKINGS
11.3.3 ADVISORY CYCLE LANE MARKINGS
11.3.4 CYCLE TRACK MARKINGS
11.3.5 CYCLE GRADE CROSSINGS

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INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

Traffic control devices used should be judiciously used. Regulatory and warning signs, in particular, should be used
conservatively as these tend to lose effectiveness when used excessively. However, a frequent display of guide signs
is recommended to reassure motorists of their location and route.

This Manual supersedes the previous version of the ADM Traffic Control Devices Manual issued in 2005.
The primary purpose of traffic control devices is to provide visual information to the motorist in a clear and consistent
manner. The information is conveyed in three ways to the road user:

The Traffic Services Section (TSS) of the Internal Roads and Infrastructure Directorate of the Municipality is
responsible for reviewing and approving all design and installations related to regulatory, warning and guidance traffic
signs on roads within the city of Abu Dhabi.

As regulations.
As warnings.
As guidance.
These devices can be either permanent or temporary (both of each with specific defining characteristics) and include
traffic signs, pavement markings and traffic light signals placed on, over, or adjacent to the public road network to
regulate, warn, or guide the traffic flow on the network.

1.1.2

UNIFORMITY OF ATTRIBUTES

Uniformity of attributes applies to shape, dimensions, colour, legend, conspicuity, and night time visibility of signs.

1.1.2.1

Traffic control devices should meet these basic requirements:

TRAFFIC SIGNS
1.1.1
REGULATION AND MANAGEMENT

SHAPE CODE

Standard sign shapes are as shown in Figure 1-1 and their principal features are listed below:

The device should fulfil an important need.


The device should command attention.
The device should convey a clear, simple meaning.
The device should command the respect of motorists.
The device should be located in a manner that allows sufficient time for safe reaction.

The OCTAGON shape is reserved exclusively for the STOP sign.


The TRIANGULAR shape, with the point down, is reserved exclusively for the GIVE WAY (YIELD) sign.
The CIRCULAR shape is reserved exclusively for regulatory signs such as speed limit signs.
The RECTANGLE, with the long axis vertical, is used primarily for regulatory signs (primarily parking control and
one-way signs). The shape is also used for diagrammatic warning signs and may occasionally be used for guide
signs.
The TRIANGULAR shape, with the point up, is used exclusively for advance warning signs such as a sign warning
a driver of a curve ahead.
The RECTANGLE, with the long axis horizontal, is the primary shape for direction and general information guide
signs and as supplemental plates or qualification plates below other sign shapes. It is also used for the one-way
regulatory sign.
The POINTED RECTANGLE, with the long axis horizontal, is used exclusively for chevron direction signs.

This manual establishes the guidelines and principles that dictate the design, application, and maintenance of traffic
control devices. The guidance given in this manual should be followed on all roads owned and/or managed by the Abu
Dhabi City Municipality (Referred to throughout this manual as the Municipality).
The roads managed by the Municipality include all roads on Abu Dhabi Island as well as roads on the mainland in the
vicinity of the island. In exceptional cases, the Municipality may also construct and manage roads in other areas within
the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
Traffic control devices on roads owned and/or managed by the Municipality, as well as on privately owned semi-public
roads, should only be placed with the express approval of the Municipality.

Other shapes should not be used for sign panel outline shapes unless specifically approved by the Municipality.

When given approval by the Municipality for the erection of specific devices, construction contractors, public utility
companies, and police agencies are permitted to install such devices provided that such installations conform to the
guidance contained in this manual.
Any signs or markings advertising or promoting a private company, their products, or services should be prohibited
from the public road right of way unless specifically authorised.
Traffic control devices must be applied in a consistent manner as this significantly improves the safety and operation of
the road network. The use of nonstandard devices or the nonstandard application of devices results in uncertainty and
confusion with associated negative safety implications.
The following must be achieved:

Accuracy: The device must accurately relate to current road conditions.


Uniformity: The device must be designed to minimise comprehension times.
Consistency: Similar situations must be signed and marked in a similar manner.
Continuity: The message must be displayed continuously until the information provided is no longer relevant.

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1.1.2.2

SIZE

The size of a traffic sign is important for two primary reasons:


Conspicuity: A sign must be of sufficient size to command the attention of drivers.
Legibility: The legend (text or symbol) of the sign must be of sufficient size to allow recognition and
comprehension by drivers travelling at roadway design speeds.
Legibility is the primary factor determining the size of text based signs such as guide signs. Hence, the size of such
signs varies depending on the amount of legend, lettering size, style and spacing.
Sizing guide signs on the basis of legibility ensures conspicuity. The parameters affecting guide sign sizing are
discussed in Chapter 4.
Regulatory and warning signs are generally based on symbols rather than text and are generally smaller compared to
guide signs. Consequently, conspicuity is as equally important as legibility in sizing such signs. These signs also tend
to have standard sizes.
Table 1-1 presents guidelines for selecting appropriate sign sizes for regulatory and warning signs.
Table 1-1
1,2
Regulatory and Warning Sign Sizes
Recommended Regulatory
Recommended Warning
4,5
6
Sign Size (mm)
Sign Size (mm)

Posted Speed (kph)


40
60
80
100

600
750
900
1200

Required Minimum Clear


Visibility (m)

750
900
1200
1500

50
60
80
100

Notes:
1.

Sizes smaller than the lower limits shall not be used without specific authorisation

2.

The sizes for regulatory signs do not apply to parking and freeway control signs

3.

Sizes should be based on 85th percentile speeds when these differ significantly from posted speeds

4.

Regulatory sign sizes refer to a circle diameter. For the STOP sign, this diameter represents an inscribed circle

5.

Warning sign sizes refer to the apex to apex distance of the side of triangular signs. GIVE WAY signs should be
sized as for warning signs

6.

Sizes shown are desirable minimums. Larger signs sizes, particularly for warning signs, may be desirable in
particularly critical situations.

Figure 1-1: Standard Sign Shapes

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1.1.2.3

COLOUR CODE

1.1.2.4

Table 1-2 establishes the background colours, legend colours, and border colours to be used for traffic signs in Abu
Dhabi. Sign background and legend colours or uses other than those listed in Table 1-2 are not permitted.
Table 1-2
Traffic Sign Colour Code
Background Colour

Sign Class
Warning

Guide

Symbols used should be the same as those shown in this manual. When new symbols are approved for usage,
especially on warning signs, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 should accompany these signs for a period of up
to three years, if deemed necessary, for public education.

Border Colour

Standard text messages in Arabic and English should be used when an appropriate symbol is not available. Symbolic
messages given in this manual should be used in preference to text messages whenever available. Otherwise, word
messages should be as brief as possible.

Black

Red or Blue

White

White

Mandatory

Blue

White

White

Prohibitory

White

Black

Red

Parking

White

Red or Green

Freeway Control

Blue

White

Blue

White

Green

White

Brown

White

White

White

Black

Black

Blue

White

White

Type IV Sheeting shall be used for normal regulatory and warning sign applications as well as for guide signs with
white backgrounds.
Type XI Sheeting shall be used for all ground mounted ground mounted guide signs with non-white backgrounds
as well as for all overhead signs.

Green

White

White

The backing for retroreflective sheeting should meet ASTM D4956 Class 1 requirements, providing pressure sensitive
adhesion to smooth clean surfaces with no heat, solvent or other preparation required.

Dark Blue

White

None

Blue and Red

White

Metallic Frame

KM Marker

White

Black

Black

Text

White

Black

Route Direction
(Emirates Routes)
Route Direction
(Other Routes)
Supplemental Direction
(Tourism/Leisure)
Supplemental Direction
(Others)

Distance
(Emirates Routes)
Distance
(Other Routes)

Red

The Municipalitys standard Arabic (Naskh) and English (Transport) fonts should be used on all sign types. The height
of the Arabic aleph character should be 1.4 times the height of the English x letter height.

Red or Green

1.1.2.5

White

White

White

ASTM D4956-04 Type IV or Type XI (Diamond Grade) retroreflective sheeting shall be used as follows:

Vehicles generally direct the largest percentage of their headlight output slightly below horizontal, and predominantly to
the right, especially under low beam operation. Hence, ground mounted signs (particularly those on the right side of the
roadway) will generally be well lit by vehicle headlights and will be capable of reflecting enough light to provide
adequate night time conspicuity and legibility.

Street Name
(On Posts)

Temporary Traffic Management

Yellow

Black

Overhead signs on the other hand generally contain multiple pieces of information that must be read and understood
by drivers travelling at relatively high speeds and/or under heavy traffic volumes and/or through complex interchange
manoeuvres.

Black
1

Thus these signs must be conspicuous and legible from a relatively long distance in order to provide adequate time for
a driver to comprehend the messages being conveyed. Particularly on urban roadways, where driving is done with low
beam headlights, the intensity of light from vehicles striking the sign face is too low to provide this long distance
legibility.

Black

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

RETROREFLECTION AND ILLUMINATION

Traffic signs are required to function round-the-clock and it is necessary that they exhibit the same shape and colour
during both daytime and night time hours. To accomplish this, all sign faces should be constructed using retro-reflective
sheeting with suitable levels of angularity.

Street Name
(On Signal Masts)

General
Information

The legend of a traffic sign is the element that provides a sign with a unique and definitive meaning or message. The
legend may be composed of a symbol, a text message, or both.

White
Control

Regulatory

Legend Colour

LEGENDS

Some warning signs may include red legend to indicate hazards.


Permissive parking signs also include a white on blue parking symbol
Guide signs commonly include a black symbol on a white square background
Route numbers and abbreviations within emblems shall be yellow
Refer to the Abu Dhabi Addressing System Standards Manual for details.
All signs except regulatory control signs which maintain their original colours

For this reason, all overhead signs should be independently illuminated except in cases where all of the following
conditions are met:
When the roadway is not lighted, and
When the sign is visible from a distance of 370m or more, and
When the horizontal curvature of the road approaching the sign has no less than a 250m radius.
The means of illuminating overhead signs should be through the use of external sodium vapour wide beam floodlights.
Other means of external lighting, internal lighting, or legend-outline lighting are acceptable but will be permitted only on
a case by case basis as authorised by the Municipality.

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Every sign location must be thoroughly checked to identify any possible visibility obstructions.

Table 1-3 below shows the retroflectivity and illumination requirements.

Sign Colour

Table 1-3
Retroreflectivity and Illumination Requirements
Retroreflectivity
2
Minimum Requirements (candela/lux/m )

White on Blue
White on Green
White on Red
Black on White (Red Border)
White on Brown
Black on Yellow (Red Border)

W 580, B 26
W 220, B 10
W 250, G 25
W 220, G 22
W 75, R 23
W 50, R 15
W 220, Br 7
Y 100, R 30

Typical problem placement locations include downhill dips, vertical curve crests, parked or stationary vehicles blocking
visibility, trees and other foliage blocking visibility, and, proximity of other (existing) traffic signs in front of or behind the
new sign under consideration.
Additional Criteria

In addition, signs should be placed to avoid blocking or impeding pedestrian or cycle flow along sidewalks and trails.
Traffic signs are placed to enhance the safety of roadways but are fixed obstacles which pose a hazard if struck by
motorists. Therefore, sign supports must be designed appropriately and meet the requirements specified by the
Municipality (ADM Standard Drawings, T Series).

Overhead Guide Signs


Ground Mounted Guide Signs
Overhead Guide Signs
Ground Mounted Guide Signs
Stop Signs
Warning and Regulatory Signs
Ground Mounted Signs
Road Works Signs

The guidelines on placement given here are intended to be interpreted with a measure of flexibility due to differences in
the alignment and applicable conditions at individual locations. Engineering judgment based on the general guidelines
provided here must be applied to maximise visibility and legibility.

1.1.3.2

Illumination
Means of Illumination

Light behind the sign face


Attached or independently mounted light source
designed to direct uniform illumination on sign face
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Other devices or treatments that highlight the sign
shape, colour or message such as Luminous Tubing,
Fibre Optics, Incandescent Light Bulbs and
Luminescent Panels

1.1.3

PLACEMENT

1.1.3.1

OVERVIEW

Sign Element to be Illuminated


Symbol or word message
Background
word
message
Symbol,
(Through translucent material)

and

ORIENTATION ANGLE

Ground mounted traffic signs should be placed at approximate right angles to the relevant traffic stream. Specifically,
signs located less than 9.0m from the edge of pavement should be oriented 93 to the line of approaching traffic. This
slight rotation eliminates many of the glare problems that can occur when retro-reflective sheeting is used. For signs
greater than 9.0m from the pavement edge, an orientation of 87 to the line of approaching traffic is recommended.

background

Figure 1-2 illustrates the required sign orientation for these two conditions.

Entire Sign Face


Symbol or word message
Portions of Sign Border
Symbol or word message
Entire Sign Face

Figure 1-2: Sign Orientation Angle

The placement of traffic signs refers to the lateral, vertical, and longitudinal positioning of signs to provide the required
legibility for passing motorists. Sign placement must be considered early in the road design process. This applies
particularly to the provision of guide signs and sequences of guide signs on multilane expressways and freeways and
even more so to signs required within complex interchanges.
Except as identified in this section, all traffic signs should be positioned on the right side of the roadway facing the
approaching traffic or overhead close to the centre of the travel lanes to which the signs apply. Under certain
conditions, additional traffic signs may be placed on the left side of roadways to complement those located on the right.
These conditions are:
Dual carriageway and one-way roads for speed limit and specified prohibitory signs.
At sharp right curves on two way roadways.
Multilane freeways where visibility of right-side signs may be blocked (this may also be a warrant for the use of
overhead signs, particularly guide signs).
Under temporary traffic management conditions, particularly for signs located within the advance warning area.

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1.1.3.3

VERTICAL AND LATERAL PLACEMENT

Roadside signs should be placed at as great a distance from the pavement edge as practical to minimise the chances
to them being stuck while bearing the need to maintain conspicuity and legibility. Every opportunity to position traffic
signs behind crash barriers, guardrail, or other roadside safety barriers should be pursued. The placement of road
signs in the middle of pedestrian and cycle paths should be avoided and road signs must be placed in a manner that
ensures adequate clearances are achieved for pedestrians and cyclists.
The vertical placement of a traffic sign should be determined as the least distance measured from the pavement or
ground surface to the underside of the sign, taking account of cross fall or super elevation if the sign is positioned over
the roadway. The mounted height of a traffic sign affects the visibility of the sign and the pedestrian hazard of striking
the underside of signs.
Figures 1-3 and 1-4 along with Table 1-4 describe the requirements for vertical and lateral placement of signs.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 1-4
Lateral and Vertical Placement of Traffic Signs (refers to Figures 1-3 and 1-4)
Dimension
Minimum (m)
Maximum (m)
Remarks

Roadway
Type
Freeway
Expressway
Major Arterial
Frontage

Arterial
Collector
Local

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

600
3600
2200
2200
600
2200
50
1100
10000
6000
1800

3000
9000
2500
2500
2600
2500
6000
6500
4200

See Note 13

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
I
K
L

600
600
2200
2200
1200
2200
1100
6000
1800

2000
2000
2500
2500
1600
2500
6000
6500
4300

See Note 13

See Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7


See Notes 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9
See Notes 5, 6, and 8
See Note 5
See Note 10
See Note 11
See Note 12
See Note 10

See Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7


See Notes 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9
See Notes 5, 6, and 8
See Note 5
See Note 10
See Note 11
See Note 12
See Note 10

Notes:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

Dimension letters refer to Figures 1-3 and 1-4.


Dimensions are variable when not specified.
Lateral dimension reference points are defined as follows:
X- Face of kerb, guardrail or barrier
Y- Edge of pavement
Z- Edge of shoulder
The minimum height clearance for large, multi-post signs with a breakaway post system shall be 2.25m. This will permit a
standard vehicle striking the post to pass under the sign panel.
In urban areas (assumed to be kerbed but may sometimes not be), vertical dimensions are the minimum clearance from the
bottom of the sign to the ground below. In pedestrian areas where cyclists are to be accommodated the minimum clearance
from the bottom of the sign to the ground below shall be 2.5m.
Some regulatory signs, particularly mandatory turn signs 322, 323, 326, 327 and 328 are commonly placed in front of drivers
approaching turns. Such should be placed using dimension E in place of C if this will not create a visual obstruction.
When two signs of different classes are mounted on the same post, regulatory signs should be mounted above warning signs.
In rural areas (assumed not to be kerbed), vertical dimensions are measured up from the near side edge of pavement elevation
(Point Y). If the roadway is super elevated such that it rises in the direction of the sign, the pavement surface slope shall be
extended to the furthest edge of the sign and the vertical dimension taken for that elevation.
The use of a mounting height of less than 2.2m is not recommended for Dimension D for signs with a single support.
The maximum value stated may be exceeded but detailed structural designs shall be provided for all support structures.
When posts are required to be located behind a concrete barrier, the minimum distance shall be checked for consistency with
the size of the post foundation and future operation / maintenance access to the post.
The minimum dimension given is the point of minimum clearance between the bottom of the sign support structure and the
pavement surface (including shoulder if the sign is over shoulder) vertically below. Minimum clearance shall be 6.0m for
gantries and cantilevers.
Sign posts shall be located at least 2.0m from the edge of the running lane in cases where a footpath is present or planned.

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Figure 1-3: Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Regulatory and Warning Signs

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL


1.1.3.4

LONGITUDINAL PLACEMENT

Guidelines for the longitudinal placement are general and subject to specific field and road conditions, particularly in
urban areas. The longitudinal placement along a road depends on the sign type, criticality of message, and manoeuvre
required. Traffic sign positions can, and should, be moved longitudinally in many situations in order to:

Improve visibility.
Avoid blocking other signs.
Improve roadside safety.
Increase spacing between adjacent signs.

General guidelines for the longitudinal placement of signs are provided below:
Most regulatory signs should be placed where their message is applied. These sign messages typically refer to
one point (e.g., a STOP sign) or remain in effect until another regulatory sign changes the requirement (e.g., a
SPEED LIMIT sign).
When regulatory signs are located in advance of the point of application of the regulation, an accompanying
distance referring to the point of application should be displayed, normally with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
sign.
Advance warning signs should be provided in advance of the hazard or condition being signed. The motorist must
recognise the message, determine the appropriate response, and adjust as required before arriving at the
hazard. The distance that an advance warning sign is located from a hazard should therefore vary with the speed
at which the hazard can be safely negotiated and with the approach speed. Table 2-1 gives detailed guidelines
on these distances.
Hazard marker signs should be located as close as possible to the hazard they mark.
Directional guide signs should be provided in advance of decision points to allow necessary decisions and actions.
On rural roads, a minimum longitudinal spacing between smaller signs of 75m to 80m is recommended.
On urban roads, a minimum longitudinal spacing between smaller signs of 45m to 50m is recommended.
On rural roads, a longitudinal spacing between larger signs of 150m to 300m is desirable.
On urban roads, a minimum longitudinal spacing between larger signs of 90m to 175m is desirable.
On freeways, a minimum longitudinal spacing of 200m between signs should be kept.
Care must be taken in positioning signs in the vicinity of minor side roads to avoid confusion to road users. It is also
often a better solution to a problem of smaller, closely spaced signs to mount the signs on a common support,
particularly if, as may be the case with regulatory and warning signs, their messages are associated. In such cases,
regulatory signs should be mounted above warning signs. The minimum vertical clearance requirement must be
applied to the lower of the two signs.

1.1.3.5

OVERHEAD INSTALLATIONS

Overhead traffic sign installations may be mounted on overhead or support structures. Signs placed on overhead
structures should be located directly over the affected travel lanes. Overhead structures and signs are typically
provided on multilane facilities and heavily travelled roads.
Overhead guide signs should be used when one or more of the following general conditions are met:

Figure 1-4: Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Guide and General Information Signs

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All grade separated interchanges through roadways.


All roads with four or more lanes in one direction.
All roads with three or more lanes in one direction and with peak-hour design-year one-way traffic over 1,000 vph.
Restricted sight distance.
High percentage of trucks.
High speed traffic.
Consistency of sign message location through a series of intersections.
Insufficient space for ground-mounted signs.
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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Category

Group

Designation
STOP SIGN 301
GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302
GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 303
GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS SIGN 303A
NO ENTRY SIGN 304
ONE WAY SIGNS 305 TO 307
AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321
TURN RIGHT ONLY SIGN 322 and TURN LEFT ONLY SIGN 323
TURN RIGHT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 and TURN LEFT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 325
PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326
KEEP RIGHT SIGN 327 and KEEP LEFT SIGN 328
ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329
U-TURN SIGN 330
MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 339 TO 344
DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN ASSEMBLY 345
MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN 346A AND MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT ENDS SIGN 346B
NO LEFT TURN SIGN 346 and NO RIGHT TURN SIGN 347
NO U-TURN SIGN 348
NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349
NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS SIGN 350
NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN 351
NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352
NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353
NO HORNING SIGN 354
MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 355
MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT SIGN 356
LARGE MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 357
QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN 365
NO STOPPING SIGNS 370 TO 373
TIME LIMITED NO STOPPING SIGNS 374 TO 376
NO PARKING SIGNS 377 TO 379
TIME LIMITED NO PARKING SIGNS 377 TO 379
PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING SIGNS 383 TO 385
PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS SIGNS 386 TO 388
PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS 389 TO 391
BUS STOP SIGN 392
TAXI STAND SIGN 393
DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY SIGN 394
SCHOOL BUS PARKING ONLY SIGN 395
SCHOOL BUS ONLY DROP OFF / PICK UP SIGN 396
LOADING AND UNLOADING SIGN 397
BEGINNING OF FREEWAY SIGN 398
END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399

MOVEMENT CONTROL SIGNS

MOVEMENT REGULATION SIGNS

MANDATORY MOVEMENT SIGNS

MOVEMENT PROHIBITION SIGNS

PARKING CONTROL SIGNS

FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS

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MOVEMENT REGULATION SIGNS

2.1

GENERAL

In order to maintain the clarity of message required of regulatory signs, only one symbol should be used on each sign.
In cases where multiple messages are required, separate signs should be used.
In order to improve the understanding of different functions of different types of regulatory signs, the class is further
subdivided as follows:

Movement Regulation signs indicate what road users may, or may not, do and a failure to comply is an offense. For
this reason, it is important that those erecting regulatory signs do so with a consideration of other regulatory signs in
the vicinity in order to avoid presenting conflicting messages to road users.
Movement Regulation signs indicate the existence of general laws or regulations, such as speed limits, made in the
interests of road safety. Alternatively, regulatory signs may control traffic movement by means of stop or give way signs
or traffic signals in the interests of order and operational efficiency. Movement Regulation signs may also indicate a
change in general existing levels of controls for road users to a different level of control. No Overtaking, No Parking,
or other restrictions are examples of this.
In erecting movement regulation signs, only as many such signs as necessary should be provided and these should be
supported with adequate levels of enforcement.
Movement Regulation signs must be easy to understand and difficult to misinterpret. To this end, the use of symbols is
recommended whenever possible. The use of exclusive shapes ensures that their function can be instantly recognised
by road users.
Movement Regulation signs must convey the required message as clearly and as quickly as possible with a minimum
effect on the complexity of the driving task. In order to achieve this objective, the signs must be of adequate size and
must be correctly positioned to attract the attention of road users.
It should be clearly understood that a regulatory sign applies for 24 hours a day and to all road users approaching the
sign. If it is required to modify either or both of these two factors the sign must be altered in some way.
This can be achieved by either qualifying the meaning of the sign with a QUALIFICATION PLATE or, through the use
of variable message signs.
The use of a QUALIFICATION PLATE below a regulatory sign may qualify the meaning of the sign in any number of
ways:

Movement Control signs assign priority right of way or direction of travel.


Mandatory signs indicate actions that must be taken.
Prohibitory signs indicate prohibited action or objects.
Parking control signs regulate parking and stopping.
Freeway control signs indicate limits of roads classified as freeways.

In working with regulatory signs it often helps to consider the way in which the function of an individual sign message is
indicated. This function can be considered as exercising control or restriction in one of three ways as follows:
By imposing a restrictive limit, e.g., an upper mass limit.
By requiring or prohibiting a particular action, e.g., a turn.
By controlling a particular type of object (indicated by a pictogram or symbol of the object), e.g., a heavy
vehicle.

2.2
2.2.1

MOVEMENT CONTROL SIGNS


INTRODUCTION

The signs in this group have a common function in that they are used to allocate priority right-of way or direction of
movement.
Movement Control signs maintain the same details when deployed for either permanent or temporary traffic
management applications.

2.2.2

STOP SIGN 301

By indicating the times of the day that the sign is in force. For example, a No Stopping sign required to operate
only during peak hours should display a plate with the appropriate times of the peak periods indicated below the
sign.
By showing that a specific class of vehicle is obliged to, or prohibited from, taking some action. For example, a
Turn Right Only sign required applying to heavy vehicles but not other traffic should display a plate with the
pictogram or symbol of a heavy vehicle below the sign.
The only exception to the above rule is the NO U-TURN sign when required to indicate that the sign is applicable to
heavy vehicles only.
It is also possible to add information to a regulatory sign that does not modify its application but simply gives road users
additional information about its operation. Examples of such applications are:
If speed limits are reduced in the vicinity of schools, the speed limit signs may have a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
sign 589 indicating SCHOOL.
If an advance warning sign is considered necessary before the introduction of a regulatory sign and an
appropriate warning sign is not available, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be displayed below the
regulatory sign indicating the distance to the start of the regulation. A second regulatory sign, without such a
plate, must be placed at the point from which the regulation applies.

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STOP Sign 301 requires that a vehicle should come to a full and complete stop at the STOP LINE marking 601
associated with the sign and that the driver should not proceed until it is safe to do so.
Sign 301 should only be used when one or more of the following warrants exist:
Intersection of a minor road with a main road where the application of the normal right of way rules is unduly
hazardous.
Unsignalised intersection in a signalised area.
Other intersections where a combination of high speed, restricted view, and serious accident record indicates a
need for control by Sign 301.
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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL


Prior to the application of these warrants, consideration should be given to less restrictive measures, such as GIVE
WAY sign 302. Periodic reviews of existing installations are desirable to determine whether, because of changed
conditions, the use of less restrictive controls could accommodate traffic demands safely and more effectively.

2.2.3

GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302

Sign 301 should never be used on the through roadways of expressways. Properly designed expressway interchanges
provide for the continuous flow of traffic, making Sign 301 unnecessary even on the entering roadways. Where atgrade intersections are temporarily justified for local traffic in sparsely populated areas, Sign 301 should be used on the
entering roadways to protect the through traffic. Sign 301 may also be required at the end of diverging roadways at the
intersection with other highways not designed as expressways. In most of these cases, the speeds will not warrant any
great increase in the sign sizes.
Sign 301 should not be erected at intersections where traffic control signs are operating. The conflicting commands of
two types of control devices are confusing. If traffic is required to stop when the operation of the stop-and-go signals is
not warranted, the signals should be put on flashing operation with the red flashing light facing the traffic that must
stop.
Where two main highways intersect, Sign 301 should normally be posted on the minor street to stop the lesser flow of
traffic. An evaluation may justify a decision to install Sign 301 on the major street, as at a three-way intersection where
safety considerations may justify stopping the greater flow of traffic to permit a left-turning movement.
Portable or part-time Sign 301 should not be used except for emergency purposes. In addition, Sign 301 must not be
used for speed control.
Sign 301 should be located on the right side of the intersecting side street between 3 and 15m in advance of the nearside edge of the crossroad (see Figure 2-1). A second Sign 301 should be similarly located on the left side of the
roadway when the side street is a one-way street with two or more lanes, and a central island or median exists.
Sign 301 should not be used at a junction having a traffic signal or a GIVE WAY sign 302 controlling another approach.
For cyclists, Sign 301 shall be installed on shared use paths at points where cyclists are required to stop.
Where conditions require path users, but not roadway users, to stop or yield, the STOP or YIELD sign should be
placed or shielded so that it is not readily visible to road users.
When placement of STOP or YIELD signs is considered, priority at a shared use path/roadway intersection should be
assigned with consideration of the following:
Relative speeds of shared use path and roadway users.
Relative volumes of shared use path and roadway traffic.
Relative importance of shared use path and roadway.
Speed should not be the sole factor used to determine priority, as it is sometimes appropriate to give priority to a
high volume shared use path crossing a low volume street, or to a regional shared use path crossing a minor
collector street.
When priority is assigned, the least restrictive control that is appropriate should be placed on the lower priority
approaches. STOP signs should not be used where YIELD signs would be acceptable.
A 750 x 750mm STOP sign or a 900 x 900 x 900mm YIELD sign may be used on shared use paths for added
emphasis.

Sign 301 should have a red background with a white border and white legend for both permanent and temporary traffic
management applications.

GIVE WAY sign 302 requires that a vehicle should yield right of way at a GIVE WAY pavement marking 602 to traffic
on the roadway intersecting the roadway on which it is travelling, where such traffic is so close as to constitute a
present or potential danger. The driver should also give way to pedestrian and cycle traffic crossing his path at that
point.
Sign 302 may be warranted:
At the entrance to an intersection where it is necessary to assign right of way and where the safe approach speed
on the entrance exceeds 15kph (kilometres per hour).
On the entrance ramp to an expressway where an acceleration lane is not provided.
At intersections on a divided highway where the median between the roadways is more than 9 metres wide. At
such intersections, STOP sign 301 may be used at the entrance to the first roadway of the divided highway and
Sign 302 may be placed at the entrance to the second roadway.
Where there is a separate or channelized right-turn lane, without an adequate acceleration lane.
At any intersection where a special problem exists and where a study indicates the problem to be likely to be
corrected by use of Sign 302.
Sign 302 generally should not be placed to control the major flow of traffic at an intersection. However, Sign 302 may
be installed to control a major traffic movement where a majority of drivers in that movement are making right turns. At
such an intersection, Sign 302 should not be erected on more than one approach.
Sign 302 should not be used on the through roadways of expressways. They may be used on an entering roadway
without an adequate acceleration lane, but in a well-designed interchange the sign would interfere with the free
merging movement, and it should not be used under those circumstances.
Sign 302 should be located on the right side of the intersecting side street between 3.0m and 15.0m ahead of the near
side edge of the crossroad (see Figure 2-1). A second Sign 302 should be similarly located on the left side of the
roadway when the street is a one way street with two or more lanes and a central island or median.
Sign 302 should not be used at a junction having STOP sign 301 controlling another approach.
Sign 302 should not be used at at-grade junctions when these are provided with appropriately designed full
acceleration lanes.
For cyclists, Sign 302 shall be installed on shared use paths at points where cyclists have an adequate view of
conflicting traffic as they approach the sign, and where cyclists are required to yield the right-of-way to that conflicting
traffic.
Where conditions require path users, but not roadway users, to stop or yield, the STOP or YIELD sign should be
placed or shielded so that it is not readily visible to road users.

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When placement of STOP or YIELD signs is considered, priority at a shared use path/roadway intersection should be
assigned with consideration of the following:
Relative speeds of shared use path and roadway users,
Relative volumes of shared use path and roadway traffic, and
Relative importance of shared use path and roadway.
Speed should not be the sole factor used to determine priority, as it is sometimes appropriate to give priority to a
high volume shared use path crossing a low volume street, or to a regional shared use path crossing a minor
collector street.
When priority is assigned, the least restrictive control that is appropriate should be placed on the lower priority
approaches. STOP signs should not be used where YIELD signs would be acceptable.
A 750 x 750mm STOP sign or a 900 x 900 x 900mm YIELD sign may be used on shared use paths for added
emphasis.

2.2.4

GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 303

Sign 302 should have a white background with a broad red border for both permanent and temporary traffic
management applications.

GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 requires that vehicles should yield right of way to pedestrians crossing the
roadway or waiting to cross the roadway.
Sign 303 should be used in conjunction with PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 and GIVE WAY marking 602.
Sign 303 should be used in advance of all marked pedestrian crossings which are not otherwise controlled by STOP
sign 301, GIVE WAY sign 302 or traffic signals.
Sign 303 should be located on the right side of the roadway 3.0m in advance of GIVE WAY marking 602. GIVE WAY
marking 602 should be at least 3.0m and preferably 6.0m in advance of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603. A
second Sign 303 should be provided on the left side of the roadway when a median island or other central island is
provided in advance of the pedestrian crossing.
Sign 303 should have the following colour pattern for both permanent and temporary traffic management applications:
The upper, GIVE WAY sign should have a white background with a broad red border.
The lower sign, indicating pedestrians, should have a red background with a white icon and border.

Figure 2-1: Longitudinal Position of Stop Sign 301 and Give Way Sign 302

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

2.2.5

GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS SIGN 303A

2.2.6

NO ENTRY SIGN 304

NO ENTRY sign 304 indicates that entry is prohibited to all vehicular traffic.
Sign 304 should be used to prohibit wrong way entry to a roadway when confusion may exist as to the direction of
travel of traffic in the roadway.
Sign 304 should be located on the right and left sides of a one-way roadway. Sign 304 should be oriented at 90
degrees to the direction of wrong way travel.
GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS sign 303A requires that vehicles should yield right of way to
pedestrians and cyclists crossing the roadway or waiting to cross the roadway.

Sign 304 should have a red background with a white legend and thin white border for both permanent and temporary
traffic management applications.

2.2.7

Sign 303A should be used in conjunction with PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 and GIVE WAY marking 602.

ONE WAY SIGNS 305 to 307

Sign 303A should be used in advance of all marked pedestrian and cycle crossings which are not otherwise controlled
by STOP sign 301, GIVE WAY sign 302 or traffic signals.
Sign 303A should be located on the right side of the roadway 3.0m in advance of GIVE WAY marking 602. GIVE WAY
marking 602 should be at least 3.0m and preferably 6.0m in advance of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603. A
second Sign 303 should be provided on the left side of the roadway when a median island or other central island is
provided in advance of the pedestrian crossing.
Sign 303A should have the following colour pattern for both permanent and temporary traffic management applications:
The upper, GIVE WAY sign should have a white background with a broad red border.
The lower sign, indicating a pedestrian and bicycle, should have a red background with a white icon and border.

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ONE WAY signs 305 to 307 indicates that the only permitted direction of travel, in the road or portion of road on which
they are erected, is in the direction indicated by the arrow on the sign. Signs 305 to 307 may be displayed to indicate
directions straight ahead, to the right, or to the left.
Signs 305 to 307 should be used in preference to NO ENTRY sign 304 in networks of intersecting one-way streets.
Signs 306 and 307 should be used to indicate that the direction of travel in streets intersecting the roadway ahead is in
one direction towards them and to inhibit the possibility of wrong way entry to such streets.
Sign 305 may also be used to indicate that a street is a one-way street in a straight ahead direction (this practice is
intended to make drivers aware that when they return to such a street from a private property or a parking area that
they must turn only in one direction, it being impractical to indicate the direction of travel at all points of access along a
one-way street).
When used to indicate the direction of travel in an intersecting street, Signs 306 and 307 should be located on both
sides of the intersecting street so that both signs can be seen clearly by drivers travelling in the through street. When
used to indicate the direction of travel within a one-way roadway, Sign 305 should be located on the right side of singlelane one-way streets and on both sides of one-way streets with two or more lanes. If necessary, additional signs
should be strategically placed with respect to local accesses from properties or parking areas (see Figure 2-2).
Signs 305 to 307 should be used for permanent applications and are an exception to the general colour code for the
control group of regulatory signs and should have a blue background with a white legend and a thin white border.
Signs 7305 to 7307 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black
legend and a thin black border.
NOTES:
In some situations, Movement Regulation Signs 304, 321 through 328, 346, and/or 347 may be used in place of or
in addition to ONE WAY signs to delineate a one-way road system.
Specific approval should be obtained from the Municipality for one-way system signing.

Figure 2-2: Use of One Way Signs 305 to 307 with Signs 346 and 347

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2.3
2.3.1

2.3.3

MANDATORY MOVEMENT SIGNS


INTRODUCTION

TURN RIGHT ONLY SIGN 322 and TURN LEFT ONLY SIGN 323

The signs in this group are used to indicate actions that must be taken or that are mandatory.

2.3.2

AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321

AHEAD ONLY sign 321 requires that a vehicle should proceed straight ahead in the direction indicated by the arrow on
the sign.
Sign 321 should be located on the right side of a two-way roadway and on the left side of a one-way roadway. The
function of the Sign 321 differs from that of the ONE WAY sign 305 in that, while the ONE WAY sign may indicate the
mandatory direction in a street at a junction, other directions of travel at the junction may be chosen. Sign 321 indicates
that drivers have no other choice but to proceed straight ahead. A 600mm Sign 321 may be mounted on the post below
a traffic signal when appropriate.
A typical example for the use of Sign 321 would be at a signal-controlled crossroad intersection with a free right turn
and a dedicated left turn lane or lanes separated from the through route by a splitter island. In this instance, if the driver
is located in one of the through lanes the AHEAD ONLY movement is the only available option and should be signed
accordingly.
Sign 321 should have a blue background with a white icon and a thin white border for permanent applications. For
temporary traffic management applications, Sign 7321 with a yellow background, a black icon and a thin black border
should be used instead.

TURN RIGHT ONLY Sign 322 and TURN LEFT ONLY Sign 323 require that the driver of a vehicle should proceed only
to the right (or to the left - the arrow direction being reversed) at the junction. Signs 322 or 323 should be located on
the far side of a roadway facing drivers to which they apply.
Signs 322 and 323 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white
legend and a thin white border.
Signs 7322 and 7323 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black
legend and a thin black border.

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2.3.4

TURN RIGHT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 and TURN LEFT AHEAD ONLY
SIGN 325

2.3.5

PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326

PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 indicates that vehicles may proceed on either side of an obstruction in the roadway,
such as a traffic island but may end up on different routes.
Sign 326 should be located on a traffic divider, near the nose of the divider, so that there is a minimum clearance of
600mm (absolute minimum 300mm) between the edges of the divider and the sign. The most common application of
Sign 326 will be at entrances to collector-distributor roads and road splits.
Sign 326 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white legend and
a thin white border.
Sign 7326 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black legend and a
thin black border.

TURN RIGHT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 and TURN LEFT AHEAD ONLY SIGN 325 require that the driver of a vehicle
should proceed only to the right or to the left at the next junction ahead.
Signs 324 or 325 should be located on the right side of a two-way roadway and on the left side of a one-way roadway
at a distance of approximately 50m from the junction to which it applies. Signs 324 or 325 should normally only be
provided when the alignment of the approach to the junction is such that the layout of the junction is not readily
obvious. A 600mm Sign 324 or 325 may be mounted on a post below a traffic signal where appropriate.
Signs 324 and 325 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white
legend and a thin white border.
Signs 7324 and 7325 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black
legend and a thin black border.

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2.3.6

KEEP RIGHT SIGN 327 and KEEP LEFT SIGN 328

2.3.7

ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329

ROUNDABOUT sign 329 indicates that a vehicle should proceed only in a counter clockwise direction at a roundabout
ahead.
Sign 329 should be located below GIVE WAY sign 302 in advance of the entry to a roundabout when it may not be
obvious that the junction ahead is a roundabout on an approach.
Sign 329 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white legend and
a thin white border.
Sign 7329 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black legend and a
thin black border.

2.3.8

U-TURN SIGN 330

KEEP RIGHT SIGN 327 and KEEP LEFT SIGN 328 indicate that a vehicle should only proceed on the right, or, on the
left, of an obstruction in the roadway.
Signs 327 and 328 should be located as near as possible to the leading edge of the obstruction so that there is at least
a clearance of 600mm (absolute minimum 300mm) from the closest path of vehicles.
Use of signs 327 and 328 usually applies to traffic islands or refuges in two-way roadways or at the beginning of the
median island when a single carriageway road widens to dual carriageway. When such a condition occurs on a vertical
curve, it may be effective to mount Dual Type 327 or Type 328 signs one above the other.
Signs 327 and 328 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white
legend and a thin white border.
Signs 7327 and 7328 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black
legend and a thin black border.

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U-TURN sign 330 indicates that a vehicle may make a U-turn.

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Sign 330 should be located at the end of the traffic median on the near side of the possible U-turn road configuration.
At signalised intersections, it should be attached to the traffic signal post supporting the signals for traffic coming from
the opposite direction.
Sign 330 may be used with a NO TRUCKS qualification plate 365 mounted below to indicate that trucks and similar
large vehicles MAY NOT carry out u-turns at the indicated location.
Sign 330 should have a blue background with a white icon and a thin white border
Sign 330 should only be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white icon and a
thin white border.

The sign numbers apply as follows:


Sign 339: 30 kph.
Sign 340: 40 kph.
Sign 341: 60 kph.

The following guidelines and comments should be considered as being applicable to general or average conditions.
Specific circumstances may warrant a variation in application when the principles involved should be applied with
engineering judgment.
When the provision of a MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign is warranted, signs should be located as indicated in Table 2-1.

Sign 7330 be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black icon and a thin black
border.

2.4
2.4.1

Proposed Sign Location

MOVEMENT PROHIBITION SIGNS


INTRODUCTION

Sign 342: 80 kph.


Sign 343: 100 kph.
Sign 344: 120 kph.

Table 2-1
Guidelines for Speed Limit Sign Location
1, 2
Sign Location after Access Point
Warrants for Additional Signs

Parking Area or Service Road


Urban Single Carriageway

Within 10.0m
Within 50.0m

The signs in this group indicate prohibited actions to road users. Prohibitions may apply in the form of limits, or to
certain actions or objects.

Urban Dual Carriageway

Within 50.0m

Maximum limits such as speed or height limits are indicated in circular signs without a diagonal slash. Prohibitions on
actions or objects are indicated in circular signs which include a diagonal slash.

Rural Roads

Within 100m

2.4.2

MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 339 to 344

MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT signs 339 to 344 prohibit vehicles from exceeding the maximum speed limit indicated in
kilometres per hour by means of a number on such a sign.
The following speed limits are in effect by default unless otherwise posted:

Notes:
1. Additional signs should be provided at the rate of one extra sign approximately in the middle of the length of section between postings. A
posting represents the initial provision of a MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign in terms of the criteria given above.
2. Speeds refer to the maximum speed limit posted on the section or road.

A MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should also be provided when a change in maximum speed limit occurs along a route.
It is not uncommon that a decrease in maximum speed limit may be as much as 40 kph (e.g., from 100 kph down to 60
kph). In such a situation, an appropriate MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should be provided for each 20 kph decrease in
speed limit so that the maximum decrease in speed limit posted at any one time is 20 kph. The minimum distance
between successively decreasing speed limit signs should be 500m.

30 kph: School zone.


40 kph: Selected roadways in areas with a high concentration of pedestrians.
60 kph: Urban dual carriageway.
80 kph: Selected roadways with limited access and control.
100 kph: Rural roads.
120 kph: Freeways and expressways.

It is not necessary to post maximum speed limits on major roads after minor joining access roads, except in the unlikely
event that with roads of equal status the one being entered has a lower maximum speed limit than drivers would have
reason to expect.

Signs 339 to 344 should be provided after the point of access from another roadway or when:

N/A
N/A
Above 60kph, 4.0km between postings
60kph, 2.0 km between postings
Below 60kph, 1.0km between postings
100kph, 10km between postings
80kph, 4.0km between postings

Signs 339 to 344 are used in permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, and a thick
red border.

There is a change in speed limit along a specific route.


There is a reduction in speed limit between intersecting roadways of like types.
The road environment that would be the criterion for the speed limit cannot be easily identified by drivers.
The distance between postings exceeds those indicated in Table 2-1.

Signs 7339 to 7343 are used in temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black legend, and a
thick red border.
Note that there is no temporary equivalent for Sign 344 as 120kph speed limits never apply at such arrangements.

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2.4.3

DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN ASSEMBLY 345

Many roadways have one speed limit for cars and another lower speed limit for heavy vehicles. Signing for these
conditions should be done using a DUAL SPEED LIMIT assembly 345 as shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3: Dual Speed Limit Sign Combination (typical)

The combination is made up of two maximum speed limit signs mounted on a single pole, one above the other showing
the vehicle type. The sign indicating the speed limit for cars should be mounted topmost.

2.4.4

MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN 346A and MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT ENDS
SIGN 346B

Sign 346A

Sign 346B

MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign 346A prohibits vehicles from travelling at speeds lower the speed in kilometres per hour
indicated by a number on such a sign. Sign 346A shall be placed below the applicable MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign.
MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT ENDS sign 346B shall be used to indicate the termination of the minimum speed requirement.

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2.4.5

NO LEFT TURN SIGN 346 and NO RIGHT TURN SIGN 347

2.4.6

NO U-TURN SIGN 348

NO U-TURN sign 348 indicates the vehicles may not perform a U-turn at the junction or break in the median island
ahead.
Sign 348 should be located not more than 25m in advance of the point to which the prohibition applies and may be
repeated at the point of prohibition. A 600mm Sign 348 may be mounted on the post below a traffic signal where
appropriate.
Sign 348 may be required when the parallel carriageway is too narrow to accept safe U-turns or when such a
movement cannot safely be accommodated due to limitations in traffic signal timings or where there is a conflict with
pedestrian movements.
Sign 348 may be made specific to a time of day by means of a QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 mounted below the
sign.

NO LEFT TURN SIGN 346 and NO RIGHT TURN SIGN 347 indicate that vehicles should not turn to the left or right, as
the case may be, at the junction or entrance where the signs are displayed.
Signs 346 or 347 should be located on the side of the roadway towards which the illegal turn would be made, not more
than 25m in advance of the point where the prohibition applies.

Sign 348 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Sign 7348 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

Signs 346 or 347 should only be used in situations where the turn would be expected to be available under normal
circumstances. Their use is not necessary when roadway geometry clearly indicates that such turns are not intended.
A 600mm Sign 346 or 347 may be mounted on the post below a traffic signal where appropriate.
Signs 346 and 347 should be used for permanent applications should have a white background, a black legend, a thick
red diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Signs 7346 and 7347 should be used for temporary applications should have a yellow background, a black legend, a
thick red diagonal line, and a thick red border.

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2.4.7

Sign 350 may be used in advance of any area, such as a tunnel, where transported inflammable goods represent a
particular hazard.

NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349

The sign should be located on the right of the roadway at the point from which the prohibition is required to apply. This
position should permit affected vehicles to use an alternative route.
It is likely that other prohibitions may also apply at locations where Sign 350 is required and all necessary prohibitory
signs should be displayed together on a custom designed backing board with a white background and a thin red border
of the style used for diagrammatic warning signs.
It is also recommended that a similar combined sign be displayed in advance of the exit or turn onto the alternative
route with an appropriate explanatory text message such as Alternative Route 150m.
Sign 350 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Sign 7350 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

NO OVERTAKING sign 349 prohibits a vehicle from overtaking another vehicle travelling in the same direction for the
next 500m.

The detail of the flame within the truck icon on the legend should be red and yellow on a white diamond shaped
background for both permanent and temporary applications.

2.4.9

NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN 351

Sign 349 may be used in addition to NO PASSING LINE marking 611 when the pavement marking alone is likely to be
ineffective. Sign 349 should be located on the left side of the road. If the overtaking message is required for a distance
in excess of 500m the sign should be repeated at 500m intervals.
Sign 349 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Sign 7349 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

2.4.8

NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS SIGN 350

NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 prohibits drivers of goods vehicles from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 351 should be located on the right side of the roadway at the point from which the prohibition is required to apply.
This point should be chosen where an alternative route is available to drivers of goods vehicles.
Sign 351 may be made specific to a particular time of day rather than for the full 24-hours by means of a
QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365, indicating the applicable time period or periods, mounted below the sign. In a
similar way, Sign 351 may be made applicable to goods vehicles exceeding a specific weight by the mounting of
QUALIFICATION PLATE below the sign which displays the weight limit in the form 10 T where the unit T refers to a
metric tonne. Where appropriate this weight limit may be replaced by a length limit such as 6.0m.
NO INFLAMMABLE GOOD sign 350 prohibits vehicles transporting inflammable goods, including inflammable gases in
portable cylinders, from proceeding beyond the sign.

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Sign 351 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
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Sign 7351 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

2.4.10

2.4.11

NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353

NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352

NO CYCLISTS sign 353 prohibits cyclists from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 353 may be displayed where it is required to prohibit cyclist movement or access. If pedestrian movement or
access is not otherwise prohibited, cyclists may proceed provided they dismount and walk their cycles. Sign 353 should
be used with a size of 300mm unless a larger size is warranted for conspicuity.
NO PEDESTRIANS sign 352 prohibits pedestrians from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 352 may be displayed in any position where it is required to prohibit pedestrian movement or access, normally
across a roadway. Such places may include specific parts of a roadway or junction which pedestrians otherwise might
expect to be able to use, but which are considered unsafe due to the traffic management arrangements of the road or
junction. Sign 352 should be used with a size of 300mm unless a larger size is warranted for conspicuity.
Sign 352 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

Sign 353 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Sign 7353 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

2.4.12

NO HORNING SIGN 354

Sign 7352 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

NO HORNING sign 354 prohibits the use of vehicle horns or other similar audible devices within 75m of the sign.

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Sign 354 may be used to limit traffic noise in the vicinity of noise sensitive locations such as schools, hospitals,
residential areas and parks or at other locations where the use of vehicle horns has been identified as a specific
nuisance. Sign 354 should be located on the right side of the roadway at the point where the prohibition is required to
apply. Additional signs may be placed at 150m intervals as required.

2.4.14

MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT SIGN 356

Sign 354 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.
Sign 7354 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, a thick red
diagonal line, and a thick red border.

2.4.13

MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 355

MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT sign 356 prohibits vehicles exceeding the indicated width from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 356 should be located 25m to 50m in advance of any structure that has a restricted access width, preferably on
both sides of the approach roadway. The width indicated on the sign should be at least 100mm less than the actual
minimum width of the structure. The width should be expressed on the sign to the next lowest one decimal place of a
metre.
Sign 356 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend and a thick
red border.
MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 prohibits vehicles exceeding the indicated height from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 355 should be located 25m to 50m in advance of any structure that has a minimum clearance of less than 4.2m,
preferably on both sides of the approach roadway. The height indicated on the sign should be at least 100mm lower
than the actual minimum clearance of the structure. The height should be expressed on the sign to the next lowest one
decimal place of a metre. The maximum legal height for vehicles on roads owned and/or managed by the Municipality
is 4.2m.

Sign 7356 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend and a thick
red border.

2.4.15

LARGE MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 357

LARGE MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 357 incorporates MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 into a larger sign
including additional iconic symbols and texts to increase visibility and reinforce the message as shown below.

Sign 355 must not be used as an advance warning sign and must always be preceded by an advance warning
MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425.
Sign 355 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend and a thick
red border.
Sign 7355 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend and a thick
red border.

Sign 357

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Sign 7357

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MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 357 prohibits vehicles exceeding the indicated height from proceeding beyond the sign.
Sign 357 should be located 25m to 50m in advance, preferably on both sides of the approach roadway, of any structure
that has a maximum allowable height as indicated on the sign. The height indicated on the sign should be at least
100mm lower than the actual minimum clearance of the structure. The height should be expressed on the sign to the
next lowest one decimal place of a metre. The maximum legal height for vehicles on roads owned and/or managed by
the Municipality is 4.2m.
Sign 357 should only be used where vehicles exceeding the legal vehicle height limit of 4.2m may use the road on an
exceptional basis. It should be placed where such vehicles may enter the highway and should be located on both sides
of the road.
Sign 357 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black legend, text and a
thin black border.
Sign 7357 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, black legend, text and a
thick black border.
The X on the vehicle should be red and the maximum height limit sign should be in accordance with sign 355.

2.5
2.5.1

The signs in this group apply to the control and regulation of stopping and parking. The signs in the group clarify
stopping or parking controls in complex environments or indicate circumstances where limited or part-time restrictions
operate for parts of the day or to specific vehicle types.
The group includes circular prohibition signs commonly contained within a rectangular background. The prohibitory
meaning of the sign is not affected by its manner of display. The reason for placing the sign within a rectangular
background is to provide a suitable base to display relevant secondary information which limits the application of the
sign in some way.
Parking control signs may be prohibitory or permissive. Prohibitory parking control signs use a red border, text, and
arrow whereas permissive parking signs, which may still contain a restrictive element in their message, use a green
border, text and arrow.
Prohibitory and permissive parking control signs may be mounted side-by-side on sections of street where a stopping
or parking prohibition changes to permitted parking. If there are no time or payment controls over the use of a parking
area it is not necessary to erect parking control signs.

2.5.2
2.4.16

PARKING CONTROL SIGNS


INTRODUCTION

NO STOPPING SIGNS 370 to 373

QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN 365

Sign 365
QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 provides a secondary message that qualifies or restricts the primary message of
another regulatory sign.
Sign 365 must not be installed alone and must always be mounted directly below a regulatory sign that it qualifies. The
background, border and message colour of Sign 365 should correspond to those of the associated regulatory sign.
This applies to both permanent and temporary applications of regulatory signs.
Sign 365 is used when the regulatory message is intended to apply to only certain times or days, and/or to only certain
types or classes of vehicles. Thus, Sign 365 may contain textual messages or symbols such as, but not limited to,
08:00 to 20:00, 8m, Except Friday, Truck (symbol) and 10 T.
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 should be used to add information that does not qualify the message of the sign
to regulatory signs.
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NO STOPPING sign 370 prohibits vehicles, subject to compliance with a traffic signal, the direction of a traffic officer,
or to avoid a collision, from stopping at any time along the section of road beyond such a sign. The action of Sign 370
ceases once a vehicle leaves the roadway on which it is provided unless it comes under the control of another NO
STOPPING sign on the roadway which the vehicle enters.
The use of Sign 370 is appropriate on high speed roads such as major arterials which have limited points of access.
Sign 370 should be located on the right side of such multilane one-way roadways within 150m of a point of entry to the
roadway and in such a way that the sign is at right angles to the normal direction of travel.

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The use of Sign 370 should be limited to situations where:

2.5.3

TIME LIMITED NO STOPPING SIGNS 374 to 376

The stopping of vehicles will pose a severe safety or capacity problem, and
There is a situation whereby a significant number of drivers are stopping their vehicles, and
Where another form of regulatory sign or pavement marking would not otherwise make stopping illegal.
Sign 370 should generally not be included in new designs and should normally only be used when an existing problem
has been identified.
QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 should be used to convey regulatory limits with messages such as For 1000m, On
Bridge, In Thru Lanes, or End
NO STOPPING signs 371 to 373 indicate that a vehicle may not stop at any time along a section of road within 40m of
such a sign, subject to compliance with a traffic signal, the direction of law enforcement officers, or to avoid collisions.
Signs 371 to 373 should include an arrow to indicate the direction of application of the restriction from the sign.
Signs 371 to 373 should be located either on the right or left side of the roadway, as appropriate, with the sign face
parallel to the kerb line or edge of roadway. The maximum distance between signs to give adequate coverage to a full
section of non arterial urban roadway should be 80m.
When prohibition on stopping is to be applied for less than 80m, two Signs 371 and 373 should be used, one at each
end of the section of roadway.
Sign 370 should be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background along with thick red diagonal
lines, and a thick red border.
Signs 371 to 373 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background along with red
arrows and border. The no stopping prohibition sign should be in accordance with sign 370.
Signs 7371 to 7373 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background along with red
arrows and black border. The no stopping prohibition sign should be in accordance with sign 370.

TIME LIMITED NO STOPPING signs 374 to 376 are used to make NO STOPPING signs 371 to 373 specific to
particular periods.
Signs 374 to 376 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background along with red
arrows, text and border. The time limited no stopping prohibition sign should be in accordance with sign 370.
Signs 7376 to 7376 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background along with red
arrows. The text and border should be black. The time limited no stopping prohibition sign should be in accordance
with sign 370.

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2.5.4

NO PARKING SIGNS 377 to 379

2.5.5

TIME LIMITED NO PARKING SIGNS 377 to 379

NO PARKING signs 377 to 379 indicate that vehicle may not be parked at any time along a section of road within 40m
of such a sign. Signs 377 to 379 should include an arrow to indicate the direction of application of the restriction from
the sign.
Signs 377 to 379 should be located on either the right and/or left side of a road as appropriate. The sign face should be
parallel to the kerb line or edge of roadway.
The maximum distance between signs to give adequate coverage is 80m. When parking prohibition is applied to a
section of roadway for a distance less than 80m, two Signs 377 and 379 should be used, one at each end of the
section of roadway.
Signs 377 to 379 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background along with red
arrows and border. The no parking prohibition symbol should have a blue background along with a thick red diagonal
line and a thick red border.

Signs 377 to 379 may be made specific to a particular time of day by indicating the applicable time periods.
Signs 380 to 382 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background along with red
arrows, text and border. The no parking prohibition symbol should have a blue background along with a thick red
diagonal line and a thick red border.
Signs 7380 to 7382 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background along with red
arrows. The text and border should be black. The no parking prohibition symbol should have a blue background along
with a thick red diagonal line and a thick red border.

Signs 7377 to 7379 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background along with red
arrows and black border. The no parking prohibition symbol should have a blue background along with a thick red
diagonal line and a thick red border.

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2.5.6

PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING SIGNS 383 to 385

2.5.7

PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING signs 383 to 385 indicate the appropriate tariff to be paid at the designated payment
point. The ticket/notice received must be fixed on the inside of the windscreen of the vehicle so that it can be observed
from outside the vehicle.
Signs 383 and 385 should be located at each end of a row of parking bays served by a PAY-AND-DISPLAY payment
point, with the sign face parallel to the kerb line or edge of roadway.
The arrows on the signs indicate the point from which the PAY-AND-DISPLAY criteria apply and should point towards
the payment point.
Sign 384 should be located at intermediate intervals between Signs 383 and 385 when the row of parking bays is
considered to be of sufficient length as to warrant the provision of additional PAY-AND-DISPLAY payment points.
When it is necessary to advise of time limits applicable to the parking area, this should be done using appropriate
PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389 to 391 in addition to Signs 383 to 385.

PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS SIGNS 386 to 388

PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS signs 386 to 388 indicate that the parking area designated by the sign is
reserved for use by disabled persons only.
Sign 387 should be used only to identify a single parking bay and should be located on the sidewalk approximately in
the centre of the length or width of the parking bay. In such an application, the arrow is omitted.
In other applications, Signs 386 and 388 should be displayed in a similar manner to that described for NO PARKING
signs 377 and 379.
Signs 386 to 388 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a white on blue
parking and disabled person symbol, green arrows and border.
Signs 7386 to 7388 should be used for temporary applications and should be as Signs 386 to 388 but with a yellow
background and black border.

Signs 383 to 385 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a white on blue
parking symbol, green icons, arrows and border.
Signs 7383 to 7385 should be used for temporary applications and should be as Signs 383 to 385 but with a yellow
background and black border.

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2.5.8

Figure 2-4 illustrates some of the sign combinations possible within the group.

PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS 389 to 391

Figure 2-4 Examples of Sign Combinations in the Parking Group

2.5.9

BUS STOP SIGN 392

PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389 to 391 indicate that there are time limits to the use of a parking area. The time limit
may apply in one or both of two ways:
To the maximum duration of the parking period.
To the times of day that parking is permitted.
Signs 389 to 391 should include an arrow to indicate the direction of application of the time restrictions indicated on the
sign. The messages of Signs 389 to 391 may be varied. The duration of stay limit or the time of day may be omitted if
one or other is not appropriate to the circumstances of the parking area.
Signs 389 to 391 should be displayed in the same manner as NO STOPPING signs 374 to 376 and NO PARKING
signs 377 to 379 with regard to position and frequency. In areas where mixed prohibitive signs (377 to 379) and
permissive signs (383 to 391) are used, prohibitive and permissive signs may be mounted next to each other with
arrows pointing in appropriate directions.
Signs 389 to 391 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a white on blue
parking symbol and green text, arrows and border.
Signs 7389 to 7391 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a white on blue
parking symbol, green arrows and black text and border.

BUS STOP sign 392 (example) indicates that the section of roadway designated is reserved for the stopping or
standing of buses. Sign 392 should be located at the edge of the sidewalk so that it can be seen by pedestrians and
bus drivers (mounted perpendicular to the kerb). It should be positioned near the end of the loading area and indicate
the position for the driver to stop and passengers to queue.
Sign 392 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. The sign size and details
are to be in accordance with the Department of Transport requirements.
Sign 7392 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background. The icon should be offset
on a blue background and the horizontal dividing lines should be black. Both Arabic and English text should be also be
black.

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2.5.10

Sign 394 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. The car-and-person icon
and the horizontal dividing lines should be blue. The border, the prohibition icon, and the Arabic and English text
should be red.

TAXI STAND SIGN 393

Sign 7394 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background. The prohibition icon
should be red while the car-and-person icon, horizontal dividing lines, border, as well as the Arabic and English text
should be black.

2.5.12

SCHOOL BUS PARKING ONLY SIGN 395

TAXI STAND sign 393 indicates that the section of roadway designated is reserved for the stopping or standing of taxis
only.
The space reserved by Sign 393 should not be used for the unattended parking of taxis. Taxis may only stand in the
space while waiting for fares. Taxi stand locations must be approved by the Traffic Police.
Sign 393 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. The icon and the horizontal
dividing lines should be blue. The border and the Arabic and English text should be red.
Sign 7393 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background. The icon and the
horizontal dividing lines should be black. The border and the Arabic and English text should be black.

2.5.11

DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY SIGN 394

SCHOOL BUS PARKING ONLY Sign 395 forbids the parking of any other vehicle type apart from school buses in the
designated area during school hours.
Sign 395 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a white on blue parking
symbol, green arrows and border. The Arabic and English text should be black.

DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY sign 394 indicates that the section of roadway designated is reserved for dropping off or
picking up passengers only.
The space reserved by Sign 394 should not be used for the unattended parking of any vehicle. Sign 394 may also be
used near the beginning of the loading area at bus stops to allow other vehicles to use the bus stop for drop-off and
pick-up. Approval should be obtained from the Municipality before installing Sign 394 at a bus stop.

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2.5.13

SCHOOL BUS ONLY DROP OFF / PICK UP SIGN 396

2.6

FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS

The signs in this group indicate which roads are classified as freeways as well as the application, and removal, of the
particular Rules of the Road relevant to the use of freeways.

2.6.1

BEGINNING OF FREEWAY SIGN 398

SCHOOL BUS ONLY DROP OFF / PICK UP Sign 396 forbids other vehicles from parking or dropping off / picking up
persons at the designated area.
Sign 396 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. The School Bus and
Children Present icon should be black with red flashing lights and stop sign, on a white background. The prohibition
symbol, horizontal divider lines, border and the Arabic and English text should be red.

2.5.14

LOADING AND UNOADING SIGN 397

BEGINNING OF FREEWAY sign 398 indicates that a dual carriageway freeway begins and that the various controls
and prohibitions become effective beyond the sign.
Freeway rules invoked by Sign 398 should mean that, except in case of emergency, no person should:

Operate a non-motorised vehicle on or near the freeway.


Be on foot on or near the freeway.
Stop or reverse a vehicle on the roadway.
Stop, park, or drive on a shoulder, median, or roadside area.
Drive at a speed less than 70 kph or 30 kph less than the prevailing traffic speed, whichever is lower.

Sign 398 should be located on the right side within the first third of the length of all freeway on ramps and on the right
side, and left side (when a median island is available), when a non-freeway roadway becomes a freeway in a straight
ahead situation.
Sign 398 must not be used in a temporary form. When a freeway is temporarily downgraded during temporary traffic
management, a normal Sign 398 should be located beyond the end of the work area to indicate a return to normal
freeway operation
Sign 398 should have a blue background with a white icon and border.
LOADING AND UNLOADING sign 397 indicates that vehicles may be parked in the designated area for loading and
unloading only, for the indicated period of time.
Sign 397 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. The Vehicle icon should
be black. The border and the Arabic and English text should be red.

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2.6.2

END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399

END OF FREEWAY sign 399 indicates that a freeway is about to end and that freeway rules are no longer applicable.
Sign 399 should be located on the right side within the final third of the length of all freeway off-ramps. When a freeway
ends, but continues as a non-freeway road, Sign 399 should be located on the right side, and on the left side of the
roadway (if a median island is available).
If it is required that some of the prohibitions provided for on the freeway be retained, specific prohibition signs should
be erected accordingly beyond Sign 399.
Sign 399 should be used for permanent applications and should have a blue background with a white icon and border.
The diagonal slash should be red.
Sign 7399 may be used, if required, in a black icon on yellow background form, when temporary traffic management on
a freeway is such that the freeway cannot operate to the accepted standards of a freeway.

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Category

Group

WARNING SIGNS

ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS

HAZARD MARKER SIGNS

DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS

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Designation
JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401 TO 406
NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS 407 TO 409
MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 and 411
CURVE RIGHT AHEAD SIGN 412 and CURVE LEFT AHEAD SIGN 413
REVERSE BENDS AHEAD SIGNS 414 AND 415
TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416
LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 and 418
U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419
ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN 420
ROAD NARROWS AHEAD SIGNS 421 TO 423
DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD SIGN 424
MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 425
CHILDREN PRESENT SIGN 426
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD SIGN 427
STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 428
GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 429
TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD SIGN 430
QUAYSIDE SIGN 431
DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN 432
ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433
LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN 434
SPEED HUMP SIGN 435
TUNNEL AHEAD SIGN 436
FALLING ROCKS SIGN 437
SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438
STEEP GRADIENT SIGN 439 and 440
OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE SIGN 441
SCHOOL ZONE GATE SIGN 446
GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450
HIGH VEHICLE WARNING SIGN 495
HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451 AND 452
SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT SIGN 454 and SINGLE CHEVRON LEFT SIGN 455
MULTIPLE CHEVRONS RIGHT SIGN 456 and MULTIPLE CHEVRONS LEFT SIGN 457
T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN 458
LANE DROP FROM THE RIGHT SIGN 465 and LANE DROP FROM THE LEFT SIGN 466
BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN SIGNS 472 and 473
ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 and 481
JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 and 483
TRUCK LANE USE SIGNS 484 and 485
LANE USE DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION SIGN 486
LANES MERGE SIGNS 490 AND 492

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WARNING SIGNS

3.1

GENERAL

Table 3-2
Typical Sign Types for Placement Conditions

Warning signs are used to make drivers aware of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions they might not
otherwise expect. Advance warning signs have a unique triangular shape and the warning message is given in the
majority of instances by a symbolic representation of the hazard or potential hazard.
Most warning signs are located in advance of the hazard to which they refer. The location of warning signs should, in
part, be related to the speed with which the hazard can be negotiated. .

Condition

Warning Signs

Condition 1

417, 418, 465, 466

Condition 2

401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 419, 420, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431,
432, 433, 437, 441,

Condition 3

411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 435, 436, 438, 439, 440

Condition 4

410, 416, 421, 422, 423, 424, 434, 472, 473

Condition 5

480, 481, 482, 483

Table 3-1 gives guidelines for the positioning of warning signs based on required stopping sight distances.
The placement of the signs is based on five placement conditions as follows:
Placement Condition 1: This represents a situation that involves a complex driving decision, often in heavy traffic
conditions. Lane changes in heavy traffic, exiting manoeuvres, and merging traffic are common examples. This
condition typically applies to freeways and high volume urban arterial situations that require additional response
time.
Placement Condition 2: This represents a condition where a vehicle may have to stop as a result of the potential
hazard identified by the warning sign.
Placement Condition 3: This represents a condition where a vehicle may need to slow down in response to the
potential hazard.
Placement Condition 4: This represents a condition where a vehicle may not need to slow down in responding to
the potential hazard indicated by the warning sign.
Placement Condition 5: This represents a condition where the warning sign is placed at or in close proximity to the
potential hazard indicated by the warning sign.
Table 3-1
Guidelines for Positioning Warning Signs

When considering the placement of warning signs used to alert drivers to temporary road conditions or particularly
hazardous conditions, distances from the sign to the hazard may need to be increased or decreased from the
guidelines in Table 3-1. It may also be the case that multiple warning signs are needed to effectively alert drivers to a
single hazard.

Placement Condition
Posted
Speed
(kph)

3
1

Negotiation Speed at Hazard (kph)

2
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

4
100

110

5
If a warning for which there is no specified symbol is required, GENERAL WARNING sign 450 should be used in
conjunction with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589. SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached below
an advance warning sign to enhance the message of the sign.

Distance of Sign to Hazard (m)


30

70

B
B

0
0

75

60

125

110

100

50

60

200

290

140

90

50

260

80

100

230

40

70

150
175
200

140
160
185

125
150
175

110
125
150

50
100
140

60
75

65

100

335

250

230

200

180

175

125

100

110

410

300

275

250

230

210

190

175

95

80

100

In order to clarify the different functions of warning signs, the class is further subdivided into advance warning signs,
hazard marker signs and diagrammatic signs as discussed below.

Notes:
A.

See Table 3-2 for a list of typical signs associated with each condition.

B.

Calculated placement distance is less than 50m. Accordingly, no suggested placement distance provided.

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3.2
3.2.1

ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS


INTRODUCTION

The signs in this group should all be used in advance of the hazard or potential hazard to which they relate. Consistent
with this function they have a unique triangular shape in order to attract the attention of drivers sufficiently early for their
message to be effective. Advance warning signs are therefore not appropriate to mark or identify the point location of
the hazard. Hazard marker signs should be used instead for this purpose.

3.2.2

JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401 to 406

JUNCTION AHEAD signs 401 to 406 warn of a junction ahead and are generally used on main roads to indicate the
presence and layout of the junction ahead.

CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401


T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402
SIDE ROAD ON RIGHT AHEAD sign 403
SIDE ROAD ON LEFT AHEAD sign 404
STAGGERED RIGHT SIDE FIRST SIDE ROADS AHEAD sign 405
STAGGERED LEFT SIDE FIRST SIDE ROADS AHEAD sign 406

Signs 401 to 406 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the junction as indicated in
Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the junction to the nearest 20m should be
attached below all signs 401 to 406.
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Signs 401 to 406 should be only considered for use in an urban area only when all of the following conditions apply:

3.2.3

NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS 407 to 409

The junction is not controlled by traffic signals.


The road has a posted speed limit of at least 80kph.
There are no advance direction signs.
With the exception of T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402, there are no STOP or GIVE WAY signs or road markings on
the major road approach.
No other means is available to improve the identification of the junction from an adequate distance to allow drivers
to safely negotiate a turn. That is, there are no road markings, gore signing, or street name signs.

Signs 405 and 406 should only be used when the distance between the staggered side roads is less than that given in
Table 3-3. If the distance exceeds the value shown, two Signs 403 or 404 should be used and located in accordance
with Table 3-1.
STAGGERED RIGHT SIDE FIRST SIDE ROADS AHEAD sign 405 and STAGGERED LEFT SIDE FIRST SIDE
ROADS AHEAD sign 406 should be located at the distance given in Table 3-3 in advance of the first of the two side
road junctions.
Table 3-3
Junction Spacing Requirements for Signs 405 and 406
Operating Speed
Distance between Junctions
Up to 44kph
45kph to 64kph
65kph to 84kph
85kph

<60m
<150m
<200m
<300m

The use of CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401 and T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402 may be considered on the minor road
approach to a rural junction if the road alignment is not straight on the approach to the junction. For such an
application, the width of both legs of the symbol on CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401 should be sized similarly to that for
T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402.
Signs 401 to 406 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a
thick red border.
Signs 7401 to 7406 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.

NO THROUGH ROAD signs 407 to 409 warn that the road indicated on the sign is not available to through traffic.
Signs 407 to 409 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the junction as indicated in
Table 3-1.
Signs 407 to 409 should only be used when it is not otherwise obvious that the road concerned is not a through road.
The use of sign 409 is appropriate in advance of a crossroad when the straight ahead leg of the junction is not a
through road.
Signs 407 to 409 should have a white background and a thick red border. The icon should be black and red, with black
representing the road and a red stump representing the end of the throughway.

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Signs 7407 to 7409 should be used for temporary applications and should be as signs 407 to 409 but with a yellow
background.

3.2.4

3.2.5

CURVE RIGHT AHEAD SIGN 412 and CURVE LEFT AHEAD SIGN 413

MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 and 411

MERGING TRAFFIC signs 410 and 411 warn of a junction ahead where two streams of traffic travelling in the same
direction, and of equal priority, are required to merge into one stream.
Sign 410 should be located on the right side of the through roadway at a distance from the junction as indicated in
Table 3-1. Sign 411 should be similarly located on the right side of the joining roadway. Sign 411 should only be used
when the angle between the two merging roadways makes it difficult to position Sign 410 at a location at permits it to
be viewed from both roadways. Signs 410 and 411 should not be used when the traffic on the joining roadway is
subject to stop or give way controls.
Signs 410 and 411 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.
Signs 7410 and 7411 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

CURVE RIGHT AHEAD sign 412 and CURVE LEFT AHEAD sign 413 warn of a curve in the road ahead in the
direction indicated which requires caution.
Sign 412 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the start of a right-hand curve as
indicated in Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTATRY PLATE sign 589 indicating the recommended speed at which the curve
may be safely negotiated should be attached below sign 412. Sign 413 should be used similarly for a left-hand curve.
Signs 412 or 413 should be used in advance of a horizontal curve that can only be negotiated comfortably by reducing
speed by one tenth or more of the operating speed of traffic on the preceding straight. Except in exceptional
circumstances, these signs should not be used on roadways with a posted speed limit of less than 60kph.
Signs 412 and 413 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.
Signs 7412 and 7413 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

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3.2.6

REVERSE BENDS AHEAD SIGNS 414 and 415

3.2.7

TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416

TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 warns drivers on a one way roadway that the roadway ahead carries traffic in both
directions.
Sign 416 should be located on the left and right hand side of a one way roadway at a distance from the start of the two
way roadway as indicated in Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the start of
two-way traffic may be attached below Sign 416. The sign may be repeated once the two-way section of roadway is
fully developed if additional emphasis is needed.
Sign 416 should be used when a one way roadway or carriageway becomes a two way roadway. This condition
commonly occurs at the end of a dual carriage-way. The sign is therefore commonly used with DUAL CARRIAGEWAY
ENDS AHEAD sign 424.
Sign 416 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7416 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.
REVERSE BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 warns that there are sharp reverse direction curves in the road ahead.
Signs 414 and 415 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the start of the first curve as
indicated in Table 3-1 and with a clear sight distance. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the
recommended speed at which the curves may be safely negotiated should be attached below Signs 414 and 415. The
symbol direction must always be specified so that it is correctly oriented for the first curve or bend to be entered, e.g.,
left before right (Sign 414) or right before left (Sign 415).
Signs 414 and 415 should only be displayed when:
The bends can only be negotiated comfortably by reducing speed by more than one tenth of the operating speed
of traffic on the preceding straight, and/or
The length of the straight between curves is less than 120m, or
The nature of the reverse curves is not obvious to approaching drivers.
Signs 414 and 415 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.
Signs 7414 and 7415 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

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3.2.8

LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 and 418

3.2.9

U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419

U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 informs drivers that they are permitted to make a U-turn at the junction or median opening
ahead.
Sign 419 should be located on the median island of a dual carriageway roadway on the left side of the roadway at a
distance from the junction or median opening as indicated in Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
indicating the distance to the point where a U-turn is permitted should be attached below sign 419.
Sign 419 should be provided in advance of median openings provided specifically for U-turns or at which U-turns are
permitted. Sign 419 should not be provided in situations where the availability of a U-turn is apparent or can be
accurately anticipated by a driver (e.g., as almost all signalised intersections in Abu Dhabi allow U-turns, Sign 419 is
not necessary in advance of signalised intersections).

LANE ENDS signs 417 and 418 warn that the right-hand or left-hand lane ends ahead. They should be located on the
right side of the roadway on two-way roadways. Whenever possible, a sign should be located on the left side as well,
particularly when the lane on the left side of a one way carriageway is ending ahead.
Signs 417 or 418 should not be used if a reduction in road width does not result in a reduction in the number of lanes.
In such instances, the appropriate ROAD NARROWS AHEAD sign 421 to 423 should be used.
Signs 417 and 418 should be located as indicated in Table 3-1 in advance of the lane reduction taper and a
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the start of the lane reduction taper should be attached
below Signs 417 and 418.

Subject to the distance available, in particular between opposing U-turns through a median island, Sign 419 may be
located further from the point of U-turn than the distance given in Table 3-1 in order to reassure drivers that an
opportunity to U-turn exists ahead. The distance given on the supplementary plate must reflect such an adjustment in
position and indicate the actual distance to the U-turn. Under no circumstances should Sign 419 for a U-turn ahead be
located in advance of the median opening for a U-turn from the opposite direction.
Sign 419 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7419 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

Signs 417 or 418 should be provided in advance of any lane drop situation on an arterial road that is not clearly
demarcated by overhead guide signs. If necessary, the larger diagrammatic warning LANE DROP signs 465 or 466
may be specified for improved conspicuity on arterial roads. These should also be used for high speed freeway or
expressway locations.
Signs 417 and 418 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.
Signs 7417 and 7418 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

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3.2.10

ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN 420

3.2.11

ROAD NARROWS AHEAD SIGNS 421 to 423

ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 warns of a roundabout ahead.


Sign 420 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the roundabout as indicated in Table 31. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the junction to the nearest 20m should be attached
below sign 420. An additional sign may be placed on the left side of a one-way carriageway.
Sign 420 should only be considered for use when it is not obvious at the distance given in Table 3-1 that there is a
roundabout ahead.
Sign 420 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7420 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

ROADS NARROWS AHEAD signs 421 to 423 warn that the roadway ahead narrows from the right side (421), the left
side (422) or from both sides (423).
Signs 421 to 423 should be used when the width of a roadway is reduced at a quicker rate than would be the case by a
standard taper. Hence, the normal application of these should be for temporary narrowing situations at temporary traffic
management when the extent of the narrowing is less than a full lane width. If the road width reduction results in
reduction in the number of lanes, then LANE ENDS signs 417 or 418 should be used instead.
Signs 421 to 423 should be located on the right side of the roadway
Signs 421 to 423 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a
thick red border.
Signs 7421 to 7423 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and
a thick red border.

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3.2.12

DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD SIGN 424

3.2.13

DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign 424 warns that the one way roadway forming part of a dual carriageway
road on which they are travelling is about to become a single carriageway roadway carrying two way traffic.
Sign 424 should be located on the left and right hand sides of a one way roadway which is about to become part of a
single carriageway roadway, at a distance from where the two carriageways forming the dual carriageway come
together as indicated in Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the start of the two
way roadway should be attached below sign 424
Sign 424 may be used with TWO WAY TRAFFIC sign 416.
When both signs are used, Sign 416 should be located as indicated in Table 3-1 and Sign 424 should be positioned in
advance of Sign 416 with a clear sight of Sign 416.
Sign 424 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7424 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 425

MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 warns that the clearance available under an overhead structure ahead is restricted
to the amount indicated on the sign.
Sign 425 should be located on the right side of the roadway.
Sign 425 should not be displayed for any structure with minimum clearance of 5.0m or greater.
For structures with a clearance less than 5.0m, Sign 425 should be provided as indicated in Table 3-1. In such
instances, it is not usually necessary to provide MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 at such structures.
Sign 425 and MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 should both be displayed for any structure with a minimum clearance
of less than 5.0m.
Sign 425 should be located in advance of the structure in such a position that the driver of an over-height vehicle may
turn off onto an alternative route. In such instances it may be necessary to provide a sign similar to that shown for
MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355, incorporating Sign 425 instead.
Unless specified otherwise by the Municipality, the height to be indicated on Sign 425 should be 100mm less than the
actual minimum clearance measured under the structure, further rounded down to the nearest one decimal point of a
metre.
Sign 425 should be located on both sides of the road at all Emirates Route border crossings into Abu Dhabi Emirate
and on all exit roads from cargo-handling seaports.
Sign 425 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7425 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

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3.2.14

Sign 427 should be located on the right side of the roadway and, where possible, on the left side as well, at a distance
from the crossing as indicated in Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the
pedestrian crossing should be attached below Sign 427.

CHILDREN PRESENT SIGN 426

Sign 427 should be provided in advance of all marked pedestrian crossings and mid-block signalised pedestrian
crossings. Sign 427 should not be located at a pedestrian crossing to mark the position of the crossing. All unsignalised
pedestrian crossings should be marked by GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. Sign 427 should not be provided
at pedestrian crossings located at signalised or sign controlled legs of an intersection.
Sign 427 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7427 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

3.2.16

STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 428

CHILDREN PRESENT sign 426 warns of the likelihood that children are on or adjacent to the road ahead due to the
presence of a school, playground, or other activity area.
Sign 426 should always be located on the right side of the roadway and where possible, on the left side as well, at a
distance from the start of the area where children are likely to be present as indicated in Table 3-1. A
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the specific reason for the presence of children such as School or
Playground in Arabic and English should be attached below Sign 426
Sign 426 should be provided in advance of any appropriate roadway area which is potentially hazardous to children.
Sign 426 should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red border for both permanent and temporary
applications.

3.2.15

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD SIGN 427

STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 warns of the presence of a STOP sign 301 ahead.
Sign 428 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the STOP sign as indicated in Table 31. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the STOP sign 301 should be attached below sign
428. An additional sign should be provided on the left side of the roadway on a median island if the roadway is part of a
dual carriageway.
Sign 428 should only be considered for use when:
It is not obvious at the distance given in Table 3-1 that there is a STOP control ahead, and/or
The approach speed is in excess of 60 kph.
Sign 428 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background with STOP Sign 301
embedded as an icon, and a thick red border.
Sign 7428 should be used for permanent applications and should have a yellow background with STOP Sign 301
embedded as an icon, and a thick red border.

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427 warns that there is a marked and/or signalised pedestrian crossing ahead
at which pedestrians has right of way

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3.2.17

GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 429

Sign 429

3.2.18

TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD SIGN 430

Sign 7429

GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD Sign 429 warns of the presence of a GIVE-WAY sign 302 ahead.
Sign 429 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the GIVE WAY sign 302 as indicated in
Table 3-1. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the GIVE WAY sign 302 should be
attached below Sign 429. An additional sign should be provided on the left side of the roadway on a median island if
the roadway is part of a dual carriageway.

Sign 430

Sign 7430

TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 warns that the junction or pedestrian crossing ahead is controlled by traffic
signals.
Sign 430 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the traffic signal as indicated in Table 31. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the traffic signal should be attached below Sign
430. An additional sign should be provided on the left side of the roadway on a median island if the roadway is part of a
dual carriageway.

Sign 429 should only be considered for use when either or both of the following conditions exist:
It is not obvious at the distance given in Table 3-1 that there is a GIVE-WAY control ahead.
The approach speed is in excess of 60 kph.

Sign 430 should only be considered for use when:


Sign 429 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background with GIVE WAY sign 302
embedded as an icon, and a thick red border.
Sign 7429 should be used for permanent applications and should have a yellow background with GIVE WAY sign 302
embedded as an icon, and a thick red border.

It is not obvious at the distance given in Table 3-1 that there is a TRAFFIC SIGNAL control ahead, and/or
The signalised junction is remote or isolated from other signalised junctions.
In addition to the above situations, Sign 430 may be installed for a short period of 3 to 6 months when a new traffic
signal is commissioned but must be removed after such a period, subject to the warrant criteria given above.
Sign 430 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background. Sign 430 should have a
thick red border.
Sign 7430 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background. Sign 7430 should have a
thick red border.
The icon should have a black background with, in descending order, red, yellow, and green lights for both permanent
and temporary applications.

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3.2.19

Sign 7432 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

QUAYSIDE SIGN 431

3.2.21

ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433

QUAYSIDE sign 431 warns that there is an unprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank ahead. The icon on Sign 431
symbol may be reversed.
Sign 431 should be located on the right side of a roadway which runs directly along the side of a quay, jetty, or river
bank. Sign 431 should, if practical, be positioned in advance of the unprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank by a
distance as indicated in Table 3-1.
Sign 431 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

Sign 433 should be located on the right side of the road at a distance from the point at which animals are likely to occur
near the roadway as indicated in Table 3-1. SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached below Sign 433
indicating the distance for which the hazard can be expected to occur.
The icon on the sign may be that representing camels, sheep, or goats. If domestic animals are regularly herded
across roadways, temporary signs displaying the appropriate symbol should be set up in advance of the crossing point.
Such signs should preferably indicate the distance to the crossing point.

Sign 7431 should be used for temporary applications and should be as sign 431 but with a yellow background.

3.2.20

ANIMALS AHEAD sign 433 warns of the possible presence of animals on, or adjacent to, the road ahead.

DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN 432

Sign 433 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7433 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD sign 432 warns that there is an opening bridge or drawbridge in the road ahead.
Sign 432 should be located as the result of an engineering assessment, meeting the requirements indicated in Table 31, and in consideration of clear sight distance. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the
drawbridge should be attached below sign 432.
Sign 432 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

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3.2.22

LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN 434

3.2.23

LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT sign 434 warns of the presence of low flying aircraft with the potential of sudden and loud
aircraft noise.

SPEED HUMP SIGN 435

SPEED HUMP sign 435 warns that one or more speed humps exist in the roadway ahead.

Sign 434 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance from the point where the distraction may
occur as indicated in Table 3-1.

Sign 435 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance as indicated in Table 3-1. A
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 should be provided below Sign 435. This may indicate one or more of the
following:

Sign 434 should only be provided when aircraft are likely to over-fly the roadway or to fly in close proximity to the
roadway.

The distance for which speed humps are provided, or an appropriate text message such as Speed Humps or Traffic
Calming.

Sign 434 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

Sign 435 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

Sign 7434 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

Sign 7435 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

3.2.24

TUNNEL AHEAD SIGN 436

TUNNEL AHEAD sign 436 warns that there is a tunnel on the roadway ahead which may be subject to reduced lighting
levels or that certain vehicle classes may be not be permitted to enter the tunnel.
Sign 436 should be located on the right side of the road at a distance from the tunnel entrance as indicated in Table 31.

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If a prohibition on certain classes of vehicle entering the tunnel exists, Sign 436 should be displayed in combination
with the relevant regulatory signs. If necessary, Sign 436 may therefore be placed at a greater distance from the tunnel
than given in Table 3-1. On dual carriageway approaches to a tunnel, Sign 436 may be placed on the right and left
sides of the roadway.

3.2.26

SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438

Sign 436 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7436 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

3.2.25

FALLING ROCKS SIGN 437

Sign 438 warns that there is a risk of a slippery surface on the roadway.
SLIPPERY SURFACE sign 438 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance in advance of a
section of road where the risk of the slippery surface exists, as indicated in Table 3-1.
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached below Sign 438 indicating the distance for which the hazard can
be expected to occur (e.g., For 5 km).
Sign 438 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
FALLING ROCKS sign 437 warns that there is a risk that rocks may have fallen into the roadway.

Sign 7438 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

The icon on Sign 437 may be reversed.


Sign 437 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance in advance of a section of road where the risk
of falling rocks exists, as indicated in Table 3-1.
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached below Sign 437 indicating the distance for which the hazard can
be expected to occur (e.g., For 5 km).
Sign 437 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7437 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

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3.2.27

STEEP GRADIENT SIGN 439 and 440

3.2.28

OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE SIGN 441

OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE sign 441 indicates that high voltage electric cables cross the road.
Sign 441 should be used where there is a risk of high vehicles over the legal 4.2m limit using the road.
A Supplementary Plate 589 should be fixed below the sign to indicate that height of the cables.
Sign 441 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.
Sign 7441 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.
STEEP GRADIENT signs 439 and 440 warn drivers that there is a section of road where the length and angle of grade
require special precautions.
The minimum criteria for providing these signs shall be one of the following:

A 5% grade extending for 1,000m


A 6% grade extending for 600m
A 7% grade extending for 350m
An 8% grade extending for 250m
A 9% grade extending for 150m

A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance over which the indicated grade extends (e.g., Next 1
km) may be attached below Signs 439 or 440. If a pronounced variance in grades exists in a given section of roadway,
then additional sets of signs shall be used with the appropriate distance at which that grade will be encountered.
Sign 439 should be used for permanent downward slope applications and Sign 440 should be used for permanent
upward slope applications. Both should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red border. The icon should
indicate the angle of grade in percentage terms and include an arrow indicating the direction of flow which shall always
point to the right hand side of the sign.
Sign 7439 and 7440 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

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3.2.29

SCHOOL ZONE GATE SIGN 446

Cables (with a height clearance).


If the conditions indicated above change or are removed, the sign should be removed.
GENERAL WARNING sign 450 is appropriate to many conditions which occur at traffic management sites or in
association with temporary traffic management sites. The sign may also be appropriate for other temporary conditions.
In such circumstances the exclusive black symbol on a yellow background colour code used for temporary traffic
management signs should be used. Typical messages used in temporary or temporary traffic management situations
are:

Sand
Surveying.
Reduced visibility.
Loose stones.
Uneven road.
Slippery surface

Road ends.
Flood.
Construction traffic.
Soft shoulder.
Surface step (dip).

Sign 446

Sign 450 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

SCHOOL ZONE GATE sign 446 warns vehicles that the area beyond the sign is a school zone where reduced speeds
apply and that additional care should be taken.

Sign 7450 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon, and a thick
red border.

Sign 446 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon and Arabic and
English text. The border, horizontal divider lines and Speed Limit Sign border should be red.

3.2.31

3.2.30

HIGH VEHICLE WARNING SIGN 495

GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450

Sign 450, in combination with an appropriate supplementary message, warns drivers of a hazard of a general nature
described by the supplementary message.
GENERAL WARNING sign 450 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance as indicated in Table
3-1. Sign 450 should only be displayed in conjunction with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589. Permitted
messages for use below sign 450 are as follows:

Sign 495 should be located on the right side of the roadway at a distance in advance of the gantry or cantilever
structure as indicated in Table 3-1.
If deemed appropriate, Sign 495 may have flashing yellow caution lights placed at its top.
Sign 495 should have red background with a white border and legend.

Drifting sand.
Uneven road.
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HIGH VEHICLE WARNING sign 495 is typically located in advance of gantry or cantilever signs and points high vehicle
to a short, low-grade detour that does not pass underneath the horizontal arm of the sign but instead around the signs
support column.

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3.3

HAZARD MARKER SIGNS

The signs in this group have the specific function to mark an actual hazard adjacent to the roadway. The majority of
uses therefore relate to identifying the position of physical hazards such as culverts, bridge structures, large sign
supports, traffic island gores, guardrails, etc., to drivers. In some instances, such as a sharp curve, hazard markers
may be used to delineate the curve and so draw attention to the severity of the curve.

3.3.1

HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451 and 452

HAZARD PLATE Signs 451 and 452 warn of the actual position of physical objects which are placed so close to the
roadway as to represent a hazard or potential hazard if vehicles should collide with them.
Signs 451 and 452 should be located as close as possible to the physical hazard to identify its position. A number of
evenly spaced Signs 451 or 452 may also be used to demarcate open ditches, high embankments, and ill-defined
curves. See Table 3-4 for guidance on spacing.
Table 3-4
Spacing on Curves for Signs 451, 452, 454 and 455
Curve Radius
Sign Spacing S
60m
150m
300m
600m

Figure 3-1 Hazard Plate Applications

3.3.2

8.0m to 15m
15m to 25m
25m
25m

SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT SIGN 454 and SINGLE CHEVRON LEFT


SIGN 455

Signs 451 and 452 should always be installed so that the arrow points towards the roadway and away from the
hazard. Signs 451 and 452 should be mounted so that the lower edge is 600mm above ground level for the 600mm by
150mm size and 1200mm above ground level for the 1200mm by 300mm size. Figure 3-1 illustrates a number of
typical HAZARD PLATE sign applications. The larger of the two sign sizes should be used when the posted speed limit
is 80kph or greater.
Signs 451 and 452 should be used for permanent applications and should have red backgrounds and white diagonal
stripes.
Signs 7451 and 7452 should be used for temporary applications and should have red backgrounds and yellow diagonal
stripes.

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SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 warn motorists of the actual position of physical objects or of the actual
alignment of the roadway when these conditions represent hazards or potential hazards.
Signs 454 and 455, when used independently, should be placed as close as possible to the hazard that it is intended to
mark. Signs 454 and 455 may be mounted to point to the right and to the left. The arrows should always point towards
the roadway passing in front of the sign. The application of Signs 454 and 455 is similar to that of Signs 451 and 452
but Signs 451 and 452 should be used in a lower speed or less hazardous environment.

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Signs 454 or 455 may also be used in sets whereby the signs are spaced at regular intervals to define a sharp curve
(e.g., on a 180 or 270 loop ramp) or to define the edge of a high embankment or a guard rail at the top of such an
embankment.

3.3.3

MULTIPLE CHEVRONS RIGHT SIGN 456 and MULTIPLE CHEVRONS


LEFT SIGN 457

Figure 3-2 illustrates a typical example of such an installation while Table 3-4 gives guidance on the spacing of the
signs.
Signs 454 or 455 may be considered for use in place of Sign 326 to mark island gores, if these are on a particularly
difficult vertical or horizontal alignment. In such an application, Signs 454 and 455 should be mounted side-by-side in
the gore but a separator is not necessary.
When Signs 454 and 455 are placed at intervals round a sharp curve, they should be positioned so that one sign lies
as close as possible to the line of extension of the tangent approaching the curve, and so that the sign lies straightahead for a driver in the near side lane. Other signs should then be positioned forwards and backwards round the
curve so that the curve is fully delineated, approximately from tangent point to tangent point. It is necessary that, in
order to properly define the curve through both vertical and horizontal changes, at least three signs are visible at any
time while driving through the curve.
Signs 454 and 455 should be used for permanent applications and should have white backgrounds, red chevrons, and
thin red borders. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 400mm or 600mm x 600mm.
Signs 7454 and 7455 should be used for temporary applications and should have yellow backgrounds, red chevrons,
and thin red borders. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 400mm or 600mm x 600mm.

MULTIPLE CHEVRONS RIGHT sign 456 and MULTIPLE CHEVRONS LEFT sign 457 warn of the actual position of a
very sharp bend or change in direction in the roadway. The signs should comprise a minimum of three chevron
modules.
Signs 456 and 457 may be used at a sharp bend when the severity of the bend is not likely to be adequately conveyed
by RIGHT CURVE SIGN 412 or LEFT CURVE SIGN 413.
If a sharp bend is sufficiently long the number of modules may be increased to a maximum of four. If it is necessary to
sign a longer sharp bend this should be done using signs 454 or 455 as illustrated in Figure 3-2. Figure 3-3 illustrates
the use of Signs 456 and 457.
Sign 456 may also be used to identify the sharp change of direction required on entering a roundabout. Sign positions
are illustrated in Figure 3-3. This application should only be considered when the view of the centre of the roundabout
is restricted due to the geometry of the approach and entry, or due to the aesthetic treatment of the roundabout.
Signs 456 and 457 should be used for permanent applications and should have white backgrounds, red chevrons, and
thin red borders. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 1200mm or 600mm x 1800mm.
Signs 7456 and 7457 should be used for temporary applications and should have yellow backgrounds, red chevrons,
and thin red borders. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 1200mm or 600mm x 1800mm.

Figure 3-2: Examples of Applications of Sign 454 and Sign 455

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3.4
3.4.1

DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS
Overview

The signs in this group are essentially for use in situations where the size and shape of triangular advance warning
signs limits the pictorial warning message that can be displayed, and/or the overall conspicuity of the sign. The
situations that tend to be indicated on diagrammatic signs are commonly ones that occur on higher speed roads.
Several of these categories have the potential to provide many signs. Some of these signs vary significantly in their
sign face message, and therefore design, while others represent limited variations on the themes established by the
earlier alternatives. In the following sections only a limited number of signs are illustrated. Where it is appropriate,
design rules are stated for sign-face design.
The following characteristics are appropriate to all diagrammatic signs:
The basic rectangular shape of the minimally sized sign should have a ratio of height to width of 4 to 3. Recommended
standard basic sign sizes should be 1200mm (H) x 900mm (W), 1600mm (H) x 1200mm (W) and 2400mm (H) x
1800mm (W) for ground mounted signs. If used overhead, recommended basic sign sizes should be 2400mm (H) x
1800mm (W) and 3200mm (H) x 2400mm (W). These dimensions are exclusive of supplementary information plates, if
applicable.
Figure 3-3: Typical Application of Multiple Chevron Signs 456 and 457

3.3.4

The width of the basic sign may be increased when three or more arrows are to be displayed, in increments equal to
one quarter of the basic width.

T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN 458

The sign face message should depict only one situation requiring an action on the part of the drivers to whom the sign
applies.

T-JUNCTION CHEVRON sign 458 warns that a road terminates at a T-junction and identifies the position at the far
side of such a junction.
Sign 458 should be located on the far side of the T-junction, at 90 to the direction of approach from the side road, so
that the sign is located at the rear of a sidewalk in an urban area, or at the rear of a shoulder or approximately 2.0m
from the edge of the roadway, in a rural area.
Use of sign 458 should be considered for high speed (60 kph or more) approaches to T-junctions, particularly when
there is no street lighting, and where a guide sign would not otherwise be used.
Sign 458 should comprise a minimum of six chevron modules, three pointing to the right and three to the left.
Sign 458 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, red chevrons, and a thin red
border. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 2400mm or 600mm x 3600mm.
Signs 7456 and 7457 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, red chevrons,
and a thin red border. Standard sign sizes are to be 400mm x 2400mm or 600mm x 3600mm.

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An obstruction commonly means a physical obstacle such as a concrete barrier or a W-section guardrail but also
includes perceived obstructions to vehicle movement. For example, the obstruction may be an introduced median
island or a lane-drop situation with a sufficient run-off and recovery area provided. In this case, the obstruction is
illustrated on the sign by a solid red block.
Arrows pointing in the direction of travel should point upwards on the sign and be the full height of the sign, with
specified clearances, whereas arrows depicting opposing traffic flows should point downwards on the sign and be of a
reduced length (shorter by approximately the length of two arrow heads).
If SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 is required with a diagrammatic sign, it should be a separate plate mounted
below the sign for ground-mounted signs.
Diagrammatic signs are particularly appropriate to the temporary detours common during major temporary traffic
management. Their use is, however, also appropriate in certain situations that can be considered as permanent even
though they may be scheduled for medium- to long-term improvement. Since many diagrammatic signs only have a
temporary application they are not illustrated in this Chapter. As a result, the signs that are illustrated do not have
sequential numbers; the remaining signs are illustrated in Chapter 6, and as noted in Chapter 7 for temporary traffic
management reference is to be made to the Abu Dhabi Work Zone Design Manual.
Diagrammatic signs may be displayed in association with overhead direction signs.

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3.4.2

LANE DROP FROM THE RIGHT SIGN 465 and LANE DROP FROM THE
LEFT SIGN 466

3.4.3

BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN SIGNS 472 and 473

BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN signs 472 and 473 warn motorists that the roadway ahead has a median starting or
ending and that this may, in the case of sign 472, represent a significant hazard in the roadway going in the one
direction, or that, in the case of sign 473, traffic streams become two way beyond the end of the median island, which
in turn may be a potentially hazardous condition.
Signs 472 and 473 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background and a thin red
border.
Signs 7472 and 7473 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background and a thin black
border.

LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 warn that a lane drop lies ahead.
Signs 465 and 466 should be considered for use in traffic situations that are either known to have substandard
geometry that cannot be rectified in the short-term or that have, for whatever reason, not been sufficiently improved by
the provision of normal advance warning signs.

The icon should be black and red, with the arrows representing traffic movement in black and the obstructions in red.

Signs 465 and 466 may be provided in advance of the point at which the lane is dropped. An appropriate
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the lane drop mounted below the sign should be
provided. At the start of the lane drop taper Signs 465 and 466 should be provided without such a supplementary plate.
Signs 465 and 466 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background and a thin red
border.
Signs 7465 and 7466 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background and a thin black
border.
The icon should be black and red, with the arrows representing traffic movement in black and the obstructions in red for
both permanent and temporary applications.

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3.4.4

ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 and 481

3.4.5

JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 and 483

Signs 482 and 483 warn that a lane carrying joining traffic comes into the roadway from the right (or left) and that
merging and weaving manoeuvres can be expected.

ADDITIONAL LANE signs 480 and 481 warn motorists on a section of road that an additional continuous lane will be
added ahead, at the distance indicated below the sign.
The principal value of these signs is to reassure drivers, when in heavy traffic, that overtaking opportunities will occur
ahead due to the additional lane. Such a sign need only be placed 500m to 1.0km in advance of the start of the
additional lane. The sign type is appropriate for freeways and rural roads.
Signs 480 and 481 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thin red border.

Sign 482 should preferably be positioned so that drivers on the main carriageway and drivers on the entering lane can
both see the sign. If this is not possible both signs 482 and 483 may be used to warn drivers. Because road
configurations requiring use of this sign vary widely, there is no recommended minimum or maximum placement
distance. Good engineering judgment should be exercised in locating the signs.
Signs 482 and 483 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thin red border.
Signs 7482 and 7483 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon
and thin black border.

Signs 7480 and 7481 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thin black border.

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3.4.6

TRUCK LANE USE SIGNS 484 and 485

3.4.7

LANE USE DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION SIGN 486

LANE USE DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION sign 486 imposes a mandatory restriction of movement on one or more of
the basic through lanes of a roadway. In the example shown, it warns that the leftmost of the basic through lanes
becomes, by regulation, an exclusive left turn lane at the intersection. Drivers wishing to continue straight ahead must
leave that lane prior to the intersection; otherwise they will be required to make a left turn.
Sign 486 supplements pavement markings and provides advance notice of lane use control conditions ahead. This
sign is not intended for routine use and its use should be restricted to unusual intersection configurations where one of
the basic roadway lanes unexpectedly becomes an exclusive turn lane.
A likely usage of this sign will be at a junction on the through leg containing the left turn, when the geometry is such
that one of the basic roadway lanes becomes an exclusive left turn lane. Its use on other legs of the junction will not
ordinarily be required.
Sign 486 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background and a thin red border.
Sign 7486 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background and a thin black border.
The icon should be black with the regulatory symbol in blue with a white arrow.
In Abu Dhabi Emirate, trucks are only allowed to use the right-most lane on any road except when preparing to make a
left turn. Signs 484 and 485 impose this prohibition on the use of lanes by trucks. The lane prohibition also applies to
buses, with two exceptions:
On roads having four or more lanes, buses are allowed to use the second lane.
On roads having two or three lanes, buses are allowed to leave the right-most lane to overtake other vehicles, but
must then return to the right lane.
Signs 484 and 485 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background and a thin red
border.
Signs 7484 and 7485 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background and a thin black
border.
The icon should be black with the prohibitory symbol (circle and diagonal slash) in red on a white background. The
signs should be spaced at approximately 5.0km intervals.

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3.4.8

LANES MERGE SIGNS 490 and 492

Sign 490 warns of the merging of two lanes. The use of this sign may be appropriate at at-grade junctions to
emphasise the need for drivers to undertake merging actions or manoeuvres. As such the sign only shows the two
lanes involved in the merging action.
Sign 492 warns of the merging of two lanes on a high-speed free-flow roadway. Such roadways are commonly
freeways or freeway ramps where there is little or no tolerance for traffic slowdown or back-up from the point of merge.
It is therefore recommended that the signs indicate all lanes at the point of merge. The signs should be erected close to
the gore of the merge area on freeways, or on both sides of the roadway at at-grade junctions. Where possible they
should be visible to drivers in both approaching traffic streams. Advance signs may also be used, particularly on
freeways, and these should include a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589.
The number of arrows shown on Sign 492 may be varied to reflect the layout of the road in question.
Signs 490 and 492 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background, a black icon, and
a thin red border.
Signs 7490 and 7492 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background, a black icon,
and a thin black border.

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Category

Group
ROUTE MARKER SIGNS

TRAILBLAZING SIGNS

GUIDE SIGNS

AT-GRADE JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS

GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS

GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE SIGNS

MANAGED LANE SIGNS

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Designation
EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER SIGN 501
ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER SIGN 502
AIRPORT TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 503
CITY CENTRE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 504
EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 505
ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 506
SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 507
FREEWAY TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 508
PARKING TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 509
ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK SIGN 511
ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN 512
ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL SIGN 514
CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN 515
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 551
EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552
ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN 553
GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND 556
SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 557
OFFICIAL VEHICLES ONLY SIGN 584
DISTANCE SIGN 585
HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586
TEXT SIGN 588
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 589
FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 590
GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591
PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS SIGN 592
DO NOT LITTER SIGN 599
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 595
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER SIGN 596
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE SIGN 597
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT SIGN 598
BUS LANE SIGN 5004
TRAM LANE SIGN 5005

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GUIDE SIGNS

4.1

PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE

The objective of the Abu Dhabi Guide Sign system is to provide guidance to drivers using the road network in Abu
Dhabi. To accomplish this objective, guide signing must do the following:

Thus, a different type of signing is required for grade-separated interchanges. This consists of one or more ADVANCE
EXIT DIRECTION signs, up to 2000m in advance of the exit point. These signs advise motorists of destinations
reached from the next exit, appropriate lane position to access that exit, and distance to exit point. These ADVANCE
EXIT DIRECTION signs are generally repeated at intervals as the exit approaches. When the exit point is reached
(also known as the theoretical gore or painted nose) the motorist is advised by an EXIT DIRECTION sign that this is
the point of departure. The physical nose is also marked by a GORE EXIT sign to further reinforce the action of exiting
the mainline.

Enable drivers to find their way to far more destinations than could possibly be signed.
Avoid confusing drivers with too much information.
Present drivers with predictable information.
Present drivers with advance notice so that directional changes can be safely made.

It is the aim of the following described guide sign system to accomplish these objectives.

4.1.1

METHOD OF PROVIDING GUIDANCE

Separate from the above described primary guide signing is a system of supplemental destination signing.
Supplemental destinations are local facilities or attractions. To avoid overloading and overcomplicating the primary
guide sign system, these supplemental destinations are signed separately. Supplemental signing may be used for both
at grade and grade-separated junctions.

The guide-signing system must be able to provide a driver with two basic pieces of information:
The current location of the driver within the roadway system, and
The route to be taken to a desired destination when facing a choice of several possible directions of travel.

4.1.3

Driving is a complex process requiring a driver to observe, comprehend, analyse and act upon a wide variety of visual
input. It is critical that guide signs present information to the driver in a predictable, clear and simple manner. This
information must be presented far enough in advance of the point of potential action to permit the driver to determine
what action is required and then allow the driver to safely and orderly execute any directional changes that may be
necessary.
The guide sign system is based upon a framework of fundamental principles as follows:
Use of route numbers as the primary method of guidance on numbered routes.
Use of street names as the primary method of identification and guidance on non-numbered routes and as a
secondary means of guidance on numbered routes.
Strict criteria for destinations displayed for each route as an orientation guide for road users.
Strict criteria for additional destinations to be displayed on supplemental guide signs, separate from the primary
guide signs.
Colour coding of signing.
Consistency in the application of signing.

4.1.2

Grade-separated junctions present a much different set of circumstances to motorists. Grade-separated junctions are
generally located on high-volume and/or high-speed roadways and are designed to handle traffic in a free-flow
operational mode. It is thus important that motorists be advised clearly and well in advance of their intended point of
departure. This will allow ample opportunity to make one or more lane changes to be properly positioned to execute a
full-speed exit from the roadway. Inadequate and/or unclear directions may contribute to driver indecision; speed
reduction or stopping; and abrupt, last-minute manoeuvres, all of which will be extremely dangerous under high-speed,
high-volume conditions.

CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDE SIGNS

Guide signing can be divided into signs that are most applicable for at-grade junctions (intersections and roundabouts)
and those that are applicable for grade-separated, free-flow interchanges.

ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM

Route numbers allow the motorist to develop a simple series of directions to follow while travelling from one part of the
greater Abu Dhabi urban area to another. Route numbers will be prominently and predictably displayed on the guide
signs, making driver orientation and direction clear.
Two routing classifications have been established, as shown in Figure 4-1. Emirate or E Routes are the major
roadways in Abu Dhabi Emirate that provide through travel between major cities and/or other Emirates. Emirate Routes
are designated with a two-digit number (exception: bypass routes have a three-digit designator, the first digit being the
sequential number assigned to the bypass and the last two digits being the primary route being bypassed, e.g., the first
bypass to Emirate Route 22 would be numbered E22). Routes 88 and 99 are reserved for possible future Emirate
Routes. Odd-numbered Emirate Routes run generally in an east-west direction, and even number routes in a northsouth direction.
The second level of primary routes is the primary arterials (with some secondary arterials) within the Abu Dhabi urban
area. These routes provide access from one community in the Abu Dhabi urban area to another.
Abu Dhabi or AD Routes are designated with a two-digit number, from 10 to 99. Even number routes run generally
parallel to the coast line, and odd numbered routes run generally perpendicular to the coast line. Routes in the nineties
are located along the coast line and along the Dubai Emirate border, descending in order moving inland and towards
Abu Dhabi Emirate respectively.
Although not absolutely necessary that it be adhered to in the future, an initial attempt was made to keep routes in as
sequential an order as possible. Some route numbers in the sequence have been skipped to allow the future allocation
of these numbers to new routes in a near sequential order.

At-grade junctions, whether intersections or roundabouts, generally have three choices of direction: ongoing, left, and
right. These movements, especially the turns, are made at slow speed and usually under traffic signal control. Since atgrade junctions are, or should be, relatively uniform and deliberate in operation, guide signing will consist of simple
ADVANCE STACK signs, advising motorists of available directions of travel at the junction ahead, allowing sufficient
advance notice for driver orientation and appropriate action. CHEVRON DIRECTION signs, located in the vicinity of the
turning area, identify the point of turning action and provide motorists with confirmation of their intended movement. In
addition, a STREET NAME sign is provided at each junction as a secondary source of driver orientation and guidance.

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THIS PAGE IS RESERVED FOR FUTURE FIGURE 4-1: ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM

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4.1.4

These control cities are intended to function for long-distance travellers, advising them of the major city reached by
following that route in that direction of travel. In the case of selected routes, an intermediate destination of Abu Dhabi is
given for travel in one direction. The control city of Abu Dhabi should be used until the Abu Dhabi urban area is
reached, at which time the control city for all onward signing should be the end destination ahead.

PRIMARY DESTINATIONS

The Municipality categorises destinations eligible for use on primary guide signs into three types:
Control destinations for Emirate Routes.
Control destinations for non-Emirate Routes.
Other local destinations for non-Emirate Routes.

4.1.4.2

In translating Arabic destination names to English, the article Al should be translated without regard to the Arabic sun
and moon letters. English spellings of destination names should follow the Arabic spelling, not the Arabic pronunciation
(e.g., Sas Al Nakhl and not Sas Al Nakheel) unless it has previously been common practice to spell a destinations
name otherwise and signs using the pronunciation already exist on the network.

4.1.4.1

CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR EMIRATE ROUTES

The purpose of control destinations is to provide orientation with respect to direction of travel along that numbered
route and the control destinations for Emirate Routes are shown in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1
Control Destinations for Emirates Routes
End Destination(s)
Intermediate Destinations
South or West

Route
E10

Abu Dhabi

E11

Saudi Arabia
Al Sila
Qatar

E22

Abu Dhabi

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Abu Dhabi International Airport


Khalifa City
Sas Al Nakhl
Abu Al Abyadh
Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi International Airport
Bani Yas
Ghantoot
Jebel Ali
Jebel Dhanna
Khalifa bin Zayed City
Liwa Oasis
Al Mafraq
Al Marfa
Musaffah
Al Ruwais
Al Samhah
Seih
Al Shahama
Shoaib
Taif,
Bani Yas
Fiya
Al Khatim
Al Khazna
Al Mafraq
Musaffah
Al Wathba

CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR NON-EMIRATE ROUTES

For major roadways that are not Emirate Routes, control destinations are to be a logical, well-known terminus of the
route or roadway. For example, the control destination for the eastern terminus of the Al Corniche Road is Mina Zayed,
and the control destination for the western terminus of Al Corniche Road is Al Ras Al Akhdhar/Breakwater. Likewise,
the control destinations for Rashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum Road are Dubai/Al Ain and the Corniche.
In addition to the control destinations described above, other local destinations are also eligible for use on non-Emirate
Route guide signs. To qualify for use on guide signs, these destinations should be major landmarks.
Eligible destinations include towns or neighbourhoods (e.g., Musaffah, Al Khalidiya), public medical facilities (e.g., Al
Jazeera Hospital), major government offices (e.g., Immigration, Traffic Police), major mosques and religious sites (e.g.,
Eid prayer grounds), well known military installations (e.g., Officers Club, GHQ), major streets (e.g., Musaffah Road, Al
Corniche Road) and well known or publicly popular locations (e.g., major malls, colleges and universities).
The Municipality does not specify an approved list of control destinations for non-Emirate Routes. Designers should
exercise judgment in selecting control destinations for use on these guide signs and seek the approval of the
Municipality.

End Destination(s)
North or East
Al Shahama

4.1.5

Dubai

Certain facilities or attractions have been determined as being qualified to receive separate signing, supplemental to
the primary guide signs. The purpose of this supplemental signage is to provide assistance to motorists in finding their
way from a numbered route to the facility being sought.

SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATIONS

Table 4-2 lists types of destinations approved for supplemental signing. These destinations should be signed beginning
at the point of departure from the nearest Emirate Route and continuing through all necessary turns on the most direct
route from that departure point to the appropriate access point of the destination.

Al Ain
Oman

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Destination Type
Government
Offices and
Agencies

Formal request from concerned agency

Schools

800 students

Formal request via the Abu Dhabi Education Council,


This should indicate the number of students.

Universities

1000 students
Must contain Accident
and Emergency unit and
a minimum of 50 beds
Minimum Gross
Leasable Area (GLA) of
20,000sqm
Minimum Gross
Leasable Area (GLA) of
5,000sqm

Formal request via the Ministry of Higher Education

Abu Dhabi Health Authority licence

Hospitals and
clinics
Large Commercial
Centres
Small/Medium
Commercial
Centres

Trade licence Economic Development Authority

1-2

Trade licence Economic Development Authority

Hotels

Minimum 4 Star
Classification

1-2

Classification certificate from Abu Dhabi Tourism


Authority

Housing complexes

More than 100 villas

1-2

Building permit issued by the Abu Dhabi Municipality


(Planning Department)

Formal request from the Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority

Tourist and
Heritage Sites

Gardens, parks and


similar recreational
areas

Minimum plot area of


10,000sqm

Authorised for Municipal Parks only

Factories and
Workshops

Minimum Gross Floor


Area (GFA) of
50,000sqm

Trade license Economic Development Authority

Sports Clubs

Minimum plot area of


20,000sqm

Formal request via the Abu Dhabi Sports Council or the


Ministry of Sports

Foreign Embassies
Mosques

4.1.6

Table 4-2
Locations Eligible for Supplemental Destination Signing
No. of
Limiting Threshold
Required Documentation
Signs

Capacity of over 800


worshipers

The use of a specific sign background colour code serves as an aid to motorists in searching out and recognizing the
type of guide sign they are looking for. Colour coding will also aid in distinguishing the type of route the motorist is
currently on or looking to go onto.
Three colours are used for the background colour of guide signs; blue, green, and brown. The use of the colours is
described in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3
Guide Sign Background Colour Coding
Colour

1-2

Formal request from the embassy via the Ministry of


Foreign Affairs

1-2

Formal request via Authority of Islamic Affairs and


Endowments

Signboards will not be allowed for small and micro destinations like, small sports club such as gyms, dental and
cosmetic clinics, hotels of less than four stars, nurseries, kindergartens, small mosques and TV stations.
Supplemental signs placed on a numbered route should have both the symbol and the identifying name of the
destination being signed. Subsequent supplemental signing from the numbered route to the destination should be
provided by supplemental trail blazer signs displaying only the pictorial symbol without the identifying place name.
However, some site-specific locations may require more than one similar destination. In this case, the name will be
retained until trailblazing can be used without creating confusion as to which destination is which. Such cases must be
submitted to the Municipality for approval prior to implementation.

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Usage

Blue

All primary guide signs of all types located on Emirates Routes shall have blue backgrounds with white
legends. Emirate Route emblems shall always have blue backgrounds regardless of the background
colour of the sign on which they are located

Green

All primary guide signs of all types located on Abu Dhabi Routes shall have green backgrounds with
white legends. Abu Dhabi Route emblems shall always have green backgrounds regardless of the
background colour of the sign on which they are located

Brown

Supplemental signs that provide guidance to approved leisure, heritage and tourist destinations shall
have brown backgrounds with white legends. These signs shall always have brown backgrounds
regardless of whether they are located on an Emirate Route, Abu Dhabi Route or a local street. They will
also commonly display a symbolic representation of the destination as a black symbol on a white square
background. Once such supplemental destinations are reached, further subordinate signs pertaining to
that destination shall also have a brown background.

White

For use with TEXT sign 588, HIGH VEHICLE EXIT sign 586, SUPPLEMENTAL PLATE 589 as well as
supplemental signs providing guidance to approved destinations that do not have leisure, heritage or
tourism related functions. These shall have white backgrounds with black legends and shall always have
white backgrounds regardless of whether they are located on an Emirate Route, Abu Dhabi Route or a
local street.

A special case in the colour coding occurs within a signalised intersection or a roundabout when an Emirate Route and
an Abu Dhabi Route intersect one another. Advance guide signs on the Emirate Route will have a blue background
colour and advance guide signs on the Abu Dhabi Route will have a green background colour. However, CHEVRON
DIRECTION signs 515 will be located in or near the junction, to guide motorists in making turns onto their intended
route. Since some junctions include both an Emirate Route and an Abu Dhabi Route, the colour coding for CHEVRON
DIRECTION sign 515 should be that each of these signs will be the colour of the type of route that it provides direction
to. That is, signs giving direction onto an Emirate Route should have a blue background, and those giving direction to
an Abu Dhabi Route should have a green background.
A similar type of exception occurs at entry and exit ramps leading from an Emirate Route to an Abu Dhabi Route and
vice-versa. The colour coding rule in this case should be that a ramp should assume the route classification of the
route to which the ramp is leading. Thus, signs positioned well downstream on a ramp, that are intended to be read
only by motorists on the ramp should have the background colour of the route the ramp leads to. If in an unusual
situation a ramp leads to a split with one direction of the split being an Emirate Route and the other direction of the split
being an Abu Dhabi Route, the guide sign background colour for that ramp should be blue.
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4.1.7

INFORMATION TO BE DISPLAYED ON SIGNS

It is important that each type of guide sign consistently display all necessary eligible information, but not display any
additional or extraneous information. Strict criteria have been established, as indicated in Table 4-4, concerning what
information may or may not be shown on each type of guide sign.

Key:

Route Number Emblem

Control Destination

City Centre Symbol

Airport Symbol

Distance to Exit

Lane Drop Panel

Supplemental Symbols

Supplemental Destinations

Street Name

ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511


ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512
ADVANCE MAP sign 513
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514
Chevron DIRECTION sign 515
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
EXIT DIRECTION sign 552
ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553
GORE EXIT signs 554, 555, 556
SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557

Downward Lane Arrow

Sign Type

Directional Arrow

Table 4-4
Information Eligible for Display on Guide Signs

4
4
4
4
4
0
4
0
4
4

0
0
0
0
0
4
0
4
0
0

3
3
3
0
4
4
4
4
0
0

4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
0
0

2
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
0
0

2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
2
1
0
0

0
0
0
4
2
0
0
0
0
4

0
0
0
4
2
0
0
0
0
4

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
1
2
3
4

=
=
=
=
=

On rare occasions, it may be desirable to provide a guide sign to direct motorists from a numbered route to an
unnumbered route. In this situation, street names or numbers can substitute for route numbers. Such cases should be
reviewed with the Municipality in consideration of the following:
Is it necessary to provide a guide sign other than a street-name sign to identify the intersecting roadway?
If so, does the importance of the intersecting roadway warrant providing it with a route number and control
destination(s)?
If not, then the guide sign series should display the name of the street or other approved name as the destination
and omit the route number and emblem.
Such instances should be extremely rare and limited mainly to cases on rural, high speed, high order facilities
(freeways) where advance signing is necessary.

4.1.8

TRAILBLAZING SIGNING

The use of distinctive and recognizable symbols placed along a route to guide and reassure motorists that they are
taking the correct roadways to reach a specific destination is called trailblazing.
To be effective, trailblazing must be restricted to limited destinations and/or to a limited extent. The Abu Dhabi guide
sign system has five types of trailblazing signing:

Abu Dhabi International Airport.


City Centre (Central Business District)
Numbered routes.
Emirate Routes.
Abu Dhabi Routes.
Supplemental Locations

4.2
4.2.1

Not Eligible Ever


Not Eligible Ordinarily
Eligible Where Applicable
E and AD Routes Only
Mandatory

GENERAL STANDARDS FOR GUIDE SIGNS


LANGUAGE AND LETTERING STYLES

Most signs in the guide sign class display their message in the form of arrows, symbols, and/or text. Guide sign text
may include any of the following messages:

Generally, guide signs will not be used on unnumbered routes nor for advising turns from a numbered route onto an
unnumbered street. Street name signs installed under the Abu Dhabi Street and plot numbering system will identify
those streets with a street name sign (whether that street name is a word name or a number name).
The primary piece of information to be included on guide signs is the route number. Therefore, route numbers must be
displayed clearly and prominently on every primary guide sign. Large, distinctively shaped and coloured route emblems
with large yellow coloured English numerals provide highly conspicuous and legible route identification.
The creation of a new route and associated control destinations should be referred to the Municipality for review and
approval. In this case a formal amendment to this manual should be issued so that all other signing associated with
that route will be consistent. By strict adherence to route numbers and control destinations, motorists will see a
consistent display of destinations when turning onto and following the guide signs on that route.

A destination name (control, supplemental, or local).


A street name.
A place name (Emirate, city, town, or community).
A route number (only within a route number emblem).
A distance to an exit.
A distance to a destination.

All destination names, street names, place names, and distances should appear on guide signs in both Arabic and
English.
The style of lettering used should be the standard Arabic (Naskh) and English (Transport) fonts used by the
Municipality.
Each individual letter or number within these fonts is positioned on a background tile. The use of these tiles
automatically provides the correct spacing between letters and vertical spacing between rows of text.

Once a destination appears on a guide sign, it must be repeated on each subsequent guide sign until the destination is
reached. Thus, there is a need for strict control of the number of destinations and the consistent use of these
destinations on all signs.
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4.2.2

The standard amount of legend to be displayed in each stack shall be limited to:

AMOUNT OF LEGEND

A significant factor in the design of guide signs, and in particular direction signs, is the amount of information to be
provided. This factor is significant because:
Drivers must have enough time to read the given information, and
The amount of information given dictates the ultimate size of the sign needed to display it.
In terms of all the other actions drivers have to take in order to navigate their vehicles safely through the street network,
the amount of time available to read guide sign messages is commonly very limited.
The more information that is required to be provided on guide signs the larger they have to be made. This in turn
makes it more difficult to position the signs so that drivers can see them in time to read them and react to the
information safely.
In order to design a safe, efficient and cost-effective guide sign system it is therefore desirable to minimise the amount
of information on signs:
To reduce comprehension times, and
To reduce the size of signs.
For the guide sign system to be effective the information provided must be adequate for the navigational needs of the
majority of drivers. It is difficult to predict the information needs of all drivers, particularly when it is not known what
information drivers have when they start their journeys. In order to best cater for these needs a system of well known
control destinations has been evolved and the most important routes have been allocated numbers.
The objective in numbering routes is to simplify the transfer of information and reduce the amount of information that
needs to be transferred in order to achieve effective navigation. Information is also displayed in a consistent manner on
direction signs so that the time required for the information search process is minimised.
Symbols are also used to reduce the amount of text needed to describe certain destinations such as the city centre
and the airport and thereby reduce search time, reading times and recognition time. Symbols are particularly used
with this objective on supplemental destination signs.
The majority of information used in the navigation process appears as legend on direction signs. There are two main
categories of direction sign, namely those used for at-grade junctions and those used for grade-separated junctions.

One arrow.
One route number emblem.
One control destination name in both Arabic and English.
One intermediate destination name in both Arabic and English.

The same amount of information given on each stack that relates to a turning movement is repeated at the exits from
the junction on chevron signs. The direction signs used for grade-separated junctions are mounted in an overhead
position. Since the turning movement from each road normally involves a high-speed exit, the navigation information is
given on two basic types of direction signs:
EXIT DIRECTION signs (advance exit signs and exit signs).
ONGOING DIRECTION signs.
The standard amount of legend to be displayed on EXIT DIRECTION signs is limited to:
One arrow for each exit lane.
A route number emblem of the route to which the exit leads (two may be displayed when the junction occurs at a
point where the left and right turns are onto differently numbered routes).
The name of one control destination to the right and one to the left (each destination in both Arabic and English).
The ONGOING DIRECTION signs display the following standard amount of information:
One arrow per ongoing lane.
The route number emblem of the
ongoing route.

The name of the control destination for the route.


One intermediate destination name in Arabic and
English.

From time to time these limitations on the amount of legend may seem unreasonable. Pressure to ignore the limits
should be resisted because information, once displayed, must be carried through subsequent junctions until the
destination in question is reached. This means that the effect of an extra destination name is rarely limited to one
junction but in fact spreads to several. If additional destinations are introduced in several places the likelihood is that
they will accumulate at common points in the network resulting in unmanageable amounts of legend.
However, site specific conditions may require a departure from these parameters and guidelines. Such variations can
only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

Navigational information is given for a standard at-grade junction on stack type advance direction signs. These signs
have a stack for each direction through the junction. The stacks may be arranged vertically, one above the other, for
ground mounted signs and horizontally side by side for overhead signs.

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4.2.3

AMOUNT AND CONSISTENCY OF SIGNS

It is the aim of the Municipality to reduce costs associated with road works as well as the visual clutter that can result
from the multiplicity of signs in close proximity. With this in mind, efforts should be made to incorporate supplemental
signs into large trail blazing signs as illustrated in Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3 below.

It is also preferred, in the case of closely spaced regulatory and warning signs, to mount the signs on a common
support, particularly if their messages are associated. In such cases, regulatory signs should be mounted above
warning signs.
With regards to the consistency of sign installations, sign poles should be hot dipped galvanised and painted grey,
apart from the fire hydrant poles which shall be painted red.

4.2.4

SIZE OF LETTERING

Before drivers can read the legend on a guide sign they first have to see the sign. This function of the effectiveness of
the visibility of traffic signs generally is referred to as their conspicuity. Therefore, the likelihood of detection of a guide
sign is affected by:
The size, shape, and colour of the sign.
The brightness of the sign.
The contrast between the sign and its environment.
The location of the sign in relation to the line of sight of the driver.
The time a driver needs, and actually has available, to search for the sign in terms of road geometry, vehicle
speed, traffic volumes, the presence of other signs, and other competing visual stimuli.
The angle of the drivers line of sight to the sign.

Once a sign has been detected its long range attributes allow for its identification and function recognition. The
brightness of a sign is termed its luminance. Guide signs need to have adequate luminance both by day and by night.
Night-time luminance is improved by the use of retro-reflective materials.
Retro-reflective materials are more effective at small entrance and observation angles. This means that the sign legend
needs to be legible at small observation angles which, in turn, means at some distance from the sign. This requirement
affects the size of lettering and symbols used for the legend. It also means that there is a closer point, still some
distance from the sign, after which it is considered that the observation angle is too great and legibility is no longer
effective.

Figure 4-2: Current Practice

These sign characteristics affect the time for which the sign may be observed, and therefore for which it may be
readable, within the time between when the lettering becomes legible and when the observation angle becomes too
great. This time can be extended by using a larger letter size which makes the letters legible earlier while maintaining
the same cut-off to the reading time when the observation angle limit is reached.
The legibility of the lettering (and symbols) used on guide signs and particularly direction signs are affected by the
following factors:
The sign mounting position, i.e. ground
mounted or overhead.
The sign mounting height.
The letter style, spacing, size, and stroke
width.
The legibility factor (0.6m of legibility
distance per millimetre of lowercase x
letter height).
The visual acuity of drivers.
Figure 4-3: Recommended Practice

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The drivers workload and surrounding


distractions that compete for his attention.
The approach speed of traffic.
The amount of information displayed on the
sign.
The luminance (daytime) and retroreflectivity (night-time) contrast ratio
between the sign legend and background.
The ambient light levels (particularly street
and advertising lighting).

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Legibility can be defined simply as the ability to read a text message or accurately determine the form of a symbolic
message. In this respect, for the long-range legibility required by drivers, the most critical element must be the smallest
or thinnest element. This critical design element can be one or all of the following:
Letter font style.
Letter stroke width

Table 4-5
Recommended x Heights for Guide Signs

Letter and line spacing.


Fine details of a symbol.

Posted Speed (kph)


Sign Type

If all other factors are constant, as a general rule, increasing the size of the critical element will increase the legibility
distance of the sign message.
Typically the finest or most critical element for guide sign lettering is the stroke width. There are several letter styles
which have been designed with characteristics required for use on a direction sign. These characteristics are:
Greater surface area and therefore target
value.
Usable with higher grades of retro-reflective
material with minimal risk of over glow or
bleeding.

Primary Guide Signs

Lowercase letter height = 1.0x


Stroke width = 0.2x
Uppercase letter height = 1.4x

For a given letter style and letter height a driver with a normal visual acuity of 1 (visual acuity is a measure of a drivers
ability to focus on fine objects) will be able to read the letters at a specific distance. This distance is known as the
legibility distance.
For the purpose of determining the letter sizes recommended in Table 4-5, a legibility index of 0.6m of legibility
distance per millimetre of lowercase x letter height has been adopted for English and Arabic letters and characters.
This means that English letters 100mm high and Arabic letters based on an aleph 140mm high can be read by the
normal driver from 60m.

60

40

300

300

250

200

200

Ground Mounted

300

125

100

100

75

Stack

300

125

100

100

75

Symbol Only

300

250

150

125

100

300

250

200

200

N/A

At Roundabout

N/A

125

100

100

75

At Intersection

N/A

125

125

100

100

At Freeway Ramp

250

150

150

120

120

Route Markers

300

250

200

150

150

General Information Signs

250

150

150

100

100

Chevron Direction Signs

English text background tile height = 2.0x


Aleph height of equivalent Arabic text = 1.4x
Arabic text background tile height = 2.8x

80

Overhead

Gore Exit Signs

The Arabic and English letter styles specified in this manual maximise the above characteristics. The following are the
more important dimensional characteristics of lettering based on the x, or lowercase, English letter height:

100

x Heights (mm)

Supplemental Signs
Consistent letter design.
Improved legibility over more creative
styles.
Widely recognised at an international
level.

120

Legibility distances are conventionally quoted in relation to the lowercase or x height of letter because these
constitute the majority of letters used on direction signs. These parameters are subject to ongoing research but the
values accepted are consistent with those used in many other countries. However, it should be noted that some drivers
may have poor visual acuity and that the legibility index at night can be lower than 0.6 m/mm. Under these
circumstances lower legibility distances will result.
Another factor that affects the legibility of letters on direction and other guide signs is the luminance contrast between
the lettering and the sign background. This contrast is expressed as a ratio of light-to-dark colour luminance and is
appropriate during both day and night. Ideally the contrast ratio should be between the ratios of 5 to 1 and 10 to 1. For
symbolic signs with bold symbols the ratio may be as low as 4 to 1 and still be effective. Ratios higher than 10 to 1 run
the risk of creating an over glow or bleeding effect from retro-reflective materials at night, particularly if the
background colour is light and the letter colour is dark. Over glow results in the letter stroke width of a dark letter
being diminished by the glare from the bright colour background. This in turn may affect the letter legibility. High
ambient light levels common under street lighting will reduce this effect significantly and it is less problematic when
vehicle headlights are commonly used in the low beam position (as under street lighting).
Taking into consideration all the factors given above, including the standardization of the amount of destination display,
a range of standard letter sizes has been derived for various guide sign applications. These sizes are listed in Table 45 and should be adhered to. If the amount of information to be displayed on a sign face is increased or it is necessary,
due to exceptional geometric conditions, that the sign must be legible from a greater distance, consideration must be
given to the need to use a larger-than-standard letter size and approval obtained from the Municipality. Figure 4-4
summarises, in equation form, the principles for determining required letter height based on legibility and reading time
criteria.

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4.2.5

SIGN BORDERS

All guide signs should be provided with a contrasting border around the perimeter of the sign with the exception that
when an exclusive exit-only white panel is placed at the bottom of an overhead exit direction sign no border is required
on the white panel. The border colour should be the same as the colour used for place name lettering on the sign.
Sign borders should have the following dimensional characteristics where x is the height of the lowercase lettering
used for the sign:
Width = 0.25x.
Corner radius = 1.0x (to the outer edge of the border).
An internal dividing border should be used to separate the stacks of a stack type direction sign. This border should
have the same width as the outside sign border but should not be provided with radii where it joins the outside border.

4.2.6

INTERNAL SPACING

The sign face layout of all guide signs should adhere to the internal spacings listed below and illustrated in a typical
example in Figure 4-5:

Side space between border and right or left line of justification = 0.5x
Minimum lateral space between a route number emblem and an arrow = 1.0x
Minimum lateral space between text and a Type 5 or Type 8 arrow = 1.0x
Minimum lateral space between text and a symbol or emblem = 0.5x
Vertical space between the top border and nearest legend = 0.5x
Vertical space between the bottom border and nearest legend = 0.5x
Vertical space between an upper row of legend and a lower row of legend on a horizontal stack type sign = 0.5x

The vertical space between Arabic and English text, or between two rows of Arabic or two rows of English text, is
dictated by the letter and number tiles and no additional internal spacing is required.
The horizontal spacing between letters or numbers is also controlled by the letter and number tiles which include the
provision of a blank tile 0.5x wide for use between consecutive words in a line.

Figure 4-4: Principles of Legibility

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Figure 4-5: Typical Internal Spacing Elements on Guide Signs

4.2.7

ARROWS

The following basic types of arrows are used on guide signs:

Chevron arrow.
Stack-type arrow.
Overhead arrows.
Map-type arrow.

The individual types of arrow are detailed below. All arrows have been allocated a Type number including left and
right applications. The arrows should appear in white unless noted otherwise. The standard applications of arrows
Type 1 to Type 8 are illustrated in Figure 4-6.

Figure 4-6: Arrow Type Applications

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4.2.7.1

CHEVRON ARROW TYPES 1 and 2

4.2.7.3

Chevron Arrows Types 1 and 2 are used on CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 to indicate the action point for a left or
right turn at an at-grade junction.

4.2.7.2

STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 3

Stack Sign Arrows Types 4 and 5 may be used on ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511, ADVANCE VERTICAL
STACK sign 512, and ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 to indicate the direction in which drivers must turn at the
junction ahead in order to reach the destination named in the stack in which the arrow is located.
However, certain site specific conditions may require a departure from these parameters and guidelines. Such
variations may only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

4.2.7.4

Stack Sign Arrow Type 3 should only be used pointing straight upwards. The arrow is used on ADVANCE
HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 and ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 to indicate that drivers must travel
straight-on through the junction ahead to reach the destination named in the stack. When used on sign 512 a Type 3
arrow should only be used in the top stack.
However, certain site-specific conditions may require a departure from these parameters and guidelines. Such
variations may only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

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STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 6

Stack Sign Arrow Type 6 should only be used pointing to the left. The arrow is used on ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL
sign 514 to indicate that drivers must execute a U-turn at the next opportunity in order to reach the destination named
in the stack. In such an instance drivers are likely to see a further sign 514 shortly after the U-turn indicating a right turn
into a side road.

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4.2.7.5

The Type 8 arrow may also be used on ground mounted SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 on a freeway to indicate that
the high speed exit a short distance ahead may be used to reach the supplemental destination named on the sign.

DOWNWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 7

Left hand exits from a through route are to be avoided. However, where such do occur, the Type 8 arrow should be
inclined towards the left and moved to the left side of ground mounted signs.

4.2.7.7

MAP ARROW TYPE 9

Downward Pointing Arrow Type should only be used on an overhead direction sign at the bottom of the sign pointing
straight downwards. The arrow is used on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 and ONGOING DIRECTION sign
553 to indicate that drivers may use the lane over which the arrow is centred to reach the destination, or one of the
destinations, named in the sign above the arrow.
When signs 553 and 551 are mounted next to each other there should be one Type arrow centred over each lane. If
one lane is a shared exit lane and ongoing lane the arrow over the lane should appear on the ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551. If one or more of the lanes indicated on sign 551 is an exclusive exit lane (in other words the
lane is dropped from the ongoing path) the Type arrow should appear in black on a white background panel at the
bottom of the sign together with the word ONLY in Arabic and English.

4.2.7.6

UPWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 8


Map Arrow Type 9 should only be used pointing straight upwards so that the entry path to the diagram is located at the
bottom of the sign. The arrow may only be used on ADVANCE MAP sign 513 to indicate to drivers that the roundabout
junction ahead has more than four exit roadways and/or is of an irregular shape.
Map Arrow Type 9 should be custom designed to suit the geometric configuration of the junction it describes.

4.2.8

ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS

There are two types of numbered routes, namely:


Emirate Routes which may extend from one emirate to another or may connect towns and cities within an emirate,
and
Abu Dhabi Routes, which lie primarily within the Abu Dhabi urban area and/or provide significant access to
Emirate Routes.

Upward Pointing Arrow Type 8 may be used on a ground mounted or overhead exit direction sign. The arrow should be
located on the right side of ground mounted signs and at the bottom of overhead signs. The arrow is used on an
overhead EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 to indicate to drivers that use of the lane or lanes over which the arrow is located
will allow them to leave the grade-separated route by means of a high speed exit to reach the destination, or one of the
destinations, named on the sign above the arrow.

The different routes are identified on the relevant direction and route marker signs by exclusive route number emblems.
The number of the route is indicated within the emblem so that the route identification is located at the top of the
emblem in English and Arabic and the route number located below these letters in English numerals only. The overall
sizes of the emblems are 4 x high by 3 x wide.

If one or more of the lanes indicated on sign 552 is an exclusive exit lane the Type 8 arrow should appear in black on a
white background panel at the bottom of the sign together with the word ONLY in Arabic and English.
The Type 8 arrow is also used on ground mounted GORE EXIT signs 554, 555 and 556 to indicate to drivers the action
point for the high-speed exit.

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4.2.8.1

The Abu Dhabi Route emblem should appear on all ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511, ADVANCE
VERTICAL STACK sign 512, and ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, EXIT DIRECTION sign 552, ONGOING
DIRECTION sign 553, CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515, ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER sign 502 and ABU DHABI
ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER sign 506, which indicate an approved control destination on an Abu Dhabi Route. The emblem
should always have a green background within a white frame and the route identification letters and the route number
should be yellow.

EMIRATE ROUTE EMBLEM

The emblem should always be to the left of the destination name except on ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511
when the emblem should share the top row of the sign with the appropriate stack-sign arrow.
Certain site-specific conditions may require a departure from these parameters and guidelines. Such variations may
only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

4.2.9

SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS

Supplemental destination signs may be used to present additional guidance information to drivers as and when this
may be warranted. As a result, supplemental destination signs are only used occasionally. The information displayed
therefore does not relate to approved orientation control destinations which appear on normal direction signs.
The Emirate Route emblem should appear on all ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511, ADVANCE VERTICAL
STACK sign 512, ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, EXIT DIRECTION sign 552, ONGOING DIRECTION sign
553, CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515, EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER sign 501, and EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER
signs 505, which indicate an approved control destination on an Emirate Route.
The emblem should always have a blue background within a white frame and the route identification letters and the
route number should be yellow.
The emblem should always be to the left of the destination name except on ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511
when the emblem should share the top row of the sign with the appropriate stack-sign arrow (see Sections 4.5 and 5.6
for examples of typical guide signs showing route number emblems).

The most common application of supplemental destination signs is to display information related to tourist destinations.
See Table 4-2 for a list of locations eligible for supplemental destination signing.
The symbols approved for use on supplemental destination signs are illustrated in Figure 4-7. The symbol should
appear on the left side of the sign and should be followed by the destinations full name in Arabic and English
irrespective of the direction indicated by the arrow. Thus if a specific beach is to be identified it should be displayed in
the form:

symbol Al Raha Beach

However, certain site specific conditions may require a departure from these parameters and guidelines. Such
variations may only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

4.2.8.2

The symbol should be provided in black on a square white background. Some approved supplemental destinations do
not have a corresponding symbol and should be signed using only Arabic and English text.

ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM

Approval for the signing of any five-star hotel must be obtained from the Municipality prior to implementation.

SPACE RESERVED FOR FUTURE ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM

Any new supplemental symbols that may be designed from time to time should embody the principles described
earlier. The use of thin critical elements and fine detail should be avoided as this will not assist long range recognition
of the symbol.

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Figure 4-7: Approved Supplemental Destination Symbols

4.3
4.3.1

ROUTE MARKER SIGNS


USE OF ROUTE MARKER

A route marker sign is a confirmatory guide sign that provides reassurance to motorists that they are on their intended
route (or conversely to advise them that they have taken a wrong turn and are not on the route that they planned to be
on).
Under the Abu Dhabi guide signing system the ongoing routes at all intersections will be signed with the route number
as part of the primary advance guide signing. This is true for at-grade junctions (signalised intersections and
roundabouts) and for grade-separated interchanges. Thus, every time a motorist travelling on a route approaches a
junction, he will receive confirmation of the route he is on.
As such, route marker signs are not required to be used after every junction, but only when the distance between
junctions is considerable. On rural roads where junctions with numbered routes are infrequent, a route marker should
be erected if the distance between primary guide signs containing the emblem of the ongoing route are spaced more
than 2.0km apart. In such a case a route marker should be erected approximately 2.0km after the junction, and every
10km thereafter, up to a point not less than 2.0km before the next primary guide sign that contains the emblem of the
ongoing route.
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Figure 4-8: Use of Route Marker Signs


On urban roadways where there is more turning traffic at major junctions as well as more entering traffic from minor
roads between major junctions, a more frequent spacing of route markers is desirable. On urban roads a route marker
should be erected if the distance between primary guide signs containing the emblem of the through route are located
more than 2.0km apart. In such a case a route marker should be erected approximately 500m after the junction, and
every 2.0km thereafter, up to a point not less than 1.0km from the next primary guide sign that contains the emblem of
the through route.

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Figure 4-8 illustrates both of the above principles.

4.3.2

EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER SIGN 501

4.4
4.4.1

TRAILBLAZING SIGNS
USE OF TRAILBLAZING

Trailblazing is used to provide a localised supplement to the control destination based guide-sign system. The
concept of trailblazing can be applied to a specific destination or type of destination and it may even be applied to
direct drivers towards a route. The concept involves providing strategically located compact supplemental stack type
trailblazing signs to indicate to drivers the direction to be taken in order to reach one of the following specific types of
destination:

Airport.
City centre.
An Emirate Route (by number).
An Abu Dhabi Route (by number).

A supplemental
destination.
A freeway.
A parking area.

(tourist

or

service)

While all of these destinations may appear on primary or supplemental direction signs there are occasions when it may
be necessary to indicate the direction to such a type of destination when the use of normal direction signs is not
appropriate, or impossible due to space limitations.

EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER sign 501 should be the Emirate Route emblem mounted alone. The sign should be 3.0 x
wide by 4.0 x high, and with an x height as given in Section 4.2.4.
The Emirate Route Emblem should have a white background, a blue icon, and yellow text.

4.3.3

ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER SIGN 502

Trailblazing signs display only a stack type arrow, one of Types 3, 4, 5 or 6 together with a symbol. (When geometric
conditions require, an upward pointing slanted arrow may be used. A Type 3 arrow placed at 45 degrees is suitable for
this purpose.) The signs should be located in advance of an intersection, roundabout or recognised U-turning lane.
They will normally be used to indicate a turn but, in the event that drivers may be confused, for whatever reason, about
the correct direction to take, an ongoing indication may be given, when appropriate, using a Type 3 arrow. The signs
should preferably not be used in addition to normal direction signs at a junction although in one or two specific
instances this may be acceptable.
Once a trailblazing sign has been used, further trailblazing signs must be provided at all decision points until the
destination indicated has been reached, or until the message concerned becomes part of the information displayed by
the normal control-destination-based guide-sign system.

SPACE RESERVED FOR FUTURE SIGN 502

There are specific circumstances for each of the types of trail blazer identified above in terms of which an appropriate
trailblazing sign may be used. These circumstances are detailed in the following sections.
The trail blazer signs that follow should have blue, green, or white background colour appropriate for the type of route
which they are located.

4.4.2

ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER sign 502 should be the Abu Dhabi Route emblem mounted alone. The sign should be
3.0 x wide by 4.0 x high, and with an x height as given in Section 4.2.4.

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AIRPORT TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 503

AIRPORT TRAILBLAZING sign 503 is used to direct drivers from areas commonly frequented by visitors to Abu Dhabi
towards the airport. The sign should be used in a similar manner to ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514.

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Sign 503 may be used on an Emirate Route, an Abu Dhabi Route, or a lesser unnumbered route. It therefore may be
used with or without normal control destination direction signs, unless such a direction sign already has the Airport as a
trail blazed symbol. Once sign 503 has been used it should continue to be provided at all decision points unless the
symbol appears on a direction sign.

4.4.4

EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 505

The Sign 503 should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the roadway, up to 160m from the
junction, with due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor road intersections.
When the sign is for a left turn movement from a divided roadway it may be beneficial to locate the sign on the median
island, particularly if a U-turn movement is called for.
The icon should be positioned so that it points in the same direction as the arrow used on the sign.
The Airport icon may also be used as a trailblazing component on primary direction signs. See each specific sign for
use locations.
The position of the arrow and icon should be reversed for right turns.
Sign 503 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the Airport icon in black on a white square background, all on a blue background and a white
border.
Sign 7503 should be used for temporary applications, and should be as sign 503 but with a yellow background as well
as a black arrow and border.

4.4.3

CITY CENTRE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 504

EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER sign 505 is used to direct drivers towards an Emirate Route when direction signs
are not otherwise in use or appropriate. As Emirate Routes have limited points of access, it occasionally necessary to
assist drivers in finding a route or street which intersects with the Emirate Route.
Sign 505 should therefore only be used at a local level to assist drivers in finding their way upwards in the street
network. Once used, the sign should be repeated at decision points until such time as the appropriate Emirate Route
emblem appears on a normal Advance Direction sign with the appropriate control destinations. It may also be
beneficial to use Sign 505 on parallel routes to Emirate Routes.
The sign should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the roadway, up to 160m from the junction,
with due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor side road intersections.
Sign 505 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the relevant Emirate Route Emblem, on a blue background and a white border.
Sign 7505 should be used for temporary applications, and should be as sign 505 but with a yellow background as well
as a black arrow and border.
The Emirate Route Emblem displayed on sign 505 and sign 7505 should include the specific number of the Emirate
Route being trail blazed.

4.4.5

ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 506

SPACE RESERVED FOR FUTURE SIGN 506


CITY CENTRE TRAIL BLAZER sign 504 is used within the general vicinity of the city centre, i.e. at a local level, to
direct drivers towards what is considered to be the popular core of the business area. As such, the sign may only be
displayed after the city centre message has appeared as a control destination on direction signs.
Sign 504 should be located in a side mounted position on the right side of the pavement, up to 160m from the junction,
with due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any other minor side road intersections.
Sign 504 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the City Centre icon in black on a white square background, all on a blue background and a
white border.
Sign 7504 should be used for temporary applications, and should be as sign 504 but with a yellow background as well
as a black arrow and border.

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ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER sign 506 may be used to direct drivers towards a numbered Abu Dhabi Route
when direction signs are not otherwise in use or appropriate. Sign 506 should therefore only be used at a local level
within a community to assist drivers in finding their way upwards in the street network. However, there are some
instances where exceptions to this rule can be permitted. The most notable exception would be on the approach to a
minor junction with an unnumbered route where the driver merely requires a confirmation that the Abu Dhabi Route
continues in a straight ahead direction. The use of sign 506 may be particularly appropriate within a community when
there is some facility of importance which tends to attract visitors from outside the community.

4.4.7

FREEWAY TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 508

The sign should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the street, up to 160m from the junction, with
due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor side road intersections. The route emblem
displayed on the sign should include the specific number of the Abu Dhabi Route being trail blazed.

4.4.6

SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 507


FREEWAY TRAIL BLAZER sign 508 is used as a general trail blazer sign indicating a direction which may be taken in
order to intersect and join a freeway.
Sign 508 may be used as an alternative to EMIRATE ROUTE TRAIL BLAZER sign 505 when the use of the latter sign
might cause confusion with other Emirate Route Emblems on other guide signs. The use of sign 508 is appropriate at a
local level or on Abu Dhabi Routes, particularly in an area close to a freeway and when the route or street concerned
runs more or less parallel to the freeway.

SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL BLAZER sign 507 is used to carry on a basic supplemental destination
message which has already appeared on an ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514. Once a supplemental message
has been given by Sign 514, in the form of an approved supplemental symbol plus the primary name of the facility,
subsequent signs at decision points up to the final turn to the facility should be Sign 507.
The signs should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the roadway, up to 160m from the junction,
with due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor side road intersections. When the sign is for
a left turn movement from a divided roadway it may be beneficial to locate the sign on the median island, particularly if
a U-turn is called for. In this latter case a Type 6 arrow should be used.

The signs should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the roadway, up to 160m from the junction,
with due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor side road intersections. When the sign is for
a left-turn movement from a divided roadway it may be beneficial to locate the sign on the median island, particularly if
a U-turn is called for.
Sign 508 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the Freeway icon in black on a white square background, all on a blue background with a white
border.
Sign 7508 should be used for temporary applications and should be as sign 508 but with a yellow background as well
as a black arrow and border.

4.4.8

PARKING TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 509

The symbol or symbols (maximum of two) displayed on the sign should only be approved supplementary destination
symbols which have appeared on one or more preceding ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL signs 514. In other words,
additional supplemental symbols should not be introduced using sign 507 without prior appearance on sign 514.
Sign 507 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the Destination Sign icon in black on a white square background, all on a brown background and
white border.

PARKING TRAIL BLAZER sign 509 is used locally to direct drivers towards a designated parking area or car park.
Sign 509 should be used for permanent applications and should comprise the appropriate white Type 3, 4, 5, or 6
arrows together with the parking icon in white on a blue background. The sign should have a white border.
Sign 7509 should be used for temporary applications and should be as Sign 509 but with a yellow background as well
as black arrows and border. In addition, the parking symbol should be isolated from the yellow background.

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4.5
4.5.1

4.5.2.4

AT-GRADE JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS


TYPES OF AT-GRADE JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS

Information relevant for changing direction to the left, going straight ahead, or changing direction to the right should be
displayed in three separate stacks, arranged horizontally from left to right, for a crossroad or roundabout and in two
separate stacks for a T-junction. The left-turn stack should always be leftmost and the right-turn stacks the rightmost.

The following types of guide sign may be specified for use in advance of, at, or within at-grade junctions:

ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign (overhead mounted), or


ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN (ground mounted), or
ADVANCE MAP sign.
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign.
CHEVRON DIRECTION sign.

All approaches to junctions between two Emirates or Abu Dhabi routes should be provided with each of the above sign
types with the exception of the ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign, which is optional. Details of the signs, their
functions, applications, locations, and the information that may be displayed are given in the following sections.
However, certain site-specific conditions may require a departure from the parameters and guidelines specified in the
following sections. Such variations can only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.

4.5.2

ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK SIGN 511

4.5.2.1

FUNCTION

To indicate the routes and control destinations at the end of each route and intermediate destinations, where
applicable, that can be reached by turning left or right, or continuing ahead.
To assist drivers in selecting the most appropriate lanes for the manoeuvres they wish to make at the junction
ahead.

4.5.2.2

APPLICATION

As overhead signs on routes with traffic volumes and/or number of lanes warranting overhead advance signs and as
follows:
In advance of signalised at-grade intersections.
In advance of signalised or unsignalised roundabouts.

4.5.2.3

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Direction Arrow.
Hooked Type 4 or 5 arrows facing in the appropriate direction should be displayed in the left and right turn
stacks. An upward pointing Type 3 arrow should be placed in the ongoing movement stack.
o Vertical placement:
 At the top of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Left turn and ongoing movement: left justified in stack.
 Right turn: right justified in stack.
Route Number Emblem.
One route number emblem should be displayed for each direction of travel for which a route number has been
allocated.
o Vertical placement:
 At the top of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Left turn and ongoing movement: right justified in stack.
 Right turn: left justified in stack.
Control destination.
One control destination and one intermediate destination should be displayed for each direction of travel for
which a route number has been allocated. If one of the turning movements does not have a route number and
control destination, the street name or number should be substituted for the control destination.
o Vertical placement:
 At the bottom of the sign, with Arabic legend above the English.
o Horizontal placement:
 All stacks:
Arabic text in the bottom row is right justified on the route number emblem or Type 5
arrow in the top row, and English text in the bottom row is left justified on the Type 3 or 4
arrows or route number emblem in the top row.
City centre symbol.
The symbol will be used only with a route that has Abu Dhabi City Centre as a control destination. If a city centre
symbol is used it should be considered as an integral part of the relevant line of text.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right justified in stack.
Airport symbol.
The symbol will be used only on a route that is trail blazed to the airport.
o Placement:
 Centred between the direction arrow and route number emblem in the top row.

LOCATION

Overhead on gantries (placed centrally over the roadway).


Up to 250m in advance of the intersection or roundabout.
With due regard to the position of any minor side road intersection.
Not less than 175m after the previous junction of numbered routes.
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4.5.3

ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN 512

4.5.3.1

FUNCTION

To indicate the routes and control destinations at the end of each route that can be reached by turning left or right,
or continuing ahead.
To assist drivers in selecting the most appropriate lanes for the manoeuvres they wish to make at the junction
ahead.

4.5.3.2

APPLICATION

As side-mounted signs on routes with traffic volumes and/or a number of lanes that do not warrant overhead advance
signs and as follows:
In advance of signalised at-grade intersections.
In advance of signalised or unsignalised roundabouts.

4.5.3.3

LOCATION

Ground mounted on the right side of the roadway.


Up to 250m in advance of the intersection or roundabout.
With due regard to the position of any minor side-road intersection.
Not less than 175m after the previous junction of numbered routes.

4.5.3.4

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Information relevant for going straight ahead or changing direction to the left or to the right should be displayed in three
separate stacks, arranged vertically, from top to bottom, for a crossroad or roundabout, and in two separate stacks for
a T-junction. The straight-ahead stack should always be uppermost and the right turn stacks the lowermost.

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Direction arrow.
An upward pointing Type 3 arrow should be placed in the ongoing movement stack. Hooked type 4 or 5 arrows
facing in the appropriate direction should be displayed in the left and right turn stacks.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Ongoing and left turn: left justified in each stack.
 Right turn: right justified in stack.
Route number emblem.
One route number emblem should be displayed for each direction of travel for which a route number has been
allocated.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Ongoing and left turn: left justified on Type 3 or Type 4 arrows.
 Right turn: left justified with route number emblem(s) in other stack(s) above.
Control destination.
One control destination and one intermediate destination (where applicable) should be displayed for each
direction of travel for which a route number has been allocated. If one of the turning movements does not have a
route number and control destination, the street name or number should be substituted for the control
destination.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in the stack with the Arabic legend above the English.
o Horizontal placement:
 All stacks:
Arabic text is right justified on right turn Type 5 arrow. If the sign does not require a right
turn stack, as at a T-junction from the left, the Arabic text should be justified on the right
edge of the sign. The English text is left justified on the route number emblems.
City centre symbol.
The symbol will only be used with a route that has Abu Dhabi City Centre as a control destination.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Ongoing and left turn: right justified in stack.
 Right turn: right justified on Type 5 arrows.
Airport symbol.
The symbol will be used only on a route that is trail blazed to the airport.
o Placement:
 Centred between the direction arrow and route number emblem in the top row.

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4.5.4

ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513

4.5.4.1

FUNCTION

To indicate the routes and control destinations at the end of each route that can be reached by turning left or right
or by continuing ahead.
To assist drivers in selecting the most appropriate lanes for the manoeuvres they wish to make at the junction
ahead.

4.5.4.2

APPLICATION

As ground-mounted signs in advance of junctions with nonstandard or irregular geometry such as a roundabout that is
enlarged into a noncircular shape and/or has more than four exit roadways. This type of sign should only be used in
exceptional circumstances and will require a significant side space to accommodate its size.

4.5.4.3

LOCATION

Ground mounted on the right side of the roadway.


Up to 250m in advance of the junction.
With due regard to the position of any minor side road intersection.
Not less than 175m after the previous junction of numbered routes.

4.5.4.4

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Information relevant to changing direction or going straight ahead should be displayed in line with the pointed arrow
legs of the map Type 9 arrow representing an exit path from the junction.

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Map direction arrow.


The map direction arrow Type 9 should represent the shape of the complex junction as closely as is practical with
one pointed arrow leg for each exit path from the junction, EXCLUDING the reverse path to the direction of entry
to the junction. (Although the example illustrated shows a form of roundabout other shapes of map direction
arrow may be considered. In such a case the sign design should be customised to the specific map direction
arrow shape following the general principles stated for the example.)
o Vertical placement:
 At the bottom of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 In the middle of the sign between the right and left destinations.
Route number emblem.
One route number emblem should be displayed for each direction of travel for which a route number has been
allocated.
o Vertical placement:
 Ongoing movement: above and to the left of the relevant arrow leg(s) and centred vertically on
the Arabic and English text (see also Control Destination).
 Left- and right-turn movements: centred on the left and right turn arrow legs.
o Horizontal placement:
 Ongoing movement: to the left of the control destination name.
 Left-turn movement: justified on the left side of the sign.
 Right-turn movement: left justified on the right turn arrow leg.
Control destination.
One control destination and one intermediate destination (where applicable) should be displayed for each
direction of travel for which a route number has been allocated. If one of the turning movements does not have a
route number and control destination, the street name or number should be substituted for the control
destination. If the control destinations in one direction are more than two destinations (e.g., A1 Sila, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia), the sign should display only two of those control destinations along with an intermediate destination for a
maximum of three destinations.
o Vertical placement:
 Ongoing movement: above the relevant arrow legs with Arabic text over English text.
 Left and right-turn movement: centred on the left and right turn arrow legs respectively with
Arabic text over English text.
o Horizontal placement:
 Ongoing movement: the block comprising the route number emblem and the Arabic and English
text should be centred over the relevant arrow leg. If there should be more than one ongoing exit
path from the junction the relevant blocks comprising the route number emblem and English and
Arabic text should be moved off-centre on the arrow legs until sufficient space exists between the
two blocks that their proximity will not be confusing.
 Left and right-turn movements: left justified on the route number emblem (see below).
 All movements: the English text should be left justified on the route number emblem and the
Arabic text right justified on the right hand end of the English text, UNLESS the Arabic text is
longer than the English text in which case both Arabic and English text should be left justified on
the route number emblem.
City centre symbol.
The symbol will only be used with a route that has Abu Dhabi City Centre as a control destination.
o Placement:
 To the right of the destination name and centred vertically on the Arabic and English legends.
Airport symbol.
The symbol should not be used ordinarily on this sign. Separate trail blazed signing should be used.

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4.5.5

ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL SIGN 514

4.5.5.1

FUNCTION

To indicate approved supplemental destinations either in addition to standard advance direction signs or on their
own at junctions that do not warrant standard advance direction signs.
To assist drivers who are unfamiliar with Abu Dhabi in finding their way from a numbered route to the non-control
supplemental destination being sought.

4.5.5.2

APPLICATION

As ground-mounted signs on routes in close proximity to the facility indicated on the sign as follows:
In advance of signalised or unsignalised at-grade intersections.
In advance of signalised or unsignalised roundabouts.
In advance of a U-turn.

4.5.5.3

LOCATION

Ground-mounted on the right side of the roadway UNLESS the sign is for a left turn or U-turn movement and the
median island is wide enough to safely accommodate the sign, in which case the sign may be located on the left
side of the roadway in a one-way roadway or dual carriageway.
Up to 160m in advance of the intersection or roundabout between sign 511 (or 512 or 513) and the junction, or up
to 160m in advance of the U-turn.
With due regard to the provision of any minor side road intersection.

4.5.5.4

The approved symbol should be used with the primary or identifying name for the facility. If more than one facility
of the same type exists in one direction up to two names may be used with one symbol (see Approved
Supplemental Destination below). Two different symbols, for two different types of supplemental destination, may
be displayed with their appropriate primary names in one stack.
o Vertical placement:
 One symbol: centred in the stack
 Two symbols: aligned one above the other, centred in the stack so that the spaces between
borders and symbols, and between symbols, are equal.
o Horizontal placement:
 Left turn and U-turn: left justified on Type 4 and Type 6 arrows.
 Right turn: left justified on edge of sign, UNLESS both left and right turn stacks are required, in
which case both left and right stack symbols should be left justified on the Type 4 arrow in the left
turn stack.
Approved supplemental destination.
The full destination name should be used for all supplemental destinations, along with an approved
supplementary symbol, where it is applicable. When two facilities of the same type occur in one direction, two
names may be used with one symbol. If two different types of facility occur in one direction, two symbols may be
provided within one stack so that one is above the other (see Approved Supplemental Sign Symbol, above).
o Vertical placement:
 One destination: centred in the stack with the Arabic text above the English text.
 Two destinations of the same type: centred in the stack with the two Arabic names above the two
English names.
 Two destinations of different types: each destination centred on the appropriate supplemental
symbol with the Arabic text above the English text for each destination.
o Horizontal placement:
 Left turn and U-turn: Arabic text right justified on the right edge of the sign. English text left
justified on the Supplemental Symbol.
 Right turn: Arabic text right justified on the Type 5 arrow. English text left justified on the
supplemental symbol.

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Information will commonly be displayed in single left or right turn stack signs. Since the function of the sign does not
include orientation, only the directions to approved supplemental destinations are signed. If more than one stack is
required the stack order should be the same as for an ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512.
Direction Arrow.
Hooked type 4, 5, or 6 arrows facing in the appropriate direction should be displayed in the appropriate stack (an
ongoing Type 3 arrow may be used for an ongoing indication in exceptional circumstances where confusion may
otherwise occur).
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Left turn and U-turn: left justified in stack.
 Right turn: right justified in stack.
Approved supplemental sign symbol.

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4.5.6

4.5.6.4

CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN 515

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Information relevant for changing direction to the right or left should be displayed singly in individual CHEVRON
DIRECTION signs.

4.5.6.1

FUNCTION

To indicate the route number and control destination at the end of a route, at the point of turn onto the route (the
action point).
To indicate the point of turn towards a supplemental destination.
To indicate the point of turn towards a local destination.

4.5.6.2

APPLICATION

As ground-mounted signs as follows:


For all exit paths from signalised or unsignalised roundabouts.
For the left and right turn exit paths from a signalised intersection.
For supplemental or local exit paths at minor junctions.

4.5.6.3

LOCATION

Ground mounted on the right side of the roadway for all right turn movements.
Ground mounted on the far left side of a signalised intersection for left turn movements.
Ground mounted on the right side of the roadway for left turn movements without a turning lane and/or for minor
intersecting roads.
Within the gore area of right turning slip roads.

Direction arrow.
Chevron Type 1 or 2 arrows facing in the appropriate direction should be displayed in left and right turn signs.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred on the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right turn: right justified on the sign.
o Left turn: left justified on the sign.
Route number emblem.
One route number emblem should be displayed when a route number has been allocated.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred on the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right turn: left justified on the left edge of the sign.
 Left turn: left justified on the Type 1 arrow.
Control destination.
One control destination and one intermediate destination (where applicable) should be displayed on any
CHEVRON DIRECTION sign displaying a route number symbol.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred on the sign with the Arabic text above the English text.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right turn: Arabic text is right justified on right turn Type 2 arrow and on the right edge of the sign
for left turn signs. The English text is left justified on the route number emblem.
Supplemental symbol and destination.
Same as for route number emblem and control destination (see above).
City centre symbol.
The symbol will only be used with a route that has Abu Dhabi City Centre as a control destination.
o Placement:
 To the right of the destination name and centred vertically on the Arabic and English legends.
Airport symbol.
The symbol may be added to the primary sign or used in a separate CHEVRON DIRECTION sign to trail blaze a
turn to the Airport. When used as a second CHEVRON mounted on the same post, both CHEVRON DIRECTION
signs should be the same size.
o Placement:
 To the left of the route number.
 Centred in the sign when used separately.
Local destination.
One local destination, street name or number, or parking symbol may be displayed if a turning movement does
not have a route number or control destination. Signing of local destinations such as these should be coordinated
with and approved by the Municipality.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred on the sign with the Arabic text above the English text.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right turn: Arabic text is right justified on right turn Type 2 arrow and on the right edge of the sign
for left turn signs. The English text is left justified on the route number emblem.
Use of Sign 515 to indicate a point of turn to a parking area should be limited only to situations where the existence of
the parking area is not obvious, in advance, from the roadway.

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4.6
4.6.1

GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS


TYPES OF GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION GUIDE SIGNS

4.6.2

ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 551

The following types of guide signs may be specified for use on the free-flowing roadway of a grade-separated junction
whether this is on an Emirate Route or an Abu Dhabi Route:

ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign.


EXIT DIRECTION sign.
ONGOING DIRECTION sign.
GORE EXIT sign.
SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign.

A grade-separated junction may occur between two routes which have one of the following characteristics:
Both routes have full access control and all elements of the junction are free flowing and grade separated. Such a
junction between two such freeways does not give access to the at-grade street network and is termed a
systems interchange.
One route is a freeway with full access control and the other is essentially an at-grade road (although it may have
occasional grade-separated junctions) with only limited access control. Such a junction is termed an access
interchange allowing connection between the at-grade street network and a freeway, and vice versa.
Both routes are essentially at-grade routes with limited access control but have selected grade-separated
junctions to improve junction capacity.
The at-grade portion of any of the latter two junction types, including any off-and-on ramps from and to the freeway,
should be signed using conventional at-grade direction signs. However, site-specific roadway geometry may, at times,
require the at grade roadway to be signed using the following sign types to indicate lane assignment. Such variations
can only be implemented with the prior approval of the Municipality.
All free-flowing roadways approaching a grade-separated interchange up to and including the exit ramp gore area
should be provided with at least one of each of the above sign types with the exception of the SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT
sign which is optional.

Figure 4-9: Advance Exit Direction Sign 551

4.6.2.1

FUNCTION

To provide advance indication of destinations served by an exit ramp at the interchange or grade-separated
intersection ahead.
To indicate the lane or lanes that should be followed to reach the exit ramp.

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4.6.2.2

APPLICATION AND LOCATION

4.6.2.3

Overhead on gantries or cantilever supports in advance of single-lane and multiple-lane exit ramps, each with or
without lane drops at an interchange or grade-separated intersection.
On carriageways of freeways/expressways in advance of exit ramps connecting with other freeways/expressways
(systems interchanges), with arterial roads, or streets (access interchanges) to provide the following sequence of
signs:
o Extra forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 for interchanges with other freeways/expressways,
at 2,000m in advance of the theoretical gore (optional sign, recommended for systems interchanges).
Recommended range: 1,800m to 2,300m.
o Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 for all freeway/expressway exits, at 1000m in advance of
the theoretical gore (mandatory). Recommended range: 900m to 1,200m.
o ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 for all freeway exits 500m in advance of the theoretical gore
(optional). Recommended range: 400m to 600m.
On carriageways of arterial roads, approaching exit ramps to other roads at grade-separated intersections, to
provide the following sequence of signs:
o ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551: (optional but recommended for posted speeds less than 80 kph,
mandatory for posted speeds of 80 kph or higher) At 500m in advance of the exit nose. Permissible
range: 250m to 600m, provided that the sign 551 is at least 200m from the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552.
Figure 4-9 shows layouts for typical applications of ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551. The ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign must extend over the exit lanes. Downward pointing arrows indicate the lanes to be followed.
For a single-lane exit, the sign must display the destination information for the route it is leading onto. If the singlelane exit serves both directions of the crossing road the control destination for each direction should be
displayed. When each direction has a different route number, the sign should display the route numbers for both
directions.
If a two-lane exit serves both directions on the crossing road, destination information for both directions should be
displayed.
When a two-lane exit ramp separates into two roadways for different directions within 500m after the exit gore,
then two separate signs should be used, one for each lane. The left-hand sign must display the destination
information for the left-hand branch road. The right-hand sign must display the destination information for the
right-hand branch.
When a grade-separated junction is provided on an Abu Dhabi Route an ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
should be used following the same basic principles as described above.
When a lane on the approaching carriageway ends and becomes the exit ramp (a lane drop), a white panel with
the message EXIT should be displayed at the bottom of the sign over the lane or lanes that are dropped.
In Figure 4-9, the left hand lane has a downward pointing arrow indicating the lane to be used for the exit. However,
there is no white lane drop panel indicating EXIT for this lane. The absence of the lane drop EXIT panel means that the
lane is a shared lane serving the ongoing destination as well as the exit destinations. The lane in fact forms part of the
mainline carriageway.
The fact that a two-lane off-ramp is required indicates that a high volume of traffic will be exiting. The shared lane will
need to carry a significant proportion of the exit ramp traffic. The capacity of a two-lane exit ramp is dependent on the
number of through vehicles that remain in the shared lane. The fewer through vehicles, the higher the capacity of the
exit ramp. Strangers who do not know that they can stay in an optional lane to reach ongoing destinations may move
out of the shared lane into a lane indicated for ongoing destinations. However, most regular users of the interchange
will know that it is not mandatory for them to move out of the shared lane. The regular users will make up the greatest
proportion of users.

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DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

All information relating to routes and destinations displayed on a subsequent EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 should be
displayed on the preceding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign(s) 551. No destinations or routes that are additional to
those displayed on the EXIT DIRECTION sign should be displayed on the ADVANCE EXIT DESTINATION sign(s).
The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTION signs shown in Figure 4-10 correspond to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
signs shown in Figure 4-9. They illustrate the matching of messages on the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs and
EXIT DIRECTION signs.
The policy on the display of each of these items and their placement on the sign are described below and illustrated in
Figure 4-9.
Downward pointing arrow.
One downward pointing Type arrow should be displayed for a single lane exit and two Type arrows should be
displayed for a two-lane exit, as shown in Figure 4-9.
If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrows should be white.
If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit, the arrows indicating the lanes to be dropped should be black (see
lane-drop panel).
o Vertical placement:
 The arrows should be placed at the bottom of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Each arrow should be placed over the centreline of the lane to which it refers with a tolerance to
the left or right of up to 300mm.
Route number emblem.
Only the route number emblem of the route or routes accessed directly from the exit ramp should be displayed.
One route number only should be displayed if the route reached directly has the same route number on both
sides of the interchange. If the route reached directly has different route numbers on each side of the
interchange, and both can be reached from the exit ramp, then both route numbers should be displayed.
o Vertical placement:
 Each emblem should be located centrally on the lines of legend for the Arabic and English
destination names associated with the route number.
o Horizontal placement:
 For single-lane exit ramps, the route number emblem(s) should be placed at the left of the sign.
For two-lane exit ramps, the emblems should be placed adjacent to the destination names on
their left side. The combined emblem and destination name message should be centred between
the borders. If more than two destinations are necessary, it may be more effective to place the
route number emblem centrally with Arabic text to the right, and English text to the left.
Control destination.
A maximum of one control destination and one intermediate destination, where applicable, is permitted for each
direction (left or right) on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551. The upper destination name should be the
control or intermediate destination for the route reached directly from the off-ramp in the direction to the left of the
off ramp.
The lower destination name should be the control or intermediate destination for the route reached directly from
the off ramp in the direction to the right of the off ramp. The signs displayed to drivers travelling on the opposite
approach to the interchange will have the vertical order of the specific destination names reversed.)
If the route reached from the exit ramp provides for travel only to the right or only to the left, then only one control
or intermediate destination should be displayed for the route.

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If the road reached from the ramp has different route numbers on either side of the ramp junction, the appropriate
control or intermediate destination for each route for the direction of travel available from the exit ramp should be
displayed adjacent to the appropriate route number emblem so that the left turn information is placed above the
right turn information.
If the use of intermediate destinations presents difficulties, such as the sign becomes too large or the amount of
information displayed on the sign exceeds the amount that can be comfortably absorbed by the driver (see
Section 4.2), then, in the interests of public safety, the intermediate destinations should be omitted from the sign.
o Vertical placement:
 The Arabic legends should always be displayed above the English legends. When two
destinations are related to one route number, the Arabic right-turn destination name should be
immediately below the Arabic left turn destination name. The two English legends should be
similarly displayed, one immediately below the other, and both below the Arabic legends.
 When two route numbers with one destination each are displayed, the route number emblem and
associated destination legend for the destination to the left at the exit ramp, should be above the
route number emblem and legend for the destination to the right at the exit ramp.
o Horizontal placement:
 The control destination and intermediate destination, where applicable, should be displayed
adjacent and to the right of the associated route number emblem, as shown in Figure 4-9.
 English legend should be left justified and adjacent to the right edge of the route number
emblem.
 Arabic legend should be right justified. The position of the right justification line should be the
furthest right of the following:
The longest English word.
The longest Arabic word, with its left end adjacent to the route number emblem.
 When two route numbers are used, the same right justification for the Arabic destinations should
be used for both route numbers.
Airport symbol.
The airport symbol may be displayed if the route served by the ramp has the airport as a trail blazed destination.

Distance to exit.
The distance to the exit should be displayed in English and Arabic numerals as shown in Figure 4-9. When the
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign has been located within the permissible ranges of distances from the exit,
specified under Application, above, the nominal distances 500m, 1,000m, 2,000m should be displayed. If the
location falls outside the recommended range, the actual distance to the nearest 100m should be displayed. For
distances less than 400m the actual distance may be rounded to the nearest 50m.
When two or more successive exits occur at an interchange, the signs should indicate the different distances. If
the advance sign is located within the recommended range, the nominal distance should be used for the first exit.
The second and subsequent exits should indicate a distance equal to the nominal distance used for the first exit
plus the distances from the first exit to the subsequent exits. All distances should be rounded up to the next
100m.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred approximately on the downward pointing arrow(s).
o Horizontal placement:
 On the left side of the sign to the left of the furthest left downward pointing arrow.
White lane-drop EXIT panel.
If a lane on a mainline carriageway will be dropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panel should be displayed.
The Arabic and English word EXIT should be displayed adjacent to and to the right of a single arrow, with the
Arabic above the English, both centred approximately vertically in the panel. When two lanes are dropped at the
exit, the EXIT panel extends for the full width of the sign. In such a case the word EXIT in Arabic and English
may be displayed centrally between the two downward pointing arrows.
The panel is placed at the bottom of the sign and covers the space occupied by the relevant downward pointing
arrow(s), which should be black. The white panel extends over the lane or lanes to be dropped, from the edge of
the sign to a point above the lane line remote from the edge of the sign. White sign borders adjacent to the panel
should be incorporated into the panel.

4.6.3

EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552

4.6.3.1

FUNCTION

When used the symbol should be located to the left of the route number emblem.
The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the direction in which traffic must travel to reach the airport. For the
ongoing direction the aircraft symbol must point upwards.
City centre symbol.
o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right justified in each stack.

To indicate the location of the exit ramp at an interchange or grade-separated intersection.


To indicate by an arrow configuration the direction of the exit.
To repeat the destination information that has been shown on the preceding advance exit direction signs 551 and
thereby reassure the driver of the destination(s) served.

4.6.3.2

APPLICATION

At single-lane and multiple-lane exit ramps, each with or without lane drops, at interchanges or grade-separated
intersections.
On carriageways of freeways, at exit ramps, connecting with other freeways (systems interchanges) or with
arterial roads or streets (access interchanges).
On carriageways of grade-separated arterial roads at exit ramps to other roads.
Figure 4-10 shows layouts for typical applications of EXIT DIRECTION signs 552. The EXIT DIRECTION sign
must extend over the exit lanes. Upward pointing arrows should be slanted (normally to the right) to emphasise
the change of alignment.
For a single-lane exit, the sign must display the destination information for the route it is leading onto. If the singlelane exit serves both directions of the intersecting crossroad, and each direction has a different route number, the
sign should display the route number emblems for both directions.

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If a two-lane exit serves both directions on the intersecting crossroad, destination information for both directions
should be displayed.
When a two-lane exit ramp separates into two roadways for different directions within 500m after the exit gore,
then two separate signs should be used, one for each lane. The left-hand sign must display the destination
information for the left-hand branch road. The right-hand sign must display the destination information for the
right-hand branch.
When a grade-separated junction is provided on an Abu Dhabi Route an EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 should follow
the same basic principles as described above.
When a lane on the approaching carriageway ends and becomes the exit ramp (a lane drop), a white panel with
the message EXIT should be displayed at the bottom of the sign over the lane or lanes that are dropped.

4.6.3.3

LOCATION

At the theoretical gore, up to 50m after the theoretical gore, or up to 100m in advance of the theoretical gore
provided that the exit lane or lanes have been developed to full lane width.
The sign should be mounted overhead the exit lane or lanes, on gantries or cantilever supports.

4.6.3.4

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

All information relating to routes and destinations displayed on the preceding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551
should be displayed on the subsequent EXIT DIRECTION signs 552. No destinations or routes that are additional to
those displayed on the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs should be displayed on the EXIT DIRECTION signs.
The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTION signs shown in Figure 4-10 correspond to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
signs shown in Figure 4-9. They illustrate the matching of messages on the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs and
EXIT DIRECTION signs.
The policy on the display of each of these items and their placement on the sign is described below and illustrated in
Figure 4-10.
Upward pointing arrow.
One upward pointing arrow Type 8 should be displayed for a single lane exit, and two Type 8 arrows should be
displayed for a two-lane exit, as shown in Figure 4-10. The arrows should be slanted to represent the direction of
the exit ramp (normally at 45 to the right of vertical).
If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrows should be white.
The number of lanes at the exit is determined by the mainline lanes from which it is possible to directly exit the
mainline, not the number of lanes on the off ramp that develop after the theoretical gore.
If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit, the arrows indicating the lanes to be dropped should be black.
o Vertical placement:
 The arrows should be placed at the bottom of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 Each arrow should be placed over the centreline of the lane to which it refers with a tolerance to
the left or right of up to 300mm.
Route number emblem.
Only the route number emblem of the route or routes accessed directly from the exit ramp should be displayed.
One route number only should be displayed if the route reached directly has the same route number on both
sides of the interchange. If the route reached directly has different route numbers on each side of the
interchange, and both can be reached from the exit ramp, then both route numbers should be displayed.
o Vertical placement:
 Each emblem should be located centrally on the lines of legend for the Arabic and English
destination names associated with the route number.
o Horizontal placement:
 For single-lane exit ramps, the route number emblem(s) should be placed at the left side of the
sign, as shown in Figure 4-10. For two-lane exit ramps, the emblems should be placed adjacent
to the destination names on their left side. The combined emblem and destination name
message should be centred between the borders. If more than two destinations are necessary, it
may be more effective to place the route number emblem centrally with Arabic text to the right
and English text to the left.

Figure 4-10: Exit Direction Sign 552

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Control destination
A maximum of one control destination and one intermediate destination, where applicable, is permitted for each
cardinal direction on EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. The upper destination name should be the control or
intermediate destination for the route reached directly from the off ramp in the direction to the left of the off ramp.
The lower destination name should be the control/intermediate destination for the route reached directly from the
off ramp in the direction to the right of the off ramp.
If the route reached from the exit ramp provides for travel only to the right or only to the left, then only one control
or intermediate destination should be displayed for the route.
If the road reached from the ramp has different route numbers on either side of the ramp junction, the appropriate
control or intermediate destination for each route for the direction of travel available from the exit ramp should be
displayed adjacent to the appropriate route number emblem so that the left turn information is placed above the
right turn information.
If the use of intermediate destinations presents difficulties, such as the sign becomes too large, or the amount of
information displayed on the sign exceeds the amount that can be comfortably absorbed by a driver, then, in the
interests of public safety, the intermediate destinations should be omitted from the sign.
o Vertical placement:
 Where Arabic legends and English legends are stacked vertically, the Arabic legends should
always be displayed above the English legends.
 When two destinations are related to one route number, the Arabic right turn destination name
should be immediately below the Arabic left turn destination name. The two English legends
should be similarly displayed, one immediately below the other, and both below the Arabic
legends.
 When two route numbers with one destination each are displayed, the route number emblem and
associated destination legends for the destination to the left at the exit ramp should be above the
route number emblem and legend for the destination to the right at the exit ramp.
o Horizontal placement:
 The control destination and intermediate destination, where applicable, should be displayed
adjacent to the associated route number emblem, to the right of it, as shown in Figure 4-10.
 English legend should be left justified and adjacent to the right edge of the route number
emblem.
 Arabic legend should be right justified. The position of the right justification line should be the
furthest right of the following:
The longest English word.
The longest Arabic word, with its left end adjacent to the route number emblem.
 When two route numbers are used, the same right justification for the Arabic destinations should
be used for both route numbers.
Airport symbol.
The airport symbol may be displayed if the route served by the ramp has the airport as a trail blazed destination.

City centre symbol.


o Vertical placement:
 Centred in each stack.
o Horizontal placement:
 Right justified in each stack.
Lane-drop EXIT panel.
If a lane on a mainline carriageway will be dropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panel should be displayed.
The panel is placed at the bottom of the sign and covers the space occupied by the relevant upward pointing
arrow(s), which should be black. The white panel extends over the lane or lanes to be dropped, from the edge of
the sign to a point above the lane line remote from the edge of the sign. White sign borders adjacent to the panel
should be incorporated into the panel.
The English and Arabic word EXIT should be displayed adjacent to and on the right side of a single arrow, with
the Arabic above the English both approximately centred vertically on the panel. When two lanes are dropped at
the exit the EXIT panel extends for the full width of the sign. In such a case the word EXIT in Arabic and English
may be displayed centrally between the two upward pointing arrows.

When used the symbol should be located to the left of the route number emblem.
The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the direction in which traffic must travel to reach the airport. When the
arrow(s) on EXIT DIRECTION signs are slanted at 45 towards the exit ramp, the aircraft should be slanted at
45 in the same direction, diagonally in its white background panel.

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4.6.4

ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN 553

4.6.4.1

FUNCTION

4.6.4.2

To provide information about the control destination that will ultimately be reached by remaining on the mainline
carriageway, using the through lanes at a point where there is an exit from the mainline carriageway at an interchange
or grade-separated intersection.

APPLICATION

Used on mainline carriageways at interchanges and grade-separated intersections in conjunction with overhead
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551 and overhead EXIT DIRECTION signs 552.
At simple interchanges, it is mandatory to have at least one ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553. For complicated
interchanges, where a high volume of lane changing will be necessary, at least two ONGOING DIRECTION
signs 553 should be applied.

4.6.4.3

LOCATION

Overhead on gantries.
When only one ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 is applied, the preferred location is adjacent to the ADVANCE
EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, when used, at 500m from the theoretical gore. The next and most common, most
effective location is adjacent to the Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 at 1000m from the theoretical
gore.
For more complicated or high volume interchanges, at least two ONGOING DIRECTION signs 553 should be
used. One of these should be at the theoretical gore, adjacent to the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. This is needed
to ensure that drivers can make a final decision about continuing straight on, or exiting. The other sign should be
applied adjacent to the forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, at 1000m ahead of the theoretical gore. If
the available distance ahead of the exit is too short to place a sign at 1,000m in advance, the ONGOING
DIRECTION sign 553 should be placed adjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 at 500m or more
in advance of the exit.
For interchanges on arterial routes at least one ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 should be applied. The preferred
location is adjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551.

4.6.4.4

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

The sign should be positioned over the ongoing lanes and be of sufficient width to display downward pointing arrows
over the centres of all ongoing lanes except optional exit lanes.
Downward pointing arrow.
One downward pointing arrow Type should be displayed over the centre of each lane available for through traffic,
and which is not designated as a shared lane for exiting traffic (the shared lanes will have an ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551 or an EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 over them)
o Placement:
 The arrows should be located at the bottom of the sign, as shown in Figure 4-11. Horizontally,
the arrows should be located over the centre of the lanes concerned, with a tolerance to the left
or right of up to 300mm.
Route number emblem.
Only the route number emblem of the ongoing route should be displayed.
o Vertical placement:
 The route number emblem should be located centrally to the lines of legend for the Arabic and
English destination name associated with the route number, as shown on Figure 4-11.
o Horizontal placement:
 The route number emblem should appear on the left side of the control destination legend, and
adjacent to it. The combined message, consisting of the route number emblem and the control
destination should be centred on the sign, as shown in Figure 4-11. When intermediate
destinations are used in addition to the control destination, it is a more effective use of the
available sign area to place the route number emblem centrally with Arabic text to the right and
English text to the left as indicated in Figure 4-11.
Figure 4-11: Ongoing Direction Sign 553

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Control destination.
The only destination name eligible for display is the control destination and one intermediate destination, where
applicable, designated for the route, in the direction applying to the subject carriageway. The control destinations
for all routes are specified in Table 4-1.

4.6.5

GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 and 556

Where an intermediate control destination has been designated, it should be displayed on Signs 553 from the
beginning of the route, until that destination has been reached. From that point on, the next appropriate
intermediate destination for the route should be displayed along with the control destination.
In the case of some Emirate Routes, the intermediate destination is Abu Dhabi. That destination should be used
until the boundary of the municipal area of Abu Dhabi is reached.
Additional intermediate destinations may at times be required. Such additions may only be implemented with the
prior approval of the Municipality.
A trailblazing airport symbol may also be displayed on sign 553.
o Vertical placement:
 The Arabic legend should be displayed above the English legend.
 Where multiple destinations are used, the Arabic legend should be displayed in a stack on the
right hand side of the sign, and the English legend should be displayed in a stack on the left
hand side of the sign.
o Horizontal placement:
 The control destination should be displayed adjacent to the associated route number emblem
and to the right of it.
 English legend should be left justified and adjacent to the right edge of the route number
emblem.
 Arabic legend should be right justified on the right end of the English legend unless the Arabic
legend is longer in which case it should be left justified on the route number emblem.
 Where multiple destinations are used, the Arabic legend should be displayed in a stack right
justified, to the right of the centrally located route number emblem. The English legend should be
displayed in a stack, left justified, to the left of the centrally located route number emblem.
 The combined message, consisting of airport symbol (if eligible for the route), route number
emblem, and control destination should be centralised on the sign, as shown in Figure 4-11.
Airport symbol.
The airport symbol should be displayed only if the route has the airport as a control destination, or if it is
designated for trailblazing.
The symbol should be placed to the left of the route number emblem, and vertically centred on it.
The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the direction in which traffic must travel to reach the airport. For the
ongoing direction the aircraft must point upward.

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Sign 554

Gore Exit Sign for


Emirate Route

Sign 556

Gore Exit Sign for


Two Branch Exit Ramp

Figure 4-12: Gore Exit Signs 554 and 556

4.6.5.1

FUNCTION

To indicate the physical nose of the exit ramp from the main roadway.
To indicate the physical nose of a split in a ramp.

4.6.5.2

APPLICATION AND LOCATION

At the exit ramps from freeways and arterial roads at interchanges and grade-separated intersections.
Where ramps diverge to form two branches.
Figure 4-12 shows the application at the exit ramp from an Emirate Route.
Figure 4-12 also shows the sign where an exit ramp from an Emirate Route splits into two branches.

4.6.5.3

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Upward pointing arrow or arrows.


For exit ramps from the mainline carriageways of Emirate Routes and Abu Dhabi Routes, one Type 8 arrow
should be displayed on GORE EXIT sign 554. It should be slanted upwards at an angle of 45 to indicate the
direction of the exit ramp as shown in Figure 4-12.
For gores where a ramp splits into two branches, two upward pointing Type 8 arrows should be used on GORE
EXIT sign 556. They should be inclined at 45 to the left and right of vertical, as shown in Figure 4-12
EXIT message.
The English word EXIT with its Arabic translation above should be centred at the top of the sign.

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4.6.6

SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 557

Figure 4-13: Supplemental Exit Sign 557

4.6.6.1

FUNCTION

To provide exit information for supplemental destinations (commonly for tourists). Not eligible for inclusion on the main
direction signs.

4.6.6.2

APPLICATION

4.7

GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS

The signs classified in this group provide additional information to drivers to assist them with their navigational task or
to provide supplementary information with respect to regulatory or warning signs. Neither of the signs in this group
should include an arrow or other directional message.

4.7.1

For exits from freeways or expressways at interchanges or grade-separated intersections.

4.6.6.3

Placement:
 The destinations are displayed as shown in Figure 4-13. The symbol should be displayed on the
left side of the sign, with the Arabic and English destination names adjacent to it on the right
side. For each destination:
 English legend should be left justified and adjacent to the right edge of the associated symbol.
 Arabic legend should be right justified. The position of the right justification line should be the
furthest right of the following:
The longest English word.
The longest Arabic word, with its left end adjacent to the associated symbol.
 When two supplemental destinations are displayed, the destination to the left of the exit ramp
should be above the destination to the right. If both are in the same direction the closer
destination should be at the top.

OFFICIAL VEHICLES ONLY SIGN 584

LOCATION

Normally ground mounted as a stack type sign on the right hand side. May be erected overhead on a cantilever if
necessary due to space restrictions or visibility restrictions.
At the beginning of the taper for the deceleration lane, or in the case of a lane drop 200m to 250m in advance of
the theoretical gore.
On freeways the sign should be at least 200m after the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 that is located
500m in advance of the theoretical gore.
If the sign is mounted overhead on a cantilever it should be at least 250m in advance of the EXIT DIRECTION sign
552. The location should be thoroughly checked to prevent an overhead SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 from
obscuring the visibility of the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. This checking should include plotting the sign on a plan of the
horizontal alignment and on a longitudinal section of the vertical alignment.

4.6.6.4

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Upward pointing arrow.


The upward pointing Type 8 arrow should be displayed on the right side of the sign for a right hand exit ramp.
The arrow should be pointing upward, slanted at an angle of 45 to the right of vertical. It should be centred
vertically on the sign.
Approved supplemental symbol and destination.
A maximum of two supplemental destinations should be displayed on any SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557.
More destinations will significantly increase driver workload by providing too much visual information to read and
comprehend in the short time available before exiting onto the exit ramp.
Only approved symbols illustrated in Figure 4-7 and approved destinations designated in Section 4.1.5 are
eligible for display. If more than two destinations are eligible for display, the Municipality should decide which two
are most important, and only those two should be displayed.

OFFICIAL VEHICLES ONLY sign 584 is used to indicate areas to which access is restricted to authorised official
vehicles only.
The sign is made up of two 900mm by 900mm plates in Arabic and English with the Arabic language plate mounted
above the English language plate.
Both sign plates should have blue backgrounds, white legends and a white border.

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4.7.2

Distances to destinations in Arabic should be located on the left of the sign, and should be right justified. Distances
should be displayed in kilometres (integers). Arabic destinations should be right justified, based on the longest Arabic
or English word being positioned a controlling space to the right of the longest distance displayed.

DISTANCE SIGN 585

English destinations should be left justified, on the left of the sign.


Distances in English should be displayed on the right side, right justified. A controlling distance should be provided
between the longest English or Arabic word and the longest distance displayed.
The sign width will be dictated by the longest English word plus longest distance or the longest Arabic word plus
longest distance.
The colour of this sign should be blue background, white legend and a white border.
In cases where DISTANCE sign 585 and ROUTE MARKER sign 501 appear in approximately the same location,
consideration may be given to displaying both signs together.

4.7.3
4.7.2.1

HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586

FUNCTION

To inform drivers, entering or leaving a city or town, of significant destinations and the corresponding travel distances
to them.

4.7.2.2

APPLICATION

To be used on Emirate Routes only.

4.7.2.3

LOCATION

On the carriageways leading away from Abu Dhabi, 500m beyond the city boundary and approximately every
20km thereafter.
On the carriageways leading to Abu Dhabi, 500m before the city boundary and approximately every 20km
preceding.
Ground mounted on the right-hand side of the carriageway.
A minimum of 500m from any other guide sign, preferably near the midpoint between interchange junctions.

4.7.2.4

HIGH VEHICLE EXIT sign 586 may be used to inform drivers of high vehicles that they are required to exit the roadway
at the next turn off.
The sign should be located in a side-mounted position on both sides of the roadway, up to 160m from the junction, with
due regard to the position of any other direction signs and any minor side road intersections.
Sign 586 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background with a black border and
legend.

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

DISTANCE sign 585 may display up to a maximum of three cities or towns. The names of the cities and the distances
to them should be displayed in Arabic and in English. The Arabic names of the cities or towns should be displayed at
the top of the sign and the English names at the bottom of the sign.

Sign 7586 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black border and
legend.

The top line of each language group should identify the next significant destination along the route and show the
distance to it.
The bottom line in a language group should indicate the name of a control city that has national significance for
travellers using the route. This may also be interpreted as a significant city defining the end of the route.
If there is a city of commercial or tourist importance between these two destinations, its name may be displayed on the
middle line of a language group.

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4.7.4

SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 is used to provide information which supplements the message given on a
regulatory, warning, or temporary traffic management traffic sign without materially altering the meaning of the sign it
supplements.

TEXT SIGN 588

To be used as appropriate with regulatory or warning signs.


SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 should be used with the majority of warning signs in temporary traffic
management environments to enhance the clarity of their message for the following reasons:
Sign 588

Sign 7588

TEXT sign 588 is used to identify the boundary of a suburb/community or to identify the name of a bridge, tunnel, or
other physical feature or to convey a textual message of regulation, warning, or information that cannot otherwise be
conveyed with conventional signs or with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589.
TEXT sign 588 may be used on Emirate Routes or any other appropriate local street.
Ground mounted on the right side of the roadway at the boundary of the suburb or community or within 50m of
such boundary, within the suburb.
At a point within the vicinity of the feature being identified whereby the feature identified is obvious.
As per applicable requirements for locating regulatory, warning, or guide signs.
Information eligible for display on TEXT sign 588 is a limited text message in Arabic and English.
The legend should be displayed with the Arabic legend above the English legend. The sign should be sized from the
longer text component. When this is the Arabic legend, the English legend should be left justified on the end of the
Arabic name. When the English legend is the longer component, the Arabic legend should be right justified on the end
of the English legend.
Sign 588 should be used for permanent applications and should have a white background with a black border and
legend.
Sign 7588 should be used for temporary applications and should have a yellow background with a black border and
legend.

4.7.5

SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 589

The visual clutter of temporary traffic management sites makes it otherwise difficult to correlate the sign with the
situation ahead of which it is warning.
When used on successive signs in a sequence of signs to give drivers a sense of rate of progress or a
"countdown" into the site.
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 is not appropriate with hazard-marker warning signs, only with signs used in
advance of a hazard such as advance warning signs or diagrammatic warning signs placed in advance of the
conditions to which they apply.
It is generally recommended that supplementary plates for use with temporary traffic management signs not be
manufactured in one piece with the relevant sign but are manufactured as separate signs and attached to the same
support as the sign they are supplementing. This will allow the larger warning signs to be reused many times when
they have to be repositioned, simply by changing the supplementary plates.
It shall be always located directly below the primary sign that it is supplementing. It may take the form of a separate
sign plate affixed separately, but to the same post as the primary sign, or it may be incorporated into an enlargement of
the primary sign substrate material.
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 displays, in Arabic over English, only information which falls into one of the
following categories:
A text message comprised of one or two words only, such as School.
An advisory speed at which the hazard forewarned by the primary sign can be negotiated, such as 45kph on a
roadway which otherwise has a higher speed limit.
The distance from the location of the sign to the point where the condition it describes exists, such as 160m.
The distance, beginning at the location of the sign, over which the message of the sign applies, such as For 3
km.
An easily recognised iconic symbol, such as that used to depict no trucks.
The SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign should be the same width as the primary sign which it supplements. A
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign should always have a black border and legend. It should have a white background
when used with Movement Regulation or Warning signs, and a yellow background when used with Temporary traffic
management signs.

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4.7.6

FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 590

4.7.7

GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591

Figure 4-14: Sign 590 with No Stopping Sign 370

FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 590 provides information on the location and identification number of
a fire hydrant.
It may be mounted below NO STOPPING sign 370, as shown in Figure 4-14, to indicate that stopping on roads or
other kerb side areas adjacent to fire hydrants is prohibited.

GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 informs motorists of services available either adjacent to the roadway or at a nearby,
upcoming exit from the roadway. Only services that fulfil the needs of the road user should be shown on general
service signs.

Sign 590 displays the following information, by line:


Services eligible for this sign include:
Fire Hydrant in Arabic.
The zone, sector number, and hydrant number in Arabic.
The letters F. H. for fire hydrant followed by the zone, sector number, and hydrant number in English.
As the Civil Defence Department is responsible for assigning numbers to fire hydrants, these signs should be prepared
in coordination with that agency.

Petrol station.
Mechanic.
Restaurant.
Hotel.
Refreshments

Public telephone.
Hospital (with a physician on duty 24 hours a day).
First aid station (open 24 hours a day).
Major shopping centre.
Mosque.

Sign 590 should have a red background with a white legend.

4.7.7.1

Note that this sign combination is to be mounted on a red pole.

On the approach to the exit to general services, a GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should be placed 2.0km and/or 4.0km
in advance of the exit. An additional sign should be placed within 1.5km of the exit.

LOCATION

General Service signing should only be provided at locations where the road user can return to the roadway and
continue in the same direction of travel. GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 is generally not appropriate at major
interchanges and in urban areas.

4.7.7.2

DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Icons should be placed in rows of three across the sign. No more than six services should be signed on an individual
sign. If more than six services are available at an upcoming exit, two GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should be erected
at an appropriate intervals.
GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should have a blue background and a white border. Within the blue background, iconic
symbols representing specific services should be black (except for the first aid station symbol, which is a red crescent)
on a white background as shown in Figure 4-15.
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As a general rule, the iconic symbols shown in Figure 4-15 should be used only on General Service Sign 591.
However, it is permissible to use a single icon as shown in Figure 4-15 on a typical guide sign if the engineer deems it
would prove useful to drivers.

4.7.9

DO NOT LITTER SIGN 599

DO NOT LITTER sign 599 reinforces the message not to litter at left turn lanes at traffic signal controlled junctions.
Sign 599 should mounted in a vertical position directly to the flat side of the signal foundation such that it will be visible
from the left turn lane.
The sign should have a green background and white legend.

4.8
Figure 4-15: General Services Iconic Symbols
A supplemental plate sign should indicate the distance to the exit. Within 1.5km of the exit, the supplemental plate sign
should not indicate a distance but have an action message such as NEXT RIGHT or SECOND RIGHT. If, from the last
sign indicating general services before the exit, the distance to the next point where services are available is greater
than 16km, an additional supplemental plate sign, NEXT SERVICES XX KM, may be added to the sign.

4.7.8

PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS SIGN 592

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE SIGNS

Municipality parking structures have custom guide signs unique to those structures. Municipality parking structure signs
are to be used at all Municipality parking structures but should not be used for other parking applications.
The signs should have a blue background with a white border and legend. The Municipality coloured icon with white
background is to be provided for signs 595 and 596, and as directed otherwise by the Municipality.

4.8.1

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE TRAIL BLAZER SIGN 595

A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE TRAIL BLAZER sign 595 should be used as a trail blazer sign indicating a
direction to be taken in order to enter an Municipality parking structure.
The signs should be located in a side-mounted position on the right side of the main roadway at the entrance of the
road or ramp leading to the parking structure. Sign placement should be done with due regard to the position of any
other direction signs and any minor side road intersections. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE TRAIL BLAZER
sign 595 should include the parking structure number on its face.
The face of Sign 595 is identical to that of Sign 596. However, Sign 595 is supplemented with a ONE WAY sign 306
mounted on the pole below it, pointing the direction of the car park entrance. Furthermore, Sign 595 is an aluminium
sign panel and is not internally illuminated, as is Sign 596.

PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS sign 592 guides pedestrians to the locations of entrances to pedestrian underpasses.
Sign 592 should be located within 5.0m of the entrance to a pedestrian underpass and in a position to maximise its
visibility for pedestrians from all angles.
If one end of a pedestrian underpass has more than a single point of entrance, and those points are located more than
15m apart, a separate Sign 592 may be installed for each point of entrance. In this case, the signs should be located
as close as possible to the point of entrance.
The sign should have a green background with a white border and legend. The pedestrian icon should be black on a
white background.
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4.8.2

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER SIGN


596

If the opening accommodates three or more entrance lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE sign 597 should be centred above each entrance lane and below MUNICIPALITY PARKING
STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596.
The preceding guidance is applicable whether the opening to the parking structure provides for entrance and exit or for
entrance only.
Sign 597 should be internally illuminated for night-time visibility.

4.8.4

A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be located on the outside and
above the vehicular-access opening to the parking structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE
BANNER sign 596 should be centred over the opening or adjacent openings.
Openings to parking structures may be entrance only, exit only, or a combination of entrance and exit. MUNICIPALITY
PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 is used uniformly in all three of these configurations.
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be internally illuminated for night-time
visibility and should include the parking structure number on its face.

4.8.3

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE SIGN 597

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT SIGN 598

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should be located outside and above the opening allowing exit
from the parking structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should be located as follows:
If the opening accommodates only one exit lane, the sign should be centred above the lane.
If the opening accommodates two exit lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should
be centred between and above the two lanes.
If the opening accommodates three or more exit lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign
598 should be centred above each lane.
Where an exit lane(s) is co-located with an entrance lane(s) at a single opening, MUNICIPALITY PARKING
STRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should be positioned below MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE
BANNER sign 596 at the same level as the entrance lanes MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign
597.
Sign 598 should be internally illuminated for night-time visibility. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign
598 is also used above exit doors on the interior of parking structures. In this application, Sign 598 should be located
and positioned in the same way that it would be on the exterior, except that it is mounted on the interior wall.

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 should be located outside and above the opening
allowing entry to the parking structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 should be
located as follows:
If the opening accommodates only one entrance lane, the sign should be centred above the entrance lane, below
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596.
If the opening accommodates two entrance lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign
597 should be centred between and above the two lanes and below MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596.

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4.9
4.9.1

The effect of using Marking 612 is that once buses are in the bus lane they shall stay in the lane and can only cross the
line into another lane in the case of an emergency, or if directed to do so by a traffic officer. Marking 612 also prohibits
other road users from crossing into the bus lane at any point.

MANAGED LANE SIGNS


BUS LANE SIGN 5004

Bus lanes may be located on the right side of the roadway adjacent to the kerb line, or on a dual carriageway road they
can be located on the left side adjacent to the median provided the service is essentially non-stop, or the median is
wide enough to provide stopping places where passengers can be picked up or dropped off from the right side of the
bus. In the case of a left side bus lane the symbol/lane detail on signs 5004.1, 5004.2, and 5004.3 should be mirrored
and titled 5004.1L, 5004.2L, and 5004.3L.
In general terms sign 5004.2 (or optionally, sign 5004.4 on major arterials or expressways) should be positioned once
per section of road between intersecting side roads. If these sections are long, signs should be repeated at 250m
intervals. Sign 5004.4 should be repeated at approximately 1.0km intervals on a left side long distance express bus
lane on an expressway.
Signs 5004.1 to 5004.3 shall use blue rectangular signage with white borders, bus icons and /legends showing the lane
separation along with Arabic and English text below or above the bus icon reading Bus Lane.
Sign 5004.4 shall have a blue circular shape with a white border, bus icon and downward pointing arrow along with
Arabic and English text above the bus icon reading Bus Lane

4.9.2

TRAM LANE SIGN 5005

BUS LANE signs 5004.1 to 5004.4 indicate to drivers of vehicles that a portion of roadway is reserved as a BUS LANE
for the use of authorised buses only. The use of signs 5004.1 to 5004.4 does not oblige all buses to use the reserved
lane if their route requires otherwise, but the signs do have the effect of that no other class of vehicle may use the
indicated lane.
START OF BUS LANE sign 5004.1 indicates the start of a bus lane on the right (Bus lanes on the left shall be indicated
by a mirrored version Sign 5004.1L). Sign 5004.1 shall be placed 200m from the beginning of the bus lane.
INTERMEDIATE BUS LANE sign 5004.2 indicates the continuity of the bus lane on the right. (Bus lanes on the left
shall be indicated by a mirrored version Sign 5004.2L). Sign 5004.2 shall be placed at 250m intervals along the bus
lane.
END OF BUS LANE sign 5004.3 indicates the end of a bus lane on the right (Bus lanes on the left shall be indicated by
a mirrored version Sign 5004.3L). Sign 5004.3 shall be placed a minimum of 200m from the end of the bus lane.
OVERHEAD BUS LANE sign 5004.4 may be used in place of Sign 5004.2. When used, Sign 5004.4 shall be placed at
the start point of the bus lane.
Signs 5004.1, 5004.2, and 5004.3 shall be used in conjunction with CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 and Bus
EXCLUSIVE USE LANE SYMBOL markings 623 and any other relevant pavement markings determined by the
detailed design of the bus reservation lane.

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TRAM LANE signs 5005.1, 5005.2, and 5005.3 shall define the presence of a lane only open to trams.
If trams use specific lanes (either kerb or median lanes) exclusively, they are to be configured in a similar fashion to
those for bus lanes, as described in the following.
Signs 5005.1 to 5005.3 indicate to drivers that a roadway or lane dedicated for the use of trams or an access to a
facility so signed is reserved for trams only. Although these facilities may be adjacent to the roadway they are not
always part of the road right of way. Notwithstanding this situation, it is appropriate that signs 5005.1 to 5005.3 be used
to regulate access to such facilities.
Tram lanes that are located within a road or street carriageway are generally governed by traffic control systems that
also operate other lanes of traffic. Tram lanes will likely have separate traffic control phasing and displays compared
with other lanes, so as to provide to maintain scheduled services and headways between trams, and minimize stops
and delays caused by traffic signal operations..

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Each of the signs shall function as follows:
TRAM LANE AHEAD ON RIGHT Sign 5005.1 indicates the start of a tram lane on the right (a left hand tram lane
shall be indicated by a mirrored image of the sign, which would be known as Sign 5005.1L). These are typically
provided where LRT tracks merge from another road or separate facility into the roadway.
TRAM LANE INTERMEDIATE Sign 5005.2 indicates the continuity of the tram lane on the right (a left hand tram
lane shall be indicated by a mirrored image of the sign, which would be known as Sign 5005.2L).
END OF TRAM LANE Sign 5005.3 indicates the end of a tram lane on the right (a left hand tram lane shall be
indicated by a mirrored image of the sign, which would be known as Sign 5005.3L). In reality, the LRT tracks may
not end but may divert to another route or facility.
Signs 5005.1 to 5005.3 indicate to drivers of vehicles that a portion of roadway is reserved as a TRAM LANE for
the use of trams only, except in the event of an emergency where emergency vehicles (Police and Civil Defence)
are required to use the lanes in order to access an event that involves actual or potential injuries or fatalities. In
order to clarify this for initial implementation of tram lane facilities in a community, the use of Signs 5005.1 at the
beginning of a tram lane may be accompanied by a post-mounted NO MOTOR VEHICLES Sign 359, as
described in Section 2.4, which excludes other types of motor vehicles.
Signs 5005.1, 5005.2, and 5005.3 shall be used in conjunction with CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 if no other
physical channelization (e.g., two-sided kerbs or permanent bollards) are used, along with any other relevant
pavement markings determined by the detailed design of the tram reservation lane. Marking 612 prohibits other
road users from crossing into the tram lane at any point.
Tram lanes may be located on the right side of the roadway adjacent to the kerb line, or on a dual carriageway
road they can be located on the left side adjacent to the median provided the service is essentially non-stop, or
the median is wide enough to provide stopping places where passengers can be picked-up or dropped off from
the right side of the tram. In the case of a left side tram lane the symbol/lane detail on signs 5005.1, 5005.2 and
5005.3 should be mirrored and titled 5005.1L, 5005.2L, and 5005.3L.
The routing and configuration of the tram lane requires detailed engineering design based on the specific site
criteria. In general terms sign 5005.2 should be positioned once per section of road between intersecting side
roads. If these sections are lengthy, signs should be repeated at 250m intervals
Sign 5005.1 (5005.1L for left-hand tram lanes) shall be placed on the side of the carriageway where the tram lane is to
begin, a minimum 200m from the beginning of the tram lane.
Sign 5005.3 (5005.3L for left-hand tram lanes) shall be placed a minimum 200m from the end of the tram lane.
Sign 5005.2 (5005.2L for left-hand tram lanes) is placed at 250m intervals on arterial routes, mounted on the side of
the carriageway in which the tram is travelling.
Signs 5005.1 to 5005.3 shall use blue rectangular signage with white border and white icons/legend showing lane
separation and tram symbols.

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Category

Group

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

REGULATORY PAVEMENT MARKINGS

WARNING MARKINGS

GUIDANCE MARKINGS
RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS (RPM)
KERB PAINTING
FIRE HYDRANT KERB and PAVEMENT MARKING
TEXT PAVEMENT MARKINGS
RAIL/TRANSIT CROSSING MARKINGS

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Designation
STOP LINE MARKING 601
GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING MARKING 603
NO PASSING LINE MARKING 611
CHANNELIZING LINE MARKING 612
EDGE LINE MARKING 613
LANE DIRECTION ARROW MARKINGS 614 TO 619
PARKING ENVELOPE LINE MARKING 620
PARKING SPACE LINE MARKING 621
EXCLUSIVE LANE OR PARKING SPACE MARKING 623
YELLOW BOX MARKING 624
ZIG-ZAG MARKING 625
RUMBLE STRIP MARKING 650
SPEED HUMP MARKING 651
DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652
LANE LINE MARKING 654
LANE END ARROW MARKING 656
CHEVRON MARKING 657
HATCH MARKING 658
SCHOOL ZONE GATE MARKING 670
GUIDE LINE MARKING 680
CONTINUITY LINE MARKING 681
RETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING R
NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING N
PAID PARKING ZONE MARKING 690
VISIBILITY PAINTING MARKING 691
FIRE HYDRANT MARKING 695
FIRE HYDRANT KERB AND PAVEMENT MARKINGS ADJACENT TO PARKING SPACES
TEXT SYMBOL MARKING 695
GENERAL
RAIL CROSSING MARKING 1101
RAIL CROSSING CLEAR ZONE MARKING 1102

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PAVEMENT MARKINGS

5.1

GENERAL

Longitudinal lines run generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the line of vehicular travel on a roadway. In general,
the purpose of a longitudinal line is to convey a continual message to the driver of a moving vehicle over an extended
length of roadway. A lane line is an example of a longitudinal line. It provides a continual message to a driver
demarcating the separation of two streams of traffic moving in the same direction. Carelessly crossing a lane line puts
one in jeopardy of a sideswipe collision with vehicles in the adjacent traffic stream.

Pavement markings are defined as markings or other devices applied to, embedded in, or attached to a pavement
surface. Pavement markings must function day and night as well as under adverse weather conditions. While
pavement markings are an important and integral element in the design of a traffic control scheme, care should be
taken not to overuse pavement markings. Due to their nature and location, pavement markings are subject to continual
and rapid deterioration and wear from roadway traffic. To retain the conspicuity and function of pavement markings,
their maintenance and replacement is, by necessity, an ongoing and continual process with significant cost
implications. Thus, pavement marking requirements should be considered early in the planning and design of a project.

5.1.1

FUNCTION

Like traffic signs, pavement markings may be classified with respect to the primary function that they serve:
Regulatory.
Warning.
Guidance.
Regulatory pavement markings advise motorists of actions they should or should not take. Disregard for a regulatory
pavement marking represents an offense. For example, crossing of a solid no-passing line is illegal and offending
drivers would be subject to citation.
Warning pavement markings advise motorists of the existence of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions. A
dividing line that separates two-way traffic warns motorists of the potential hazard of a head-on collision with oncoming
vehicles if that line is crossed. It is not necessarily a violation to cross that line when turning or passing another vehicle,
but the motorist is warned to maintain caution.
Guidance pavement markings help motorists to understand the path that the roadway designer intends for their vehicle
to follow. An example of such is a guide line that may be used to mark out the travel path through an intersection for
vehicular turns that are unusual and otherwise difficult to understand.
It is important for designers to understand the functional significance of the pavement markings so that their application
will be consistent for the use intended. The use of various classes and types of marking in combination with each other
and other traffic control devices is illustrated collectively in the figures in Chapter 8.

5.1.2

MARKING TYPES

Pavement markings can further be classified into three basic types:


Transverse lines.
Longitudinal lines.
Symbols.
Transverse lines and markings are those that are placed at right angles or are significantly nonparallel to the
longitudinal axis of the roadway. In general, the purpose of a transverse marking is to provide a sense of limit across
the normal, unimpeded forward movement of a vehicle. A give way line is an example of a transverse pavement
marking. The give-way line crosses the forward path of a vehicle to advise a driver to stop or be prepared to stop his
forward progress in case the situation dictates such action. Because transverse lines must be viewed obliquely from an
approaching vehicle, their widths must be substantial to facilitate their detection.

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Longitudinal lines can be characterised as follows:


Broken lines are permissive in character and may be crossed by a vehicle with due caution.
Solid lines are restrictive in nature and should not be crossed except in case of an emergency.
Solid double lines convey the same message as a single solid line, but with a greater degree of emphasis and
conspicuity necessitated by a particular critical situation.
A double line solid on one side and broken on the other conveys a message of restriction of movement across it
from the solid-line side and a permission of movement across it from the broken-line side.
Double lines consist of two lines equal in width and separated by a gap equal to the width of the line.
Discontinuities in longitudinal lines, whether solid or broken, are indicated by their absence at locations where
turns, merges, or diverges are expected to occur.
Symbolic markings convey a roadway-oriented message to a motorist using a single or grouped set of discrete
markings to represent the condition present. A turn arrow is an example of a symbol marking, advising motorists by its
presence within a lane, the direction of travel that should be taken from that lane. In the context of this manual,
diagonal lines such as a chevron or hatch marking are considered symbolic since they convey the same message
symbolically to motorists as would be given by chevron and/or hazard marker signs. Worded markings, while not
generally recommended, are classified as symbol markings.

5.1.3

COLOUR

Painted pavement markings should be either white or yellow. Raised pavement markers should convey to motorists the
same colour message as the painted markings they replace or supplement. An exception to this rule is that the back
side of a reflectorised marker may be red, such that the red colour is only visible by motorists approaching those
markers from an incorrect direction.
In general, the colour of a marking should have the following connotations:
Transverse Markings.
o White should be used for regulatory markings.
o Yellow should be used for all other markings.
Longitudinal Markings.
o Yellow is used for the longitudinal lines that mark the left edge of all divided roads and for both edges of
one-way roads. Yellow is also used to divide traffic flowing in opposite directions on rural, high-speed
roads.
o White is used for the longitudinal lines that mark the right edge of all roads and to delineate lanes flowing
in the same direction. White is also used to divide opposite traffic directions on two-way, undivided,
single-lane roads in low-speed, urban settings.
Table 5-1 describes the various road types and the correct longitudinal-line applications.
Symbols.
o White should be used for all symbol markings.

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Road Configuration
1
2
3
4

Table 5-1
Colours of Longitudinal Pavement Markings
Left Edge of
Right Edge of
Lane Lines
Carriageway
Carriageway

One-Way (Single or Multilane)


Two-way, undivided, single lane in
each direction
Two-way, undivided, multilane lane
in each direction
Two-way, divided, multilane lane in
each direction

5.2
5.2.1

Regulatory pavement markings dictate action that must be taken by a driver when the markings are encountered.
Actions contrary to these markings constitute a traffic violation subject to enforcement. Regulatory markings exist in
transverse, longitudinal, and symbol types of pavement markings.

Dividing Lines

Yellow

Yellow

White (multilane)

White

Yellow or White

Yellow

White

White

Solid Double
Yellow

Yellow

White

White

REGULATORY PAVEMENT MARKINGS


INTRODUCTION

5.2.2

STOP LINE MARKING 601

Notes:
1. White should be used on low speed urban roads and yellow on rural roads

5.1.4

CONFIGURATION

All broken longitudinal lines have been configured to fit within an 8.0m module. When more than one longitudinal line is
used within a given cross-section of roadway, the modules of each line should be situated such that they align
transversely with each other across the roadway. Intermittent solid lines should begin and end to be compatible with
the broken line module (see Table 5-3).

5.1.5

IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE

STOP LINE marking 601 imposes a mandatory requirement that vehicle comes to a full and complete stop immediately
behind that line and is always used in conjunction with a STOP sign 301 or a red traffic signal.
In the event that the stop sign is missing or a traffic signal is unlit for any reason, the Marking 601 alone has the full
significance of STOP sign 301.

The pavement marking configurations indicated in the following sections are intended for use in newly constructed
roadway projects. In such areas, the pavement marking configurations and locations should be followed as prescribed
in this manual. However, when pavement markings on existing roadways are in need of upgrade or maintenance,
engineering judgment should be exercised in applying the requirements contained herein. The following guidelines
should be considered in such cases:
When existing pavement markings are either identical to or will be completely covered by new markings as
required by this manual, the new markings should be reinstalled over existing markings.
When existing markings are in excess of what is required by this manual (such as additional lane arrows), the
existing markings may be retained but not maintained, being allowed to gradually fade from the pavement
providing that their presence will not create confusion.
When existing markings are of a different configuration than those required by this manual the most appropriate of
the following actions should be taken:
o If the existing marking is well worn and would be relatively inconspicuous in comparison to the new
pavement markings, then the new pavement markings may be applied without regard to the existing
markings (care should be taken in considering the relative conspicuity between the new and old
markings at a later point in time when the new markings have been in service and begin to lose some of
their original conspicuity). This does not apply to raise pavement markers.
o If practical to do so, existing conflicting markings should be completely removed from the pavement
surface.
o If the roadway section is scheduled for future resurfacing, but is far enough in the future that intermediate
pavement marking maintenance is necessary, then the existing markings may be retained and
maintained even though they do not fully comply with this manual.

Marking 601 should not be crossed without stopping except in the case of a green traffic signal or when directed by a
law enforcement officer. It is thus required that if a stop sign or traffic signal is intentionally removed from service, the
associated stop line be removed from the pavement as well.
Marking 601 should be a continuous solid white line transverse and completely across the full width of the travelled
portion of the roadway that is controlled by a stop sign or traffic signal.
The standard width of Marking 601 is 300mm. On high-speed rural roads where added conspicuity is desired, this may
be increased to 500mm.
Marking 601 should be positioned on the roadway at the location best suited for safe stopping and a clear view of
conflicting traffic consistent with the fact that the provision of a stop control implies limited visibility. The preferred
position is 1.0m from the near edge of the intersecting roadway. However, the stop line may be located within a range
of 500mm up to 1.0m from this edge to take account of specific aspects of the intersecting roadway.
For example, a larger setback may be needed to accommodate turning vehicles when one or both of the intersecting
roadways are narrow or the intersection is skewed. It should be positioned not less than 1.0m in advance of
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 when such is located at a signalised road junction and preferably not less than
3.0m in advance of a signalised midblock pedestrian crossing.
At all rail crossings on sealed roads controlled by RAIL CROSSING WARNING SIGNAL assembly 1001 or RAIL
CROSSING STOP assembly1002, along with gate control, a stop line shall be provided on each approach to indicate
the location at which vehicles must stop as and when required by law. It shall be placed at right angles to the road
centre-line as follows:
5.0m minimum back from Assembly 1001 or 1002
5.0m back from the gates when closed to road traffic

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5.2.3

GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602

5.2.4

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING MARKING 603

GIVE WAY LINE marking 602 imposes a mandatory requirement that a driver should, when in conflict, stop at the point
marked by the line and yield right of way to vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic crossing his intended path.
Marking 602 should always be used in conjunction with GIVE WAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign
303. In the event that GIVE WAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 is missing, the give way line
alone has the full significance of the GIVE WAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303.
Marking 602 should be a broken white line transverse and completely across the full width of the travelled portion of the
approach roadway that is controlled by a GIVE WAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. The
standard width of a give way line is 300mm. On high-speed rural roads where higher conspicuity is desired, its width
may be increased to 500mm. The configuration of the give way line should be a repeated pattern of 600mm of line
separated by 300mm of gap.
Marking 602 should be positioned on the roadway at the location best suited such that, if on approach to a junction the
driver sees that this way is not clear of opposing traffic, he may stop at the give way line and have a clear view of
approaching crossroad traffic.

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603, when used at a location not controlled by traffic signals, imposes a mandatory
requirement that a vehicle must yield right of way to pedestrians crossing the roadway carrying the same meaning as
the GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 whether that sign is present or not.

It should be located not less than 1.0m (500mm absolute minimum) from the nearest edge of the intersecting roadway.
When used in conjunction with PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603, the give way line should be located in
advance a distance of 3.0m minimum and 6.0m preferred.

Regardless of its location, pedestrians always have right of way over vehicles and vehicles must yield to pedestrians
within the crossing demarcated by Marking 603.
When used at a signal controlled crossing, Marking 603 warns drivers of a pedestrian crossing location with the likely
presence of pedestrians near the road and requires drivers to exercise a high degree of care and caution in the vicinity.
Marking 603 should be a broken white line transverse and completely across the full width of the roadway and
shoulders. The configuration of the line should be 500mm line and 500mm gap. The gap orientation should be aligned
parallel with the direction of vehicular travel at the crossing.
The minimum width of line, measured perpendicular to the axis of pedestrian travel, should be 3.0m. This width may be
increased if large volumes of pedestrians are present. A width basis of 0.5m for every 100 pedestrians per hour may be
used. In addition, a minimum 5.0m width should be maintained on boulevards with anticipated high pedestrian volumes
or when shared with cyclists.
Marking 603 may only be installed with the approval of the Municipality.

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5.2.5

NO PASSING LINE MARKING 611

Table 5-2
Use of No Passing Line Marking 611 on Curves
Posted Speed (kph)
Minimum Barrier Sight Distance (m)
40
60
80
100

120
175
250
320

NOTES:
1. Barrier Sight Distance is the distance at which a driver with a eye height of 1.1m can view a 1.1m high object in the oncoming lane. NO
PASSING LINE marking 611 should be used on horizontal and vertical curves to mark sections of two way roads where the barrier sight
distance is less than the minimum required.
2. The Barrier Sight Distance is different from the passing sight distance used in roadway design which defines the distance required to safely
begin and complete a passing manoeuvre. The Barrier Sight Distance represents the distance required to abort a passing manoeuvre.
3. Longer lines than those resulting from the minimums above may be justified. When two sections of Marking 611 are separated by less than the
minimum barrier sight distance for the appropriate posted speed, the two lines should be extended and joined together.

5.2.6

Figure 5-1: Use of No Passing Line 611 at Junctions


When used in place of, or on the right side of Marking 611, DIVIDING LINE marking 652 imposes a mandatory
requirement that drivers should not cross or drive on the left-hand side of such marking (with the exception of left turns
to or from private direct access to a property).

It is used to demarcate sections of two-way roadways where an extreme hazard could result if vehicles are permitted to
even temporarily use an oncoming traffic lane.
Marking 611 should be a longitudinal solid line, of the same colour as DIVIDING LINE marking 652 as applied in the
vicinity, running continuously on or near the centreline of the roadway.
It should be 100mm wide for posted speeds below 50 kph and 150mm wide for posted speeds above 50 kph and
should be used to delineate unsafe passing situations in areas where the barrier sight distances are restricted to less
than the distances shown in Table 5-2.
In such uses, Marking 611 should be placed on the right side of DIVIDING LINE marking 652 for the entire length of
roadway that substandard barrier sight distances exist.
Marking 611 should also be used for purposes of traffic control in advance of any controlled junction (signal, stop, give
way or pedestrian) on a two-way roadway. It should replace DIVIDING LINE marking 652 starting at the distance given
in Table 5-3 as measured from the STOP LINE marking 601, GIVE WAY LINE marking 602, or the near edge of
intersecting roadway. Marking 611 should continue towards the junction until intersecting those lines, other painted or
kerbed island, or the nearest edge of the intersecting roadway.

CHANNELIZING LINE MARKING 612

When used in place of LANE LINE marking 654, Marking 612 imposes a mandatory requirement that drivers not cross
that marking from either side. Marking 612 should only be used between streams of traffic traveling in the same
direction. It is used to channelize one-way traffic within a lane in areas where lane changes would be hazardous due to
roadway configuration.
Marking 612 should be a longitudinal solid white line running continuously on the line dividing two lanes of travel in the
same direction. It should be 100mm wide for posted speeds below 50 kph and 150mm wide for posted speeds above
50 kph.
It should be used in any situation where there is a significant safety or functional benefit that can be achieved if drivers
are required to remain in their current lane over some distance. Such situations would occur in advance of traffic
signals or roundabouts.
Exclusive turn lanes and freeway or other free-flow ramps where one or more lanes are dropped from the main
roadway will have application for Marking 612. In such cases a 200mm line width should be used.
Marking 612 should be applied for the same limits of minimum length as NO PASSING LINE marking 611 as given in
Table 5-3 when used in advance of a signalised junction or a roundabout.

On single carriageway roads, NO PASSING LINE Marking 611 (dual solid longitudinal line) shall be provided on the
approaches to and, where necessary, across rail crossings. At the minimum, the No Passing Line on each approach
shall extend from the crossing to the last rail crossing ahead warning sign prior to the crossing, or to the through road
where the crossing is on a side road and requires treatment.

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Specially developed types of Marking 613 which are designed to produce an audible and/or vibratory effect when
driven over may be specified. Such an application may be warranted if a problem occurs on a long section of rural road
with drivers losing attention or becoming drowsy and drifting towards the edge of roadway.

Table 5-3
Use of No Passing Line Marking 611 and Channelizing Line Marking 612 at Junctions
Posted Speed (kph)
Minimum Length (m)
30
40
60
80
100

5.2.8

LANE DIRECTION ARROW MARKINGS 614 to 619

9
18
27
36
54

Notes:
1. See Figure 5-1
2. Lengths shown are minimums. Longer lengths may be applied if judged suitable. Increases should be in 9.0m multiples.

For cycle lanes, Marking 612 may be continued across private driveways but shall be interrupted at bus stops

5.2.7

EDGE LINE MARKING 613

Marking 613 imposes a mandatory requirement that drivers not cross that marking for purposes of driving or parking on
the opposite side except in the case of an emergency. Marking 613 should be used to define the edge of pavement
when such is not safe or convenient to define by use of a raised kerb or barrier. It should also be used to separate a
travelled lane from a paved shoulder that must remain accessible in case of emergency, but that must not be otherwise
used for driving or parking.
EDGE LINE marking 613 should be a longitudinal solid white or yellow (depending on roadway configuration) line
running continuously along the right side of the outermost traffic lane of a roadway and a longitudinal solid yellow line
running continuously along the left side of the innermost traffic lane of a divided (or one-way) roadway.
Marking 613 should be 150mm wide for posted speeds less than 70 kph and 200mm wide for posted speeds more
than 70 kph. As crossing Marking 613 is not permitted, care must be taken to provide discontinuities at points where
access is intended. If continuous access to a length of roadside area is intended, then Marking 613 should not be used.
In such instances when edge delineation is still desired, PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620 should be used.
In addition to a regulatory function, Marking 613 performs other important safety functions:
Provides continuous demarcation of the edge of the travelled way, reducing the tendency of drivers to drift off the
road, especially at night and/or under adverse weather conditions.
Provides an indication of turn or exit points from the main road at points of discontinuity in the line.
Where not otherwise prohibited, provides guidance to pedestrians and cyclists.
Figure 5-2 Typical Regulatory Arrow Pavement Markings

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Markings 614 to 616 indicate a single, mandated direction of travel for a lane. Vehicles not wishing to travel in the
direction indicated by the arrow must move to an adjacent lane if not otherwise prohibited from doing so.

5.2.9

PARKING ENVELOPE LINE MARKING 620

Markings 617 to 619 impose a mandatory requirement that drivers must travel only in one of the two directions
indicated by the arrow from the lane in which the arrow is marked. Vehicles not wishing to travel in one of the directions
must move into an adjacent lane if not otherwise prohibited from doing so.
When any of the markings 614 to 619 are located adjacent to a CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612, drivers must
stay in their lane and continue in the direction, or one of the directions, indicated by the arrow.
RIGHT TURN ARROW marking 615 and LEFT TURN ARROW marking 616 should be used to mark lanes that are
exclusively turn lanes at signalised intersections. Markings 615 or 616 should not be used to mark exit lanes at gradeseparated junctions (although they may be used at the terminal junctions of such exits).
All LANE DIRECTION ARROW markings should be white in colour and should be centred transversely within the lane
to which they apply such that the transverse extremities of the marking are equidistant from the lane edge on each
side.
All lanes at the approach to a signalised intersection should have one arrow (one of markings 614, 615, 616, 617, 618,
or 619) positioned in each lane in line with one another transversely. This primary row of arrows should be located as
close to the junction as possible while still giving a clear indication of all adjacent lanes with respect to one another. In
any case, the row of arrows should be positioned so as to be entirely within the limit of the CHANNELIZING LINE
marking 612. Additional LANE DIRECTION ARROW markings should be positioned in advance of this row of markings
in accordance with the following guidelines:
For additional exclusive turn lane(s) created at a junction:
o At the point where the lane(s) are first developed to their full width (but not closer than 25m clear of the
primary arrow).
o At one intermediate point providing the clear spacing between arrows is not less than 25m.
For basic lanes that are not exclusively straight-ahead only lanes:
o At 25m clear and at 55m clear in advance of the primary arrows, or in-line transversely with additional
exclusive turn-lane arrows.
For straight-ahead-only basic lanes approaching a standard signalised intersection:
o No additional STRAIGHT ARROW marking 614.

PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620 imposes a mandatory requirement that drivers parking their vehicles within a
marked area park such that no part of their vehicle encroaches upon the pavement area outside a parking envelope so
marked. A driver who parks such that any part of his vehicle overhangs marking 620 should be considered improperly
parked.
Marking 620 should be a longitudinal broken white line 100mm wide. The configuration of the line should be a repeated
pattern of 1.0m of line separated by a 1.0m gap. It should be located at the edge of pavement adjacent to areas where
parking is permitted, but should not be used if the physical space available for parking is less than 2.2m wide.
Marking 620 is intended for use in areas of low density parking where the delineation of individual parking spaces is not
considered necessary. A secondary benefit of the marking is to serve the function of EDGE LINE marking 613 by
delineating the edge of pavement without the prohibition of crossing that line for purpose of parking.
The most common usage of Marking 620 is the marking of on-street parking areas in residential communities and other
such locales where parking spaces are not in short supply and as such, a more regimented parking arrangement is not
warranted.

5.2.10

PARKING SPACE LINE MARKING 621

When LEFT TURN ARROW marking 616 is used to mark a midblock left-turn or U-turn lane, STRAIGHT ARROW
marking 614 should not be used on the mainline.
The above are offered as guidelines and are not intended to preclude the use of engineering judgment. For example,
advance arrows should not be used if they may cause confusion due to an entering side road. Other arrow
arrangements can be used in a given situation if needed for clarity. However, overuse of arrows is generally indicative
of confusing geometry that will unlikely be clarified by additional lane arrows. Arrow markings should not be used on
freeways or similar free flowing roadways where overhead signs and longitudinal lines should provide sufficient
delineation.
STRAIGHT/RIGHT (or LEFT) ARROW marking 617 (or 618) should not be used to indicate the point where turning
lanes are added to the basic through lanes of a roadway. They also should not be used to indicate direct turning points
from a mainline lane onto a side road at mid-block locations.
Regulatory pavement arrow markings are illustrated in Figure 5-2.

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PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 imposes a mandatory requirement that drivers parking their vehicles within a
marked parking space park such that their vehicle is wholly within the lines defining the limits of the parking space. A
driver who parks such that any part of his vehicle is on, over, or beyond Marking 621 (or an imaginary line connecting
the ends of a series of Marking 621 lines) should be considered improperly parked.
Marking 621 should be a solid white line 100mm in width. It should extend from the kerb line (if a kerb is present) and
end at the edge of the designated parking bay. For parallel parking space delineation, the end of the line should be a
500mm long L-shape for end-marking a parallel parking bay, and a 1000mm long T-shape for intermediate lines.
Perpendicular and angled parking space markings generally do not require end shapes since the ends of the more
closely spaced markings should clearly delineate the parking bay limits.

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Marking 621 should be used to mark individual parking spaces in areas where parking space availability is at a
premium and the definition of parking spaces will give an orderly and more efficient usage of area available for parking.
The marking should always be used to mark parking spaces that are subject to payment for usage. These provisions
apply irrespective of the material used to surface the parking area to be marked.
Marking 621 may also be used to designate zones within lay-bys or along kerb lines designated as stopping areas for
certain classes of vehicles.

5.2.11

Marking 623 shall be a white symbol marking normally measuring 5.0m between its longitudinal extremities. The width
shall vary according to the symbol marking which shall not be a solid marking and shall generally have a minimum
element width or thickness of 150mm.
When used on road traffic lanes, Making 623 shall be elongated in the direction of travel and transverse elements shall
be distorted as required to improve the low angle interpretation of the symbol.
EXPRESS BUS LANE marking 623.1 shall typically be reserved for freeways and expressways. On arterial routes,
TEXT SYMBOL marking 695 reading BUS LANE in Arabic and English shall normally be used. However, Marking
623.1 may be used to supplement this subject to the approval of the Municipality.

EXCLUSIVE LANE OR PARKING SPACE MARKING 623

DISABLE PARKING BAY marking 623.4 shall have a blue background.

5.2.12

YELLOW BOX MARKING 624

YELLOW BOX marking 624 indicates an area within a junction in which vehicles may not stop. Hence, it imposes a
requirement that vehicles must not cross into the marked area unless the exit arm of the junction that they wish to use
is clear of traffic.
Marking 624 can improve traffic flows at locations experiencing delays from vehicles impeding cross flows after
stopping within junctions due to congestion on the exit arms they wish to use.
At signalised intersections, queues of traffic left at the end of green phases can be significantly reduced as well as
marked reductions in injury accidents, especially those involving pedestrians.

Variants of EXCLUSIVE LANE OR PARKING SPACE marking 623 as shown shall be used to identify classes of
vehicles or persons for which a lane or parking space is reserved and impose a mandatory requirement that no other
class of vehicle or person may use the lane or space so designated.

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Not all intersections are suitable for Marking 624 and certain criteria should be applied before deciding whether a
particular site should be marked. A traffic survey should be carried out to determine the extent of the problem, not only
to assess the suitability of the intersection for box marking but also to establish whether any alternative measures
might be effective (e.g. re-timing or linking of traffic signals at adjacent intersections). A survey will also reveal what
further measures might be needed.

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Factors which influence a decision to provide box markings include the following:
The junction should preferably, though not necessarily, be controlled by signals.
Blocking back from a junction ahead should occur under existing conditions, even if only for short periods.
There should preferably be heavy traffic flows on both opposing arms of the junction.
Opposing roads at a junction should normally be in line with each other. The markings may, however, be used
exceptionally at staggered junctions, particularly where the minor roads have a right hand stagger, provided the
maximum box length is not exceeded and irregular shapes can be avoided.
The carriageway beyond the junction should be free from obstruction (this may necessitate the imposition of
waiting or loading restrictions, or the adjustment of bus stops on the lengths concerned).
Where a succession of junctions gives rise to blocking back, the establishment of a series of boxes should be
considered, provided at least 20m storage space can be maintained between successive boxes.
There should preferably not be a high proportion of left-turning traffic, as the effectiveness of the marking is
reduced under these conditions.

Marking 624 requires that the intersection area be bounded by a line supplemented by an inscribed box inclined at 45
to the main box as well as by an intersecting cross lines. All lines should be 200mm wide yellow thermoplastic lines.

5.2.13

ZIG-ZAG MARKING 625

ZIG-ZAG marking 625 is used at signalised mid block pedestrian crossings on median-divided multilane roads to
indicate a controlled area extending from the crossing limits to terminal lines set on the approach to the crossing area.
The driver of a vehicle shall not stop in a controlled area except as provided below:
if the driver has stopped to comply with a red vehicular traffic signal aspect;
if the driver is prevented from proceeding by circumstances beyond his control, or it is necessary for him to stop to
avoid injury or damage to persons or property; or
when the vehicle is being used for police, fire brigade or ambulance purposes.
for so long as may be necessary to enable the vehicle to be used for the purposes of:
o authorised building operation, demolition or excavation;
o the removal of any obstruction to traffic;
o the maintenance, improvement or reconstruction of a road; or
o the laying, erection, alteration, repair or cleaning in or near the crossing of any sewer or of any main,
pipe or apparatus for the supply of gas, water or electricity, or any telecommunications apparatus kept
installed for the purposes of a telecommunications code system, or any other telecommunications
apparatus lawfully kept installed in any position, but only if the vehicle cannot be used for these purposes
without stopping in the controlled area.
Marking 625 must not be laid into upstream roundabouts. NO PASSING LINE marking 611 should be used instead on
single carriageway roads and unsignalised crossings.
The standard pattern shall comprise of eight 2.0m long marks. The aim should be to lay at least the standard pattern of
eight 2.0m marks on the approach to the crossing. Where site constraints prevent this, the length of the zig-zag marks
may be varied to a minimum of 1.0m and the number of marks reduced to a minimum of two.

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WARNING MARKINGS
5.2.14 INTRODUCTION

Table 5-4
Numbers of Zig-Zag Marks
Available length for the controlled area (m)
Recommended number of zig-zag marks
2.5 - 4.5
4.5 - 6.5
6.5 - 9.0
9.0 - 11.0
11.0 - 13.0
13.0 - 15.5
15.5 - 18.0

Warning pavement markings advise motorists of the existence of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions. These
markings do not carry a mandatory requirement for specific action. However, these markings convey a warning and
wilful disregard of those warnings may constitute a violation when drivers fail to maintain adequate and safe control of
their vehicle.

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

5.2.15

RUMBLE STRIP MARKING 650

Notes:
1.
2.
3.

The length indicated in the first column consists of the controlled area excluding the distance between the Stop line and the limit of the
crossing.
Crossings must not be laid with fewer than two zig-zag marks.
Where a length in the first column is common to two recommended numbers of marks, the lower number should be adopted.

Table 5-4 shows the recommended number of zig-zag marks for various available lengths for controlled areas. Where
a longer approach marking is required, e.g. where visibility is poor or the speed of traffic is high, the number of marks
may be increased up to a maximum of 18.
Zig-zag marks shorter than 2.0m should be used only to indicate a controlled area of fewer than eight marks. Even
then, marks as near as possible to the standard 2.0m length should be provided. Each mark in each zig-zag line must
be substantially the same length as the other marks in the same line.
The controlled area may extend across the mouth of a side road but it should never stop between the two projected
kerb lines of the minor road. If this would otherwise occur, the zig-zag lines should be extended to the projection of the
far kerb line of the side road.
Where part of a lay-by lies within the controlled area, the zig-zag markings should be laid along the edge of the main
carriageway. However, the restrictions extend to the back of the lay-by.

RUMBLE STRIP marking 650 is used to advise motorists through visual, audible, and vibratory feedback, of the
presence of a critical regulatory or warning device when this marking is located within a travelled way. When used
within a shoulder or other road side area, it provides a warning to drivers that they are drifting off of the travelled
roadway.
Marking 650 should be positioned transversely to the direction of vehicle travel. When used within the travelled
roadway, they should be formed of, or topped with, yellow thermoplastic material (for conspicuity and to distinguish
them from a STOP LINE marking 601) built up at least 5.0mm, but no more than 15.0mm, above the roadway surface.
The width, spacing, and number of strips used should vary to suit conditions. As a guideline, a basic rumble strip
configuration is recommended to consist of five transverse yellow markings 300mm wide spaced such that at prevailing
traffic speeds all five markings will be traversed during an approximately one-second period. They should be positioned
within the first one-third of the clear visibility distance to the sign of which they forewarn.

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Marking 650 should not be used within a travelled way unless, after all other means of standard traffic control devices
have been evaluated, the Municipality agrees that their use is the only reasonable solution to an identified problem.
Their use as such will generally not be permitted on new construction, but rather as a retrofit to a particular problem
area.
Sets of Marking 650, as described above, may be specified in order to reinforce the need for drivers to significantly
reduce their speed. Such circumstances will commonly occur on high speed and/or downhill approaches to stop or give
way control conditions.
A typical requirement might involve a need to reduce speed from around 120kph to 40kph over a short distance from
the point of control or a change of direction. The principle to be used provides for a series of sets of five transverse
markings spaced so that each set will be traversed during an approximately one-second period at progressively
decreasing speeds. Each set of markings should in turn be separated from the last and/or next set by a distance
without markings that will be traversed during a period of 1 to 2 seconds.
The configuration and number of sets of five markings required for a specific site will be dictated by the approach
speed and the speed reduction required.
Figure 5-3 illustrates a sequence of sets of Marking 650 spaced according to these principles. The number of sets and
the overall installation can be determined from the figure. Alternative designs for rumble strips must be approved by
Municipality.
The disadvantages of Marking 650 within a travelled way are as follows:
Their effect on small, lightweight vehicles such as motorcycles may be pronounced and undesirable.
When used in built-up areas, residences and businesses may find the constant noise and vibration to be
disturbing and a source of irritation.
Most motorists do not need rumble strips to be made aware of the situation being warned. However, all motorists are
affected by driving over them.
A more acceptable usage of Marking 650 is for use outside of travelled ways. In such instances, drivers remaining
within the travelled way are not affected by them, but rather they affect only those drivers who are travelling (illegally
and/or accidentally) in areas where they should not be.
A particular useful application is on shoulders of freeways or other roadways, especially in long, straight stretches of
rural roads. On such roadways drivers may become bored or sleepy and slowly drift into a shoulder area. The
presence of Marking 650 in the shoulder may assist a driver in regaining attention before completely leaving the
roadway.

Figure 5-3: Guidelines for using Rumble Strip Marking 650 for Speed Reduction

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5.2.16

SPEED HUMP MARKING 651

5.2.17

DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652

DIVIDING LINE marking 652 is used to warn that vehicles travelling on the other side of the line are travelling in the
opposite direction. Vehicles may cross Marking 652 to pass another vehicle when it is safe to do so.
Marking 652 should be a longitudinal broken yellow line running continuously on or near the centreline of the roadway.
Its configuration should be a repeated pattern of 3.0m of line followed by 6.0m of gap. It should be 100mm wide for
posted speeds below 50 kph and 150mm wide for posted speeds above 50 kph.
Marking 652 should be used on all two-way roadways with a travel width of 5.5m or more. It may be used continuously
or intermittently on roads of lesser widths when an engineering assessment determines that it is beneficial for the
reason of safety.
Marking 652 should be replaced or supplemented with a regulatory NO PASSING LINE marking 611 in circumstances
where warranted, when crossing the line from one or both sides is not permitted.
Neither one of Marking 652 nor NO PASSING LINE marking 611 should be used within an intersection of two public
roads where traffic is permitted to turn across an opposing direction of travel.

5.2.18

LANE LINE MARKING 654

SPEED HUMP marking 651 should be used to warn motorists of the presence of a speed hump in the roadway. (The
application, geometric design, and construction of speed humps are subject to engineering evaluation and selective
usage.)
Marking 651 should be a set of alternating yellow lines transverse to and completely across the full width of the speed
hump. The configuration of the lines should be 600mm line and 600mm gap. 200mm x 600mm white lines between the
yellow lines, before and after the speed hump should be provided.
NO PASSING LINE marking 611 and/or CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 should be used on each approach to the
speed hump for an appropriate distance as given in Table 5-3.

LANE LINE marking 654 should be used to warn of the presence of two or more traffic lanes traveling on a roadway in
the same direction. Vehicles may cross Marking 654 to change lanes when it is safe to do so.
Marking 654 should be a longitudinal broken white line running continuously on a line separating two lanes of travel in
the same direction. Its configuration should be a repeated pattern of 3.0m of line followed by 6.0m of gap. It should be
100mm wide for posted speeds below 70 kph and 150mm wide for posted speeds above 70 kph.
Marking 654 should be used on one-way travel ways more than 6.0m in width. Marking 654 should not be used (or
should be discontinued in a tapered section) to mark a lane that will be less than 2.7m in width.
Marking 654 should be replaced with a regulatory CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 in circumstances where
warranted in areas where changing lanes is not permitted.
Neither one of Marking 654 nor CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 should be used within a junction. When guidance
within a junction is required, GUIDE LINE marking 680 should be used instead.

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5.2.19

LANE END ARROW MARKING 656

5.2.20

LANE END ARROW marking 656 is used to warn that a lane on a multilane roadway is ending ahead and that they
should move out of that lane in the direction indicated at the earliest safe opportunity to do so.
Marking 656 should consist of a white straight arrow oriented at a 20 degree rotation to the longitudinal axis of the lane.
The arrow should be centred in the lane such that its extremities are equidistant from the lane edge on each side.
Marking 656 should be used when a long-running lane on a multilane roadway ends or at the end of a parallel-lanetype entrance ramp. It is not intended for use on a tapered entrance ramp.
Marking 656 should be repeated in a series of two or preferably three markings. The last of the arrows in the series
should be positioned at the end of the lane just prior to the point where the lane begins to decrease in width. The
spacing between each arrow should be as in Table 5-5.

CHEVRON MARKING 657

CHEVRON marking 657 should be used to provide warning to motorists of a divergence of traffic lanes travelling in the
same direction.
Marking 657 should consist of diagonal white lines arranged in a chevron pattern as depicted above. The CHEVRON
should point towards the oncoming traffic such that the sloping legs of the CHEVRON are seen to split the diverging
streams of traffic, pushing them away from one another. Marking 657 should be repeated within a gore area
beginning at the theoretical nose (painted nose) of an exit or divergence point and cease at the physical nose.
CHEVRON marking 657 should not be used within the gore area of converging streams of traffic.
Marking 657 should only be used in areas not intended for travel or parking and should always be separated from a
travel area by an EDGE LINE marking 613 or a CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612.

5.2.20.1 DETAIL OF A GORE AREA

Table 5-5
Lane Arrows Spacing

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Posted Speed

Spacing

40kph
60kph
80kph
100kph

24m
32m
40m
48m

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GORE AREA CHEVRON DIMENSIONS

5.2.21

5.2.22

Operating Speed
(kph)

W
(millimetres)

S
(metres)

t
(millimetres)

40
60
80
100

200
300
500
1000

1.0
1.5
2.5
5.0

150
150
200
200

SCHOOL ZONE GATE MARKING 670

HATCH MARKING 658

SCHOOL ZONE GATE marking 670 is used to indicate to drivers that they are entering a school zone where reduced
speeds apply and that additional care should be taken.

5.3

GUIDANCE MARKINGS

Guidance pavement markings provide help to motorists in understanding the path that they are intended to follow
where the way may not be otherwise evident. Guidance pavement markings do not carry a mandatory requirement nor
convey an explicit message of warning. Only longitudinal broken lines and TEXT SYMBOL marking 695 are used for
guidance markings.

5.3.1

GUIDE LINE MARKING 680

HATCH marking 658 is used to warn of a physical danger adjacent to the travel lane.
Marking 658 should consist of repeated diagonal white lines situated above. The dimensions and layout requirements
for the marking should be similar to those for CHEVRON marking 657.
The markings should be oriented such that if they were raised barriers, they would deflect traffic back into the lane from
which they came.
A common usage of Marking 658 is in a median or gore area that separates traffic that is moving in opposite directions
of travel. Such would be the case where a two way roadway becomes divided and vice-versa.
Marking 658 may be used to mark the shoulders of particularly dangerous curves, lane ends, or roadside obstructions.
However, these situations should be thoroughly evaluated and Marking 658 used only if it is determined that a
significant hazard exists and that Marking 658 may significantly contribute to the delineation and warning of the
hazardous or unusual conditions. In such conditions consideration should be given to the use of RUMBLE STRIP
marking 650 as the routine usage of Marking 658 should be avoided.
Marking 658 should only be used in areas not intended for travel or parking and should always be separated from a
travel area by a NO PASSING LINE marking 611 or EDGE LINE marking 613.

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GUIDE LINE marking 680 may be used within a junction (intersection or roundabout) to provide guidance to road
users. Except in the case of roundabouts, usage of this marking is optional and should only be considered in instances
of nonstandard or confusing geometry, including sheer junction size.
Marking 680 should be a longitudinal broken white line that follows one or both edges of the most efficient path (from
the standpoints of safety and/or capacity) that a vehicle should follow through an intersection. Its configuration may
vary to suit conditions but a recommended configuration is a repeated pattern of 500mm of line followed by 1500mm of
gap. The line should be 100mm wide.

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Non-retro-reflective markers do not exhibit retro-reflective properties but do, under daylight or lighted conditions (street
lights or headlights) display a white or yellow body colour the same as painted lines.

The primary use of Marking 680 is:


To provide turning guidance, particularly for left-turning traffic, at wide intersections or where the intersecting
roadways meet at an angle significantly different than 90 degrees and particularly when there is more than one
turning lane.
To provide alignment guidance across a wide or complex junction when there is a shift in the through-alignment
across the junction,
To mark circulation lanes within a roundabout. In such instances a guide line should be used within the shadow
of the roadway median islands.

The use of guide lines within an intersection should be considered only in exceptional circumstances. As guide lines
will almost always cross the path of one or more intersecting lanes of traffic, particular attention must be given to the
appearance of the line(s) when viewed by drivers other than those whom they are intended to guide. Care must be
taken to avoid the risk of the lines creating a confusing pattern that may mislead other drivers.

5.3.2

Retro-reflective markers are used to supplement white or yellow painted lines or non-retro-reflective markers.
Non-retro-reflective markers are used to replace white or yellow painted marking. Where roadway lighting is not to a
high standard, non retro-reflective markings should be supplemented by retro-reflective markings.
Lane lines and channelizing lines on main, divided thoroughfares in Abu Dhabi are typically marked with a combination
of retro-reflective and non-retro-reflective raised pavement markers. On two-way secondary and sector roads,
channelizing lines and no passing lines should be marked with paint. Non-retro-reflective and reflective raised
pavement markers may also be used in most other pavement marking applications when deemed appropriate by the
designer and with the approval of the Municipality.
The following conditions may warrant the use of raised pavement markers:
Areas regularly subjected to fog, dust, or blowing sand resulting in reduced visibility.
Areas of heavy traffic volumes that rapidly deteriorate painted markings and that are disruptive to regularly
maintain.
Isolated areas that have low geometric-roadway-design standards for the traffic conditions prevailing and that are
not scheduled in the near term for improvement.
Isolated areas with documented high incidence of collision and/or low levels of lane discipline by drivers,
particularly in curved or complex roadway geometry conditions.
Long-term temporary traffic management sites.
Freeways (all markings on freeways should be supplemented by R markings).
Unlighted rural roadways.
Within non-weaving sections of roundabouts.

CONTINUITY LINE MARKING 681

Under one or more of the following conditions raised pavement markers are generally not recommended for use:

CONTINUITY LINE marking 681 may be used to provide guidance for through traffic at discontinuities in the pavement
edge delineation. Its use is optional and should only be considered in instances where curving roadway geometry
and/or a long break in the continuity of the edge of pavement delineation may be confusing or misleading to a driver.
Marking 681 should be a longitudinal broken white line that follows the edge of the through-lane of traffic across an exit
ramp, a slip road exit, or an intersection. Its configuration should be a repeated pattern of 1.0m of line followed by 3.0m
of gap. It should be 150mm wide for posted speeds below 70 kph and 200mm wide for posted speeds above 70 kph.
As a general rule a CONTINUITY LINE marking should not be extended across an entrance ramp on a freeway or a
slip road entrance. In such cases the convergence of the entering roadway edge line should provide a clear indication
of the forward alignment of the mainline.

5.4

RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS (RPM)

Raised pavement markers may be used to supplement or replace painted line markings to provide increased visibility
and better delineation. They may also discourage unnecessary lane changes.

5.4.1

GENERAL

There are two basic classifications of raised pavement markers:


Retro-reflective (R).
Non-retro-reflective (N).
Retro-reflective markers house a coloured lens of retro-reflective material that is designed to redirect a substantial
portion of vehicular head lighting back at a driver for improved night time long-range visibility.
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Low operating speeds.


Across the entrance and exit points of freeway ramps and other intersecting connections to major roadways.
On roadways scheduled for resurfacing within three years.

5.4.2

RETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING R

When a standard pavement marking number is followed by the letter R it means that the marking be supplemented by
the use of retro-reflective RPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 R).
The following describe the use of RPM R in various pavement marking applications:
An RPM R should normally be used at 18m intervals (2 times the 9.0m marking module). Shorter spacing may be
justified in certain instances.
For broken lines, the RPM R should be placed in line with the standard pavement markings, centred in the
appropriate gap area of the line.
When an RPM R is used to supplement a solid line it should be placed 100mm clear of and on the traffic side of
the line (such as EDGE LINE marking 613 R).
When traffic utilises the line on both sides (such as a NO PASSING LINE marking 611 R or CHANNELIZING LINE
marking 612 R) an RPM R may be placed on each side of the line. Alternatively, an RPM R may be placed within
the line. However, this will require masking the line at the RPM location when the line is painted and each time it
is repainted, to prevent the RPM R from being obscured by paint.
When RPM N is used for a dashed line, RPM R should be placed as they would with paint.
Where RPM N is used in a solid line, an RPM R should be used in place of an RPM N at the appropriate interval.
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When RPM R is used on more than one longitudinal line on a roadway, they should be situated such that all RPM
R are aligned transversely across the roadway.
Only three colours of RPM R should be used:
White (or clear) markers should be used in conjunction with all white-coloured pavement markings as viewed by
approaching drivers.
Yellow markers should be used in conjunction with all yellow-coloured pavement markings as viewed by
approaching drivers. When used with a line having meaning to traffic in opposing directions, such as a DIVIDING
LINE marking 652 R, the RPM R should be bidirectional.
Red colour should only be used on the back side of markers on one-way or divided roadways. This colour should
be viewable only to drivers entering or driving in the wrong direction on such a roadway. The red colour of an
RPM R should never be visible to legally operating traffic.

5.4.3

NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING N

When a standard pavement marking number is followed by the letter N it means that the painted marking should be
replaced by non-retro-reflective RPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 N). When retro-reflective markers are used to
supplement non-retro-reflective markers then both the R and N letter designation should be used (e.g., LANE LINE
marking 654 R/N).
The RPM N should be used to replace and simulate the painted part of a line. For broken line types, one RPM N
should be placed at the point where the painted segment would begin and one RPM N should be placed at the point
where the painted segment would end. Other RPM N should then be spaced equidistant between these such that the
centre-to-centre spacing does not exceed 1.0m. For a solid line the RPM N should be spaced at 1.0m intervals.
Only two colours of RPM N should be used:
White markers should be used to replace white-coloured painted markings.
Yellow markers should be used to replace yellow-coloured painted markings.

5.5
5.5.1

KERB PAINTING
STANDARD KERB COLOUR

The standard colour for kerbs in Abu Dhabi shall be grey. This shall either be the natural precast concrete colour or, in
cases where the kerbs have previously been painted over, painting the top and face of the kerb in grey coloured paint.
The standard grey kerb colour carries no regulatory function by itself. Actions permitted or prohibited shall be specified
by signage, road markings or geometry as required.

5.5.2

PAID PARKING ZONE MARKING 690

PAID PARKING ZONE marking 690 is used to indicate the presence of paid parking and associated prohibited or
restricted parking zones. The marking consists of the delineation of stretches of kerbs that permit parallel, angle or
perpendicular parking next to it, depending on the nature of the pavement markings used.
Marking 690 shall consist of painting the top and front face of a kerb with one of the following colour schemes:

Figure 5-4: Use of Raised Pavement Markers

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STANDARD PAID PARKING marking 690-1: Alternating sections of black and blue coloured paint for standard
pay parking zones, each section of which is of equal length. When precast kerbs are used, each section (or every
two sections in the case of short kerb sections) may be painted with alternating colours such that the length of
each colour will be in the range of 600mm to 900mm to match individual kerbs.
PREMIUM PAID PARKING marking 690-2: Alternating sections of white and blue coloured paint for premium pay
parking zones, each section of which is of equal length, and typically located closest to major commercial
developments. When precast kerbs are used, each section (or every two sections in the case of short kerb
sections) may be painted with alternating colours such that the length of each colour will be in the range of
600mm to 900mm to match individual kerbs.
DISABLED PERSONS PARKING marking 690-3: Blue coloured paint, used in combination with PARKING FOR
DISABLED PERSONS Signs 386 to 388 designate zones reserved for vehicles registered to disabled persons
and that display the appropriate identification stickers or tags.
NO PARKING marking 690-4: Alternating sections of grey and yellow coloured paint, each section of which is of
equal length. When precast kerbs are used, each section (or every two sections in the case of short kerb
sections) may be painted with alternating colours such that the length of each colour will be in the range of
600mm to 900mm to match individual kerbs.

5.5.3

VISIBILITY PAINTING MARKING 691

VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 is used to improve the visibility of raised kerbs and to warn motorists of the
presence of such. Marking 691 has no regulatory function and neither permits nor prohibits the parking of vehicles
adjacent to kerbs so marked.
Figure 5-5: Kerb Painting for Fire Hydrants
Marking 691 should consist of painting the top and front face of a kerb with yellow coloured paint.
The primary benefit of Marking 691 is the delineation of kerbs in turning areas such as intersections, roundabouts, and
traffic separator islands. The use of Marking 691 on long stretches of well lit roadways is of limited benefit from a traffic
safety standpoint. While such sections may receive VISIBILITY PAINTING, its use should be weighed against the initial
and long-term costs of doing so.

5.6
5.6.1

FIRE HYDRANT KERB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKING


FIRE HYDRANT MARKING 695

FIRE HYDRANT marking 695 may be used in conjunction with NO STOPPING sign 370 and FIRE HYDRANT
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 590 to reinforce prohibitions on stopping or parking in front of a fire hydrant. All proposals
are to be submitted to the Ministry of Interior, Civil Defense GHQ, for review and approval.
In front of fire hydrants, kerb stones should be painted red for a length of 12m, 6m to either side of the fire hydrant and
the fire hydrant combination sign.

5.6.2

FIRE HYDRANT KERB AND PAVEMENT MARKINGS ADJACENT TO


PARKING SPACES

Where fire hydrants are located adjacent to parking spaces, parking will be allowed in the majority of cases. Note that
all proposed parking adjacent to fire hydrants is to be submitted to Ministry of Interior, Civil Defense GHQ, for review
and approval.
When a fire hydrant is located adjacent to a parking space, kerb painting and pavement marking may be used in
conjunction with NO STOPPING sign 370 and FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 590 to reinforce any
prohibition on parking in that space. Kerb stones should be painted red (Marking 695) for the width (for perpendicular
and diagonal parking) or length (for parallel parking) of the parking space. In addition, the parking space should be
closed with a 100mm wide line across its entrance. Diagonal hatch markings, 100mm wide, should run at 1.0m
intervals throughout the space.
Figure 5-6 illustrates kerb painting and pavement markings for perpendicular, diagonal, and parallel parking spaces
adjacent to fire hydrants.

Kerb painting for fire hydrants along roadways is illustrated in Figure 5-5.
Note that parking spaces need not be arranged to be centred on a fire hydrant and that the hydrant may be located
anywhere within the kerbed width or depth of the space. The parking space providing the best street visibility and
access to the fire hydrant should be marked for no stopping. The fire hydrant sign combination, however, should be
placed in the centre of the kerbed width or length of the prohibited parking space.

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5.7
5.7.1

TEXT PAVEMENT MARKINGS


TEXT SYMBOL MARKING 695

TEXT SYMBOL marking 695 may be used to provide specific localised amplification of existing regulatory, warning, or
guide road signs or pavement markings.
Marking 695 should be made using the Municipalitys standard Arabic (Naskh) and English (Transport) fonts.
English text messages should use only upper case letters and, if appropriate, numbers. Stencils for text messages
should be prepared based on 400mm x height letters on their tile backgrounds which are then distorted by stretching
five times in the vertical direction while maintaining an unaltered width. The nominal height of the resultant Arabic aleph
and the English upper case letters should be 2800mm.
A text symbol message should be limited in length so that it can be centred between parallel longitudinal pavement
markings, or such a marking and a kerb line, with a minimum clearance on each side of 150mm.
When both Arabic and English messages are required the English should be placed above the Arabic. The separation
between the Arabic and English text should be achieved by stacking the distorted respective tiles.
Text pavement markings may be used to supplement other pavement markings or signs only when specifically
authorised or directed by the Municipality.
The use of text pavement markings should be strictly limited to situations where no other option to present or reinforce
the required message to drivers is available.
The provision of such markings in this document should not be taken as an endorsement of their use. Rather, they are
described here to provide guidance should there be a requirement for such in isolated instances.

5.8
5.8.1

RAIL/TRANSIT CROSSING MARKINGS


GENERAL

A summary of requirements for pavement markings on sealed approached to crossings is as follows:


The RAIL CROSSING marking 1101 RAIL X shall be used on all high-speed approaches of
adequate seal width except at crossings on side roads where the distance to the crossing is less than specified.
Stop line marking 601 shall be provided on all approaches for all cases.
NO PASSING LINE marking 611 (overtaking not permitted) shall be used for the centreline of all single
carriageway approaches.

Figure 5-6: Kerb Painting and Pavement Marking for Fire Hydrants Adjacent to Parking Spaces

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5.8.2

RAIL CROSSING MARKING 1101

The RAIL CROSSING marking 1101 RAIL X shall be as shown. Except for crossings on side roads, the
marking shall be provided on all approaches where the speed limit is greater than 50 kph. The marking is to read
sequentially. On multilane roads a separate marking shall be placed in each approach lane.
On through road approaches to a crossing, the marking shall begin approximately 10m prior to the first advance sign,
but positioned if necessary to provide adequate visual impact giving at least 50m clear viewing distance to the near
edge of the marking.

Figure 5-7: Approach Layout for Stop-Controlled Rail Crossing


Railway crossing with stop control shall have advance warning via a Rail Crossing sign 2010 as described in Section
10.3 mounted a minimum of 300m prior to the crossing, with a Stop Control Ahead sign 428 as described in Section
3.2.16 mounted a minimum of 200m prior to the crossing. The Rail Crossing Stop Assembly sign 1002 is as described
in Section 10.3.3.

The marking shall contain the following dimensions:

X: 6.0m height by 3.0m width, centred in the travel lane


Arabic text: 5.0m maximum height by 3.5m maximum width per line
RAIL: 5.0m maximum height by 3.5m maximum width per line
Spacing between characters: 7.5m

When implemented at stop controlled level crossings, the layout shall be as indicated in Figure 5-7 below.

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5.8.3

RAIL CROSSING CLEAR ZONE MARKING 1102

Clear zone markings and signage shall be used to discourage traffic queuing on a crossing, as detailed below.
Where used, RAIL CROSSING CLEAR ZONE marking 1102 shall comprise a white diamond hatch marking as set out
in Figure 5-8. The lines forming the diamond pattern shall be 150mm wide.
Where queuing is a problem in one direction only, the box marking shall be placed on that side of the pavement only as
shown in Figure 5-8 below. If queuing is a problem in both directions of travel, the marking shall be placed on both
sides.

Figure 5-8: Clear Zone Marking

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OBJECT MARKERS and DELINEATORS

6.1

OBJECT MARKERS

Object markers are used to mark obstructions within or adjacent to the roadway. When used, these markers should
consist of an arrangement of one or more of three types as discussed below.
Type 1 markers consist of an all-yellow reflective diamond panel 450mm in size. A variant of this marker type
incorporates nine yellow reflector units in the panel. Each reflector unit should have a dimension of approximately
75mm mounted symmetrically on a 450-mm diamond-shaped yellow panel. Type 1 markers may be larger if conditions
warrant.
Type 2 is a striped vertical rectangle approximately 300mm by 900mm in size with alternating black and reflectorised
yellow stripes sloping downward at an angle of 45 toward the side of the obstruction on which traffic is to pass. The
minimum width of the yellow stripe should be 75mm. Type 2 object markers with stripes that begin at the upper right
side and slope downward to the lower left side are to be designated as right object markers.
Type 3 markers indicate the end of a roadway. When it is determined that markers should be placed at the end of a
roadway where there is no alternative vehicular path, a marker consisting of nine red reflectors, each with a minimum
dimension of approximately 75mm, mounted symmetrically on a 450mm red diamond panel; or a 450mm diamond
reflectorised red panel should be used. More than one marker or a larger marker may be used at the end of the
roadway where conditions warrant. The minimum mounting height of this marker should be 1.2m. Appropriate advance
warning signs should be used.
Obstructions within the roadway should be marked with a Type 1 or Type 2 object marker.
For additional emphasis, a large surface such as a bridge pier may be painted with diagonal stripes, 300mm or more in
width, similar in design to the Type 2 object marker. The alternating black and reflectorised yellow stripes should be
sloped down at an angle of 45 toward the side of the obstruction that traffic is to pass. The minimum mounting height
should be 1.20m.
Appropriate signs directing traffic to one or both sides of the obstruction may be used in lieu of the object marker. In
addition to markings on the face of an obstruction in the roadway, warning of approach to the obstruction should be
given by appropriate pavement markings.
Where the vertical clearance of an overhead structure exceeds the maximum legal height of a vehicle by less than
0.3m, the clearance to the nearest 0.1m on a regulatory sign should be clearly marked on the structure as well as on
the advanced warning sign.
Objects not actually in the roadway may be so close to the edge of the road that a marker is required. These include
guardrail ends, underpass piers, bridge abutments, handrails, and culvert headwalls. In some cases, a physical object
may not be involved, but other roadside conditions such as narrow shoulder drop-offs, gores, small islands, and abrupt
changes in the roadway alignment may make it undesirable for a driver to leave the roadway. Type 2 object markers
are intended for use at such locations. The inside edge of the marker should be in line with the inner edge of the
obstruction. Standard warning signs should also be used where applicable.
Typical object markers are shown in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6-1: Object Markers

6.2

DELINEATORS

Road delineators are retro-reflective devices mounted in series at the side of the roadway to indicate the roadway
alignment.
Delineators are effective aids for night driving and considered as guidance devices rather than warning devices.
Delineators may be used on long, continuous sections of highway or through short stretches where there are changes
in horizontal alignment, particularly where the alignment might be confusing or at pavement-width transitions. An
important advantage of delineators in certain areas is that they remain visible when the roadway is wet.
Delineators should consist of reflector units capable of clearly reflecting light under normal atmospheric conditions from
a distance of 300m when illuminated by the upper beam of standard automobile lights. Reflective elements for
delineators should have a minimum area of approximately 100 cm. Double delineators consist of two reflector units,
one mounted above the other. Elongated reflective units of appropriate size may be used in place of the two reflectors.

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The colour of delineators should, in all cases, conform to the yellow or white colour of edge lines.
Single delineators should be provided on the right side of expressway roadways and on at least one side of
interchange ramps. These delineators may be provided on other classes of roads. Single delineators may be provided
on the left side of roadways and should be provided on the outside of bends on interchange ramps.
Where median crossovers are provided for official or emergency use on divided highways and these crossovers are to
be marked, a double-yellow delineator should be placed on the left side of the through roadway on the far side of the
crossover for each roadway.
Red delineators may be used on the reverse side of any delineator whenever it would be viewed by a motorist
travelling in the wrong direction on that particular ramp or roadway.
Delineators of the appropriate colour may be used to indicate the narrowing of a pavement. The delineators should be
used adjacent to the lane affected for the full length of the convergence and should be so placed and spaced to show
the width reduction. Delineation is not necessary for the traffic moving in the direction of a wider pavement or on the
side of the roadway where the alignment is not affected by the convergence. On a highway with continuous delineation
on either or both sides, delineators should be carried through the transition and a closer spacing may be warranted.
Delineation is optional on sections of roadway between interchanges where fixed-source lighting is in operation.
Delineators, if used, should be mounted on suitable supports so the top of the reflecting head is approximately 1.2m
above the near roadway edge. Delineators should be placed not less than 1.0m or more than 2.0m outside the outer
edge of the shoulder, or if appropriate, in the line of the guardrail. Delineators may be mounted on the guardrail at a
height less than 1.2m.
Delineators should be placed at a constant distance from the edge of the roadway. However, where a guardrail or other
obstruction intrudes into the space between the pavement edge and the extension of the line of delineators, the
delineators should be in line with or inside the innermost edge of the obstruction. Typical delineator installations are
shown in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2: Typical Delineator Installation

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Delineators should normally be spaced at 60m to 160m intervals. When normal uniform spacing is interrupted by
driveways, crossroads, or similar interruptions, delineators falling within such areas may be moved in either direction, a
distance not exceeding one-quarter of the normal spacing. Delineators still falling within such areas should be
eliminated. On expressways, a normal delineator spacing is 100m.
Double or vertically elongated delineators should be installed at 30m intervals along acceleration and deceleration
lanes.
Spacing should be adjusted on approaches and throughout horizontal bends so that several delineators are always
visible to the driver. Table 6-1 shows suggested maximum spacing for delineators at bends.
Table 6-1
Suggested Maximum Spacing for Highway Delineators on Bends
Radius of Bend (R)
Spacing on Bend (S)
15m
30m
45m
60m
75m
90m
120m
150m
180m
210m
240m
270m
300m

6.0m
7.5m
9.0m
10.5m
12.0m
13.5m
16.5m
19.5m
21.0m
22.5m
24.0m
25.5m
27.0m

Notes:
1.

Spacing for radii not shown may be interpolated from the table. The minimum spacing should be 6.0m. The spacing of the first delineator on a
tangent adjacent to a bend should be 2S, the second, 3S, and the third, 6S, but not to exceed 100m

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TEMPORARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

Please refer to the Abu Dhabi Work Zone Design Manual

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TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

8.1

GENERAL

The purpose of this Chapter is to provide graphical representations of how regulatory signs, warning signs, guide signs,
pavement markings and temporary traffic management devices are used in various typical roadway situations. The
figures that make up this Chapter are largely graphical and illustrative in nature. Specific dimensions for placement of
the traffic control devices are generally not shown so as to discourage manual users from designing from Chapter 8
alone. Guidance for the design of various traffic control devices should be obtained as appropriate from other Chapters
in this Manual and used with discretion relative to the actual circumstances and configuration being confronted by the
designer.
In each of the figures, colour representations of each pavement marking and sign are shown to aid the manual user in
visualizing the relationships of the various elements. For each figure in this Chapter, a cross-referenced section
includes notes with comments, directions, exceptions, or information that is pertinent to the situation depicted by the
figure.
The configurations and guide signs shown on the following applications are hypothetical and do not necessarily
represent actual locations in Abu Dhabi. They are intended solely to represent typical signing for a given configuration
of roadway or junction. Signing and pavement marking positioning shown represent preferred locations. To the
maximum extent possible, signing locations should be considered in the geometric design of a roadway with provisions
made in the roadside design to accommodate these signs. When signing existing configurations the locations indicated
should be followed to the maximum extent possible, but some variation may be found unavoidable.
In general, the signing shown in the following applications are considered minimum (unless signs are indicated as
being optional). While it is desirable to minimise the number of signs used, signs in addition to those shown may be
warranted and should be included if necessary for the safety and welfare of the public.

8.2

AT-GRADE JUNCTIONS

This section illustrates typical combined applications of the use of regulatory signs, warning signs, guide signs and
pavement markings for at-grade junctions. Where relevant to the situation being illustrated traffic signals are also
indicated. There is a great deal of scope for variation in geometric detail with the majority of applications illustrated.
This section should not be seen as a guideline for geometric design. Similar but differently detailed geometric layouts
should be signed and marked according to the illustrated principles.

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8.2.1

ROAD JUNCTIONS IN COMMUNITY AREAS

Figure 8-1 depicts several representative configurations of situations found on local access roads within a community.
The sizes of signs and pavement markings are shown in a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 40kph.
NOTES:
1. Join adjacent sections of NO PASSING LINE marking 611 when less than 32m apart.
2. Break in NO PASSING LINE marking 611 at junctions should be a minimum of 8.0m, centred on intersecting road
centreline.
3. Paint all kerbs within junctions and on curves with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691. The use of VISIBILITY
PAINTING marking 691, as illustrated, is intended to help identify junctions under limited or adverse lighting
conditions. In general, therefore, the sections of marked kerbs illustrated should not be connected unless the
unmarked section between is less than 8.0m in length.
4. The use of MULTIPLE CHEVRON signs 456, 457 and 458 is optional. These signs should not be used unless
lighting, background, or geometry obscure the presence of a termination or change in direction of the roadway
alignment. Ordinarily the change in roadway direction will be evident as a result of pavement markings otherwise
required; kerb painting; and/or street lighting.
5. See Section 2.2 for guidance on the determination of use of STOP sign 301 or GIVE WAY sign 302.
6. Recommended setbacks for STOP LINE marking 601 and GIVE WAY LINE marking 602 are typically 1.0m as
shown in Section 5.2. Greater setbacks may be required to accommodate left turning traffic depending on
intersection geometry. The absolute minimum setback should be 500mm.

Figure 8-1: Road Junctions in Community Area

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8.2.2

ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURN AND LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION

Figure 8-2 depicts two typical situations on a 6 lane dual carriageway. One situation is a mid-block U-turn located away
from an intersecting roadway and intended solely for the purpose of making U-turns (Figure 8-3 depicts a similar
situation on a four-lane dual carriageway where a midblock U-turn and left turn are combined).
The other situation is a local road T-junction with an arterial. The junction depicted in this figure is only provided with
radii on the corners. (Figure 8-3 shows a similar configuration, but with short tapers to facilitate turning.) The sizing of
signs and pavement markings are shown in a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 60kph on the divided
road and 40kph on the intersecting road.
NOTES:
1. Advance warning for midblock U-turns should be posted and the distance to the point of U-turn displayed.
2. Appropriate ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 may be used only when an approved supplemental
destination is in the vicinity.
3. When geometry dictates that long vehicles are not permitted to make a U-turn, a NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351
with a QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 indicating the maximum length of vehicle permitted to U-turn should be
used. Sign 351 should be located at a point as close as possible after the turn lane becomes fully developed. If
the geometry is such that any sized vehicle may make a U-turn, then sign 351 is omitted and, apart from STOP
sign 301, no further signing is required.
4. See Section 2.2 for guidance on the determination of use of STOP sign 301 or GIVE WAY sign 302.
5. Paint kerbs with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 only in relation to the U-turn lane and its opening in the
median, and the immediate vicinity of the side road junction.
6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not be marked within the vehicle swept area at the U-turn.
7. Geometric design should clearly indicate the prohibition of opposing traffic entering the median opening. In
situations where geometry does not clearly make that evident appropriate regulatory signs may be utilised to
prohibit such entries.

Figure 8-2: Arterial Midblock U-Turn and Local Road T-Junction

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8.2.3

ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFT TURN AT LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION

Figure 8-3 depicts a situation on a four-lane dual carriageway where left turns through a median opening from a divided
road are permitted onto an intersecting local road. The sizes of signs and pavement markings are shown in a relative
scale and are based on a speed limit of 60kph on the divided road and 40kph on the intersecting road. Figure 8-2
shows similar circumstances for a six-lane dual carriageway.
NOTES:
1. ADVANCE WARNING sign 404 for a mid-block left turn may be posted and the distance to the point of left turn
displayed. Refer to Section 3.2 for guidance.
2. Under these circumstances a U-Turn, would not normally be permitted due to right turning traffic from the junction
opposite. Therefore a NO U-TURN SIGN 348 should be posted 25m in advance of the turning point. If however,
geometric conditions warrant a limited U-Turn movement permissible then long vehicles will be prohibited from
making U-Turns at such locations by placement of a U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 with a QUALIFICATION PLATE
sign 365, depicting a goods vehicle with a red diagonal bar running from the top right hand corner to the bottom
left hand corner of the sign, limiting the restriction to only goods vehicles and buses etc., over a prescribed length
(generally 6.0m).
3. A bus lay-by is shown. Taxi lay-bys should be treated similarly. In general, private vehicles are prohibited from
stopping in these exclusive lay-bys in order to keep them free for use by buses or taxis respectively. In instances
where it is wished to allow private vehicles to use a lay-by for drop-offs, the lay-by should be divided into two
segments using a PARKING LINE marking 621. The first segment is reserved for buses by posting a BUS STOP
sign 392. The following segment is posted with a NO PARKING sign 379 which allows any vehicle (private, taxi
or bus) to stop but not park within the designated area.
4. When a U-turn is permitted, EDGE LINE marking 613 should be set back because of the two-lane carriageway if
necessary to allow vehicles to make a U-turn without crossing that line.
5. GIVE WAY sign 302 is required in the configuration illustrated since the right turn does not have a full acceleration
taper. In instances where median U-Turns are permitted, then a STOP sign 301 should be used instead, since
the junction already has one STOP sign 301 (at the median turn). If a full designed acceleration taper is provided
then neither a GIVE WAY sign not STOP sign would be used at the right turn.
6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not be marked within the U-turn/Left Turn junction area.
7. Geometric design should clearly indicate the prohibition of opposing traffic entering the median opening. In
situations where geometry does not clearly make that evident appropriate regulatory signs may be utilised to
prohibit such entries.

Figure 8-3: Arterial Midblock Left Turn at Local Road T-Junction

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8.2.4

SERVICE ROAD CONNECTIONS TO AN ARTERIAL

Figure 8-4 depicts a number of typical situations that are commonly found on service roads adjacent to arterial
roadways. The sizes of signs and pavement markings are shown in a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of
60kph on the main road, 40kph on secondary roads, and 25kph on service roads (same sizing as 40kph). This figure
also illustrates a typical mid-block signalised pedestrian crossing.
NOTES:
1. PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389 and 391 are shown to illustrate one possible application of parking control signs.
A variety of other applications is also possible.
2. ONE WAY sign 306 is shown in this situation to indicate that the service road is one way in the direction
stipulated, but to not inhibit drivers from entering the main road with a more or less straight ahead movement.
3. The road geometry in situations such as this, where vehicles may have a tendency to park illegally, should be
such that discourages such illegal parking.
4. NO ENTRY sign 304 is shown in this instance since sight restrictions inhibit visibility of a ONE WAY sign 306 from
the side road.
5. PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 is specifically used in this situation as an added safety precaution
because of sight distance. With the building lines near the side road as illustrated, crossing pedestrians would be
difficult to see until they are actually in the road. The use of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking at other
pedestrian crossing points must be considered on a location-by-location basis. In general, on service roads
where pedestrians can be in the road at any place for purposes of accessing parked cars, the installation of
painted crossings is generally not warranted.
6. A mid-block signalised pedestrian crossing is shown crossing the main roadway and service roads. Priority control
on the main roadway should be by traffic signal. Pedestrian priority on the service roads is provided by GIVE
WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303.
7. VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 should be used in the vicinity of all service road connections to and from the
main roadway and at junctions between side roads and the main roadway and service roads.

Figure 8-4: Service Road Connections to an Arterial

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8.2.5

LARGE ROUNDABOUT

Figure 8-5 depicts a representative configuration of a full size roundabout. The sizes of signs and pavement markings
are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 60kph on the approach roads. (See Figure 8-6 for
details relevant to signalisation).
NOTES:
1. ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 may be required in place of ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512.
Such advance signs should be located as far in advance of the roundabout as possible and practical (up to
250m).
2. Appropriate TRAIL BLAZER sign or ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 may be used only when an approved
trailblazing or supplemental destination is in the vicinity. See Chapter 4 for guidance on approved destinations. In
general, a CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 should not be used for a supplemental destination.
3. MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 should be used only if the visible presence of the roundabout is not clear
to approaching drivers due to geometry or surroundings.
4. LANE ARROWS shown are indicative only. Actual arrows used in each lane should be based on trafficengineering analysis of the junction.
5. If street lighting poles are present and located symmetrically with respect to each approach, consideration may be
given to mounting street name signs on such.
6. Paint all kerbs within junction and vicinity with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 (not shown in Figure 8-5). As a
guideline marking 691 should commence at approximately the same point as Marking 612.
7. If the exit leg of a junction enters or is adjacent to a community the name of the community may be displayed on a
TEXT sign 588 on the right side of the road at a suitable distance before the first local street junction serving the
community.
8. The free right turn has been illustrated for the situation where it intersects the crossroad without a fully developed
acceleration lane. If a full acceleration lane is present then a treatment as shown in Figure 8-7 should be used.
9. Depending on the length of the right turn lane the positioning of Signs 508 (or 514) and 512 (or 511) may require
adjustment. None should be located after the start of the turn lane taper and the distances between signs
carefully controlled. Preferred spacing is 50m minimum.

Figure 8-5: Large Roundabout

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8.2.6

LARGE SIGNALISED ROUNDABOUT

Figure 8-6 depicts a representative configuration of a signalised roundabout. The sizes of signs and pavement
markings are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 60kph on the approach roads. Signing is
shown only for one approach. Other approaches are similar.
NOTES:
1. Figure 8-6 should be read in conjunction with Figure 8-5 and Section 8.2.5. Figure 8-6 is an adaptation to illustrate
the effects of signalizing the junction shown in Figure 8-5.
2. The free right turn has been illustrated for the situation where it intersects the crossroad without a fully developed
acceleration lane. If a full acceleration lane is present then a treatment as shown in Figure 8-7 should be used.
3. Depending on the length of the right-turn lane the positioning of signs 430, 514 and 511 (512) may require
adjustment. None should be located after the start of the turn-lane taper and the distances between signs should
be carefully controlled. Preferred spacing is 50m minimum.
4. TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 may be used for a period of three to six months when traffic signals are
installed on an existing unsignalised roundabout.
5. The preferred location of the CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 is on the channelizing island formed by the free
right-turn lane. If insufficient space is available on the island sign 515 may be placed on the right side of the road
at the beginning of curve. In such case a PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 should be located in the island.
6. CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612 for the right-turn lane is one standard length (L=27m for 60kph; see
Chapter 5, Table 5-3) measured from the curve point of the turning lane.
7. If the exit leg of a junction enters or is adjacent to a community the name of the community may be displayed on a
TEXT sign 588 on the right side of the road at a suitable distance before the first local street junction serving the
community.

Figure 8-6: Large Signalised Roundabout

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8.2.7

SIGNALISED INTERSECTION

Figure 8-7 depicts a representative configuration of a signalised intersection. The sizes of signs and pavement
markings are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 60kph on the approach roads. Signing is
shown only for one approach. Other approaches are similar.
NOTES:
1. ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 should be located as far from the intersection as possible and
practical (up to 250m). If should be located no closer to the intersection than the beginning of taper for the left or
right turn lane if a closer location must be used.
2. Appropriate ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 may be used only when an approved supplemental
destination is in the vicinity.
3. The preferred location of the CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 is on the channelizing island formed by the free
right turn lane. If insufficient space is available in the island sign 515 may be placed on the right side of the road
at the beginning of curve. In such case a PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 may be located in the island.
4. Intersection is shown with pedestrian crossings. This may not be required in all locations and would thus be
omitted when not applicable.
5. Configuration shown assumes design of adequate acceleration lanes for free flow merge condition.
6. CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612 for the development of the left-turn lane is shown at double the standard
length (2L=54m for 60kph). This is due to the left-turn lane being a dual lane and the need for traffic to enter the
lanes further from the intersection. The CHANNELIZATION LINE for the right-turn lane is one standard length
measured from the curve point of the turning lane.
7. Paint all kerbs within junction and vicinity with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 (not shown). Marking 691
should commence before the start of any added turn lane and terminate after the junction beyond the end of any
merge lanes.

Figure 8-7: Signalised Intersection

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8.2.8

FREEWAY CROSSROAD WITH SMALL ROUNDABOUTS

Figure 8-8 depicts a representative configuration of a junction at the terminal end of a freeway grade separated
interchange. The junction represented is a dual roundabout configuration on an undivided crossroad with assumed
speed of 60kph. Figures 8-5, 8-6, or 8-7 may be referred to for applicable signing and pavement markings if other
junction configurations are used at an interchange terminal end. Signing is shown only for traffic coming from the
bottom of the figure and from the left of the figure. Signing for other approaches is similar.
NOTES:
1. See Figure 8-11 for positioning of Signs 399 and 512 on the exit ramp. The position of Sign 398 on the entrance
ramp is similar.
2. Double roundabouts create two separate points of decision for traffic which must use both roundabouts to reach
their destination. Therefore, pairs of ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 are required to navigate drivers
through the junction one decision at a time. The second sign in the series must be positioned where geometry
best permits. This example shows placement within the roundabout. If clear distance between the roundabout
pair exceeds about 75m, then placement of the sign between the roundabouts is preferred.
3. Typically NO ENTRY signs 304 are not required on exits from roundabouts due to ramp-end geometry. However,
where there is even a remote possibility of drivers entering a freeway traveling in the wrong direction, resulting in
almost certain serious consequences, the posting of a pair of NO ENTRY signs is justified.
4. Paint all kerbs within junction and vicinity with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 (not shown).
5. MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 should be used only if the visible presence of the roundabout is not clear
to approaching drivers due to geometry or surroundings.

Figure 8-8: Freeway Crossroad with Small Roundabouts

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8.2.9

FREEWAY CROSSROAD AT A SIGNALISED DIAMOND


INTERCHANGE

Figure 8-9 depicts a representative configuration of a junction between a dual carriageway crossroad and a freeway in
the form of a signalised grade-separated diamond interchange. The junction type is subject to wide variations in
geometric treatment. The example illustrated assumes a dual-carriageway numbered-arterial crossroad with a speed
limit of 60kph. Signing is only shown for traffic coming from the bottom of the figure and from the left of the figure.
Signing for other approaches is similar.
NOTES:
1. See Figure 8-11 for positioning of Signs 399 and 512 on the exit ramp. The position of Sign 398 on the entrance
ramp is similar.
2. The potentially most dangerous aspect of a diamond interchange is the possibility of vehicles entering a freeway
in the wrong direction from an exit ramp. Subject to the detail of the geometry of the junctions between ramps
and the crossroad, pairs of NO ENTRY sign 304 are recommended to inhibit wrong way entry to a ramp. These
NO ENTRY signs 304 should be mounted on the traffic signal posts. In addition to NO ENTRY sign 304, other
applicable signs (NO RIGHT TURN sign 347 and AHEAD ONLY sign 321) as well as LANE DIRECTION
ARROWS (on the crossroad and ramps) and red RPM R markers on the ramps should all be employed to
reinforce the NO ENTRY message
3. CHEVRON signs 515 at the action points for the turns onto the freeway may also need to be relocated if the
junction islands are not large enough to accommodate them, or if visibility of them is likely to be obstructed by
other signs, such as NO ENTRY sign 304 and STOP sign 301.
4. Paint all kerbs within the vicinity of the ramp terminal junctions with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 (not
shown).
5. As a result of the potential for crossroad traffic to mistakenly turn left too soon and enter a freeway exit ramp, care
must be taken in deciding upon the configuration and placement of the ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512.
If the diamond ramps are widely separated then it is preferable to direct left turning traffic straight through the first
half of the diamond junction. A single stack ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign may then be used to direct the
left turning traffic if such can be suitably located. Otherwise, the CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 at the turn
point must be relied upon to direct the left turning traffic.

Figure 8-9: Freeway Crossroad at a Signalised Diamond Interchange

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8.2.10

SMALL ROUNDABOUTS

Figure 8-10 depicts a representative configuration of a junction between two intersecting single carriageway roads in
the form of a small roundabout. The junction is subject to wide variations in geometric treatment. The example
illustrated assumes a standard crossroad junction between two local roads.
NOTES:
1. A small roundabout configuration will not, under normal circumstances be used at the junction of numbered
routes. Therefore no guide signing applications are shown in Figure 8-10.
2. Where the median of a roundabout is not raised and kerbed, two EDGE LINE markings 613 spaced 150mm apart
should be used to delineate the roundabout and the MULTIPLE CHEVRONS RIGHT Sign 456 shown shall be
omitted.
3. GIVE WAY sign 302 along with GIVE WAY marking 602 will be used in the same manner as shown for a Large
Roundabout in Figure 8-5.
4. ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should be mounted on the same post and directly above GIVE WAY sign 302 to direct
drivers to travel in a circulatory fashion through the junction as with a standard roundabout configuration.
5. ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 is shown on only one leg of the roundabout to emphasise that its use is not
compulsory for all situations, but is determined based on engineering judgment and sight distances.

Figure 8-10: Small Roundabout

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8.3

GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTIONS

This section deals principally with sequences of guide signs for a range of typical freeway grade-separated
interchanges. Basic pavement marking arrangements for typical free-flow exit conditions are also illustrated.
The principles illustrated are equally applicable to isolated grade separated junctions on non-freeway routes. Details of
the terminal treatment of typical off-ramp and on-ramp situations are covered in Section 8.2.

8.3.1

FREEWAY WITH ONE-LANE EXIT, NO LANE DROP

Figure 8-11 depicts the configuration of a single lane exit ramp. As depicted the lane used to exit the freeway is a lane
which is shared between ongoing traffic and exiting traffic. (See Section 8.3.2 for the treatment for a two-lane exit.)
Figure 8-11 is presented based upon an interchange located on an Emirate Route that is a freeway. It is also
applicable for non-freeway exits and/or exits on Abu Dhabi Routes. The sizes of signs and pavement markings are
shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 100kph.
NOTES:
1. For a simple access type interchange on an uncomplicated alignment, an EXTRA FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551 is not required nor is a second ONGOING DESTINATION sign 553 required at the exit
point.
2. Appropriate SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 may be used only when an approved supplemental destination is in
the vicinity (see Section 4.1.5). Sign 557 is typically ground mounted but may be mounted overhead if
determined appropriate.
3. The spacing of retro-reflective RPM marking R for EDGE LINE marking 613R should be reduced to 4m within the
gore area.
4. Omit FREEWAY END sign 399 when not applicable such as on a freeway-to-freeway ramp at a systems
interchange.
5. The specific significance of the manner of display of the various signs is that for a full width display there is a Type
7 arrow centred over each lane and the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551 are located over the right side
lane which is also available to ongoing traffic. If a second lane is developed on the off-ramp, the ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551 and the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 should only show one arrow. The second lane should
not be marked until approximately 100m beyond the 552 signs.
6. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 would not normally be required for an uncomplicated alignment. However,
site specific geometry, such as a merging collector-distributor (C-D) road after FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551, will at times require ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 to be used.

Figure 8-11: Freeway with One Lane Exit, No Lane Drop

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8.3.2

FREEWAY WITH TWO-LANE EXIT, ONE LANE DROP

Figure 8-12 depicts the configuration of a two lane exit ramp from a freeway with one lane being dropped at the exit
and the second being an optional exit lane. As depicted the dropped lane can only be used to exit the freeway. The
adjacent lane is shared between ongoing traffic and existing traffic (see Section 8.3.1 for the treatment for a single exit
lane.) Figure 8-12 is presented based upon an interchange located on an Emirate Route that is a freeway. It is also
applicable for non-freeway exits and/or exits on Abu Dhabi Routes. The sizes of signs and pavement markings are
shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 100kph.
NOTES:
1. For a simple access type interchange on an uncomplicated alignment, an EXTRA FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION sign 551 is not required nor is a second ONGOING DESTINATION sign 553 required at the exit
point.
2. Appropriate SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 may be used only when an approved supplemental destination is in
the vicinity (see Section 4.1.5). Sign 557 is typically ground mounted but may be mounted overhead if
determined appropriate.
3. The spacing of retro-reflective RPM marking R for EDGE LINE marking 613R should be reduced to 4m within the
gore area.
4. Omit FREEWAY END sign 399 when not applicable such as on a freeway-to-freeway ramp at a systems
interchange.
5. See Chapter 5, Table 5-3 for appropriate minimum value of L. For lane drops on roadways with posted speeds in
excess of 70kph, a 200mm wide CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 should be used.
6. The specific significance of the manner of display of the various signs is that for a full width display there is a Type
7 arrow centred over each lane. In this instance the number of lanes prior to the exit is four and the number after
the exit is three. For this reason the shared exit and ongoing lane is the second lane from the right in advance of
the exit and the right side lane drops at the exit. It is necessary to display two exit arrows on the ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION signs 551 and the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. There are therefore only two ongoing lanes indicated
on ONGOING sign 553.
7. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 would not normally be required for an uncomplicated alignment. However,
site-specific geometry, such as a merging C-D road after FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, will
at times require ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 to be used.

Figure 8-12: Freeway with Two Lane Exit, One Lane Drop

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8.3.3

INTERCHANGE WITH A C-D ROAD

Figure 8-13 depicts an interchange in the form of a cloverleaf with a C-D road. Figure 8-13 is presented based upon a
single-lane exit (not a lane drop). The sizes of signs are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of
100kph. Regulatory and warning signs and pavement markings are not shown.
NOTES:
1. EXTRA FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 and/or second ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 at
the exit point may be added if interchange complexity and location warrants (see Section 4.6.4).
2. Second EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 is shown located in advance of the overpass rather than at the theoretical
gore (painted nose) to prevent overpass from obscuring the view of the sign. If the interchange is large and the
distance between the front side of the overpass and the exit to the loop ramp exceeds 150m it may be beneficial
to provide a second ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, displaying the appropriate distance, prior to the
structure with an EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 located at the theoretical nose. The EXIT DIRECTION sign for the
second exit is displayed with an "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panel even though corresponding ADVANCE EXIT
DIRECTION signs do not have the "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panels. This is due to the short auxiliary lane developed
between the entering and exiting loop ramps and the need to advise entering drivers to leave that lane or be
forced to exit.
3. If by design the speed limit on the C-D road is reduced to less than 100kph, sign letter size for signs on the C-D
road may be reduced accordingly.
4. See Figure 8-11 for pavement markings for this configuration.
5. If the exit lane configuration is different the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 may need to be varied to indicate more
than one lane and/or a lane drop situation.
6. It is a basic principle of the guide signing system that there should never be more arrows displayed at one point
across the roadway than there are lanes on the road.
7. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 would not normally be required for an uncomplicated alignment. However,
site specific geometry, such as a merging C-D road after FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, will
at times require ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 to be used.

Figure 8-13: Interchange with a C-D Road

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8.3.4

FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH TWO CLOSELY SPACED


EXITS

Figure 8-14 depicts a systems (freeway to freeway) interchange with two closely spaced exits directly from the
mainline. Figure 8-14 is presented based upon successive single lane exits, neither of which are lane drops. The sizes
of signs are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 100kph. Regulatory and warning signs and
pavement markings are not shown.
NOTES:
1. The EXIT DIRECTION sign for the second exit is displayed with an "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panel even though
corresponding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs do not have the "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panels. This is due to the
short auxiliary lane developed between the entering and exiting loop ramps and the need to advise entering
drivers to leave that lane or be forced to exit.
2. The sign positioning for second EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 is subject to whether the approach is at an overpass
or an underpass (see Section 8.3.3).
3. It is a basic principle of the guide signing system that there should never be more arrows displayed at one point
across the roadway than there are lanes on the road.

Figure 8-14: Freeway Systems Interchange with Two Closed Spaced Exits

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8.3.5

FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH A TWO LANE EXIT AND


RAMP SPLIT

Figure 8-15 depicts a systems (freeway to freeway) interchange with a two lane exit that splits shortly after the exit
point. Figure 8-15 is presented based upon the ramp split not being a lane drop (two lanes continue to left destination
and one lane exits from the ramp to right destination) and being located less than 500m from the first exit. The sizes of
signs are shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed limit of 100kph. Regulatory and warning signs and
pavement markings are not shown.
NOTES:
1. When the distance between the exit and the ramp split exceeds 500m, consideration should be given to including
an ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 between the exit and the ramp split.
2. It is a basic principle of the guide signing system that there should never be more arrows displayed at one point
across the roadway than there are lanes on the road. The display shown at the theoretical nose must therefore
be positioned so that the exit sign arrows are fully over developed exit lanes.

Figure 8-15: Freeway Systems Interchange with a Two Lane Exit and Ramp Split

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8.3.6

FREE-FLOW RAMP CONDITIONS

Figure 8-16 depicts pavement marking conditions that are not otherwise covered in an incidental manner in other
figures in this Chapter. Pavement marking sizes are based on a speed limit of 100kph. The retro-reflective version of
pavement markings is shown for a freeway condition. For non-freeway conditions the standard version of the markings
may be used.
NOTES:
1. The spacing of retro-reflective RPM marking R for EDGE LINE marking 613R should be reduced to 4m within the
gore area.
2. When the length of the auxiliary lane exceeds 1000m, the entrance and exit ramps should be treated
independently. If the auxiliary lane is 600m to 1000m in length, then it should be marked as shown. If the
auxiliary lane is less than 600m long, the CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612R at the exit should be replaced
by a section of ENHANCED LANE LINE marking 655R of at least equal length.

Figure 8-16: Free-Flow Ramp Conditions

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8.4

SCHOOL ZONE

Figure 8-17 depicts typical applications for a school zone. School zones should be established on all streets where
school children enter or exit a school or a school compound, on foot, directly onto the street. Where the side of a
school or school compound does not have a gate or door leading directly onto the street, no school zone should be
established on the adjacent street. If a gate or door exists but is not used by children on foot, or if the gate or door is
buffered from the street by a frontage road or closed parking lot, no school zone should be established.
Refer to the Abu Dhabi Municipality School Zone Traffic Control Manual for details.
NOTES:
1. If warranted, a school zone should be established for, at a minimum, the entire length of the school compound
facing the zone and, at a maximum, up to 150m past the school boundary in either direction. The extent to which
a school zone extends beyond the school boundary up to 150m should be determined by the engineer on site,
depending on prevailing approach speeds and visibility.
2. To warn drivers that they are approaching a school zone, an advance warning sign, shown as installation A,
should be placed 100m in advance of the school zone.
3. The beginning of a school zone should be marked with installation B. Installation B includes a 30kph speed limit
sign with a supplemental plate indicating school. Both signs are bilingual in English and Arabic.
4. The beginning of a school zone should also be communicated with non-reflective raised pavement markings.
These markings are to be installed in three rows, staggered, in a 0.50m width perpendicular to the traffic
direction. If the street is not divided, the pavement markings should extend across both lanes at either end of the
school zone. If the street has a median separating traffic direction, the pavement markings need only be placed
where traffic will enter the school zone. There is no need to place pavement markings at the end of a school zone
in a street divided by a median.
5. The end of a school zone should be marked by Installation C.
6. A school zone should be marked for both directions of traffic, even if the street is divided by a median. If there is a
fence in the median preventing pedestrians from crossing outside of a crosswalk, the lane of the street not
adjacent to the school should not be marked for a school zone.

Figure 8-17: School Zone

Local traffic and pedestrian conditions may require different applications or solutions for marking school zones.
Engineers are expected to exercise their professional judgment on site, in the spirit of these general guidelines and
with the purpose of protecting school children from traffic conditions.

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TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Please refer to the Abu Dhabi Traffic Signals and Electronic Warning and Information Systems Manual.

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10

RAIL AND BUSWAY LEVEL CROSSINGS

10.1.2

STANDARDISATION AND UNIFORMITY

10.1
10.1.1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
INTRODUCTION

10.1.2.1

ALL RAIL TYPES

The Surface Transport Master Plan for the Abu Dhabi Emirate includes the development of several modes of transport,
including heavy rail (freight and passenger transport railways), light rail (including both separate guide ways that
travel within the street right-of-way and which cross arterial streets at grade), usually referred to as LRT, and exclusive
Bus Rapid Transit or BRT facilities, which may use either an exclusive travel lane or a separate guide way (often called
a busway) that is similar in many ways to a light rail guide way.
In cases where exclusive travel lanes are provided, the availability of such facilities for carpools may be considered as
would be the application of electronic tolls for qualifying vehicles that are neither bus nor carpool. Such facilities are
often referred to as Managed Lanes. These are addressed separately from grade crossings.
Specific material in this Chapter provides guidelines for grade crossing design, except where specifically identified as
Policies or Standards. The focus of this document is in providing grade crossing warning and regulatory signage,
signalisation, markings and other related traffic control devices for approaching roads and streets. The primary purpose
of such signing is to prevent collisions between road vehicles and rail or bus vehicles at all times. To this end, the Abu
Dhabi Traffic Signals and Electronic Warning and Information Systems Manual (TSES) provides guidance relative to
light rail or busway junctions with roads or streets.
For railways, it is likely that most if not all road/street/railway junctions being constructed by the Etihad Rail will involve
some form of grade separation (i.e. no at-grade crossings). However, temporary or permanent road-rail crossings in
industrial or rural areas are frequently implemented for economic reasons (notably the cost savings as opposed to
building rail or roadway bridges). Thus guidelines for constructing signing, signalisation, and markings are provided.
For purposes of design, installation, operation, and maintenance of traffic control devices at grade crossings, it is
recognized that the crossing of the road by rail, LRT or busway is situated on a right-of-way available for the joint use
of road traffic as well as rail, LRT or busway traffic.
The combination of devices selected or installed at a specific grade crossing is referred to as a traffic control system.
This Chapter also describes the traffic control devices that are used in locations where LRT and BRT vehicles are
operating along streets and roads in mixed traffic with automotive vehicles.
The Abu Dhabi City Municipality and other relevant transport authorities as appropriate shall jointly determine the
need and selection of devices at a grade crossings.
The traffic control devices, systems, and practices described in this Manual shall be used at all grade crossings
open to public travel, consistent with Federal and Emirate laws and regulations.
Where LRT and railways use the same tracks or adjacent tracks, the traffic control devices, systems, and
practices for road-rail grade crossings shall be used.

All signs used in grade crossing traffic control systems shall be retroreflectorized or illuminated to show the same
shape and similar colour to an approaching road user during both day and night.
No sign or signal shall be located in the centre of an undivided road, unless it is a crashworthy installation or unless it is
placed on a raised island.
Any signs or signals placed on a raised island in the centre of an undivided road should be installed with a clearance of
at least 700mm from the outer edge of the raised island to the nearest edge of the sign or signal, except as permitted.
Where the distance between tracks, measured along the road between the inside rails, exceeds 30m, additional signs
or other appropriate traffic control devices should be used to inform approaching road users of the long distance to
cross the tracks.

10.1.2.2

RAILWAY CROSSINGS

Because of the large number of significant variables to be considered, no single standard system of traffic control
devices is universally applicable for all road-rail grade crossings. This Manual defines the basic elements that are
required to protect safety and operations at road-rail grade crossings.
Traffic control devices, systems, and practices shall be consistent with the design and application of the Standards
contained in this Manual.
Approvals shall be obtained from the Abu Dhabi City Municipality before any new road-rail grade crossing traffic
control system is installed or before modifications are made to an existing system on roads owned or managed
by the Municipality.
To stimulate effective responses from road users, these devices, systems, and practices should use the five basic
considerations employed generally for traffic control devices: design, placement, operation, maintenance, and
uniformity.

10.1.2.3

TRANSIT CROSSINGS

Light Rapid Transit (LRT) is a mode of metropolitan transportation that employs LRT vehicles (commonly known as
light rail vehicles, streetcars, or trams) that operate on rails in streets in mixed traffic, and LRT traffic that operates in
semi-exclusive rights-of-way, or in exclusive rights-of-way. Grade crossings with LRT can occur at intersections or at
midblock locations, including public and private driveways.
An initial educational campaign along with an ongoing program to continue to educate new drivers is beneficial when
introducing LRT operations to an area, and hence, new traffic control devices.
LRT alignments can be grouped into one of the following three types:
Exclusive: An LRT right-of-way that is grade-separated or protected by a fence or traffic barrier. Motor vehicles,
pedestrians, and cycles are prohibited within the right-of-way. Subways and aerial structures are included within
this group. This type of alignment does not have grade crossings and is not further addressed.
Semi-exclusive: An LRT alignment that is in a separate right-of-way or along a street or railway right-of-way where
motor vehicles, pedestrians, and cycles have limited access and cross at designated locations only.
Mixed-use: An alignment where LRT operates in mixed traffic with all types of road users. This includes streets,
transit malls, and pedestrian malls where the right-of-way is shared.
The combination of devices selected or installed at a specific road-LRT grade crossing is referred to as a Light Rail
Transit Traffic Control System.

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Because of the large number of significant variables to be considered, no single standard system of traffic control
devices is universally applicable for all road-LRT grade crossings.
For the safety and integrity of operations by road and LRT users, the Abu Dhabi City Municipality along with other
relevant authorities will jointly determine the need and selection of traffic control devices and the assignment of priority
to LRT at a road-LRT grade crossing.

Based on engineering judgment, a TRACKS OUT OF SERVICE Sign 7361 may be temporarily installed until the tracks
are either made active or removed. The length of time before the tracks will be made active or removed may be
considered in making the decision as to whether to install the sign. Since the sign is intended for temporary usage,
Sign 7361 would have a yellow background with black Arabic and English text and a black border.

The normal rules of the road and traffic control priority in force on the roads owned or managed by the Municipality
shall govern the order assigned to the movement of vehicles at an intersection unless the Municipality and other
relevant authorities jointly determine that it is appropriate to assign a higher priority to LRT.
Examples of different types of LRT priority control include:

Separate traffic control signal phases for LRT movements (refer to the TSES Manual).
Restriction of movement of roadway vehicles in favour of LRT operations.
Pre-emption of road traffic signal control to accommodate LRT movements (refer to TSES Manual).

Sign 7361

Traffic control devices, systems, and practices shall be consistent with the design and application of the Standards
contained in this Manual.
The minimum requirements for traffic control devices, systems, and practices described in this Manual shall be met or
exceeded for all road-LRT grade crossings.
Approval shall be obtained from the Abu Dhabi City Municipality before any new road-LRT grade crossing traffic control
system is installed or before modifications are made to an existing system on roads owned or managed by the
Municipality.
Road-LRT grade crossings that include LRT guide way alignments on separate right-of-way shall be equipped with a
combination of automatic gates and flashing-light signals, flashing-light signals only, or traffic control signals, unless an
engineering study indicates that the use of non-access-restrictive signage (STOP, YIELD or RAILWAY CROSSING)
signs alone would be adequate.
The appropriate traffic control system to be used at a road-LRT grade crossing should be determined by an
engineering study conducted by Etihad Rail or Municipality in cooperation with other appropriate authorities and local
organizations.
To stimulate effective responses from road users, these devices, systems, and practices should use the five basic
considerations employed generally for traffic control devices: design, placement, operation, maintenance, and
uniformity.

10.1.3

LEVEL CROSSING ELIMINATION

When a grade crossing (either permanent or temporary) is eliminated, the traffic control devices for the crossing shall
be removed.

10.1.4

ILLUMINATION AT LEVEL CROSSINGS

Illumination should be installed at or adjacent to a grade crossing in order to provide better night-time visibility of the
grade crossing and rail or public transport vehicles using the crossing, and may be required at night, where grade
crossings are blocked for extended periods of time, or where crash history indicates that road users experience
difficulty in seeing rail or public transport vehicles using the crossing, or traffic control devices during hours of darkness.
Recommended types and locations of luminaires for illuminating grade crossings are contained in the American
National Standards Institutes (ANSI) Practice for Roadway Lighting RP-8, which is available from the Illuminating
Engineering Society. Also the requirements of the Municipality and Etihad Rail are to be complied with.

10.2

RISK MITIGATION

Grade crossings, where not adequately protecting the different transport modes from one another, possess a risk for
collisions. As a matter of operational practice, all rail vehicles have the right-of-way over road vehicles. In large part,
this is due to the inability of such heavy vehicles to be able to stop in an adequate period of time and space due to a
blockage. Thus, the primary restrictions shall be on road traffic and pedestrians. With busway crossings, priority is
assigned based on traffic control regulations (usually through signalisation), allowing for alternating assignment of rightof-way between road and busway.
Risk mitigation generally requires the following:
Provision of track circuit / vehicle location information from rail vehicles / track facility to the grade crossing traffic
control system so as to trigger warning signals and gates.
Provision of warning signals and gates for road traffic to block access to the crossing zone during an interval prior
to and during the crossing of the rail vehicle.

If the existing traffic control devices at a multiple-track grade crossing become improperly placed or inaccurate because
of the removal of some of the tracks, the existing devices shall be relocated and/or modified.

At grade crossings shall not be provided on freeways or expressways (grade separations are required by definition for
such facilities) and shall be limited as much as possible to rural or industrial routes as opposed to commuter traffic
routes.

Where possible, grade crossings for railways should be eliminated except where temporary crossings are deemed
justified in an engineering study, or where traffic volumes are low enough such that the risk of collisions is minimal
(provided there is adequate sight distance, signage and protection at the crossing).

Responsibility for providing information on rail or LRT vehicle location and active traffic operations shall be by the
operator of the railway or LRT facility.

Where a roadway is removed from a grade crossing, the roadway approaches in the railway or LRT right-of-way should
also be removed and appropriate signs and object markers should be placed at the roadway end.

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10.3
10.3.1

10.3.1.4

SIGNS AND MARKINGS AT RAIL CROSSINGS


GENERAL

FLASHING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY AND BACKPLATE SIGN 2002

Standard assemblies of signs and devices used at rail crossings are designated in the Series 1001 to 1016, as
presented in the following sections. Where flashing signals are used at a crossing, they are shown as an element of the
appropriate assembly. Signs used either alone or as components of these assemblies are summarized following the
description of each assembly.
The description and use of signs and assemblies is presented below, and includes the following:

Railway sign assemblies at road-rail crossings


Advance rail crossing signs
Countdown markers between advance rail crossing signs and rail crossing (signalised)
Advance rail crossing warning for intersecting roads
Pavement Markings
Clear Zone Markings and Signage

10.3.1.1

SIGN TYPES

10.3.1.2

RAIL CROSSING SIGN 2000

FLASHING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY AND BACKPLATE sign 2002 shall include a black back plate. Two red signals of
300mm diameter shall be mounted in the upper half of the back plate side by side and shall flash alternately during
periods when a train is entering, travelling through and departing the crossing. An amber signal of 300mm diameter
shall be centred beneath the two red signals in the lower half of the back plate.
The amber signal shall flash a steady signal in the 10 second period prior to the initiation of the red flashing signal,
which shall alternate between the two red displays. The lowering of any protective gates shall begin no later than 5
seconds after the initiation of red flashing signal. The red flashing signal shall remain engaged until at least 5 seconds
after the protective gates have been raised.

10.3.1.5

SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 2003

RAIL CROSSING sign 2000 shall consist of a white cross-buck display on a red backplate (black text and border
provided upon the white symbol, showing RAILWAY in English and Arabic).

10.3.1.3

SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 2003 shall be required for rural routes and may be erected based on an engineering study
at other crossings in industrial zones where it is deemed there are a significant number of unfamiliar drivers. When
used, it shall be required to be mounted directly under the stop sign and shall contain black text and border and white
background, advising drivers to Watch for Trains. The sign shall be the width of the STOP sign 301 immediately
above it.

SUPPLEMENTAL TRACK PLATE SIGN 2001

SUPPLEMENTAL TRACK PLATE sign 2001 shall consist of a white plate with black text and border.
Sign 2001 shall be placed below Sign 2000 and shall simply show the number of tracks crossed (if two or more). Single
track crossings shall not require Sign 2001 installation.

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10.3.1.6

RAIL CROSSING WARNING SIGN 2010

10.3.1.8

COUNTDOWN MARKER SIGN 2012

Where visibility of the rail crossing is limited due to heavy traffic or road geometrics, countdown markers (Sign 2012)
shall be provided in the interval between the advance warning sign (Assembly 1003) closest to the crossing and the
crossing itself.
RAIL CROSSING WARNING sign 2010 shall consist of a white triangular sign meeting the requirements of warning
signs, with a black legend and red border.

10.3.1.7

RAIL CROSSING SIGNAL REGULATORY SIGN 2011

Markers shall contain red diagonal stripes on a white background. Diagonal stripes shall be pointed downward to the
left if mounted on the right side of the carriageway. If an advance warning sign is also provided on the left side of the
carriageway with a crossing assembly similarly on the left, countdown markers shall be provided on the left side as
well, except with the stripes pointed downward and to the right.
A total of three markers shall be placed at evenly-spaced intervals between Assembly 1003 and the stop line located
just prior to Assembly 1001 (at the crossing). The markers shall be installed in the order of decreasing number of
stripes, from three to two to one.

10.3.1.9

CLEAR ZONE SIGN 2013

The KEEP CROSSING CLEAR sign is to be located so that it does not obstruct the crossing signals or associated
signs. A mounting height of less than 1.0m may be required. It shall be a text sign with black legend and border and
white background. It shall be installed wherever clear zone markings are used. It may also be installed based on
engineering studies where it is observed that vehicles frequently stop or move too slowly across the tracks regardless
of traffic condition, creating a potential hazard.

RAIL CROSSING SIGNAL REGULATORY sign 2011 shall consist of a white rectangular sign with black text and
border, with a symbol showing a representation of the rail crossing signals (black with red and amber display graphics)
at the top of the display. Text shall require drivers to Obey Signals at Crossing.
The sign shall be mounted beneath Sign 2010 and shall be used for all signalised rail crossings.

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10.3.1.10 LRT CROSSING WARNING SIGN 2015

10.3.2

RAIL CROSSING WARNING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY 1001

Sign 2000

Sign 2001

Sign 2002

Rail Crossing Warning Sign 2015 shall consist of a white triangular sign meeting the requirements of warning signs
with a black legend and red border. The sign shall be placed at the top of Assembly 1013.

10.3.1.11 LRT PLATE SIGN 2021

Rail Crossing Warning Signal Assembly 1001 shall include the following signage, configured to provide warning of
oncoming rail vehicles. It shall include the following:
Sign 2000 Rail Crossing Sign
Sign 2001 Supplementary Plate indicating number of tracks
Sign 2002 Signal backplate and twin flashing red signals and for amber signal which glows prior to activation of
red signals

LRT Plate Sign 2021 shall consist of a white plate with black tram symbol and border. Sign 2021 shall be placed below
Sign 2000 and shall simply show that the crossing represents an LRT facility.

Assembly 1001 shall be used in conjunction with gate control devices that restrict all vehicle and pedestrian access to
the grade crossing area. It shall be placed a minimum of 15m prior to the outer edge of the first track, with a Stop Line
Marking 601 provided 5.0m prior to the assembly across the entire carriageway approach.
Assembly 1001 shall be placed on either side of the approaching carriageway (dual carriageway route). Even for a
single carriageway (bi-directional road) approach, Assembly 1001 shall be provided on both sides of the road.

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10.3.3

RAIL CROSSING STOP ASSEMBLY 1002

10.3.4

RAIL CROSSING AND SIGNALS AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1003

Assembly 1003 shall consist of two signs that give advance warning of a rail crossing controlled by a signal as
configured for Assembly 1001 above, including:
RAIL CROSSING STOP assembly 1002 shall be used at a rail crossing where the requirements indicate that the
crossing is to be controlled by stop signs. Such crossings may be located in rural or industrial areas with limited traffic
and within rail yards where trains are travelling at slow speeds for the purposes of switching or delivery of goods.
Assembly 1002 shall not be used at crossings in which trains are travelling at normal or high speeds and on numbered
routes such as AD-routes (or E-routes). In these instances only Assembly 1001 shall be provided, along with required
gates as per the crossing engineering study.
Assembly 1002 shall include the following:

Sign 2000 Rail Crossing Sign


Sign 2001 Supplementary Plate indicating number of tracks
Sign 301 Mounted beneath Sign 2000 or, only if used, Sign 2001
Sign 2003 Supplementary Plate sign with text indicating the driver is to watch for oncoming rail traffic before
proceeding

Assembly 1002 shall be placed a minimum of 15m prior to the outer edge of the first track, with a STOP LINE marking
601 provided 5.0m prior to the assembly across the entire carriageway approach.
Assembly 1002 shall be placed on either side of the approaching carriageway (dual carriageway route), and on the
right side of single carriageway routes.

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Rail Crossing Warning Sign (Sign 2010)


Rail Crossing Signal Regulatory Sign (Sign 2011)
Supplementary Plate (Sign 589)
The assembly shall be used as the first warning signage encountered, except where long distance advance warning
signs are used (see below), or where this Chapter of the Manual specifically exempts crossings from the need for
advance signs.
Assembly shall be placed 200m prior to the rail crossing. Where an engineering study indicates that queuing at the rail
crossing during the passage of a train would on average exceed more than 200m, a second Assembly 1003 shall be
provided at a minimum 500m advance distance from the crossing (based on queue length of 400m and stopping
distance not exceeding 100m), or greater depending on estimated typical queue length and expected vehicle stopping
distance to the back of queue. This distance should be based on expected traffic volumes, estimated crossing closure
(gate-down) time, and typical approach speeds under free flow conditions.
If a third advance warning assembly is required, it may be placed at 1000m prior to the crossing, based upon
engineering studies that demonstrate a need for such signage due to travel speeds, volumes, and lack of visibility to
the crossing.
Assembly 1003 shall be placed on the right side of the carriageway. Where the display needs to be repeated on the
left-hand side of the carriageway for added emphasis, e.g., on a high volume, limited sight distance road or on a righthand curve, the Assembly shall be placed in the median (dual carriageway) or on the left side of a single carriageway
facing the traffic approaching the crossing. If a second (or third) advance warning assembly is required as per the
above, they shall also be mounted on the left hand side as well if justified for the first warning sign.

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10.3.5

RAIL CROSSING ON INTERSECTING ROAD ASSEMBLY 1004

10.4.1

EXCLUSIVE LRT CROSSING WARNING SIGNAL ASSEMBLY 1011

Sign 2010

Sign 589

If a rail crossing occurs within 300m to the right or left on an intersecting road, Sign 2010 shall be installed 100m prior
to the intersection, and shall be accompanied by a Supplementary Plate 589 below, containing Arrow Type 4 (left) or 5
(right).

10.3.5.1

USE OF CHEVRON ALIGNMENT MARKERS

Chevron Alignment markers (Sign 454 for bear right and Sign 455 for bear left), are used where the road approach to
the rail crossing is on a sharply curved alignment. The markers should be positioned around the back of the curve.
Where close spacing of the markers is required, they may be placed both beside and above Sign 2012 in order to
achieve even spacing between the advance warning sign and the rail crossing location.

10.4

SIGNS AND MARKINGS LRT CROSSINGS

LRT Crossing Assembly 1011 for exclusive LRT right-of-way shall include the following signage, configured to provide
warning of oncoming rail vehicles. It shall include the following:
Sign 2000 Rail Crossing Sign
Sign 2021 Supplementary Plate indicating this is an LRT facility
Sign 2002 Signal backplate and twin flashing red signals and for amber signal which glows prior to activation of
red signals

There are typically two types of LRT crossings:


Crossings where LRT travels on exclusive right-of-way similar to railways.
Urban LRT Crossings where LRT is travelling in the middle of, or next to, a street right-of-way and may be subject
to traffic control that is integrated with normal street traffic controls.

Assembly 1011 may be used in conjunction with gate control devices that restrict all vehicle and pedestrian access to
the grade crossing area. It shall be placed a minimum of 15m prior to the outer edge of the first track, with a STOP
LINE marking 601 provided 5.0m prior to the assembly across the entire carriageway approach.

For exclusive right-of-way, LRT crossings are handled similarly to other rail crossings, with the exceptions noted in the
requirements below.

Assembly 1001 shall be placed on either side of the approaching carriageway (dual carriageway route). Even for a
single carriageway (bi-directional road) approach, Assembly 1001 shall be provided on both sides of the road.

Urban LRT operations are subject to special signalisation requirements. Intersection type traffic signals may be used in
lieu of flashing railway signal assemblies to provide active control of light rail crossings in urban areas. Where used, the
road approach shall be treated as though it were an approach to an intersection, i.e. with signs and markings provided
in accordance with Chapters 4 and 5 of this Manual. Where intersection traffic signals are used for LRT crossings,
gates shall not be used except where specially required for protecting pedestrians from approaching trams.

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10.4.2

Side road or driveway approaches to the LRT facility shall be protected at the minimum with a STOP sign 301 as
discussed in Section 10.5.4 below.

LRT CROSSING AND SIGNALS AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1013

10.5.1

TRAFFIC SIGNAL AT LRT CROSSING AHEAD ASSEMBLY 1014

Sign 430

Sign 2021

For advance warning LRT crossings protected by traffic signal operations, Assembly 1014 shall consist of an LRT Plate
Sign 2021 shall be provided underneath a TRAFFIC SIGNAL AHEAD sign 430. The Assembly shall be installed and
placed as per the requirements for advance traffic signal ahead signs.

10.5.2

LRT CROSSING ON SIDE ROAD ASSEMBLY 1015

Assembly 1013 shall consist of two signs that give advance warning of an LRT crossing controlled by a flashing
warning signal (as opposed to normal traffic signal) as configured for Assembly 1011 above, including:
LRT Crossing Warning Sign (Sign 2015)
Rail Crossing Signal Regulatory Sign (Sign 2011)
Supplementary Plate (Sign 589)
Assembly shall be placed a minimum of 200m prior to the rail crossing, but may be greater based on expected traffic
volumes, estimated crossing closure (gate-down) time, and typical approach speeds under free flow conditions. A
second advance assembly should be considered if engineering studies indicate there would be substantial queuing
during a typical gate-down period and no other technical or grade-separation options are available or being considered.
If used, the secondary assembly should be placed 100m behind the location where the longest queuing would be
expected to occur.
Assembly 1013 shall be placed on the right side of the carriageway. Where the display needs to be repeated on the
left-hand side of the carriageway for added emphasis, e.g., on a high volume, limited sight distance road or on a righthand curve, the Assembly shall be placed in the median (dual carriageway) or on the left side of a single carriageway
facing the traffic approaching the crossing.

10.5

SIGNS AND MARKINGS AT URBAN LRT CROSSINGS

For urban LRT crossings, which are treated similarly to other vehicle crossings (meaning some form of traffic control
signalisation or signage which alternates right-of-way between trams and other vehicle flows), the focus is on advance
warning of an intersection in which trams may be crossing. A key safety emphasis is on pedestrians, assuring they are
not crossing in front of a moving tram as it is approaching a junction or pathway. To this end, movable swing gates
may be provided that block pedestrian crossings over the LRT right-of-way when a tram is approaching.

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Assembly 2015 (Sign 2015 with Sign 589, Type 5 Arrow shown)

If a side road or driveway crosses an LRT facility travelling on the outer edge of a urban roadway (but physically
separated from the roadway), an Advance LRT Crossing Assembly 1015 shall be provided with an advance LRT
crossing warning sign 2015 and a Supplementary Sign 589 below containing the appropriate Arrow Type 4 (left) or 5
(right).
Advance warnings for left turn or right turns across LRT tracks shall be required for cross roads, assuming they provide
adequate time and space for the driver to see the oncoming tram. An electronic no right turn display is to be provided
at the un-signalised side road junction and activated when trams are approaching the side road crossing on the right. If
the access is to the left side of the carriageway, an electronic no left turn display shall be provided at the unsignalised side road junction.

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10.5.3

ADVANCE WARNING OF LRT CROSSING (STOP-CONTROLLED, NO


SIGNAL OR GATE)

For local roads approaching an LRT crossing where the LRT facility is travelling on the outer edge of an urban roadway
(but physically separated), a stand-alone Advance LRT Crossing Warning Sign 2015 shall be mounted a minimum
200m from the crossing.

10.5.4

STOP CONTROL ASSEMBLY 2016

Assembly 2016 (Sign 301 plus Sign 2003, Sign 2021 as alternative)

For local roads crossing an LRT facility travelling on the outer edge of an urban roadway (but physically separated),
Assembly 2016 shall consist of a STOP sign 301 placed a minimum of 10m prior to the outer edge of the first track with
a Watch for Trains sign 2003 placed below the stop sign. STOP LINE marking 601 shall be provided in the direction
of travel approaching the LRT crossing, 5.0m prior to the assembly across the entire carriageway approach.
Optionally, Sign 2021 (LRT plate) may be used instead of Sign 2003, depending on local familiarity with urban light rail
operations. However, for initial operations of light rail services, the watch for trains sign provides more direct
instructions to the driver.
Assembly 2016 shall be placed on either side of the approaching carriageway (dual carriageway route), and on the
right side of single carriageway routes.

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11

TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR CYCLE FACILITIES

11.1
11.1.1

PRINCIPLES
SCOPE

This Chapter covers signs and pavement markings specifically related to cycle operation on both roadways and shared
use paths. Earlier sections of this Manual should be reviewed for general provisions, signs and pavement markings.
There are two primary types of cycle lanes: mandatory and advisory. A mandatory cycle lane requires regulation that
prohibits other vehicles from using that part of the carriageway while the lane is in operation. Advisory cycle lanes do
not require a specific prohibitive order for other vehicles and may be used in situations where mandatory lanes would
be too restrictive, typically where road width is restricted and motor vehicles might occasionally need to encroach on
the lane.
There are also two primary types of flows for cycle lanes: with flow and contra flow. For with flow cycle lanes, the
direction of flow for cycles is the same direction as the flow for the adjacent lane(s) of traffic. Whereas for contra flow
cycle lanes, the direction of flow for cycles is in the opposite direction of the traffic flow for the adjacent lane(s) of traffic.
Contra flow cycle lanes should be reserved for one-way roads only.
All signs, and markings, including those on cycle facilities, shall be based on the uniform standards and practices set
forth in previous Chapters of this manual.
The absence of a marked cycle lane or any of the other traffic control devices discussed in this Chapter on a particular
roadway shall not be construed to mean that cyclists are not permitted to travel on that roadway, except where
specifically prohibited (i.e. freeways, expressways).
Cycle lanes shall be a minimum of 1.5m wide. Widths less than 1.5m give cyclists very little room to manoeuvre around
debris, surface defects or gully gratings. Slightly narrower widths may nevertheless sometimes be helpful over short
lengths, e.g., on the immediate approach to a junction. Where cycle flows are heavy, there may be advantages in
increasing the width up to 2.0m, but lanes wider than this are likely to be abused by other traffic.

11.2
11.2.1

Signs for the exclusive use of cyclists should be located so that other road users are not confused by them.
The clearance for overhead signs on shared use paths should be adjusted when appropriate to accommodate path
users requiring more clearance, such as equestrians, or typical maintenance or emergency vehicles.

CYCLE LANE SIGNAGE


APPLICATION AND PLACEMENT

Cycle Lane signs and plates should be used in advance of the upstream end of the cycle lane, at the downstream end
of the cycle lane, and at periodic intervals along the cycle lane as determined by engineering judgment based on
prevailing speed of cycle and other traffic, block length, distances from adjacent intersections, and other
considerations.

Cycle signs shall be standard in shape, legend, and colour.


All signs shall be retroreflectorized for use on cycleways, including shared use paths and cycle lane facilities.
Where signs serve both cyclists and other road users, vertical mounting height and lateral placement shall be as
provided in Chapter 1.
Where used on a shared use cycle-path and footpath, no portion of a sign or its support shall be placed less than 0.6
metres laterally from the near edge of the path, or less than 2.5 metres vertically over the entire width of the shared use
path (see Figure 11-1).
Mounting height for post mounted signs on shared use paths shall be a minimum of 2.2m, measured vertically from the
bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the path surface (see Figure 11-1).

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If the sign or plaque applies to motorists and cyclists, then the size shall be as shown for conventional roads.
The minimum sign and plaque sizes for cycle facilities shall not be used for signs or plaques that are placed in a
location that would have any application to other vehicles.
Except for size, the design of signs and plaques for cycle facilities should be identical to that provided in this Manual for
signs and plaques for streets and highways.
Larger size signs and plaques may be used on cycle facilities when appropriate.

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11.2.2

CYCLE LANE STARTS SIGN 8-1x

For mandatory cycle lanes, warning signs should normally be placed in advance of the lane. For instances where a
taper has been striped to start the lane, sign 8-1x should be placed. Where the speed limit is 35 kph or 50 kph, the sign
should be sited 20 m in advance of the taper, with a minimum clear visibility distance of 45m.
Where the speed limit is 65 kph, the sign should be sited 40m in advance of the taper with a minimum clear visibility
distance of 60 m. Where siting of the sign is likely to be difficult and where the cycle lane is clearly visible to drivers,
sign 8-1x may be omitted. However, in the interests of road safety, the sign should be provided wherever possible. It is
not appropriate to use the sign at intermediate junctions along the cycle lane. Figure 11-2 illustrates a typical layout.
The size of Sign 8-1x shall be 825mm x 800mm for speeds 50km and below. For speeds in excess of 50km, the size of
the sign shall be 990mm x 960mm.

11.2.3

CYCLE LANE REGULATORY SIGN 8-2x

Sign 8-2x should be provided at the start of the continuous line denoting the edge of the cycle lane (i.e. immediately
following a taper). This is a regulatory sign that prohibits motor vehicles from encroaching on the cycle lane. The sign
should be provided after each road junction on the same side as the cycle lane, even if the Sign 8-2x side road is one
way leading away from the major road. The sign should also be provided after a junction on the opposite side of the
road if vehicles can turn right from it to join the flow of traffic alongside the cycle lane. No two signs should be more
than 300m apart; it might be necessary, therefore, to provide additional signs between junctions.

Figure 11-2: Typical Start of Cycle Lane Layout

The size of Sign 8-2x shall be 825mm x 375mm for speeds 50km and below. For speeds in excess of 50km, the size of
the sign shall be 990mm x 450mm.

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11.2.4

For a cycle lane on the same side of the major road as the side road, the arrow will point to the right. The sign should
be accompanied by the no right turn sign (Sign 347) with a supplementary plate Except Cycles, Sign 8-8x. Where
the cycle lane is on the opposite side of the major road, the arrow on Sign 8-4x will point to the left. A no left turn sign
(Sign 346) should be provided, again with an Except Cycles plate

CYCLE LANE TIME PLATE SIGN 8-3x

The size of the text for Sign 8-4x shall be 50mm for speeds 50km and below and 60mm for speeds in excess of 50km.

11.2.6

ADVISORY WITH-FLOW CYCLE LANE SIGN 8-5x

Where a cycle lane operates part time, Signs 8-1x and 8-2x shall incorporate CYCLE LANE TIME PLATE 8-3x
indicating the days and times of operation. The width of Sign 8-3x shall be the same as Signs 8-1x and 8-2x.
The size of the text for Sign 8-3x shall be 50mm for speeds 50km and below and 60mm for speeds in excess of 50km.

11.2.5

CYCLE LANE ADVANCE WARNING SIGN 8-4x

Sign 8-5x indicates an advisory with flow cycle lane. It should be provided at the start of the lane, immediately after the
taper, and after each road junction on the same side as the cycle lane, even if the side road is one way leading away
from the major road.
The sign should also be provided after a junction on the opposite side of the road if vehicles can turn left from it to join
the flow of traffic alongside the cycle lane. No two signs should be more than 300m apart; it might therefore be
necessary to provide additional signs between junctions. Where the lane is provided as a short approach to an
advanced stop line, an upright sign is not required; Marking 623.3 within the lane will be sufficient. It is not practicable
to provide a sign where the lane is in the centre of the carriageway. Advisory with flow lanes are available at all times,
and a time plate is therefore not used with Sign 8-5x.
The size of Sign 8-5x shall be 550mmx375mm for speeds 50km and below. For speeds in excess of 50km, the size of
the sign shall be 440mmx300mm.

11.2.7

MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE SIGN 8-6x

CYCLE LANE ADVANCE WARNING sign 8-4x is intended mainly for use in conjunction with contra flow cycle lanes.
However, it may be provided on side roads to warn emerging drivers of the presence of a with flow cycle lane on the
major road, although this is not essential.
The arrow on the sign indicates the direction of travel within the cycle lane and will normally point to the right, as a sign
is not required to indicate a lane on the opposite side of the road. However, where there are with flow cycle lanes on
both sides of the major road and there are no banned turns, the arrow on Sign 8-4x shall be omitted and the word
lane changed to lanes. Where there are two Sign 8-4x cycle lanes on the major road and the left turn from the side
road is prohibited, the sign should indicate only the cycle lane to the right.
The sign should be mounted below any GIVE WAY or STOP sign or, if the junction is controlled by traffic signals,
mounted a sufficient distance in advance of the junction so as not to obstruct the view of the signal head. The days and
times of operation may be shown on the sign where appropriate. For full time cycle lane, no times shall be shown; At
any time is not a permitted variant.

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Contra flow cycle lanes should only be established on one-way roads. Figure 11-2 shows a typical entry to a one-way
street and the required signs. Sign 86x should be located at the beginning of the road and after every junction, in each
case on both sides of the road. Additional signs should be provided where the distance between them would otherwise
exceed 300 m.

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Where possible, traffic islands should be provided at the start and end of contra flow cycle lanes. Where a traffic island
segregates traffic from the opposing cycle lane, the off side sign should be located on this island. The number of
arrows pointing upwards on the left hand side of the sign should be varied to indicate the number of lanes available in
that direction.

If possible, the cycle lane should be segregated from the major road at the junction by a traffic island. Sign 8-6x
immediately after the junction in the major road will warn drivers of the presence of the contra flow lane. A convenient
alternative route should be provided for cyclists wanting to turn right at the junction. Where the road layout is such that
traffic may turn only into the major road (e.g. the junction is not a crossroads), turn only arrow signs 322 or 323, with an
Except Cycles plate as appropriate, should be provided opposite the side road.

Two sizes are prescribed for the sign; 825mmx475mm and 990mmx570mm. The smaller size will usually be adequate.
The larger size might be more appropriate where there are more than two lanes for general traffic or where there is a
particular conspicuity problem.
Figure 96 shows a typical arrangement at the start of a contra flow cycle lane; this should be separated from opposing
traffic by a traffic island in the centre of the road. The exit side of the road, used by all traffic, should be protected by a
pair of no entry signs (Sign 304) as for ordinary one way roads. These should be 750mm in diameter. Sign 8-7x, with
a diameter of 450mm, should be provided on the left hand side of the road at the entrance to the contra flow cycle lane.
A second, smaller sign may be provided in a bollard on the traffic island.

11.2.8

MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE REQULATORY SIGN 8-7x

Sign 8-7x should be provided on the right hand side of the road at the entrance to the contra flow cycle lane.
The sign should be a diameter of 450mm; a second, smaller sign may be provided as well in a bollard if a traffic island
is used to separate the cycle lane from the opposing traffic at the entrance to the lane.

11.2.9

MANDATORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE PLATE SIGN 8-8x

Figure 11-3: Typical Entry Arrangement to a One Way Street

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11.2.10 CYCLE LANE PEDESTRIAN WARNING SIGN 8-9x

Sign 8-9x warns pedestrians of the presence of a cycle lane; it should not be used as a substitute for Sign 8-4x to warn
drivers approaching the cycle lane from a side road.
The sign is normally used for contra flow lanes where cycles will be approaching from the opposite direction to the flow
of traffic. The signs should be sited where a majority of pedestrians cross the carriageway. Where pedestrians first
cross a general traffic lane, the sign, varied to LOOK LEFT with the symbols facing right, should be located on the
opposite side of the road, adjacent to the cycle lane. Signs may be located on a pedestrian refuge adjacent to the cycle
lane.
Two sizes are prescribed for Sign 8-9x. The larger size, with a 50mm x height, should normally be used. The smaller
sign, with a 40mm x height, may be more suitable where there are space constraints, such as on a pedestrian refuge.
The sign may also be used for cycle tracks.

11.2.11 ADVISORY CONTRA-FLOW CYCLE LANE REGULATORY SIGN 8-10x

Figure 11-4: Typical Arrangement at the Start of a Contra Flow Cycle Lane

Where it is not practicable to provide a mandatory contra flow cycle lane (prohibiting other traffic from using that part of
the carriageway reserved for cycles), an advisory contra flow lane might be considered. This is likely to occur where
Oncoming vehicles need occasionally to encroach into the cycle lane, for example to pass parked vehicles on the
opposite side or to pass cyclists travelling in the with flow direction,
Occasional loading and unloading needs to be allowed for within the lane, or
It is not possible to prohibit waiting in the lane at all times.

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Each of these situations will limit the benefit of the lane for cyclists, and the traffic authority will need to be satisfied that
this form of provision will not unduly compromise their safety. Advisory contra flow lanes should normally be considered
only where either the 85 percentile speed of traffic is less than 40 kph, or vehicle flows are less than 1000 vehicles per
day. The advisory lane is marked on the carriageway in a similar manner to an advisory with flow lane, i.e. the
boundary is indicated by a continuous white channelizing line. The line may be omitted where the two conditions
referred above are both met, or where the road is within a 35kph zone.

11.2.13 END OF CYCLE LANE SIGNS 8-13x AND 8-14x

th

Sign 8-10x is an optional sign that may be used to designate advisory contra flow cycle lanes with or without a lane
marked on the carriageway.
The size of Sign 8-10x may be 650mmx475mm for normal use but a larger size, 780mmx570mm may be more
appropriate in cases where no contra flow cycle lane has been marked on the carriageway.
Where possible, a traffic island should be provided at the start and end of contra flow cycle lanes.

11.2.12 SHARED CYCLE/PEDESTRIAN TRACKS SIGNS 8-11x AND 8-12x

The end of a cycle track or shared route may be indicated by Sign 8-13x, although this is not essential. The sign might
be helpful where cyclists rejoin the main carriageway of a road at the end of a shared footway. It should not be used at
an intermittent break in a cycle track or shared route, such as at a road crossing.
Three sizes of text are prescribed for this sign: 30, 40, and 50mm. The largest size should be used where conspicuity
is likely to be a problem or where a cycle route or lane ends at a hazardous location.
Sign 8-14x (CYCLISTS DISMOUNT) may be used together with Sign 8-13x, or on its own. The sign should be provided
only where cyclists are required to use a pedestrian crossing facility that they cannot legally cycle on, at the entrance to
a pedestrian area, at a location with a low headroom or width restriction (e.g. a subway or bridge) or at places where
visibility is restricted to such an extent that cycling would be unsafe.
Two text sizes are prescribed for Sign 8-14x, 40mm and 50mm. The smaller size should normally be used, unless
there is a particular hazard or conspicuity problem where the larger size of sign would be more appropriate.
Sign 8-11X

Sign 8-12X

11.2.14 CYCLE GUIDE SIGNS


Signs 8-11x or 8-12x are used where a footway (forming part of a road) or footpath (e.g. through a park) has been
converted to a route shared by pedestrians and cyclists. These prohibit the use of the route by any other vehicles.

Cycle route destinations may be shown in blue panels on primary and non primary advance direction signs and on non
primary rectangular direction signs. Separately mounted cycle route direction signs with blue backgrounds shall be
provided as appropriate.

Sign 8-11x indicates an un-segregated route. It should be located where the shared route begins and should be used
at regular intervals to remind both pedestrians and cyclists that pedal cycles can be legally ridden on the footway or
footpath.

Separately mounted blue background stack type signs may be provided as an alternative to using panels on advance
direction signs. Blue panels and separate cycle route signs must include the white cycle symbol.

Sign 8-12x indicates a segregated shared route that should be clearly delineated. The sign may be reversed in a mirror
image according to which side of the route is used by cyclists and which side by pedestrians. The sign should be
located at the start of the segregated route and repeated at regular intervals along the route.

An arrow pointing to the right, if used, shall be at the extreme right-hand side of the sign. An arrow pointing left or up, if
used, shall be at the extreme left-hand side of the sign. The distance numerals, if used, shall be placed to the right of
the destination names.

As these signs prohibit motor vehicles, the 600mm and 450mm diametre signs should be used where they control entry
from the main carriageway of a road and where motor vehicles, especially solo motor cycles, are not physically
prevented from entering the cycle track or shared cycle / pedestrian route. Smaller sizes (100mm300mm) may be used
as repeater signs and in bollards.

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Sign 8-51X shows an example of a separate cycle route advance direction sign.

11.3.2

MANDATORY CYCLE LANE MARKINGS

Mandatory cycle lanes are parts of the carriageway which other vehicles must not enter except to pick up or set down
passengers, or in case of emergency. They may be either with flow or contra flow. Contra flow lanes apply for 24
hours, but with flow lanes may operate for shorter periods, e.g. morning and evening peak hours.
With flow mandatory cycle lanes shall be bounded by a 150mm wide Marking 612.
At side road junctions, the mandatory cycle lane should change to an advisory cycle lane bordered by a 150mm wide
Marking 652 with a 4000mm, 2000mm gap or 6000/3000 for speeds greater than 65kph. An additional cycle symbol
(Marking 623.3) shall be placed in the lane in front of drivers emerging from the side road.

Adequate separation should be made between any destination or group of destinations in one direction and those in
other directions by suitable design of the arrow, spacing of lines of legend, heavy lines entirely across the sign, or
separate signs.
Unless a sloping arrow will convey a clearer indication of the direction to be followed, the directional arrows should be
horizontal or vertical.
If several individual name signs are assembled into a group, all signs in the assembly should have the same horizontal
width.
Because of their smaller size, Cycle Destination signs should not be used as a substitute for vehicular destination signs
when the message is also intended to be seen by motorists.
Cycle Destination signs may be installed to provide direction, destination, and distance information as needed for cycle
travel. If several destinations are to be shown at a single location, they may be placed on a single sign with an arrow
(and the distance, if desired) for each name. If more than one destination lies in the same direction, a single arrow may
be used for the destinations.

11.3
11.3.1

The start of a cycle lane shall be marked with Marking 680 (600mm mark, 300mm gap). If the speed limit is 65km or
less, the 150mm wide line is used, otherwise it should be 200mm wide. As other traffic must not enter a mandatory
cycle lane, adequate warning of the approach should be given by ensuring that the inclination of this line is no sharper
than 1:10.
Cycle symbol marking 623.3 shall be placed at the start of the lane and should be repeated after every break, as well
as at suitable intervals on long uninterrupted lengths. Sign 8-1x should be used in advance of a mandatory cycle lane,
together with an arrow (Marking 614 angled away from the taper), and Sign 8-2x at intervals along its length.
Contra flow mandatory cycle lanes are marked in a similar way to with flow lanes, except that Marking 680 at the start
of the lane shall be laid at right angles, as the lane normally starts at a junction. Sign 8-6x shall be used to warn traffic
travelling in the opposite direction.
For contra flow mandatory cycle lanes, waiting and loading shall be prohibited at all times to avoid the lane becoming
obstructed and thereby putting cyclists into conflict with oncoming vehicles.
The cycle lane should be monitored as needed in order to prevent other vehicles from using the lane (except for
emergency and statutory purposes) and to prohibit waiting and loading during the operational hours of the lane.

CYCLE LANE PAVEMENT MARKINGS


APPLICATION AND PLACEMENT

Markings used on bikeways shall be retroreflectorized.


Pavement marking word messages, symbols, and/or arrows should be used in bikeways where appropriate.
Consideration should be given to selecting pavement marking materials that will minimize loss of traction for cycles
under wet conditions.
For use on cycle lanes and tracks, halfsize variants of markings 602 (Give Way line) and 680 (guide line), and small
versions of text symbol markings (695) and the lane arrows (614, 615, 616) may be used.
A cycle symbol (Marking 623.3) is prescribed with alternative dimensions. The width of lane available and the required
conspicuity of the marking will determine the appropriate size; the largest (1700 mm) is used with the advanced stop
line. When used with a right turn arrow, the cycle symbol should be reversed to face right.
Cycle lanes may be surfaced in coloured material in order to demarcate them more emphatically and to discourage
encroachment by motor vehicles. However, coloured surfacing has no legal significance; it is the prescribed traffic
signs and road markings that establish the legal status of a cycle lane.
A dotted line may be used to define a specific path for a bicyclist crossing an intersection.

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Figure 11-6: Contra Flow Mandatory Cycle Lanes


Figure 11-5: With Flow Mandatory Cycle Lanes

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11.3.3

ADVISORY CYCLE LANE MARKINGS

Advisory cycle lanes are parts of the carriageway which other vehicles should not enter unless it is seen to be safe to
do so. They should normally be with flow, but may be contra flow, in which case the signs would need to be specially
authorised.
Advisory cycle lanes shall be bounded by a 100mm wide Marking 652 with a 4000mm, 2000mm gap or 6000/3000 for
speeds greater than 65kph. The line may be widened to 150mm for greater emphasis, but in a two way road it shall
never be wider than the centre line. For a contra flow lane, the wider line shall always be used.
The start of a cycle lane shall be marked with broken line Marking 680 (600mm mark, 300mm gap). If the speed limit is
65km or less, the 150mm wide line is used, otherwise it should be 200mm wide. As the lane is advisory, it is not
essential for other vehicles to be deflected in advance of it. Angles between the line and the kerb of 30 to 45 are
therefore often adequate, although longer taper lengths may be used. Cycle symbol marking 623.3 and Sign 8-5x must
be placed at the start of the lane and after every break, as well as at suitable intervals on long uninterrupted lengths.
Waiting and loading restrictions should be implemented to cover the times when the lane is most heavily used and
should be indicated by the use of yellow lines, kerb markings and appropriate upright signs.
An advisory cycle lane may be continued on the off side of a parking bay. Adequate clearance should be provided to
allow for carelessly opened car doors.

11.3.4

CYCLE TRACK MARKINGS

A cycle track may be a physically segregated part of a highway, or form a separate highway entirely distinct from the
road system. It may form a route for cycles only, a segregated route shared with pedestrians where cyclists and
pedestrians use separate parts of the track, or an un-segregated route where both cyclists and pedestrians use the full
width of the track.
Where a route is divided into separate parts for the use of cyclists and of pedestrians, segregation may be achieved
using the continuous marking 612 (150mm width) or by the raised profile marking. The latter is more easily detected by
blind and partially sighted pedestrians. Alternatively, separation may be effected by the use of railings, a difference in
level, or by the use of contrasting coloured surfaces.

11.3.5

CYCLE GRADE CROSSINGS

A cycle track crossing a road will be the minor road at a priority junction.
A 200mm Stop line (marking 601) or the half size variants of the Give Way line (marking 602) together with the smaller
size edge line marking 680 (see Figure 100), should be used for a two-way cycle track at such locations. Where an unsegregated cycle track shared with pedestrians joins a road, the Stop line or Give Way marking should be used across
the full width of the track and the cycle symbol should not be used.
If the cycle track crosses a dual carriageway road, the crossing should be staggered in the direction that turns cyclists
to face oncoming traffic. The junction between the track and the main carriageway should be marked in accordance
with the principles for a priority junction.

Figure 11-7: Cycle Grade Crossings

Sign 8-9x (CYCLE TRACK LOOK BOTH WAYS) may be used to warn pedestrians of cyclists crossing the footway.
The warning sign 8X as appropriate may be used to warn main road traffic of the crossing point.

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