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A Handbook for

A Green Building Program


for Multi-Family Construction
Developed by Builders for Builders
May 2001
Revised June 2008
In partnership with:

Copyright 2008 by the Master Builders Association of King and Snohomish Counties. All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, and any
information retrieval system, without the written permission of the copyright holders.

BUILT GREEN Mission Statement


To work in partnership to improve and protect the valuable natural features and environmental
resources within King and Snohomish Counties cities and communities to promote safer, healthier buildings, through:

Using a non-regulatory, market-driven approach to optimize the use of innovative,


industry-based solutions to potential environmental problems and minimize impacts
of construction, design, and development

Actively promoting the use of environmentally sound design, construction, and development practices by design and building professionals in King and Snohomish
Counties, in particular by members of the Master Builders Association, in an attempt
to make these practices the preferred consumer standard

Creating a credible program that reflects the Master Builders Associations commitment to building better communities through environmental responsibility

Creating a program that attracts broad-based participation of existing and potential


Master Builder Association members

Creating a model for approaching environmental concerns that the Counties may face.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Acknowledgments
This Handbook was originally developed for the BUILT GREEN Program of the Master Builders Association (MBA) in partnership with King County and Snohomish County in 2000. It represents nearly a
decades effort by committed volunteers from several committees composed of MBA members and representatives from King County and Snohomish County, and practioners providing their invaluable input.
Funding for this Handbook was provided by King County.
We wish to thank the members of the 2007/2008 Multi-Family Checklist Revision Committee for their
time and hard work (in alphabetical order):
Justin Fogel, Hewitt Architects
John Forde, Puget Sound Energy
Mike Fowler, Mithun
Diane Glenn, The Construction Consultants
Poppy Handy, SMR Architects
Cindy Hoover, G-Projects
Don Pendleton, Seattle City Light
Scott Schreffler, Dykeman Architects
Ann Schuessler, RAFN
Mark Wierenga, David Vandervort Architects
Technical contributors and/or reviewers included (in alphabetical order):
Tom Balderston, Conservation Services Group, Seattle
Andy Gordon, Washington State Energy Office
Chris Herman, Winter Sun Design
We would also like to acknowledge members of the original BUILT GREEN Steering Committee who
helped develop the original checklist in 1999.
Additional thanks are due to regulatory reviewers from King County Department of Development and Environmental Services, King County Department of Natural Resources, and Snohomish County Public Works.
We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of sustainable building consultant OBrien & Company, Inc. of Bainbridge Island, who led program development and developed the Handbook in 2000.
Special thanks to ESP Services for providing edits and revisions for the 2008 update. The BUILT
GREEN logo was designed by Pacific Rim Resources, Seattle.
Finally, a special thanks to the green building programs who have laid the foundation for our excellent
programTo Metro Denver HBA's BUILT GREEN program, the first such program in the country, for
leading the way and for permission to use the trademarked name BUILT GREEN . To the Home Builders
Association of Kitsap County and the Clark County Home Builders Association, for allowing their Build
A Better Kitsap and Build a Better Clark programs to serve as models for developing BUILT GREEN.
And to New Jerseys Division of Housing and Community Resources Sustainable Development/Affordable Housing Pilot Program for their generous contributions to BUILT GREEN and to the
City of Santa Monica for making their Green Building Design & Construction Guidelines available.

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Disclaimer
The Master Builders Association of King and Snohomish Counties (MBA) has provided this
Handbook as part of the BUILT GREEN program. It is intended for use by professional, licensed
builders and contractors as an aid to participating in the program. It assumes a certain level of
experience and familiarity with building technology and should not be used by untrained builders, do-it-yourselfers, or consumers.
The Handbook is not intended to eliminate or substitute for the builders own judgment or accepted engineering and construction practices. Each building may have characteristics that could
make any one or more of the Action Items suggested in the Handbook inappropriate. It is the
responsibility of the builder to choose the Action Items that are appropriate in each case. Furthermore, product information provided in the Handbook is not intended to act as or imply a recommendation for using a particular product in a specific application. Where appropriate, products should be tested before installation. All products should be used according to the manufacturers recommendations.
In addition, local, state, and federal regulations must be followed and are not to be superseded by
any recommendations made in this Handbook. Every effort was made to ensure consistency
with the standards of King and Snohomish Counties and its incorporated municipalities at the
time of this writing. Several regulatory reviewers were provided drafts of all or part of the
Handbook.
Health and safety-related measures described in the Handbook are not intended to offer medical
advice or to substitute for professional medical consultation.
The BUILT GREEN program is a self-certification and third-party verification program. The
MBA does not warrant whether or not a builder or developer has taken a specific action. The
builder or developer warrants his actions by signing the appropriate Self-Certification Checklist
or Third-Party Verification and providing the executed checklist to the customer or customers
representative. A Checklist has been provided for this purpose at the front of Part I of the Handbook.

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Program
Information
Table of Contents
Introduction
Handbook Organization
How to Use the Handbook
How to Qualify Your Project
Program Orientation
BUILT GREEN for Today and Tomorrow!

Enroll Project & Fees


BUILT GREEN Member Code of Ethics
Multi-Family Program-at-a-Glance
Multi-Family Self-Certification Checklist

Table of Contents
PROGRAM INFORMATION ________________________________________ v
Table of Contents _________________________________________________ vii
Introduction ______________________________________________________ xi
HANDBOOK ORGANIZATION ____________________________________________________________________xi
HOW TO USE THE HANDBOOK _________________________________________________________________ xii
HOW TO QUALIFY YOUR PROJECT ________________________________________________________________ xiii
PROGRAM ORIENTATION _____________________________________________________________________ xiv
BUILT GREEN - FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW! ________________________________________________________ xiv

Enroll Project & Fees (Enrollment Form) ___________________________ xv


BUILT GREEN Member Code of Ethics _____________________________ xvii
Multi-Family Program-at-a-Glance _________________________________ xix
Multi-Family Self-Certification Checklist ___________________________ xxi
PART I: MULTI-FAMILY ACTION ITEMS___________________________ I-1
Section One: Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes / Regulations _____________________ I-3
Section Two: Site and Water _________________________________________________ I-11
SITE PROTECTION _______________________________________________________________________ 1-13
WATER CONSERVATION ____________________________________________________________________ I-35
DESIGN ALTERNATIVES _____________________________________________________________________ I-45
TRANSPORTATION _______________________________________________________________________ I-47
TRAINING AND EDUCATION __________________________________________________________________ I-51
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR SITE AND WATER _______________________________________________________ I-52

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Section Three: Energy Efficiency ______________________________________________ I-53


ENVELOPE ___________________________________________________________________________ I-56
HEATING/COOLING _______________________________________________________________________ I-74
WATER HEATING________________________________________________________________________ I-82
LIGHTING ___________________________________________________________________________ I-87
APPLIANCES __________________________________________________________________________ I-92
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY BONUS POINTS ____________________________________________________________ I-94
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY ______________________________________________________ I-96

Section Four: Health and Indoor Air Quality _____________________________________ I-97


OVERALL ____________________________________________________________________________ I-99
JOBSITE OPERATIONS _____________________________________________________________________ I-101
LAYOUT AND MATERIAL SELECTION ______________________________________________________________ I-105
MOISTURE CONTROL _____________________________________________________________________ I-114
AIR DISTRIBUTION AND FILTRATION ______________________________________________________________ I-123
HVAC Equipment _____________________________________________________________________ I-127
HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY ______________________________________________________________ I-130
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY______________________________________________ I-132

Section Five: Materials Efficiency ___________________________________________ I-133


OVERALL ___________________________________________________________________________ I-135
JOBSITE OPERATIONS _____________________________________________________________________ I-136
DESIGN AND MATERIAL SELECTION ______________________________________________________________ I-150
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR MATERIALS EFFICIENCY ____________________________________________________ I-183

PART II: MULTI-FAMILY RESOURCES ____________________________ II-1


Section One Resources: Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes / Regulation _______________ II-5
Section Two Resources: Site and Water __________________________________________ II-11
SITE PROTECTION ______________________________________________________________________ II-15
WATER CONSERVATION ____________________________________________________________________ II-31
DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ____________________________________________________________________ II-41
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viii

TRANSPORTATION _______________________________________________________________________ II-43


TRAINING AND EDUCATION __________________________________________________________________ II-44
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR SITE AND WATER _______________________________________________________ II-45

Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency _______________________________________ II-47


ENVELOPE __________________________________________________________________________ II-52
HEATING/COOLING SYSTEM __________________________________________________________________ II-56
WATER HEATING _______________________________________________________________________ II-61
LIGHTING ___________________________________________________________________________ II-66
APPLIANCES __________________________________________________________________________ II-69
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY BONUS POINTS ___________________________________________________________ II-71
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY _____________________________________________________ II-72

Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality _______________________________ II-79
Overall ___________________________________________________________________________ II-82
JOBSITE OPERATIONS _____________________________________________________________________ II-84
LAYOUT AND MATERIAL SELECTION ______________________________________________________________ II-86
MOISTURE CONTROL ______________________________________________________________________ II-91
AIR DISTRIBUTION AND FILTRATION ______________________________________________________________ II-95
HVAC Equipment ______________________________________________________________________ II-96
HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY ______________________________________________________________ II-99
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY _____________________________________________ II-100

Section Five Resources: Materials Efficiency _____________________________________ II-101


Overall __________________________________________________________________________ II-104
JOBSITE OPERATIONS ____________________________________________________________________ II-105
DESIGN AND MATERIAL SELECTION______________________________________________________________ II-112
EXTRA CREDIT/INNOVATION FOR MATERIALS EFFICIENCY ___________________________________________________ II-137

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Introduction
This Handbook is a reference for those enrolled in the BUILT GREEN program of the Master Builders
Association of King and Snohomish Counties (MBA). It includes a project enrollment form as well as
the Checklist used to certify BUILT GREEN projects. The Checklist contains over 375 Action Items to
choose from and functions as a menu of environmentally friendly Action Items to include in your multifamily construction projects. In addition, the Handbook contains specific, detailed information about each
Action Item listed in the checklist and resources for more information. Additional information about
BUILT GREEN Action Items will be provided through technical seminars and the BUILT GREEN Resource Library housed at the MBA Education Foundation office.
BUILT GREEN is a market-based programconsumer education and outreach is critical to using it successfully. Please contact the MBA Education Foundation office about marketing tools you can use to
personally promote your BUILT GREEN projects. In addition, the MBA will be providing support
through marketing seminars and a public marketing campaign.

Handbook Organization
The Handbook is organized into three parts: Program Information (this section), Part I: Multi-Family
Action Items, a general information section containing brief narratives for each Action Item, and Part II:
Multi-Family Resources, containing additional resources for each Action Item.
Part I: Multi-Family Action Items describes environmentally friendly Action Items arranged in five major
categories.

Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes / Regulations


As a builder, you are required to meet energy, air quality, water efficiency, and stormwater management standards. The BUILT GREEN Program recognizes you for meeting these standards.

Site and Water


BUILT GREEN offers a variety of common-sense site protection, water protection, and development techniques you can use to earn points and be a fish-friendly builder.

Energy Efficiency
This category promotes energy efficiency and improved comfort with Action Items intended to
push your project beyond Energy Code minimums.

Health and Indoor Air Quality


Action Items in this category include selected practices to improve indoor air quality and reduce
health risks for occupants and installers.

Materials Efficiency
Numerous options help you reduce jobsite waste, saving both you and your customer money. In
addition to using materials efficiently, this section offers recognition for using a variety of
green building materials that are easier on the environment.

Part II: Multi-Family Resources mirrors the five sections and Action Items in Part I. It provides resources to help you learn more about each Action Itemgeneral background information, technical information that will help you fulfill the action, product information where applicable, regulatory information, and relevant websites.
BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook
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xi

How to Use the Handbook


For ease of use, the Multi-Family Checklist coordinates directly with the Handbook sections in Parts I and II.
The checklists are key-coded to help you find information about each measure. The first number indicates what section to look in, and the following numbers indicate the order in which it appears. Heres
how it works, using an example Action Item from the Checklist:
In this example, the action Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of Total Area for Hardscapes
is described in Section Two (Site and Water), Action Item 21.

Number

Possible
Points

2-24

CREDITS

Point
Totals

Use Pervious Materials for At Least One-Third of


Total Area for Hardscapes

HOW TO USE THE CHECKLIST


Action Item to be implemented
( items are required)
Section where Action Item description appears
Order Action Item appears in Section (numerical)
Point value of Action Item
(when range of points, refer to Part I narrative.)
Check () or enter Points when completed
Review the checklist prior to starting your project, and note Action Items you are interested in investigating. Refer to the general information in the applicable section of Part I for discussion of these Action
Items. Look for related resources in the corresponding section of Part II. Many resources listed are available in the BUILT GREEN Resource Library at the MBA. Note: The sections appear in the same order in
both Part I (General Information) and in Part II (Resources).

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How to Qualify Your Project


For a summary of requirements to quality for project, see Program-at-a-Glance located just in front of the
checklist.
All projects certified by the program must have completed each starred () Action Item on the checklist
included in Section One. Starred Action Items include Action Items required by code and established
Washington standards, plus the following including:

Provide Owner with an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit. A starter Kit
is available from MBA at no charge. You must include additional information for your kit to qualify
for credit in the program see Action Item 1-1 for details.

Take extra precautions to not dispose of topsoil in lowlands or wetlands

When Construction is Complete, Leave No Part of the Disturbed Site Uncovered or Unstabilized

Prepare Jobsite Recycling Plan and Post on Site

If Using Can Lights, Use Energy Star Can Lights or Can Lights Approved by Washington Energy
Code for All Can Light Applications

2-4 Stars: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwired Preferred) with a Combustion Devise or Attached Garage

5 Star: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwired Required) with a Combustion Devise

Prohibit Burying Demolition and/or Construction Waste

Dispose of Non-Recyclable Hazardous Waste at Legally Permitted Facilities

Meet All Applicable State and Local Codes, Regulations, and Development Standards.

Some Action Items may already be required by code but are included in the checklist and assigned points
because the BUILT GREEN Program encourages you to use some better-than-typical practices to meet
code. The Part I narrative for each Action Item provides examples of such practices.
With the 2008 Revision, there is no longer a 1-star rating. For a 2-star rating, a project must meet all required items ()-star requirements in Section One, PLUS a minimum of 30 points from each section, and
a total of 200 points collectively. In addition, the builder must attend a technical workshop related to any
of the Action Items. Seminars, conferences, or technical training sessions can be used to satisfy this requirement. Examples include a seminar on efficient framing techniques or a workshop on stormwater
management. To count toward certification, workshops should be completed some time within the 12
months prior to project certification and must be approved by the BUILT GREEN Program Administrator. Proof of attendance must be submitted upon project completion (unless you have already submitted it
to qualify another BUILT GREEN project within the 12-month period). King County, Snohomish County, MBA, the National Association of Home Builders, The Sustainable Development Task Force of
Snohomish County, The NW EcoBuilding Guild, and the Building Industry Association of Washington
are among likely sponsors of relevant workshops, seminars, etc., but there are numerous other opportunities. Call the MBA for a list of suggestions, 800-522-2209.
For a 3-star rating, you are required to meet the 2-star requirements PLUS a minimum of 40 points from
each section, and a total of 300 points collectively.

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The BUILT GREEN Program contains a number of Action Items that are environmentally leading edge
and provide significant benefit. Most are challenging or more costly to accomplish. The high number of
points for these reflects their cost, difficulty, and potential environmental benefit.

Program Orientation
A BUILT GREEN Program Orientation is required for all first-time enrollees, whether builders or developers. To find out when an orientation has been scheduled, call the MBA University, at (425) 451-7920.
The orientation is designed to take 1.5 to 2 hours.

BUILT GREENfor Today and Tomorrow!


The BUILT GREEN Program has been designed for builders and developers by builders and developers to
set standards of excellence in King and Snohomish Counties. It focuses on actions that can make a significant impact and are readily doable in King and Snohomish Counties today. When effectively applied
to an individual building project or development, the program is expected to make a positive difference
for the environment (and for building owners and occupants). The star-level certification process allows
an incremental approach to incorporating the standards.
In order to ensure that BUILT GREEN certification is meaningful, it is important that each participant
who enrolls a project accurately evaluate his or her own performance when completing the relevant selfcertification checklist. Make sure all required steps have been performed before taking credit for an Action Item. If not certain about a particular measure, ask for clarification from the MBA or from one of
the resources/contacts listed for that section. Note the MBA does not warrant that specific actions have
been taken by a builder or developer. Your signature on the checklist (and on the certificate of merit provided for completed projects) is your guarantee to the consumer that measures were performed.
We recognize that building practices change and new products become available constantly, so the programs materials will be updated from time to time. Please help us make a good program better by
providing feedback on how it works for you. With your help, the Built Green Program can create a lasting foundation for builders interested in helping the environment in ways that make good sense. Contact
the Built Green Director, Aaron Adelstein, with your comments, 800-522-2209.

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ENROLL PROJECT & FEES


A Program of the Master Builders Association in Partnership with King and Snohomish Counties
Project Phase: Design Site Development Framing Finish Project Complete

Company Name:____________________________________________________________
Contact Name:______________________________________________________________
Phone: ____________________________ E-mail:_________________________________
Project Address (if multiple attach list): ________________________________________
City, Zip & County: __________________________________________________________
House Size (Sq. Ft.)___ _________________Community:___________________________
Project Description (Incl. # Bedrooms): _________________________________________
Project Built Green Verifier: __________________________________________________

Please complete both sides of this form and sign the Code of Ethics.
Only builders, developers and designers may enroll a project. For each project enrolled, a
Project Enrollment Form and a Built Green checklist must be completed. Income-qualified
fees waived.

FEE SCHEDULE
Single-Family/
Townhome
Built Green and
MBA Member:
$50 (per unit)

Built Green Member


Only:
$150 (per unit)

Multi-Family

Remodeler

(Fees per each building)


Built Green/MBA Member:
Units: 1-50; $50 per unit
Units: 50-150; $40 per unit
Units: 150+; $30 per unit
Built Green Member Only:
Units: 1-50; $150 per unit
Units: 50-150; $120 per unit
Units: 150+; $90 per unit

Built Green and


MBA Member:

Built Green
Community
Built Green/MBA Member:
$10 (per lot)

$50 (per unit)

Built Green Member


Only:

Built Green Member Only:


$50 (per lot)

$150 (per unit)

For Built Green Office Use Only:


Payment Received Checklist Submitted Certificate Provided Starter Kit Provided
BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookProgram-at-a-Glance
May 2001/Revised June 2008

xv

MEMBER CODE OF ETHICS


A Program of the Master Builders Association in Partnership with King and Snohomish Counties

It is the mission of the Built Green program to serve as the driving force for the use of and consumer demand for environmentally sound design, construction, and development practices in
King and Snohomish Counties cities and communities.
To achieve this mission, our members pledge to uphold the following
Code of Ethics:
Conduct our business in a manner that will reflect credit upon the Built Green
program.
Avoid statements or implications that may be misleading or deceptive.
Describe accurately and honestly the price, materials, methods and standards
of workmanship used in Built Green projects.
Provide high standards of health and safety.
Deal fairly with everyone involved in our projects including employees,
subcontractors, suppliers and customers.
Encourage research to develop new materials, building techniques, improved
building practices and financing methods.
Use the Built Green logo truthfully and according to the programs logo standards
In submitting the BUILT GREEN self-certification checklist, I agree to complete all Action Items
checked. I agree to check off only those Action Items that are true and correct, and to submit an
amended checklist if any changes occur during the construction or development process. I understand the MBA does not warrant to the homeowner or anyone else that these Action Items
have been completed; only that based on the checklist provided by me, the project qualifies for
a certificate.
I understand that my project could be selected at random for checklist verification at no cost to
my company.
_____________________________ assumes these responsibilities and understands that adherence to the above code of ethics is part of our obligation as a
member of the Built Green program of the Master Builders Association of King
and Snohomish Counties.

Authorized Signature: _______________________________Date: ________________


Title:__________________________________________________________________

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookProgram-at-a-Glance


May 2001/Revised June 2008

xvi

PROJECT DUES
Total Number of Units:

____________

Amount per unit (based on fees table)

$___________

Amount Due (Number of units X per unit fee):

$___________

Please remit payment to:

Master Builders Association of King and Snohomish Counties


335 116th Ave SE, Bellevue, WA 98004

If you prefer, you may fill out the following information, and fax it to 425.646.5985:
MasterCard

Visa Amer. Express

Card Number: _____________________________________ Exp. Date: ____________


Name as it appears on the card: ___________________________________________________
Signature:

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookProgram-at-a-Glance


May 2001/Revised June 2008

___________

xvii

MULTI-FAMILY
Program-at-a-Glance
2-Star Level Requirements
(200 points minimum)

Program Orientation

(one time only)


Provide owner with an environmentally friendly operations &
maintenance kit (1-1)
Achieve 30 points from each section
Take extra precautions to not
dispose of topsoil in lowlands or
wetlands (1-2)
When construction is complete,
leave no part of the disturbed site
uncovered or unstabilized (1-3)
Prepare a job-site recycling plan
and post on site (1-4)
If using can lights, use Energy
Star can lights or can lights approved by Washington Energy
Code for all can light applications
(1-5)
2-4 Star: Install CO detector for
all units (hardwired preferred)
with a combustion devise or attached garage (1-6)
5 Star: Install CO detector for all
units (hardwired required) with a
combustion devise (1-7)
Prohibit burying demolition and
construction waste (1-8)
Dispose of non-recyclable hazardous waste at legally permitted
facilities (1-9)
Meet all applicable state and local
codes, regulations, and development standards (1-10)

3-Star Level Requirements


(300 points minimum)

Meet 2-Star requirements plus


point minimum

4-Star Level Requirements

5-Star Level Requirements

(400 points minimum)

(600 points minimum)

Meet 3-Star requirements plus


point minimum
rd
3 party verification required
Achieve a minimum of 70 points
from each section
Site & Water
Amend disturbed soil with compost to a depth of 8 to 10 inches
or better than code to restore soil
environmental functions (2-17)
Landscape with plants appropriate for site topography and soil
types, emphasizing use of plants
with low watering requirements
[drought tolerant] (2-45)
Install ALL bathroom faucets with
GPM 1.5 or better (2-51)
Install ALL showerheads with
GPM less than code (2-54)
Energy
Building Modeled to have 15%
better performance than energy
code
Prewire for future PV for all
common areas*
IAQ
Use low VOC/low toxic interior
paints, primers, and finishes for
large surface areas (4-31)
Provide permanently installed
track-off mats and/or shoe grates
at common entryways to buildings (4-78)
Do not install a wood-burning
fireplace inside unit or building
(4-81)
Materials
Practice waste prevention and
recycling and buy recycled products (5-1)

Meet 4-Star requirements plus point


minimum
Achieve a minimum of 100 points
from each section
Site & Water
Preserve existing native vegetation
as landscaping (2-8)
Use pervious materials for at least
one-third of total area for hardscapes (2-24)
Energy
Alternate: In Lieu of energy requirements demonstrate building
energy performance 30% beyond
code (3-2)
Install LED, Energy Star compliant
fixtures, or demonstrated energy
equivalent in units and in common
areas (3-67)
IAQ
Use plywood and composites of exterior grade with no added urea
formaldehyde (for interior use) (418)
Materials
Achieve a minimum recycling rate
of 90% of waste by weight (5-32)
Use a minimum of 10 materials with
recycled content per unit (see Action Items in Section Five)

Achieve a minimum of 40 points


from each section

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookProgram-at-a-Glance


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xviii

Part I:
Multi-Family
Action Items
Section One:

Build to Program Requirements and


Green Codes/Regulations

Section Two:

Site and Water

Section Three:

Energy Efficiency

Section Four:

Health and Indoor Air Quality

Section Five:

Materials Efficiency

Part I:
Multi-Family Action Items
Part I: Multi-Family Action Items describes in detail the more than 375 BUILT GREEN Program
Action Items in five sections:
Section One: Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/RegulationsThese Action
Items document that you meet energy, air quality, water efficiency, and stormwater management
standards. Section One Action Items also include required items that provide additional site
protection, enforce jobsite recycling, provide added indoor air quality, and provide an operation
and maintenance kit for owners.
Section Two: Site and WaterThese are practical Action Items for site protection, water protection, and development.
Section Three: Energy EfficiencyThis category promotes energy efficiency and improved
comfort with Action Items intended to push your project beyond Energy Code minimums.
Section Four: Health and Indoor Air QualityAction Items in this category include selected
practices to improve indoor air quality and reduce health risks for occupants and installers.
Section Five: Materials EfficiencyNumerous options help you reduce jobsite waste, saving
both you and the project money. In addition to using materials efficiently, this section offers
recognition for using a variety of green building materials that are easier on the environment.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookPart One: Multi-Family Action Items


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part I-1

Section One:
Build to Program
Requirements and
Green Codes /
Regulations
Owners Operation and Maintenance Kit
General Program Requirements
Green Codes / Regulations
Water Use Efficiency Standards of the Uniform
Plumbing Code with Washington State Amendments
Stormwater / Site Development Standards
Washington State Energy Code and Local Amendments
Washington State Ventilation/Indoor Air Quality Code

Section One:
Build to Program Requirements and
Green Codes/Regulations
This section includes Action Items that are specific requirements for participation in the Built Green
Multi-Family program and those that are required by code. This section acknowledgesand lets your
customers knowthat you routinely follow Washington State and local jurisdiction construction codes
and regulations that require environmentally friendly practices and products.

1-1

Provide Owner with an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit


This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Personalize the O & M Kit by including information on the environmental features and products
in the facility. Let owners know the information should be read carefully and included in training
form maintenance staff in order to optimize the environmentally friendly features you have taken
extra effort to incorporate. (see Action Items 279 281, regarding additional Operations and
Maintenance Kits and Training.)
Minimally, the Kit should contain the following:

A starter kit of information available through the Master Builders Association (MBA). The
kit includes an informational CD and a folder in which you can put additional project specific
documents.

A copy of the completed Built Green checklist, as well as the appropriate energy efficiency
worksheet(s).

Warranties and operating instructions for any environmentally friendly equipment or landscaping installed.

Information for underground maintenance including:

As-built drawings of all underground utilities and drain lines

Operating and maintenance procedures for on-site drainage systems (detailing such items
as when and how to clean screens, catch basins, drain lines, and clean-outs)

Operating and maintenance procedures for on-site sewage (septic) systems, if applicable
(detailing such items as when and how to inspect the system, pump the tank, and check
settings)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection One:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part I-5

A completed copy of Chart 3-1 from Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency, if applicable.
(This applies if you have performed Action Item 3-2, Document Envelope Improvements Beyond Code (Component Performance Approach).

Information about proper operation and maintenance of the mechanical ventilation system, if
applicable (see Action Items in Section Four, under Air Distribution and Filtration, and
HVAC Equipment).

Information about any air filter systems installed (including filter size, type, quality, and the
ideal replacement schedule). This applies if you have performed Action Items 4-60 a or b,
Use Effective Air Filter.

The following are not required, but are examples of additional materials you may also want to include as a service.

Information about environmentally friendly landscaping operations and maintenance:

Information about maintaining existing pervious surfacing products for outdoor projects/surfaces (to avoid increasing stormwater runoff), if applicable, or as a suggestion for
future development

A list of pest-resistant and disease-resistant plants, including native plants

Information about operating and maintaining irrigation equipment to optimize use

Information about critical areas such as buffer zones to be protected, if applicable

Information on protecting and caring for valuable site features, including mature trees, if
applicable. Encourage protection and retention of existing arboreal overstory, where possible

Information about integrated pest management.

Information about operating and maintaining water-using fixtures and equipment to avoid
long-term leaks and optimize use.

A list of energy efficient appliance options (if appliances are not included).

Information about energy-efficient lighting fixtures.

Information on operating and maintaining the building for good indoor air quality.

Pamphlets, brochures, and books listed in the applicable Resources Section.

Consider the following as additional information for the owners to provide to occupants.

Information about local mass transit opportunities.

Non- or low-toxic cleaning supplies, such as environmentally friendly laundry or dish detergent, or paper products with recycled content.

Environmentally friendly furnace filter(s), if applicable.

Native species flower seeds.

Environmentally friendly gardening supplies.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection One:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part I-6

1-2

Take Extra Precautions to Not Dispose of Topsoil in Lowlands or Wetlands


This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Preserve and protect all topsoil on-site for reuse after grading. Disposing of topsoil in lowlands
or wetlands threatens water quality and quantity and endangers wildlife habitat.

1-3

When Construction is Complete, Leave No Part of the Disturbed Site Uncovered or Unstabilized
This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Bare soil will erode due to wind and water. Seed, replant, or cover exposed soils with compost,
mulch, vegetation, and/or matting as soon as practical. Use wildflower seeds appropriate for this
region for color and interest, such as along driveways. All disturbed areas should be treated in
some way with landscaping, site features, or erosion control devices.

1-4

Prepare Jobsite Recycling Plan and Post On Site


This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Each construction project presents a unique set of circumstances. Therefore, its best to develop a
job-specific recycling plan. Some key points to keep in mind when developing your plan include:

Make a jobsite-recycling plan that fits your site. For your convenience, a form you can use
to develop the plan is provided in Part II, Section Five Resources for this Action Item

Target only high-potential materials for recycling and reuse. Phase recycling based on construction activities

Decide how and where you are going to collect the materials you are targeting. For example
you may want to stockpile cardboard in a garage, use a roped-off area for metal, and use containers for wood and drywall

Make recycling on the jobsite as convenient as disposal. For example, place wood collection
containers near the central cutting area

If commingling recycling, educate subcontractors and employees on how the recycling system works, and what can and can NOT be recycled in the comingled waste container. Post
guidelines near containers

Rely on good quality, easily accessible recycling and salvage service providers and facilities

Sell program benefits savings, safety, and marketing benefit to jobsite crews (including subs).

Provide key field personnel the information they need to participate. This could include:

A copy of the Jobsite Recycling Plan

A copy of relevant contract language to subcontractor

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May 2001/Revised June 2008

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1-5

A What You Can Do to Maximize Recycling fact sheet to jobsite workers (this is also provided in the Part II, Section Five Resources)

Regular updates on recycling results at safety or project meetings

Recognition to everyone participating in the program.

If Using Can Lights, Use Energy Star Can Lights or Can Lights Approved by Washington
Energy Code for All Can Light Applications
This action Item is required for credit in the program.
Use Energy Star can lights or can lights approved by WSEC. As of July 1, 2007, the new
standard for WSEC for can lights installed in the building envelope, is recessed lighting fixtures
that are IC rated,
and certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the
conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals
or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance with
this test method. Recessed lighting fixtures shall be installed with a gasket or caulk between the fixture and ceiling to prevent air leakage.

1-6

2 4 Star: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwire Preferred) with a Combustion Device or
Attached Garage
This action Item is required for credit in the program.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by incomplete combustion of materials, such as natural gas,
wood, coal, oil, kerosene, gasoline, and even tobacco. Sources include wood or gas burning
stoves and fireplaces, automobile exhaust from attached garages, and contamination from furnace
flue leaks and backdrafting. At low levels, CO causes fatigue in healthy people and chest pains in
those with heart disease. At higher levels, symptoms range from impaired vision and coordination, to headaches, dizziness, nausea, and death.
Home detectors warn occupants of unsafe CO levels and are relatively inexpensive and easy to
install. A detector should be installed wherever there is a fuel-burning device and near the bedrooms. Check consumer-testing results before buying.

1-7

5 Star: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwire Required) with a Combustion Device
This Action Items is required for credit in the program if you elect to receive a 5 star rating.
For 5 Star projects, to earn credit for this Action Item the CO detectors MUST be hardwired installation. See information above under Action Item 1-6.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection One:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part I-8

1-8

Prohibit Burying Demolition and/or Construction Waste


This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Pursuant to state regulations, all solid waste, including construction waste generated by contractors, in Washington must be disposed of at a proper disposal site permitted by the jurisdictional
health department. Demolition waste can be disposed of at a permitted inert/demolition landfill
or other landfill that accepts this material. Call the Department of Ecologys regional offices for
information on permitted landfills in your area. The BUILT GREEN Program promotes waste reduction and recycling, please see Section Five: Materials Efficiency, for more information on
ways to reduce your disposal costs.
Check with your local health department for definitions of clean fill material or Clean mud and
dirt, that may be used as fill.

1-9

Dispose of Non-Recyclable Hazardous Waste at Legally Permitted Facilities


This Action Item is required for credit in the program.
Some builders qualify as a small quantity generator (SQG) under the State and County definitions. A small quantity generator produces less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month
(about half of a 55-gallon drum), or less than 2.2 pounds of extremely hazardous waste, and never
accumulates more than 2,200 pounds these limits are referred to as the Quantity Exclusion Limits. Hazardous waste generated by SQGs is exempt from regulation under WAC Chapter 173-303
because quantities are below the regulatory threshold. See your local waste agency for applicable
local ordinances.
In addition to using private companies providing legal waste management services, SQGs can
self-transport their wastes to a permitted facility (other generators must contract to have their
wastes picked up), and they dont need to fill out as much paperwork as larger generators. Contractors who qualify as SQGs may be eligible to dispose of their hazardous wastes at collection
sites operated by local governments. This option can be less expensive. Information about local
programs can be obtained from local governments or the Department of Ecology regional offices.
If you dispose of more than 2,200 pounds you are classified as a fully regulated generator and
must contract to have your hazardous wastes picked up and taken to facilities specifically permitted to manage those wastes.
See the Resources Section for more information and sources to help you determine your generator
status and related requirements.

1-10

Meet All Applicable State and Local Codes, Regulations, and Development Standards
Meet Water Use Efficiency Standards of the Uniform Plumbing Code with Washington State
Amendments
Meet water use efficiency standards, specified by the Uniform Plumbing Code, particularly, those
outlined in Chapter 51 to 56 of the Washington Administrative Code for plumbing fixtures and

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May 2001/Revised June 2008

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fixture fittings. (Section Two, Site and Water includes Action Items for going beyond code, see
Indoor Conservation Items.)

Tank-type toilets 1.6 gpf/6.0 lpf

Lavatory faucets 2.5 gpm/9.5 lpm

Kitchen faucets 2.5 gpm/9.5 lpm

Replacement aerators 2.5 gpm/9.5 lpm.

Meet Stormwater / Site Development Standards


Meet applicable state and local stormwater controls and site development requirements. (Section
Two: Site and Water contains additional Action Items that go beyond regulations.)
Meet Washington State Energy Code and, if Applicable, Local Amendments
Meet the Washington State Energy Code. Effective July 1, 2007, the State Energy Code has been
updated. Major changes have been incorporated into the 2008 update of the Multi-Family Manual; however, it may be that not all changes have been incorporated. To see all the changes, download a new copy of the code and look for a vertical bar in the margin indicating a change in the
code, see http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/wsec2006/wsec_2006.pdf. See the Chart
in the Resources Section Three or the Worksheet Instructions provided by WSU at
http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/CPWorksheets/CPWorksheet_instruct.pdf. (Section
Three: Energy Efficiency provides Action Items that go beyond code.)
Meet Washington State Ventilation / Indoor Air Quality Code
Meet the Washington State Mechanical Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code. Effective July
1, 2007, the State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code has been updated, see
http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/wsec2006/VIAQ2006.pdf. (Section Four: Health
and Indoor Air Quality provides Action Items that go beyond code.)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection One:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part I-10

Section Two:
Site and Water
Site Protection
Overall
Protect Sites Natural Features
Protect Natural Processes On-Site
Hardscapes
Reduce Urban Heat Island Effect
Eliminate Water Pollutants

Water Conservation
Outdoor Conservation
Indoor Conservation
Eliminate Water Pollutants

Design Alternatives
Transportation
Training and Education
Extra Credit/Innovation for Site and Water

Section Two:
Site and Water
The Action Items in this section will help you responsibly manage and protect the natural resources on
your construction site. Site Protection items address things you can do during the construction phase.
This category includes Action Items that help protect natural features, prevent erosion, sedimentation and
water pollution due to stormwater runoff, conserve water, and preserve water quality. Since the success
of water conservation measures is highly dependent on occupants cooperation, additional Action Items
are included to promote water protection and conservation.
Design Alternatives are actions that need to be implemented during the important design phase of a project. Included in this category are sustainable design alternatives that make better use of the land, promote safety, and optimize use of the building and site, as well as the neighborhood. Additional land use
features are included in the BUILT GREEN Developer Component.
New to the 2008 Update are Action Items that address transportation planning, and training and education
for site management features. Transportation items encourage alternate transportation measures and support automobile trip reduction. The Training and Education Items encourage proper operations and
maintenance for common areas and landscaping.

SITE PROTECTION
Overall
2-1

Build on an Infill Lot to Take Advantage of Existing Infrastructure and Reduce Development of
Virgin Sites
Infill lots are developed areas in which each lot being developed already has access to municipal
water and sewer, electricity, and roads, excluding lots in designated critical areas or overly steep
slopes.
In those cases where a building already exists on the lot, BUILT GREEN encourages using the
existing structures if possible through renovation as the primary objective. However, if renovation
is not possible, because the building is not structurally sound, then salvage and recycling demolition materials becomes the secondary goal. The measure is not intended to promote the razing of
structurally sound structures to make way for larger buildings. Restoring buildings on infill lots,
as opposed to razing an existing building then constructing a new one, can have dramatic benefits
in reducing traffic and protecting habitat.

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2-2

Build in a Planned BUILT GREEN Development


The BUILT GREEN Program promotes developments that are ecologically sound as well as pedestrian- and transit-oriented. If you build in a certified BUILT GREEN development, you automatically earn ten points.

2-3

Build on a Previously Developed Site (Greyfield or Brownfield)


In recent years previously-developed, yet currently under-used sites with development potential
have been termed "greyfields," in contrast to "brownfields" which typically refer to land contaminated by previous users that requires cleanup before development can proceed. Both of these infill opportunities allow for efficient use of land and infrastructure and keep development within
the urban areas.
Greyfields originally described declining or abandoned shopping malls, and is still primarily used
with that meaning, but now can be used to refer to any under-used or abandoned previously developed site with at least 50% of the surface area covered with impervious material or where rehabilitation will involve the use of some existing buildings. Greyfields are an exceptional opportunity for mixed-use developments or walkable communities, since they generally are already in
geographically-desirable locations, have existing infrastructure, including roads, sewers, and other utilities, and may already be able to accommodate public transit, and could benefit from having
consumers living in the area.
Although formal incentive policies that recognize greyfields are beginning to be developed in
parts of the country, currently King and Snohomish County do not have such programs or policies
in place. However, you are encouraged to work with your local building department to request
incentives, such as elimination of development related fees, contribution from the local government in the development of off-site improvements, and tax breaks.
In contrast to greyfields, brownfields are previously developed site where redevelopment may be
complicated by the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, or other contaminants. The Environmental Protection Agency has had a brownfields redevelopment program for a
number of years. Currently, the King County/City of Seattle Brownfields Program provides assistance to qualified private businesses and landowners, nonprofit organizations and municipalities within King County to assess and clean up brownfields. The KC/City of Seattle Brownfields
Program provides assistance in navigating the regulatory and technical requirements of the cleanup process, interpreting consultant reports and developing possible cleanup options. Additionally, the program may also provide grants and low-interest loans to help with redevelopment.
In Snohomish County, developers may seek this type of assistance from the EPA. Grants, loans,
and training are available through the EPA's Brownfield Initiative to assist builders and developers in the remediation and development of Brownfield sites

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2-4

Create a Low Impact Development


To qualify for this Action Item, there shall be no overland flow runoff from the site,
100% infiltration.
Low Impact Development (LID) defines a new approach to site design and planning based on
preserving or restoring the watersheds natural hydrologic functions as the natural site water
management system. The goal is to create a site that provides the hydrologic functionally equivalent performance of the pre-developed or original landscape (for previously developed sites).
Achieving this goal requires a comprehensive approach to planning and designing the site. Not
all sites are appropriate for this comprehensive approach; however there are individual techniques
that can be used for any project. The following Action Items in this category may be used together or separately to reduce the impact of development. Select those that are practical for your
project. Remember, to receive this credit you must attain the performance threshold of no overland flow runoff from the site, 100% infiltration.
The comprehensive low impact approach uses a combination of innovative engineering, alternative products, pollution prevention, and integrated stormwater management practices (mimicking
natural drainage) that control volume, recharge groundwater, and protect stream resources and
water quality. LID relies on many distributed, small-scale, multi-functional elements, and connectivity of these elements to result in no net runoff. No net runoff means zero drainage discharge as overland flow runoff and zero-impact on receiving waters including the creeks, streams,
and lakes that receive water draining from your site.
Generally, LID starts with a number of techniques now being incorporated in more innovative
developments such as open spaces, narrower streets, greener and smaller parking lots, extended
and continuous stream buffers, and natural stormwater management practices (see separate Action Items throughout the checklist). However, to achieve pre-development hydrologic function it
will be necessary to sharply reduce the effective impervious area beyond what is typically allowed by code through traditional development practices. Current science supports the basic
standard of LID, which is to preserve and maintain 65% of the native forest floor and design the
effective impervious surface close to zero in order to prevent adverse impacts on the watershed,
streams, and riparian habitat. This 65/0 rule is the guiding standard of LID.
Residential LID practices include saving and using natural features and vegetation, saving and using soil structure and function, limiting lot disturbances, disconnecting and minimizing impervious surfaces, using integrated management practices, requiring on-going maintenance of the systems, and incorporating pollution prevention into every aspect of planning.
Techniques that contribute to creating a Low Impact Development include:

Bioretention/rain gardens
Strategic grading
Flatter wider detention
Long flow paths
Landscape island storage
Parking lot/street storage
Sidewalk storage
Alternative paving surfaces
Reducing impervious surfaces

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Vegetative swales, buffers, and strips


Infiltration swales and trenches
Eliminating curb and gutter
Shoulder vegetation
Maximizing sheet flow
Maintaining drainage patterns
Soil amendment
Reforestation.

These techniques vary significantly in terms of ease and cost. Part II: Resources lists references
that can provide additional information on specific techniques listed above. Also, many of these
strategies and techniques are included in the Checklist as separate Action Items. Consult the
checklist for techniques that will work on your site.
Regardless of the specific techniques you employ, the stormwater conveyance system must promote sheetflow and storage and discourage the collection and concentration of runoff. To accomplish infiltration on poor soils, such as those in the Puget Sound basin, runoff must reach the
water management system within feet of where it falls as precipitation.
Meeting the goal of LID may seem difficult at first glance given cost impacts, current standards
and practices, or current regulations and ordinances. However, both King and Snohomish Counties are now encouraging this practice, and cost savings can be realized by minimizing excavation
costs and relying on natural basins and drainage to help reduce the need for expensive piping and
clearing and filling. Limiting large-scale, expensive and maintenance-intensive traditional
stormwater management facilities can result in increased lot yields, reduced infrastructure costs,
and improved aesthetics. Many of the strategies that lead to cost savings, however, are not part of
existing road, stormwater, and development regulations or code. They are still considered alternative methods in the much of the code and may require deviations and variances to employ.
In considering Low Impact Development, there can be a significant reduction in costly retention
and control elements. The cost of traditional capture/control infrastructure plus associated costs
of installation and maintenance together with increased land yields that result from using the LID
approach may make this approach more cost-effective than it may first appear. .

2-5

Meet City of Seattles Green Factor Standards


Factor 0.2..................... 5 points

Factor 0.5 .....................30 points

Factor 0.3..................... 10 points

Factor 0.6 .....................40 points

Factor 0.4..................... 20 points

Factor 0.7 .....................50 points

The Seattle Green Factor is a new program that requires new development in neighborhood business districts to meet a landscaping target using a menu of landscaping strategies that have been
assigned variable points based on their efficacy. The Green Factor is designed to improve the
amount and quality of urban landscapes, while allowing greater flexibility for developers and designers to meet open space requirements.
The Green Factor encourages layering of vegetation in areas visible to the public and in the public
rights-of-way directly adjacent to new development. The program works using a simple spreadsheet that assigns variable points for different landscaping options. The values range from a facBUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Two: Site and Water
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tor of 0.2 to a factor of 0.7. Lower values correspond to lawn and groundcovers, small plants,
while larger trees and shrubs, depending on their sizes are awarded higher corresponding point
values. Bonuses are provided for rainwater harvesting and choosing plants with low water requirements. Use of larger trees, tree preservation, green roofs, and vegetated walls trigger more
credits towards meeting a specific numerical target. A worksheet helps applicants calculate their
projects score, allowing them to try different combinations of features to reach the requirement.
The number of plants or the square footage is multiplied by its point factor. Increasing plants or
square footage will accomplish the aggregate 0.3 green factor.
In addition to being attractive, new green elements in the landscape will improve air quality and
help reduce energy consumption, cooling the city in the summer and insulating it in the winter.
They will also reduce stormwater runoff, decreasing water pollution and public infrastructure
costs. For more information, see http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Permits/GreenFactor/.

2-6

For Each Acre of Development, Set Aside an Equal Amount of Land as a Conservation Easement
or Transfer the Development Rights
A conservation easement (or conservation restriction) is a restriction placed on a piece of property
to protect its associated resources. It is a legal agreement between a landowner and municipality
or a qualified land protection organization (often called a "land trust") that permanently limits uses of the land in order to protect its conservation values. Generally, it allows continued ownership
and use and the owners retain the right to sell it or pass it on to heirs. However, it restricts real
estate development, commercial and industrial uses, and certain other activities on the property to
a mutually agreed upon level. Future owners also will be bound by the easement's terms. The
land trust is responsible for making sure the easement's terms are followed.
The easement is either voluntarily donated or sold by the landowner. Conservation easements
protect land for future generations while allowing owners to retain many private property rights
and to live on and use their land, at the same time potentially providing them with tax benefits.
There are many local land trusts and many programs that are actively engaging in conservation
protection through conservation easements. For instance, the Trust for Public Land has a program
called the Greenprint for Puget Sound. TPL is working with governments, cities, non-profit organizations, foundations, and landowners to develop a land conservation strategy in a 12-county
area comprising the Puget Sound watershed with the goal of improving public access to the
shoreline and protecting and restoring the sound's near-shore habitat. The Greenprint for King
County is intended to accomplish gaining a better understanding of the county's needs to conserve
its water and land resources, ensuring that limited resources are directed to the highest priority
lands, and helping to prioritize the competing demands for limited funds from individual programs.
Transfer of development rights programs, operating in both Built Green counties, offer another
solution to conserving valuable natural lands. In Snohomish County, at the time of this writing,
the Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program is currently being updated through the update of the Unified Development Code. Currently the TDR program is designed to use market
forces to fund the conservation of important natural resource lands. In short, the programs allow
landowners within designated sending areas to realize the development value of their land
while retaining the right to use the land in ways that wont impair its natural resource functions.
Landowners and developers who purchase development rights from sending area landowners can
use them to develop land within designated receiving areas, where intense land uses are more
appropriate. Likewise, in King County, the Transfer of Development Rights or TDR Program is a

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voluntary land use incentive program. It helps private "sending site" landowners achieve an economic return through the sale of development rights to "receiving site" landowners. Both counties operate programs where sending and receiving sites are registered (see Resources).

Protect Sites Natural Features


2-7

Avoid Soil Compaction by Limiting Heavy Equipment Use to Building Footprint and Construction
Entrance
Compacted soils are less able to absorb water, resist plant root penetration, and lack the porosity
needed for adequate aeration. As a result, they tend to increase stormwater runoff, which disrupts
the natural water cycle and stream dynamics.
Limit compaction of site soils by restricting and clearly marking heavy equipment use areas. On
the jobsite, limit all vehicle traffic to designated areas, restrict parking vehicles on site, and arrange for particularly heavy vehicles (concrete trucks, cranes, etc.) to avoid the need for large
turn-around areas. If porous pavement is planned for any areas, that area should be left undisturbed during construction so that the subsoil is not compressed. Use an alternate access road for
construction vehicles. To protect exposed soils from excess traffic, locate equipment storage and
job shack areas for easy access.
See also Action Item 2-12, Restore Percentage of Site Outside the Foot Print for the Life of the
Building.

2-8

Preserve Existing Native Vegetation as Landscaping


Native vegetation is adapted to the Northwest climate of rainy wet winters and dry summers. Retaining native vegetation in a landscape (rather than removing them and then replanting) also provides excellent erosion, sediment, dust, and pollution control. Finally, native plants are more resistant to naturally occurring disease, insects, and low levels of nutrients, thus reducing the need
for fertilizer or pesticides.
During building layout, identify existing native plants, including trees and understory plants that
you want to save. See also Action Item 2-9, Retain 30% of Trees on Site. Precautions during
site preparation include the following:

Clear only actual areas needed to install driveways, parking areas, and building foundations.

Define protected areas on plans and field stake or flag on site. Identify or flag non-clearing
buffers, open spaces, and setbacks from streams, wetlands, and steep slopes as indicated on
plat maps.

Review site areas to be graded with excavation crew to ensure compliance with preservation
plan.

Provide fencing for critical areas, such as tree root zones, to prevent crushing or filling. See
Action Item 2-9, Retain 30% of Trees On Site for more information on protecting trees.

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2-9

If trees only (not understory) are designated for protection, hand clearing of understory will
help protect tree roots. Be careful, however, about exposing some trees by clearing around
themthey may become hazards in strong winds or rain. Check with an arborist.

Check grading operations frequently to prevent accidental damage to marked areas.

Never park heavy equipment or store heavy materials under trees. See Action Item 2-7, Avoid
Soil Compaction by Limiting Heavy Equipment Use.

Retain 30% of Trees on Site or Retain Arborist to Determine Tree Retention Plan for Site
Consult an arborist to select valuable individual trees for preservation whenever possible. Keep
all excavations, equipment, and debris away from trees at a distance two times the size of the
canopy from the tree trunk (drip line) when possible (this protects the root systems). If you must
cut roots, cut as few as possible. Cut them cleanly. Once you remove the tree, get the root ball
into a moistened burlap sack as soon as possible and re-bury the roots. (The roots begin to dry
out almost immediately. Keeping the roots moist, preferably with the soil intact, helps minimize
the impact of transplanting.) Preserve most of the important feeder roots. Protect entire stands of
trees whenever possible.
Save trees with signs clearly indicating the trees monetary value (cost of replacement). Consider
charging subcontractor for tree damage based on these dollar values.
Trees moderate surface temperatures and reduce building heating and cooling requirements. Specifically, they can increase savings on energy bills by providing shade in summer and wind protection in winter. Trees also reduce stormwater runoff, reducing urban peak runoff, stabilizing
soils, and preventing air pollution. All of which have great economic value to cities. Another
benefit is that trees provide habitat for local wildlife. Studies show that a single mature tree can
provide nearly $300 annually in energy and resource value in terms of cooling, erosion and pollution control, and wildlife shelter. Trees may also protect some of your sites critical features like
stream buffer zones.
In general, related to single family housing, homes with mature trees sell for more money and at
faster rates. According to 1,350 real estate agents surveyed by Bank America Mortgage, more
than 50% believe trees have a positive impact on potential buyers impressions of housing and
neighborhoods. Additionally, 84% felt that a home with trees would be as much as 20% more salable. A NAHB survey reported that 43% of home buyers paid up to $3,000 more, and 27% spent
over $5,000 extra for wooded lots. Studies in some regions of the country have found trees add
as much as 30% to the selling price of lots. No studies have been found that study this information as it relates to Multi-Family housing, however, it is reasonable that this information applies to Multi-Family as well.

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Table 2-1Potential Problems Associated with a Few Specific Trees


Tree Type
Dogwood
Douglas Fir
Maple Red Alder

Potential Problems/Recommended Strategy


Western Hemlock
Western Red Cedar

They may not adjust to environmental changes as easily


as other species. Keep disturbance of these trees to a minimum.

Pacific Silver Fir

If very tall, they can tip over easily. Watch height.

Douglas Fir
Western Hemlock

Thinning increases the possibility of tipping over. Keep


stands of these trees dense.

Cottonwoods
Maples
Willows

Water-seeking rootsThese trees thrive well in high


moisture areas but keep away from sewer lines and filter
fields.

Grand Fir
Noble Fir
Pacific Dogwood
Pacific Silver Fir

2-10

Red Alder
Sitka Spruce
Western Hemlock
Western Red Cedar

Keep stands of these trees dense, whether one type or


mixed varieties. These trees are very prone to disease
caused by thinning or damage to any part of the trees.

Do Not Build On or Adjacent to Sensitive Ecological Areas: Wetlands, Shorelines, Bluffs, Old
Growth Forests, or Other Critical Areas
In the earlier editions of the Multi-Family program, points could be achieved for building beyond
code restrictions near sensitive areas as long as the distances were beyond code or provided for
the maximum mitigation. The 2008 update recognizes the importance of these sensitive ecological areas and now awards points for not building on or adjacent to them at all. Work with your
local jurisdiction to determine whether these sensitive ecological areas are located on your proposed building site. If some of these areas are identified on your site, you cannot receive points
for this Action Item; however, review other Action Items in this section to provide the maximum
mitigation.
Wetlands provide essential cover, feeding, nesting and breeding habitat for many species of fish
and wildlife. They also provide critical hydrological function by acting as a big sponge, buffering
the effects of storms on creeks. This buffering effect allows peak velocities to be reduced during
storm events that avoids flooding and provides base flows during dry times. Wetlands can also
act as a natural recharge area for groundwater. Shorelines and bluffs also provide essential wildlife habitat and are highly susceptible to development effects. Old growth forests are an invaluable, irreplaceable habitat that cannot be restored in our lifetime. They provide critical wildlife
habitat, provide for important climate and carbon sequestration functions, and are essential for
many hydrologic functions. Other critical areas as defined by local code or jurisdictions should
also be avoided if that jurisdiction found that area to be of important environmental function.

2-11

If Building Near Sensitive Ecological Areas, Limit Development Footprint and Preserve and
Protect Beyond Code
Numerous federal, state and local laws affect the use and protection of wetlands and other critical
areas. Because of the considerable variation in local regulations, contact your local planning department to determine what actions constitute going beyond code.

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Protect wetlands, waterways, and riparian areas from sediment using appropriate best management practices such as silt fences. Leave a vegetated buffer zone, a minimum of 100 feet wide on
each side along streams or other water bodies unless approved plans indicate larger buffers are
required. (Check with your local jurisdiction for buffer size requirements.)
Coastal slopes on Puget Sound are inherently unstable areas. Careful management of site drainage
is probably the most cost-effective approach to minimizing bluff hazards. Even when circumstances dictate significant structural stabilization efforts, such as shoreline bulkheading or regrading slopes, site drainage remains an essential component of proper management.
Approaching shoreline development in a safe and environmentally sound manner, specifically,
dealing with drainage wisely helps to alleviate impact on beaches and shorelines. This alternative
also has fewer environmental consequences compared to extensive shoreline bulkheading or major clearing and grading of coastal slopes.
The State and King and Snohomish Counties want to use best available science to determine
buffers for streams, wetlands, and steep slopes.
Appropriate buffer zones for critical areas, including wetlands, are based on several variables, including:

2-12

existing wetlands functions, values, and sensitivities to disturbance

buffer characteristics

land use impacts, and

desired buffer functions.

Restore Percentage of Site Outside the Footprint for the Life of the Building 10% 20% 35%

10%

5 points

20%

7 points

35%

10 points

Setting aside undisturbed areas helps preserve soil, water, and vegetation. Undisturbed areas stabilize soils and filter sediments from stormwater runoff before they enter waterways. Natural filter areas also allow rainwater to stay on site and soak into the ground, recharging groundwater,
instead of running off site. In addition, they provide a cost-effective head start on landscaping.
Unfortunately, many current available sites, do not contain vast quantities of undisturbed areas. It
is up to the developer to restore soil, water features/functions, and vegetation to mimic natural areas. To begin with restoration may involve treating or removing invasive plants and shrubs, soil
amendments, and determination of historical drainage patterns. Restoration is not limited to reseeding with native plants. Hydrologists should be consulted to restore the original hydrology,
and ecologists should also be considered depending on the site size, to ensure that restoration activities do not negatively disrupt the habitat for the insects, fish, birds, and other animals currently
living on or downstream from the site.
Regardless of whether you restore the site, or keep undisturbed areas, it is imperative to communicate this goal to the grading designer and equipment operators and ask them to help come up

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with creative solutions. Review the set aside plans with subs, especially grading and excavation
crews.
Preserving natural features can add landscape beauty, enhance fish and wildlife habitat, and reduce noise. Create covenants to ensure the benefit of these set-aside areas.

Protect Natural Processes On-Site


2-13

Install and Maintain Temporary Erosion Control Devices that Significantly Reduce Sediment
Discharge from the Site Beyond Code Requirements
Erosion control best management practices (BMPs) help avoid stormwater related problems (erosion and increased runoff during construction), which can delay construction, add costs, cause
environmental degradation, and damage public and private properties downstream. Check and
maintain all BMP strategies regularly to avoid BMP failure. Better yet, implement supplemental
BMPs as back up, so you wont have to worry or pay for primary BMP failure.
In large development projects, specific measures for stormwater collection, storage, and treatment
are required as part of the permitting process. The following are environmentally friendly approaches for any size development (some are now required by code).

Use reusable silt control fencing at appropriate locations (choose filter fabric with proper porosity and ability to trap sediments for type of soil and its location).

Install stabilized construction entrance (quarry spall or crushed rock).

Protect adjacent and downstream properties from adverse effects of increased runoff.

Use compost barriers or berms.

Install temporary straw bale erosion and sedimentation control check dams in ditches during
construction.

Inspect all erosion and sedimentation control measures immediately if more than of rain
falls in a 24 hour period.

Hydroseed exposed areas as soon as possible.

Using compost for erosion control is a relatively new application (check with your local code enforcers and stormwater management officials first). Slightly coarse to coarse types of compost
are well suited for holding surface soil in place even during heavy rainfall. See Action Item 2-14,
Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes, for more information on using compost.
Phase construction and plan ahead to avoid clearing and grading November through March, even
if allowed by permit. This is particularly important for soils that are easily eroded. To find out if
the soils at your site qualify as easily eroded, go to the Soil Conservation Surveys (SCS) at your
local library. Each County has these surveys that classify soil types throughout the County. Locate your site on the surveys to determine your sites soil type. The surveys include a discussion
of the engineering properties including erosion potential, classified as light to moderate or severe.

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In Snohomish County, the codes are tied to the SCSs in terms of erosion hazards. Consult your
code official for more information.

2-14

Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes


This credit is only available on sites with defined slopes.
Soil left exposed on slopes will erode. Research has shown that compost can often outperform
conventional slope stabilization methods.
Grade the slope to a ratio no steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical (the maximum allowed by the
UBC), or terrace steeper slopes with retaining walls. Apply compost to cover the entire exposed
soil surface, extending approximately 3 feet over the top of the slope or meshing into existing
vegetation. The compost application rate will vary depending upon degree of slope, soil type, and
compost characteristics. As a rule of thumb, however, a 3- to 4-inch layer of compost will effectively control erosion on a slope of up to 45% for between one and three years.
Composts containing particles that range in size ( or greater) will produce a more stable mat.
Stable, relatively dry yard trimmings compost will also filter and bind pollutants from stormwater, reintroduce organic material, and enhance water retention/infiltration. Avoid very coarse
composts if the slope is to be landscaped or seeded. In environmentally sensitive areas, or where
water quality is a concern, use only compost made from yard trimmings, uncontaminated wood
by-product based materials, or well-stabilized biosolids.

2-15

Retain all Native Topsoil and Protect Stockpiles from Erosion


Stockpile topsoil removed during grading for use during final landscaping. The top layer of soil is
the most valuable, and should be separated and used again on site as a top layer in grading planting areas. However, bare soil will erode due to wind and water. Protect stockpiled topsoil from
erosion by covering with mulch until ready for reuse. Surround all stockpiles with a reusable silt
fence and inspect regularly for proper coverage or sign of erosion, especially after a large storm.
Screen soil to remove debris before redistributing for final grading and landscaping.
Native topsoil is best adapted to the site. Avoid importing topsoil as much as possible. New
topsoil is not adapted to your site and thus cannot offer the same nutrient structure, disease resistance, or hydrologic capabilities.
If you do have extra topsoil remaining after final grading and landscaping, consider mixing it
with non-organic and inert material to be used for non-structural fill (make sure fill materials are
clean). Also you can use it in the construction of slopes, or sell it to owners, landscapers, or other
businesses for reuse.
Absolutely no topsoil should be disposed of in low areas or wetlands. This is a Program Requirement - see Action Item 1-2, Take Extra Precautions to Not Dispose of Topsoil in Lowlands
or Wetlands.

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2-16

Balance Cut and Fill, while Maintaining Change to Original Topography


Provide a detailed and comprehensive grading plan that minimizes and balances cuts and fills.
This avoids expensive exporting or importing of topsoil. If you need to import fill to the site, use
only approved materials for filling and grading. It is important to avoid radically altering the
basic topography of the site so that you do not get into a situation where the changes alter existing
water functions.

2-17

Amend Disturbed Soil with Compost to a Depth of 8 to 10 Inches (or Better Than Code) to
Restore Soil Environmental Functions
Have a soil lab test the soil for information, the soils chemical and physical condition, as well as
its biological health. These labs will provide specific recommendations for optimum soil
amendment. Amendments may include sand or gravel for improved drainage, lime or other pH
modifiers, or organic manures or compost to improve nutrient availability. Compost amendments
reduce summer irrigation demand, reduce stormwater runoff and erosion, improve soil quality,
and improve turf aesthetics.
Compost should be mature and stable. Ask your supplier for Grade A compost per the Department of Ecologys Compost Guidelines. Mature composts settle less, provide stable nutrient
sources, and provide higher levels of beneficial organisms.
In King County, code now requires eight to ten inches; to achieve credit you must exceed code
requirements. As a rule of thumb, a 2 to 1 ratio of existing soil to compost, by loose volume, will
achieve the desired organics level of 8% to 13% by soil weight. The final depth of the amended
soil will be between ten and twelve inches, depending upon the equipment you use.
For typical subsoils in the Puget Sound area, you will achieve best results using 7/16-inch
well-degraded compost. (It is very important to thoroughly mix the compost into the native soil
in the turf areas.) Whether you seed or sod, all turf installations perform better when at least 2
inches of compost is tilled into the upper six inches of soil. Twelve inches is better for deep rooted, drought-tolerant grasses. The Resource Section includes information on how to calculate required amendment material.

2-18

Replant or Donate Removed Vegetation for Immediate Reuse


Plants and trees to be removed due to construction can often be reused for landscaping on site.
Replant as soon as possible and make sure you follow appropriate procedures so plants survive.
If you cant replant immediately, protect the root ball while waiting to replant (see Action Item
2-8, Preserve Existing Native Vegetation as Landscaping).
Some nurseries participate with local organizations involved in restoration projects to salvage native plants from development sites. The King or Snohomish County Conservation Districts can
often use native vegetation that you cannot. The King County Department of Natural Resources
and Snohomish Countys Native Plant Salvage Program offer salvage programs. See Part II, Section Two Resources for this Action Item for contract information.

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2-19

Use Plants Salvaged from Another Site


A developer can use plants/trees from other areas in the development or individual builders can
work with local developers or other builders, to secure plant material being removed from sites.
Or you can use plants from another of your projects. Make sure the plants are appropriate to the
site.

2-20

Grind Land Clearing Wood and Stumps for Reuse


For builders working on large sites, grinding land clearing wood waste can be a cost-effective
way to reduce jobsite waste and provide opportunities to reuse the material as mulch (on site or at
other locations). Mulch can renew the soil by improving water and nutrient retention and can also be used to protect stockpiled topsoil. See Action Item 2-15, Retain all Native Topsoil and Protect Stockpiles from Erosion.

2-21

Use a Water Management System that Allows Groundwater to Recharge


Groundwater is a resource that may have only minimal direct impact on a particular site, but its
purity is an important issue down slope where it seeps to the surface or is pumped out of the
ground as potable water. Groundwater is recharged from surface waters infiltrating into natural
recharge areas. It is important to understand the hydrology of your site so as not to interfere with
these areas.
In addition to preserving groundwater recharge zones, landform engineering can help reestablish
proper water functions that may have been disrupted during site development. Landform engineering is the act of using the natural movement of water while manipulating and enhancing existing topographic conditions to improve a sites ability to catch, hold, and absorb water, mimicking natural drainage features. Water storage and nutrient collection processes contribute to forming a healthier ecological community within the landscape. This process allows water to infiltrate
into the ground and enrich the life of the soil ecology. Examples of landform engineering that
can contribute to a water management system include: mulching, contour trenches, swales and
terraces, check dams, dry wells and sand traps, retention basins, and diversion ponds. Other alternative strategies include roof infiltration systems, level spreaders, and rainwater storage vaults
or dispersion systems. These systems can be used alone or in combination to put runoff back in
the ground through infiltration or dispersion through natural vegetation. Avoid directing runoff
directly to a natural or constructed drainage system and keep your runoff and sediment on site.
If you decide to attain this credit, consider going for the Low Impact Development Action Item,
2-4.

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2-22

Manage Specified Percentage of Stormwater and Building Water Discharge On Site by 60%,
80%, or 100%

60%

10 points

80%

20 points

100%

30 points

This Action Item combines stormwater management with indoor water conservation techniques
to create a comprehensive site water management strategy. This is a performance-based Action
Item; that is, it is up to the builder or owner to calculate stormwater flows and building waste discharge flows and then establish a set of strategies that will keep 60%, 80%, or 100% of these water flows onsite.
For stormwater management, see Action Item 2-4, Create a Low Impact Development, for strategies designed to retain stormwater on site, also see the other Action Items listed under Site Protection. Other Action Items listed under Water Conservation, Outdoor Conservation can help
you achieve the performance requirements of this item.
For building water management, see Action Item 2-40, On-Site Wastewater Treatment, for information on managing this waste stream on site. Also, see Action Items under Indoor Conservation, for strategies designed to reduce water use and sewer discharge.

Hardscapes
2-23

Design to Achieve 50%, 75%, or 90% Effective Pervious Surface Outside of Building Footprint

50%

5 points

75%

10 points

90%

15 points

The goal of this strategy is to reduce net runoff due to impervious surfaces. It is critical to distinguish between total impervious area and effective impervious area.
Total impervious area consists of surfaces that do not allow infiltration of stormwater runoff into
the ground, including roofs, driveways, sidewalks, and streets. An impervious surface is only effective if the rain running off the surface has no chance to infiltrate into the ground before it
reaches a pipe, ditch, or other conveyance system. Once the water enters a conveyance system it
is usually headed straight to the nearest stream, lake, or other water body. It may be temporarily
detained in a pond or vault along the way, but this only changes the timing of the extra runoff.
The extra stormwater still reaches and impacts the aquatic system.
To achieve effective pervious surfaces, first limit all impervious surfaces outside the building
footprint whenever possible. You can do this by reducing the building footprint and by planning
for less paved surfaces. (See Action Item 2-24, Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of
Total Area for Hardscapes.)

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Then design impervious surfaces so that you allow (or encourage) infiltration of the runoff from
these surfaces into the ground before the runoff reaches a conveyance system. Design so that
runoff is effectively spread over large vegetated areas. Vegetated strips provide some infiltration
of runoff, sediment filtering, and pollutant removal.
Avoid situations in which one impervious surface drains onto another impervious surface as these
magnify stormwater runoff problems. A paved driveway, for example, should not drain onto a
paved street. Try to separate impervious surfaces with areas of turf, other vegetation, or gravel.
Avoid curbs, and the paved surfaces should be even with the vegetated filter strip. Filter strips
should slope (no more than 5%) downhill away from the paved surfaces. Plant grass if these
strips are to be used as part of the stormwater conveyance system; if not, any ground cover can be
used (groundcover should be dense enough to discourage channelizing and erosion).
A smaller building footprint (including garage) not only limits roof runoff area, but will generally
limit the disturbance to the building site environment, resulting in less damage to wildlife and
natural vegetation.
It is important to protect this measure by putting a covenant in place, since future property owners
may unwittingly increase impervious surfaces.

2-24

Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of Total Area for Hardscapes
Pervious paving materials may cost more than conventional paving materials (such as asphalt),
but pavement replacement is simplified, and expensive measures, such as asphalt cutting for underground repairs, are eliminated. Examples of permeable options include:

open or porous paving blocks

pervious concrete

uncompacted gravel*

crushed stone*.
* Gravel or crushed stone is not considered pervious for driveways or parking areas, as these materials will generally compact under vehicle traffic. Use gravel and crushed stone for walkways and
other light traffic areas.

Pervious concrete is considered a proven technology and is becoming more readily available.
Numerous examples region-wide are consistently performing as specified, even during strong
storm events. Pervious concrete may be even more suitable for multiple unit developments.
Concerns about clogging of pervious pavements can be "designed out", by reducing erosion and
sediment runoff through strategic design and water retaining ground cover.

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2-25

Install Vegetated Roof System (e.g. Eco-Roof) to Reduce Impervious Surface on 25%, 50%, or
90%+ of Total Roof Surface

25%

10 points

50%

15 points

90%+

20 points

Vegetated roofs, also known as Eco-roofs or green-roof systems, are best suited for low-slope
roofs. They are designed to protect the roof and permit the use of rooftop plantings. More commonly used in Europe, green-roofs can detain over 50% of rainwater from a typical storm.
Stormwater detention reduces the often-high loads placed on sewer systems after a rainfall.
Multi-layered green-roof systems are thicker than conventional roofs. Space must be allocated
for the unusual insulation and roofing membranes. A green-roof includes a synthetic waterproof
membrane, a drainage layer, a thin soil layer (2 to 4 inches), and a cover with specific plant species adapted to the extremes of a rooftop environment. A thick sod of native grasses interspersed
with wildflowers can be a wonderful architectural element.
The green-roof can be very low maintenance, and is self-sustaining without need of irrigation,
fertilizers, or pesticides. The first cost may be about 50% more than a good quality conventional
roof, but they last about twice as long so they have a relatively low life cycle cost. They also help
to reduce building heat gain and urban heat islands (temperature differences between developed
and undeveloped areas that can affect the microclimate and human and wildlife habitat.). Additionally, the plantings absorb carbon dioxide.
Many green-roofs have been installed in both residential and commercial applications in King
County with great success. See the Resources Section for pilot or public locations.

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Table 2-2Comparisons of Eco-roofs and Conventional Roofs


(Source: Tom Lipton, Spawning Great Ideas Proceedings)
Characteristic
Stormwater
Retention
Peak flow mitigation
Temperature mitigation
Improves water quality
Air Quality
Energy Conservation
Vegetation
Greenspace
Habitat
Livability
Costs

Cost off-sets

Durability

Maintenance

2-26

Eco-roof
15 to 35% in wet season, 65 to 100% in warm season
All storms
All storms
Yes, retains atmospheric deposition and retards roof material
degradation
Filters air, prevents temperature increases, stores carbon
Approaches predevelopment air/surface energy relationship;
insulates structures
Allows seasonal evapotranspiration; provides photosynthesis,
oxygen-carbon-water balance
Can replace 100% of greenspace lost to building footprint,
although some greenspace quality may be lost
For some insects and birds
Buffers noise, eliminates glare, alternative aesthetic, offers
passive recreation
About 30 to 60% more expensive for construction including
retrofits

Energy savings, potential for higher rental value, sewer fee


reductions, reduced need for insulation materials, reduces
waste to landfills
Waterproof membrane protected from solar and temperature
exposure, lasts more than 36 years, membrane protected from
OandM staff damage
Once or twice a year to tend plants, once a year to assure
drains are not clogged and check for damage from OandM

Conventional Roof
None
None
None
No
None
None
None
None
None
None
Highly variable from $2
to $10/ft2 for new construction and $4 to $5/ft2
for retrofits
None

Little protection, exposure to elements, lasts


less than 20 years
Once a year to assure
drains are not clogged
and check for damage
from OandM

Integrate Landscaping with Parking Area Beyond Code


This Action Item provides more than the token landscaping required by code. Breaking up impervious parking lots with additional landscaping reduces stormwater runoff, enhances appearance, and can help improve air quality, control solar gain, and natural ventilation, and provides
food and shelter for resident and migratory wildlife.

2-27

For Urban Infill, Replace Impervious Surfaces with Permanent Pervious Surfaces Outside Building
Footprint
To receive points for this credit, you must be building in an urban infill area and you must replace
existing impervious surfaces on the site with permanent pervious surfaces beyond the building
footprint. Use pervious materials for all surfaces outside the building footprint. See Part II, Section Two Resources for Action Item 2-24, Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of Total
Area for Hardscapes, for examples of materials that can be used for typically paved areas. Note:
This Action Item may require a waiver request to applicable code officials or jurisdictions.

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Reduce Urban Heat Island Effect


The Environmental Protection Agency describes heat islands as a phenomenon in urban areas that
form as vegetation is replaced by asphalt and concrete for roads, buildings, and other structures
necessary to accommodate growing populations. These surfaces absorb - rather than reflect - the
sun's heat, causing surface temperatures and overall ambient temperatures to rise. These increases in temperatures affect urban residents and can potentially increase the duration and magnitude
of heat waves. Heat islands also add to energy consumption burdens. Secondary effects on local
meteorology, including the altering of local wind patterns, the development of clouds and fog, the
humidity, and the rates of precipitation may also occur.

2-28

Install High Albedo or Light Colored Roof


High Albedo, light-colored, and cool roofs are all terms used to describe an alternative roofing
strategy that lowers the absorption of solar energy, reduces surface temperatures, and decreases
the heat transfer into a building. Typically, they are white and are made of either metal, single
ply membrane, or elastomeric coating over a conventional roof.
Dark colored roofs also heat the air around the building, contributing to the heat island effect.
The efficacy of high albedo roofs is dependent on climate situations. In our region, unless the
building is planning an air conditioning system, it may not be advantageous to utilize this strategy. This is due to the extra cost of the roofing materials, the potential for degradation of high albedo coatings, and the potential to increase costs for heating.
However, if the building intends to supply air conditioning, this strategy can be effective since
these roofs minimize the absorption of summer heat, thereby reducing air conditioning costs.
These roofs reduce air conditioning cost in two ways; first, by reflecting solar gain, then by
providing cooler roof intake air.

2-29

Provide Shading for 30% of Hardscapes by Using Landscape, Landscape Features, or Overhangs
Heat islands are created when urban surfaces, such as hardscapes, absorb solar radiation. Shading
the pavement cools the air surrounding it before that air reaches a buildings walls and windows.
Landscape features such as mature trees or hedge rows, exterior elements such as overhangs or
vertical fins, and horizontal reflecting surfaces called light shelves are all strategies that can help
reflect solar radiation.
Planting trees and vegetation is a simple and effective way to reduce heat islands. Shade trees and
other foliage can lower air temperature by up to 9 degrees. Widespread planting in a city can decrease local surface and air temperatures. Strategic planting around buildings directly cools the
interior of buildings and buildings, decreasing air conditioning costs and peak energy demand.
Trees and vegetation cool the air by providing shade and through evapotranspiration (the evaporation of water from leaves). The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service estimates that
every 1% increase in canopy cover results in maximum mid-day air temperature reductions of
0.07 to 0.36 F (0.04 to 0.2C).

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Since the goal is to provide shading for hardscapes, building features, such as overhangs and light
shelves also help to reflect solar radiation and can be incorporated into the overall design to serve
many beneficial functions for the building and the surrounding site.
For information on overhangs, see Action Items 4-49 and 4-50, Provide Appropriately Sized
Overhangs.

2-30

For All Exterior Hardscape, Including Surface Parking, Use Only Light Colored Pavement for 90%
of Project Area
Dark materials absorb more heat from the sun. Roads and parking lots paved with black asphalt
concrete and other dark materials can become up to 70F hotter than the most reflective white
surfaces. The energy of the sunlight is converted into thermal energy and pavements get hot, heating the air around them and contributing to the heat island effect.
Cool paving materials minimize the absorption of solar heat and the subsequent transfer of this
heat to the surroundings. There are two types of cool paving materials: lighter-colored materials
and porous materials.
Lighter-colored materials have higher solar reflectance, so they absorb less of the sun's energy
and stay cooler. Permeable, or porous, pavements allow water to filter into the ground, keeping
the pavement cool when moist (this pavement alternative also serves as a stormwater management technique). Permeable pavements can be constructed from a number of materials including
concrete, asphalt, and plastic lattice structures filled with soil, gravel, and grass, see Action Item
2-24, Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of Total Area for Hardscape.
Pervious pavements are less able to absorb and store heat than conventional pavements. The lower density of the material (15 - 25% void spaces) reduces heat storage capacity. The open void
structure in the pervious pavement allows cooler earth temperatures from below to cool the
pavement. These factors allow pervious pavement systems to approach natural ground cover in
heat absorbing and storage capacity. In addition, the lighter colors of some pervious pavement
systems further reduce the heat absorbing capacity of the pavement.

Eliminate Water Pollutants


2-31

Wash Out Concrete Trucks in Slab or Pavement Subbase Areas


Over the life of a project, washing out concrete trucks can generate significant amounts of concrete slurry and lime. This cementitious runoff can contaminate the site, harm local waterways
and fish, reduce conveyance capacity of surrounding stormwater systems, plug infiltration facilities, and contaminate treatment facilities.
The Stormwater Management Manual requires that Best Management Practices shall be used to
prevent or treat contamination of stormwater runoff by pH modifying sources. BMPs include allowing concrete truck chutes, pumps, and internals, along with hand tools, to be washed out only
into formed area awaiting install of concrete or asphalt. For equipment that cannot be easily
moved or driveway washdown, the washwater cannot directly drain to natural or constructed
stormwater conveyances. Washwater and leftover product can also be contained in a lined con-

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tainer and removed off site for proper disposal such that it does not violate groundwater or surface water quality standards.
Code allows for self-installed concrete washouts on the site. However, these self-installed structures are much less reliable and are prone to leaks. Prefabricated washout containers that are delivered to the site resist damage and protect against spills and leaks.

2-32

Establish and Post Clean Up Procedures for Spills to Prevent Illegal Discharges
Requirements for cleaning spills or releases vary with the material. You should become familiar
with cleanup procedures for the materials you use regularly. Included in your Clean-up Procedures should be components of a safety program, which considers the range of potential spills and
establishes appropriate emergency actions. See the Resources Section for references designed to
help you establish clean-up procedures and for contact information for large spills.
Make sure everyone, especially subcontractors, is aware of your procedures by posting them
prominently in a central location and referring to them regularly during safety meetings.

2-33

Reduce Hazardous Waste through Good Jobsite Housekeeping


Hazardous wastes most commonly generated by residential and multi-family contractors include
paints and other finish products, solvents, adhesives, and oils. Other hazardous wastes that may
be generated include antifreeze, vehicle batteries, and other petroleum products such as waste
gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. Implementing this Action Item can save you expensive hazardous
waste disposal fees. You will also help limit worker exposure, improve your company image, and
reduce the risk of accidental spills and cleanup liability.
Eliminating sources of hazardous waste by using good housekeeping and non-hazardous alternatives is the best way to curb your hazardous waste generation, reduce costs associated with disposal, and avoid potential liability. If you are not able to substitute less or non-toxic alternatives
and still need to purchase a hazardous product, use care in purchasing and managing the product.
Here are some ideas:

Avoid overstocking hazardous materials. Dated materials become hazardous waste.

Adopt a first-in, first-out policy to prevent raw materials from becoming obsolete.

Label hazardous waste containers properly to avoid mixing incompatible wastes or contaminating clean materials.

Keep excess material in original containers.

Control access to storage areas and routinely inspect containers.

Inspect containers upon receiving. Reject leaking or damaged containers. These can lead to
a hazardous materials spill.

Promptly respond to spills and know response procedures ahead of time.

Maintain vehicles and equipment at a central location, preferably in a garage or maintenance


facility. Keep vehicles tuned and leak-free. Fluids removed from vehicles should be recycled or disposed of at an approved facility.

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2-34

Construct Tire Wash, Establish and Post Clean Up Protocol for Tire Wash
For on site tire wash, make sure the area is:

Well marked as a wash area.

No larger than the largest vehicle.

Posted with a sign that forbids washing with solvents or changing oil and indicates nearest oil
recycling area.

In addition, pave and drain the area to an oil-water separator if it is connected to the sanitary sewer, or direct tire wash water to other sediment trap or pond. Provide temporary gravel base on site
to keep vehicles clean.
Post tire wash protocol for all trades or field labor using vehicles on site. Procedures may include:

2-35

Washing vehicles off-site. Take them to an appropriate location (in other words, a car wash
or back to your central site).

If taking the vehicle off-site is impractical or counterproductive, perform all washing in a designated area.

Require biodegradable detergents. Detergents or cleaners containing phosphate are prohibited. Minimize quantity of soap, detergents, or other chemicals used.

Use Slow-Release Organic Fertilizers to Establish Vegetation


Studies have shown that the primary source for excess phosphorous contaminating lake in our area is fertilizers and soil wash-off. Excess nutrients promote algae blooms, which in turn threatens
fish and aquatic life. Moderate fertilization with natural or natural/synthetic slow-release combination fertilizers will help build soil nutrient reserves and biodiversity without contaminating waterways.
You can also get credit for this item if you employ Integrated Pest Management or use other natural lawn and landscape maintenance techniques.

2-36

Use Less Toxic Form Releasers


Forms are commonly coated with fuel oil to prevent the concrete from sticking to the form. Runoff, incidental drips, and spills contaminate soils and may enter storm drains thereby contaminating surface water. Use less toxic form releasers or strategies, such as kick-hard, vegetable oil
spray, or waxing or painting the forms before use.

2-37

Provide an Infiltration System for Rooftop Runoff


If not already required by code, design and provide an individual downspout infiltration system
that receives only stormwater from roof downspout drains (not from paved areas). Trench length
should not exceed 100 feet from the inlet sump. Be sure to provide an overflow device, and it is

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recommended you include an observation well to allow the owner to monitor the performance of
the system.
Infiltration systems are only as good as the soils they are built in. Ask your architect or engineer
about the applicability of infiltrating roof water in your soil type.

2-38

Use Non-Toxic or Low-Toxic Outdoor Materials for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least-Toxic Treated
Wood)
Using non- or low-toxic materials in the landscape helps preserve soil and water quality. Examples include low-toxic wood preservatives, naturally rot-resistant woods, and plastic lumber
(preferably with recycled content). See Section Five: Materials Efficiency Action Items under
Other Exterior (Action Items 5-112 through 5-116).

2-39

No Clearing or Grading During Wet Weather Periods


Phase construction and plan ahead to avoid clearing and grading during wet weather periods,
primarily November through March. This is particularly important for soils that are easily eroded.
To find out if the soils at your site qualify as easily eroded, go to the Soil Conservation Surveys
(SCS) at your local library. Each County has these surveys that classify soil types throughout the
County. Locate your site on the surveys to determine your sites soil type. The surveys include a
discussion of the engineering properties including erosion potential, classified as light to moderate or severe.
In Snohomish County, the codes are tied to the SCSs in terms of erosion hazards. Consult your
code official for more information. Also consult your local municipality to determine the specific
regulations for wet weather clearing and grading that apply for your site.

2-40

On-Site Wastewater Treatment for Greywater Only, or for Blackwater and Greywater

Greywater Only

25 points

Blackwater and Greywater

50 points

There are alternative solutions beyond conventional septic systems to accommodate on-site
wastewater treatment, including some recycling options.
Greywater, water from sinks, showers, washing machines, and dishwashers can contribute as
much as 75% of the total wastewater from domestic sewer flows. On-site treatment of greywater
involves a diverter valve that separates greywater from blackwater (water from toilets). For
Greywater only systems, the blackwater is sent to a conventional wastewater treatment system, so
sewer connection or septic system must be combined with this option. Greywater is collected and
run through a filter, typically, a sand filter, to remove organic material. The organic material is
then treated, either chemically, or biologically through constructed wetlands, in a separate process
on site or used as is. Constructed wetlands treatment systems are engineered systems constructed
to utilize the natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and their associated microbial
assemblages to assist in treating wastewater. They take advantage of naturally occurring processes, but do so within a more controlled environment. Some systems are solely for wastewater
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land habitat for wildlife use and other environmental benefits. Constructed wetland treatment systems can be designed for any size project, but must have proper design. A properly constructed
and maintained wetland can last much longer than conventional septic systems.
A blackwater and greywater option that is gaining acceptance is the Living Machine, a system
by Living Designs Group, LLC of Taos, New Mexico. The Living Machine is a form of biological wastewater treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands. They are each
custom designed to handle a certain volume of water per day, and is also tailored for the qualities
of the specific influent. Most current examples, including a Living Machine at Islandwood on
Bainbridge Island, are located at small institutions and have yet to be applied to multi-family projects. However, as water supplies decrease and wastewater treatment costs escalate, this option
may be more suitable in the near future.
Greywater systems are currently treated as an exception to the code. Systems are approved, on
a case-by-case basis as experimental systems, requiring compliance with stringent local and
state regulations. If approved, greywater irrigation systems are generally required to be subsurface, although some local jurisdictions permit aboveground irrigation. Factors affecting the approval and use of greywater irrigation systems include soil depth and characteristics as well as
drainage and flooding patterns. Other guidelines include setbacks for greywater irrigation lines
from property or potable water line.

WATER CONSERVATION
Outdoor Conservation
2-41

Mulch Landscape Beds with 2 inches of Organic Mulch


If the new landscape isnt already densely planted, mulching is the next best solution to reduce
the number of weeds and make weed removal easier, which in turn, helps to minimize herbicide
use. In addition, mulching provides additional soil nutrients, increases the capacity of the soil to
retain moisture, moderates soil temperature, and limits soil erosion.
Non-woody mulches, compost, cut grass clippings, or leaves are best for annuals. Woody mulches, wood chips or bark, work best with perennials. However, limit the use of bark mulch as much
as possible, and never use in areas that drain directly into storm sewers or open water. Bark produces a toxic leachate that can end up in water supplies.

2-42

Use Grass Type Requiring Less Irrigation and Minimal Maintenance


When planting a new lawn, select a grass mix that is suitable for the sun conditions and the
lawns intended use, and grows slowly, requiring less frequent mowing. Use locally adapted
rye-fescue seed blends. Be aware that tall and other fescue grasses can be drought-tolerant if given a deep soil culture for their long roots they need more water if planted in shallow soil. Mixes containing clover, bentgrass, yarrow, chamomile, and English daises are another option where
an informal-looking lawn fits the landscape. These mixes are extremely drought-tolerant and offer a delightful variety from traditional lawns.

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Regardless of the type of grass you choose, always plant densely. Thick, dense, and
well-established lawns absorb and infiltrate rainwater better than thinly planted plots. (Soil conditions can significantly affect lawn establishment, consider using compost as an amendment.
Also see Action Item, 2-43, below on limiting turf grass.

2-43

Limit Use of Turf Grass to 25% or Less of Landscaped Area


Design turf areas where they will be functional and well adapted to the site. Specifically, place
turf in areas expected to be used for walking or playing. Lawns work well in sun to light shade,
with well-drained soils and on level to slightly sloped areas. Dont plant lawns in heavy shade or
in areas with saturated soils or heavy slopes. Always keep turf away from the waters edge because of the increased likelihood of chemical contamination, because it reduces habitat and shading for wildlife, and because of the possible increase in erosion potential. Finally, design the lawn
in a shape that can be efficiently watered, in other words, it matches the irrigation system design.
For instance, use an oval shape to accommodate sprinkler sprays or pop-up irrigation sprays.

2-44

No Turf Grass
Although turf grass is a traditional component of residential landscaping, it is not necessary for a
beautiful and luxurious landscape. In fact, a landscape, which uses existing native vegetation
along with well-constructed new plantings, can offer a beautiful, low-maintenance alternative to
the traditional fare.
Constructed landscapes that mimic ecological habitat models can decrease life cycle maintenance
costs, enhance wildlife survival, and blend edges of adjoining existing vegetation. To mimic ecological habitat models, emulate natural succession by planting larger deciduous trees with smaller
conifers to gradually develop canopy. Deciduous trees generally perform better in south-facing
areas, while conifers are better suited near streams or on the north side of the plot.
Use native plants in the constructed landscape. Native plants are:

2-45

Diverse in color, form, and texture offering a wide variety to fit any design.

Adapted to our climate rainy wet winters and dry summers. After initial one to two seasons
of irrigation, many native plant species become established and require little to no irrigation.

Adapted to our naturally occurring low levels of nutrients.

Resistant to local insects and diseases, which allow for minimizing fertilizer and pesticide
use.

Best suited as habitat for local wildlife.

Landscape with Plants Appropriate for Site Topography and Soil Types, Emphasizing Use of
Plants with Low Watering Requirements (Drought Tolerant)
In the summer, up to 50% of the water used by municipal systems is for outdoor irrigation. The
increased demand in summer comes at the same time reservoir and stream levels drop and precipitation dramatically decreases, putting tremendous pressure on local water supplies.

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Examples of landscaping techniques you can use that will result in low water use include:

Use established vegetation (see Action Item 2-8, Preserve Existing Native Vegetation as
Landscaping, for more information)

Limit turf areas, choose appropriate turf types and plant in suitable areas (see Action Items 243, Limit Use of Turf Grass to 25% or Less of Landscaped Area, and 2-42, Use Grass Type
Requiring Less Irrigation and Minimal Maintenance).

Cluster plants with similar water needs (water-use zones).

Plant native species that will adapt well to the site.

Plant species from other geographic areas with similar climates.

Plant certain species from Mediterranean climates (check with your local nursery for ideas).

The Northwest has hundreds of beautiful plants that require very little water once they are established. Ask your local nursery or landscaping contractor for information about the water efficient
trees, shrubs, perennials, and ground covers they supply. Keep in mind that some low water use
plants may have certain needs, such as shade, which when not met can lead to increased water use
or plant failure.

2-46

Install Intelligent Irrigation System


Although outdoor water use varies widely, on average it accounts for about 50% of residential
water use. The use of intelligent irrigation equipment and scheduling, along with proper selection
of plants can dramatically reduce water use, however.
Intelligent systems include system controllers that read information from a satellite on current
climatic conditions and apply what is lost through evaporation or plant transportation. Also lowflow, high-efficiency irrigation systems include options such as drip irrigation, low trajectory
nozzles and micro-spray heads, rain or moisture sensors, zoned irrigation controllers, and multicycling (for multiple start timers).
Drip irrigation is the slow application of water to a plants root zone. Accurate delivery reduces
evaporation and eliminates overspray, and proper scheduling eliminates wet/dry fluctuations that
stress plants. Drip systems can be constructed from poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipe or polyethylene tubing. Systems can easily be modified to accommodate changes in a landscape.
Design and installation of drip irrigation systems should be accomplished by a certified irrigation
specialist and is to conform to local water use ordinances.
Drip irrigation systems require regular monitoring to ensure system is operating properly. Be
sure to include information about how the system works in the owners Operations and Maintenance Kit.
Systems should be installed to avoid runoff, low-head drainage, overspray, or other similar conditions where irrigation water flows onto adjacent property, non-irrigated areas, or impervious surfaces. Consider special problems posed by irrigation on slopes, in median strips, and in narrow
hydrozones. Installation should provide easy access to sprinkler heads for inspection and maintenance.

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Plants with similar water needs should be grouped together in water use zones, with irrigation
schedules matching their needs. (See Action Item 2-45, Landscape with Plants Appropriate for
Site Topography and Soil Types, Emphasizing Use of Plants with Low Watering Requirements.)

2-47

Install Sub-Surface or Drip Systems for Irrigation with Timers


This highly efficient watering technique can reduce outdoor water use by 30-40%. Drip or subsurface tubes are planted below the surface, directing water directly to the plants root zone and
avoiding evaporation and overspray of conventional systems. To ensure the landscape is not being over-watered, use timers to apply to appropriate amount of water for the season and the plantings.
Combine this credit with 2-48, below using greywater for subsurface irrigation in place of potable
water.

2-48

Install Landscaping That Requires No Potable Water for Irrigation Whatsoever After Initial
Establishment Period (Approximately 2 Years)
The goal of this credit is to select a landscape plan that includes drought-tolerant plantings, considers smart plant placement, and that uses no potable water for irrigation after the initial establishment period of about two years.
Select plants that are native to the area or suitable for our climate and rainfall characteristics.
You should amend soil with compost to help establish good soil conditions to establish new
plants; proper placement of individual plants in the landscape can reduce supplemental watering
needs. Add hardscape and mulch or bark areas as landscape features that do not require watering.
For initial irrigation establishment consider using greywater non-potable wastewater from the
building from bathtubs, showers, bathroom sinks, washing machines, dishwashers and kitchen
sinks, any water source in the building except toilets. This wastewater is collected and filtered of
household contaminants such as bacteria, bleach, high pH wastewater, nitrates, oil and grease,
food and hair, etc. Check with the county health agency for a wastewater treatment permit and to
confirm local code requirements, and system design suggestions. Consider the source and characteristics of the greywater, the physical characteristics of the site, and how the greywater will be
used on site for irrigation. All greywater systems must be below or sub-surface, no sprinkler systems allowed. There are a number of examples from single-family new construction projects
where greywater is being used, and permitted, in King and Snohomish Counties. See the Resource Section for more information. (See Action Item 2-40, On-Site Wastewater Treatment.)
Another option for using non-potable water is to collect rainwater see Action Item 2-49 below.
Be prepared or prepare the owner to remove the temporary system after the initial plant establishment period. A carefully selected and planted landscape designed for specific site characteristics should be established and no longer requires supplemental watering after about two years.
If you do install a greywater system, you may want to keep it functional, due to the cost and time
involved in its installation. Consider adapting the greywater system for future use to flush toilets
in the building. This option will most likely be more permittable after a few years when potable
water is expected to be at a premium.

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2-49

Install Rainwater Collection System (Cistern) that Reduces Water Consumption for Irrigation by
50% Annually
1 point per 100 gallons of storage capacity, up to 15 points total
To be eligible for this credit, you must demonstrate that this cistern will be functionally used for
irrigation and that no potable water will be used for irrigation, and that the size of the cistern will
be suitable to reduce water requirements for irrigation by at least 50% on an annual basis. Whether a rooftop cistern will be sufficient to meet all of the irrigation demands during the dry season
will be dependent upon the irrigation requirements of the landscape and the systems storage capacity.
Rainwater collected from the roof is an available or untapped source of landscape irrigation water. Rainwater can also be harvested from soil surfaces and outdoor paved surfaces. While rainwater collection is allowed in King and Snohomish Counties, this measure covers only systems
used for irrigation. Let the owner know that rainwater supply is not intended for potable use (in
other words, is not for drinking). (Rainwater collection for potable water use requires
case-by-case approval and compliance with stringent local and state health regulations.)
A rooftop rainwater collection system consists of a suitable roof and guttering system, a storage
tank(s), and a simple filtration system. The irrigation system can be supplied using the tank(s)
and a small-scale pressurized pump system.
For collecting rainwater from roof areas:

Use appropriate roofing materials such as metal, tile, or fiber cement. Lead-containing materials, such as flashing, should not be used in catchment roofs. Likewise, ensure that no zinc
galvanized ridge caps, copper flashing, or copper wires for moss prevention are used. Asphalt composition roofs should not be used for collecting water for watering any food producing plants.

Construct cistern or tank storage sized for the rainfall amount and roof size, with appropriate
overflow devices. Cisterns can be made of concrete, ferro-cement, stone, or prefabricated
metal, plastic, or fiberglass. Use only watertight, opaque materials and provide a cover.

Provide an overflow route to direct excess flows away from building and in such a manner as
to avoid impact to downstream properties.

Install gutters and downspouts sized for the roof and rainfall intensity.

Install screening devices or roof washers to filter out leaves, debris, and sediment that can
clog the system.

For collecting and harvesting water from the soil surface and outdoor paved surfaces:

Use open conveyances such as grass or gravel swales to direct and deliver harvested water to
storage areas, such as small ponds, for reuse as irrigation water.

Provide a pressurization system to deliver irrigation water.

Incorporate aquatic plants to maintain storage ponds ecological balance.

Recycled water includes both rainwater and greywater.

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See Action Item 2-48, Install Landscaping that Requires No Potable Water, above, for discussion
of greywater and related requirements. In cases where greywater for irrigation is acceptable,
plumbing for greywater would be hooked up to the irrigation system. The irrigation system can
be supplied using the tank(s) and a small-scale pressurized pump system.
In cases where you would be using collected rainwater (on a per site basis, a more cost-effective
approach), hook up the irrigation system to the rooftop cistern. These systems can provide significant quantities of irrigation water. Whether a rooftop cistern will be sufficient to meet all of the
irrigation demands during the dry season will be dependent upon the irrigation requirements of
the landscape and the systems storage capacity

2-50

Provide 100% of Building and Landscaping Water Use with Captured Precipitation or Reused
Water Purified Without the Use of Chemicals
This Action Item is designed as a higher octave of other items in this subsection. The goal is to
provide all building and landscaping water use with rainwater or other reused water (greywater).
Therefore, to qualify for this item, the building will not receive potable water from a municipality.
See Action Items, under Water Conservation, Outdoor Conservations and 2-56, Use Greywater
or Rainwater for Toilet Flushing.

Indoor Conservation
2-51

Install ALL Bathroom Faucets with GPM 1.5 or Better


Federal law requires that faucets have flow rates no greater than 2.5 gpm. Faucets typically use
11.4 gallons per person per day. Selecting low flow faucets (less than 2.5 gpm) can help reduce
overall water usage. Faucets with flow rates of 1.5 gpm are available. Ask your supplier.
Consumer performance complaints with reduced flow rates are most often associated with the
feel of the water coming from the faucet and clogging associated with equipment that reduces
flow rate with small hole screening. Faucets with flow rates less than 2.5 gpm that have the
feel of higher flow and that are guaranteed against clogging are now available. Remember that
not all brands are created equal, so talk to your supplier. The added cost of higher-performance,
low-flow heads is minimal.

2-52

Install Motion-Sensor for Bathroom Faucets One per Unit and in ALL Common Areas
Credit for this Action Item requires that motion-sensors faucets be installed in at least one bathroom in each unit AND in all common areas. Motion-sensors detect when hands are under the
faucet, saving 10-50 % of water used by manual faucets. Prices range from $100 - $400, but vary
with quantity discounts.

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2-53

Install ALL Kitchen Faucets with GPM Less than Code


The Uniform Plumbing Code requires that kitchen faucets have a gpm of 2.5. See Action Item
2-51, Install ALL Bathroom Faucets with GPM 1.5 or Better, above. Models with flow rates of
2.0 gpm are available. Ask your supplier.

2-54

Install ALL Showerheads with GPM Less than Code


Current code for showerehead gpm is 2.5 gallons. Many 2.0 gpm showerheads models are available on the market. New models go as low as 1.0 gpm. Many new options are available, and
prices range considerably. It is important to do research to ensure that the model you select performs well, that is that the flow feels acceptable to residents and that they are not too noisy.

2-55

Stub-In Plumbing to Use Greywater for Toilet Flushing


The use of potable (drinking) water to flush toilets is not the best use of this limited resource.
Although the use of greywater for toilet flushing is not currently allowed by code, this is expected
to change in the near future as potable water resources in our region become more even more limited. Additionally, these systems are now permitted with a variance on a case-by-case basis.
Greywater collection requires dual plumbing distribution lines and a storage tank. This Action
Item provides the additional plumbing required to allow for future connection to greywater for
toilet flushing.
Note: If you choose this Action Item, you should also consider providing for the use of greywater
for irrigation (see Action Item 2-48, Install Landscaping that Requires No Potable Water for Irrigation).

2-56

Use Greywater Water or Rainwater for Toilet Flushing


Using recycled water (greywater or rainwater) for toilet flushing conserves our valuable potable
water resources. Currently considered an exception allowed by code, the use of greywater for
toilet flushing may be approved on a case-by-case basis. This experimental system will require
compliance with stringent local and state regulations. Several case study examples are proven
successful in King County, most notably, King Countys King Street Center in Seattle, uses rainwater for toilet flushing see the Resources Section for more information.
Points are extremely high for this Action Item because of the additional paperwork (submittals to
building code regulators for variance) and associated added costs that may be required with this
advanced system.
New systems can qualify projects for substantial points up to 55 points for each project in the
checklist, see Action Items, 2-40, On-site Wastewater Treatment, 2-48, Install Landscaping the
Requires No Potable Water for Irrigation, 2-49, Install Rainwater Collection System, and 2-55
Stub-in Plumbing for Greywater Water for Toilet Flushing, see Resources for more information.

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2-57

Provide Water Sub-Metering for Each Unit


Water submetering enables residents to be directly responsible for their own water consumption just as they are directly
responsible for their electric bill. Utility costs are distributed
to each resident based an actual usage as measured by the individual meters.
Submetering saves water because residents consume less water when they pay directly for it, and because residents are
encouraged to report leaks. In fact, studies have shown that
when the tenants are directly paying their utility bills, their
consumption averages 30% less than if the landlord pays it
through the rent.
Example of small sub-meter
Submetering eliminates water and sewer costs from the rent
equation, so your property stays more competitive. For most
building owners, the payback period for their investment in installing sub-meters in new construction is less than two years. (Retrofit in existing buildings is often cost-prohibitive.) This payback
varies greatly depending on the utility water and sewer rates, per unit consumption, and the technology method selected. Sometimes, lower monthly reading and billing fees can offset high initial equipment cost. By unloading a large building operating expense, sub-meter gives the owner
an added bonus: a higher net income building evaluation for loans or resale.
Service providers are available that provide owner-installed submetering kits and that also provide full-service submetering, including billing services.

2-58

Install High Efficiency Toilets in Highest Use Area and At Least One Per Unit in ALL Units
High Efficiency toilets are those with 1.28 gpf or better.
Toilet flushing is the largest single use of water (up to 40% of residential water use). Dual flush
toilets offer significant water savings, according to five independent studies. These specialized
toilets offer the user a choice between a long flush and a short flush. Short flushes can be used
successfully on the first flush to eliminate liquid waste using less water per flush. On average,
dual flush toilets can save up to 26% more water than equivalent single flush models. If you are
considering this Action Item, also consider Item 2-57, Provide Water Submeting for Each Unit,
above, so tenants can get the direct benefit of the water savings.
All new toilets use no more than 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf). Water savings from the new standard
is significant compared to the older models that used 3 to 5 gpf. Early low-flow models experienced problems and some toilets work better than others. In addition, new single flush models
with a 1.28 gpf rate are available and offer high levels of performance as well as efficiency. To
avoid customer complaints, select from number of brands that consistently rate well in performance surveys. (See the Resources Section for a weblink to a list and talk to your supplier to
make sure you select high performing toilets.)

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2-59

Install No-Cartridge Waterless Urinals or 1/8 Gallon Urinals and High Efficiency Toilets in ALL
Common Areas
To receive credit for this Action Item, products specified must be used in all common area bathrooms. Most urinals use up to 1 gallon per flush. There are water conserving alternatives, including a fully waterless option and another option that used only 1/8 gallon per flush. For information on high efficiency toilets, see the Action Item above.
Waterless urinals appear and work like conventional urinals, except that they do not flush and,
therefore, require no water. Like their traditional counterparts, they are made of fiberglass or vitreous china and are offered in various colors. There are many brands and models of waterless
urinals, most of which use a removable cartridge to trap sealant liquids and odors, this cartridge
needs periodic refilling of the sealant liquids and replacement, thus creating a solid waste requiring disposal. This credit is for models that do NOT use a cartridge. Instead these models use a ceramic siphon cast into the body of the urinal that serves as a sediment and odor trap or another
model that uses a built-in waste trap housed in the fixture drain. Care of the drain trap varies depending on the trap type involved. Even for the same type, maintenance requirements vary between manufacturers. Instead of replacing cartridges, maintenance for these models requires periodic flushing of the unit. No cartridge waterless urinals currently cost more than cartridge units.
1/8-gallon options are available that offer 85% water savings compared to conventional 1.0 gallon
per flush urinals. Many models come with battery-operated automatic flush mechanisms and
vandal resistant construction. This low-water option provides users with familiar sanitary washdown feature, thus making them more user-friendly.

2-60

Install Point-Source, On-Demand (Tankless), or Recirculation Pump Hot Water Systems


(Where Appropriate)
With point-source, or on-demand (also called instant or tankless) water heaters, you only heat
the water you use. Instead of storing hot water in an insulated tank, the water is heated, on demand, at the point of use. These systems can save as much as 3 to 4 gallons per use, considering
that this is the amount of cooled water that must be drained before hot water arrives at the faucet
in traditional systems. In addition, standby energy losses represent 10% to 20% of a households
annual water heating costs.
In the past, on-demand hot water systems were either electric (converting only a third of the primary energy into usable thermal energy), or if they were gas fired, they were equipped with continuously burning pilot lights that wasted energy. Newer, gas-fired models without continuously
burning pilot lights are available. Such systems save water and energy, providing even more
bang for the buck. See Action Items 3-47 and 3-48, regarding on-demand systems.
Innovative hot water recirculation systems deliver hot water to fixtures quickly without waiting
for water to reach a comfortable temperature before showers or washing hands or dishes. Demand
controlled hot water recirculation systems can result in a 20-30% reduction in water use and enhance the energy performance of water heaters. See Action Item, 3-46, Install Whole Building
Recirculation Pump.

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Eliminate Water Pollutants


2-61

Develop and Provide a Building-Wide Food Waste Disposal Strategy


Whether you consider an on-site system or a service provider, you may want to build-in a convenient method of collecting food waste in the kitchen. A covered waste box can be installed
next to the sink. Food waste can then be dropped through a chute into the bin underneath. Additionally, new ready-made food chutes are now available that can be inserted into the kitchen cabinetry.
Food waste can comprise up to 15% of the total waste stream coming from residences. This is a
significant portion that can be captured for reuse (converted into animal feed or rendered into
soap or other products) or composting. Food waste composting for commercial facilities is currently available in King and Snohomish Counties. It is reasonable to consider that this service
will soon become available for multi-family facilities.
Food waste recycling in multi-family facilities presents unique challenges and may not be easy to
establish currently due to the often transient nature of rental multi-family units, or even the current culture regarding food waste collection. However, this situation may change before this
manual is updated again, so this Action Item is included in the 2008 update. For instance, communities in California are successfully experimenting with community-based food waste collection programs from multi-family facilities see the Resources Section.
Also, in the future, smaller on-site composting bins may be available that can handle a multifamily waste stream.

2-62

Do Not Install Garbage Disposal


Garbage disposals may provide a modern convenience; however, they cause local water quality
problems. Although it may seem at first that disposing of unused food waste through a garbage
disposal is an environmentally-sound solution, it is not always the best solution. If you are on a
septic system, garbage disposals add to the nutrient load. If you are on a sewer system the ground
up food waste must first pass through the sewage-treatment plant. This increases the load on our
already overburdened sewage-treatment facilities, Another environmental consideration is that
this process also removes any food value the waste might have had further down the line
It's true that putting the food waste in the trash will shift the burden to the local landfill instead of
your sewage treatment system, but landfills are causing far fewer problems today than sewage
treatment systems. Treated sewage streams are the main source of "nutrient pollution"one of
the main causes of coastal dead zone in estuaries, gulfs, and bays. Adding nutrient-rich food
waste to the sewage stream only makes the problem worse.
Finally, grinding food uses lots of water, and wasting potable water, a valuable resource, as a
waste disposal strategy doesnt make sense.
If your multi-family facility does not have a food waste collection program (see Action Item
above), then just encourage residents to dispose of food waste with the trash.

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DESIGN ALTERNATIVES
2-63

Follow Comprehensive Integrated Design Plan for Site and Structure


To receive credit for this Action Item, you must submit a plan or proposal that outlines the comprehensive integrated design.
The goal of this Action Item is to step outside of conventional design scenarios and to see design
as a large and unifying concept. The goal of your building should be to provide for all of its occupants needsfood, energy, materials, shelter, livelihood, transport, water, and waste cycling in
such a way that your choices do no cause problems somewhere else or at some later time. Moving
your building design towards this standard and including social and community considerations, is
the philosophy of ecological design: a new design paradigm being encouraged by designers such
as David Orr and Frank Lloyd Wright.
The paradigm integrates design such that design itself creates solutions that solve many problems.
For instance, design such that power for your building(s) comes from current sunlight through
daylighting, site orientation, and solar or other renewable energy supply. Eliminate waste, including designing for maximum space usage, designing for efficient construction, and designing
for occupant use to reduce waste, such as installing food waste composting/collection. Pay the
full cost of development construct sufficient roadways, trails, transportation options for the future; include on-site wastewater management and food waste composting; build a low impact development so that all stormwater is retained on site. In all design choices integrate economic, political, and social aspects of design. This may seem a difficult task, but many examples exist locally and nationally.
Regarding material choices think upstream to the wells, mines, forests, farms, and other manufacturing establishments that extract, build, construct, assemble or otherwise transport materials
to your project. Look downstream to the effects of your design and material choices have on local and global climate and the health of people and ecosystems.
If this large-scale design process or suggestions are beyond your capacity on this project, there
are ways to integrate design on a smaller scale. Other examples of integrated design include:

Using light-colored permeable pavement for parking areas to provide stormwater management, while at the same time reduces the heat island effects. You can further integrate parking design by adding roof gardens to carports or garages on site and providing for shaded pedestrian walkways to further reduce the heat island effect.

Providing daylighting to provide for energy conservation and to provide occupants with access to daylight that helps overall health and well-being and views that connect occupants to
the natural world.

Providing sites for community gardens and other open spaces that serve as a permeable surface for stormwater management. while contributing to the health, welfare, and food production of the occupants.

Locate buildings so occupants enjoy the natural beauty and amenities of the site and orient
the buildings to maximize passive solar gain for heating/energy conservation and the health
and well-being of the occupants.

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Build on the north area of the lot first when doing lot site planning. Position the building(s)
on the lot to leave as much as possible of the east, west, and south areas for outdoor use. The
cooler, darker, north area of the lot is the least useful for outdoor activity areas such as gardens and patios.

Site connectiveness. Design the site to easily connect occupants to transportation, residences,
open spaces, indoor and outdoor site amenities and to provide community and security. Other
strategies that help encourage community include porches, minimal front set-back, clustered
buildings, common indoor and outdoor spaces, neighborhood parks, and locating buildings in
clusters that face each other instead of facing parking areas or roads.

Cluster buildings and design site roadways and parking to preserve open space - preserving
open space protects site ecosystems and helps reduce stormwater runoff. Open space can also
act as a buffer between residential and nonresidential uses or between areas of high and low
density.

Also consider design features that are intended solely for occupant enjoyment or visual inspiration, and those that celebrate culture, spirit, and sense of place appropriate to the buildings function.

2-64

Hold Design Charrette during Various Stages including Pre-Design, Schematic Design, Design
Development, and Construction Documents
For this credit, there is a cap of 4 charrettes per project and the session must include the full team.
You may have more than one session during one stage; such as you may have two charrettes in
pre-design if your project warrants that, and then two others in any of the other various stages,
schematic design, design development, or construction documents.
Integrated design happens when the whole design, construction, and maintenance teams come together for initial design. Charrettes refer to any collaborative session in which a group of designers works on creating a solution to a design problem. The goal of the charrette is to promote joint
ownership of solutions, identify design flaws between disciplines before final plans go to construction.

2-65

Provide Community Common Areas Accessible to All Building Occupants


To receive credit for this Action Item you must set aside a minimum of 1,000 sf for common areas such as a green house, roof garden, cabana, dog-walking area, video room, fitness area, outdoor fire pit, playground or other areas to be approved by Director.
The goal of this Action Item is to create spaces in the facility where occupants, all occupants, including handicapped residents, can meet, play, and socialize. Community common areas help to
develop a sense of community that makes your facility more attractive to potential residents, reduces individual transportation when residents can socialize on site, rather than traveling to community sites, and helps develop a better sense of security when residents are active in the facilitys common areas.

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2-66

Take Advantage of Parking Reduction Credits that are Available in Your Jurisdiction
Jurisdictions may offer parking reduction credits, where you can reduce the number of required
parking spaces by agreeing to specified development strategies, such as including a certain
amount of affordable units within the project, providing senior-assisted housing, or providing
ground floor commercial space. Other credits may be allowed for developments that provide
transportation reduction services such as, availability of private, convenient transportation services to meet the needs of the facility, accessibility to and frequency of public transportation; and
pedestrian access to health, medical, and shopping facilities Check with your local jurisdiction.
Be aware that there are program eligibility and specifications to gain these credits that may disallow other Built Green Action Item implementation, such as on-site wastewater treatment.

2-67

Provide Structured Parking within the Proposed Building Footprint at a 50% Minimum or 100%
with No Surface Parking
Parking garages, or structured parking (above-or below-grade), are more costly to construct, operate, and maintain than surface parking lots. Construction costs alone range widely due to building codes, materials, and labor costs. However, in addition to tangible financial costs, parking has
external costs that affect the natural environment and the surrounding community that can add
other tangible cost, and these are typically not factored into development decisions.
Structured parking can be desirable in urban/suburban locations for a variety of reasons, including
reduced stormwater management, maximizing land use, and planning to create a more walkable
environment. Depending on the type of parking surface selected, surface parking can also contribute to the local heat island effect.
When planning your development, consider the environmental impacts and density impacts associated with surface parking, and factor that into the financial equation when choosing parking alternatives. Some jurisdictions may provide incentives to help offset the additional costs associated with structured parking. Incentives vary by jurisdictions, but may include height and density
bonuses for building structured parking.

TRANSPORTATION
2-68

Create a Transit-Oriented Development


The purpose of transit-oriented development (TOD) is to reduce the use of single-occupant vehicles by increasing the number of times people walk, bicycle, carpool, or take the bus. Traditionally, TOD occur in urban settings, but as traffic congestion, air pollution, and global warming issues increase, it is beginning to make sense to create these types of developments anywhere in the
Puget Sound region.
Strictly speaking, TODs take place around - mile radius of transit stations. Build around an
existing or proposed service line, and make sure the developments density plan will support frequent and timely bus or other transit trips. To be effective, the development should include contiguous sidewalk/walkways, provide for transit stops in the highest density areas, and provide ac-

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cess to seniors and others with special needs. Transit routes should be attractive and have direct,
safe, and easy access for pedestrians and bicycles, since convenience encourages use. See supporting Action Items in this Transportation section.
In addition to providing an alternative to the automobile for daily commuting, effective transitoriented developments offer a mix of services around the transit center, providing a new set of
opportunities to revitalize the character of neighborhoods. Locate your TOD within 1,000 feet of
commercial or government services buildings. See Supporting Action Items 2-70, Create a
Mixed-Use Building and 2-65, Provide Community Common Areas. It will be important to
make sure pedestrians and cyclists from the development can safely and conveniently reach those
services.
Unless transit is considered in the design process, important opportunities may be missed and instead, barriers to good transit may be created. The challenge is to create a transit-based development that balances car traffic with nearby residents and transit riders who use and enjoy the transit center area. The City of Redmond provides a good example high-density apartment complexes within walking distance to a transit center, several areas of employment nearby, including
City Hall and major regional medical center, and convenient shopping.

2-69

Build within Mile of a Transit Stop or Park and Ride


Choose location to reduce the dependence on automobiles. Transportation affects almost every
aspect of resource useair and water quality, energy, and urban livability. Planning for reduced
single-occupant automobile use can produce great environmental benefits. Strategies include:

Locate the site on public transport lines, to receive credit for this Action Item, the site must be
within mile of a transit stop or designated Park and Ride

Provide for pedestrians by including pathways, bicycle routes, and bicycle storage facilities to
help facilitate residents use of the transit facilities.

See also Action Items 2-70, Create a Mixed-Use Building; 2-71, Provide Subsidized Bus Passes; 2-72, Provide Bicycle Lockers ; 2-73, Provide Bus Shelters; and 2-65 Provide Community
Common Areas, for other strategies to reduce automobile use.

2-70

Create a Mixed-Use Building


8 30+ points

Three stories or more

Caf, Bank, Drugstore, or Postal Service


or store approved by director

Food Service (restaurant)/Market

8 points
3 points/each
15 points

The goal of a mixed-use development is to discourage automobile use and focus foot traffic
around the housing community. Mixeduse, for this credit is defined as commercial and residential development with at least three stories:
In some cases, current densities may not support retail establishments at the time of development,
but could sustain community and retail options in the future. You can still receive credit under
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this Action Item if you construct in a manner to accommodate existing or future retail uses on the
first floor.
To help further discourage automobile use, provide adequate bicycle parking. See Action Item
2-72, Provide Bicycle Lockers .
See also Action Items 2-70, Create a Mixed-Use Building; 2-71, Provide Subsidized Bus Passes; 2-73, Provide Bus Shelters; and 2-65 Provide Community Common Areas, for other strategies
to reduce automobile use.
Also, work with your zoning officials to see what will work in your neighborhood.

2-71

Provide Subsidized Bus Passes

25% subsidy

2 points

50% subsidy

4 points

Make available subsidized bus passes to encourage the use of public transportation. Points
awarded based on subsidy level for the first year only:

2-72

Provide Bicycle Lockers or Bicycle Storage Beyond Code


Encourage the use of bicycles by providing lockers for at least 25% of units. Many jurisdictions
are providing parking credits in exchange for providing certain numbers of bicycle lockers or alternate bicycle storage.

2-73

Provide Bus Shelters


Provide shelters for residents who use public transportation. Shelters should be conveniently located to bus stops and provide necessary protection from the weather elements.

2-74

Points for B20 Biodiesel or Better Equipment

100% Excavation equipment on biodiesel:

5 points

Each additional vehicle frequently on site, which also is on biodiesel: 1 point each

Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative to traditional petroleum-based gasoline. Vehicles or machinery that are designed to use biodiesel can also use biodiesel-petroleum blends.
Biodiesel does not require major engine modifications. This makes it the least-costly option when
converting to more energy efficient and less air polluting vehicles and machinery
To receive credit for this Action Item the fuel must contain a minimum of 20% or better of biodiesel.

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2-75

Provide Dedicated Parking Spots for Carpool or Car-Share Vehicles


5-13 points 13 point maximum

1st stall

Additional stalls, up to 5 stalls

5 points
2 points/each

Although there may not be development incentives to provide dedicated parking spots for carpool
or car-share vehicles for residential developments in your jurisdictions, they still provide multiple
benefits, including, resident appreciation, accommodating future changes to parking requirements
and public transportation incentives.

2-76

Provide a Hardwire Outlet(s) for Electric Vehicles


1-5 points 5 point maximum

Each stall, up to five

1 point/each

Times are changing and so are the fuels being used to power personal vehicles. Currently, there
are only a few fully electric vehicles that require an outlet for refueling, but this may change rather quickly as technology and fossil fuel shortages create a greater demand for electric vehicles.
Convenience will also play a part in acceptability of electric vehicles into traditional transportation concepts. Be ahead of the curve and get Built Green points by supplying hardwire outlets for
electric vehicles.

2-77

Provide a Link to Community Trails


Connectivity, having easy access to trails, roadways, and other transportation routes encourage
non-automobile transportation. It also increases residents enjoyment and appreciation of your
facility. Work with your jurisdiction to determine the best route(s) to link to other defined community trails.

2-78

Provide Alternative Fueling Station


Biodiesel is quickly becoming an acceptable alternative fuel. Many eco-conscious consumers are
converting traditional diesel vehicles to biodiesel. One drawback to this eco-conscious choice,
however, is the lack of convenient fueling stations. You may be able to attract more residents to
your facility by providing alternative fueling stations.

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TRAINING AND EDUCATION


2-79

Prepare an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Plan for Common Area
Facilities
While operations deliver the performance, maintenance sustains the capacity of the systems. Neglecting maintenance leads to premature equipment and system failure, reduced performance or
life of equipment, unnecessary energy expenditures, and overall waste. Conversely, proper
maintenance helps ensure that facilities equipment and systems operate as specified.
A successful Operations and Maintenance (O & M) Plan will specify systems and equipment for
maintenance and a schedule. Review manufacturers recommendations to determine the schedule, but evaluate them based on operating and load conditions. Keep track of the maintenance history and reevaluate as necessary. Make sure adequate training for staff is part of the plan. Systems
and equipment to incorporate in your plan include:

2-80

Roof and exterior wall systems

Heating/Cooling systems including boilers, furnaces, chillers, cooling towers

Ventilation equipment

Lighting systems

Building maintenance, i.e., cleaning.

Prepare an Environmentally Friendly Landscape Operations and Maintenance Plan


Too often the landscape is neglected in on-going operations and maintenance planning. Having a
plan will allow you to set procedures and practices in place to ensure the success of the overall
landscape. Some important aspects of a Landscape O & M plan include:

Provide for on-going Integrated Pest Management as the primary pest control strategy

Provide an area for on-site grass and leaf composting

For bioswales and constructed wetlands, although the design intent is to create a selfsustaining system that requires little maintenance, it will be important to monitor and maintain them as the landscape matures. Mowing and thinning plants should be minimal unless
soil testing reveals high levels of impurities in runoff. In this case, mowing and thinning will
aid in removal of toxins that may accumulate in the vegetation

In parking areas, prune plants as needed to maintain sight lines and the desired aesthetics. If
storm drains are used, clear as needed to prevent blockages. Avoid soil compaction in vegetated areas

Grassed paving systems must be mowed to maintain good aesthetics and pervious performance

For porous asphalt and concrete, surfaces should be periodically vacuumed with a hydrovac
to maintain or restore porosity by removing sediment from the paved surface. If areas become deformed by traffic, drill compacted areas to restore porosity. Keep underdrains, overflow drains, and edge drains clear.

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2-81

Conduct Training Sessions for Maintenance Staff and/or Occupants


Provide training sessions for maintenance staff and/or owners to familiarize them about the projects innovative features and systems and how to properly maintain them. This training is especially critical to proper operation of complex, modern HVAC systems.
Occasionally, vendors provide training. To ensure that this training and/or related documentation
is provided, be sure to specify that all vendors provide a training module for their equipment and
systems as part of their contract. If you engage a Commissioning Authority (see Action Item 3-1,
Building Systems Commissioning Beyond Code, include this training within the scope of your
commissioning contract.

2-82

Provide Educational Materials Designed for the Public that Highlight the Green Building Features
and their Performance that are Included in the Project
This Action Item is designed to educate building occupants and visitors about the green building
features included in the project. To receive credit for this item, you can produce written materials
about how the building and green features work. The written materials may also list the green
features included in the project use the checklist to generate the list. You can include additional
information on energy-saving techniques and their results, owner activities affect resource use
and indoor air quality, and other educational tips.
You can also provide appropriate interpretive signage in the lobby or participate in Green Building tours sponsored and organized by municipalities or local conservation organizations, such as
the annual Solar Washington Solar and Green Building Tour.
In preparing these materials, consider obstacles to occupant education, such as language, literacy,
and occupant turnover.

EXTRA CREDIT / INNOVATION for SITE and WATER


2-83

Extra Credit / Innovation for Site and Water


You may submit a site or water saving strategy or system, not specifically called out in this Section, for consideration for an Extra Credit for Innovation. All extra credits will be reviewed by
the Program Director. Extra credits will be worth from 1 to 10 points. If approved, add awarded
points to your Section total.

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Section Three:
Energy Efficiency
Envelope
Thermal Performance

Reduce Thermal Bridging

Air Sealing

Solar Design Features

Heating/Cooling
Distribution

Heat Recovery

Controls

Equipment

Water Heating
Overall
Distribution

Lighting
Natural Light
Efficient Lighting

Appliances
Alternative Energy Bonus Points
Extra Credit / Innovation for Energy Efficiency

Section Three:
Energy Efficiency
In addition to environmental benefits, energy efficiency can significantly improve comfort levels in the
buildinga proven selling point. The Washington State Energy Code (WSEC) is a minimum, a base.
This section defines achievable goals that go beyond the codes minimums.
The energy efficiency actions in this section accomplish one or more of the following objectives:

Reduce heating/cooling load overall

Use energy required to meet the load more efficiently

Site buildings to take advantage of natural resources and site features, such as orientation to increase
solar gain or to provide wind shielding.

3-1

Building Systems Commissioning Beyond Code


5 or 15 points
Engage a commissioning authority to conduct building systems commissioning.
Traditional testing, adjusting, and balancing is often insufficient to ensure the proper functioning
of the building HVAC system. HVAC system commissioning before final acceptance of the
building has been found to be both cost effective for the owner and beneficial for the contractor
as well. Benefits include reduced call-backs, energy-savings during operation, and avoidance of
many common IAQ problems in new buildings.
Although several approaches are available, whole building commissioning is the best approach to
ensure that fundamental building systems operate as intended and is awarded 15 points. Other
options are commissioning of HVAC systems only or electrical systems only. The table below
summarizes the estimated costs and points available for these three possible scenarios.
Scope of Commissioning (Cx)

Estimated Cost

Pts.

Whole building commissioning from design


through acceptance

0.5 to 1.5% of total construction cost

15

HVAC and automated controls system only

1.5 to 2.5% of mechanical contract

Electrical system only

1.0 to 1.5% of electrical contract

If you do engage a commissioning authority, make sure the scope of work includes providing
training to building owners/operators, which is also eligible for additional points. See Action
Item 2-81, Conduct Training Sessions for Maintenance Staff and/or Occupants.

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ENVELOPE
Building envelope Action Items consider the building as a whole and look for ways to implement and
document improvements in energy efficiency:

Reduce heat lossInstall insulation, windows, and doors that exceed code requirements

Air sealingUse techniques to reduce thermal losses that occur due to air leakage

Thermal bridgesUse techniques to reduce/eliminate thermal bridges, the heat flow shortcuts that
can significantly degrade thermal performance

Solar designDesign and build to take advantage of the buildings orientation to utilize the suns
energy for heat.

Thermal Performance
3-2

Document Envelope Improvements Beyond Code (Component Performance Approach) by 10%,


20%, 50%, or 75%
As of July 1, 2007, the Washington State Energy Code has been updated. Consult the revised
code or check with the Washington State Energy Office for the most recent updates and changes.
The Component Performance Approach allows you to trade off the thermal efficiency of one
component for another. It compares building envelope heat loss rates of the proposed design to a
Code-defined reference.
The Washington State Energy Program (WSU) and your local building department have developed spreadsheets to calculate performance using this approach.
Use a spreadsheet, or code forms to document improved performance (Total UA {area x UFactor} of the proposed building / UA of the WSEC code reference building). The number of
points awarded relates to documented improvement as follows:
Documented Improvement

Points Awarded

10% improvement

10

20% improvement

20

50% improvement

30

75% improvement

40

Document upgrades and resulting improvement on Chart 3-1 in Part II, Section Three Resources,
and provide a copy to the owner as part of their Operations and Maintenance Kit (Action Item
1-1, Provide Owner with Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit).
For link to the worksheet for all residential occupancies, including instructions on the Component
Performance Worksheet see:

http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/CPWorksheets/cpworksheet2006.xls

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3-3

Document Envelope Improvements Beyond Code Minimum (Prescriptive Approach)


This Action Item and corresponding Chart 3-2 are applicable only to wood frame construction,
three stories or less and with less than 13% glazing to floor ratio. For all other buildings, use the
Component Performance Approach, Action Item 3-2.
Chart 3-2 has been updated to correspond to the changes effective July 1, 2007 in the Washington
State Energy Code. Use the prescriptive approach and Chart 3-2 for all fuel types, provided below
to note the actions you will take to improve efficiencies above and beyond that prescribed by the
energy code for building components. Note the efficiencies you expect to achieve and use the
point assignments indicated in the charts, which are based on measures taken, to calculate your
total score (range is 1 to 70 points).

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Chart 3-2. BUILT GREEN Prescriptive Scoring Method; Upgrades for All Fuel Types.(See Note 1)
Envelope Component

Envelope Improvement

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss
Reduction
(Note 3)

Point Assignment
(Note 4)

0.40

0%

U = 0.37, 15% glazing area, Low-e

0.37

3%

U = 0.35, 15% glazing area, Low-e

0.35

6%

U = 0.32 , 15% glazing area, Low e argon

0.32

9%

U = 0.28 15% glazing area, Low e argon, insulated spacers

0.28

14%

14

U = 0.24 Tri pane Low e argon

0.24

18%

18

U = 0.17 Tri pane or quad pane range of best values available

0.17

23%

23

Code baseline: Area weighted U value = 0.48

0.480

0%

U = 0.37 (best values range)

0.37

1%

1%

0%

2%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-30 Standard

0.029

0%

R-38 2X12 I-Joist

0.025

4%

Vertical Multifamily Code baseline (Note 6): U = 0.40 (based on total glazing area = 15% of
heated floor area)

Score
(Note 5)

(reduce points by 1 for each percent glass area over 18%)


Skylight

No skylights (tubular skylights OK)


Doors

Code baseline door R-5 with 28SF exempt


R-5 insulated doors all opaque doors

Floor

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Envelope Component

Above Grade Wall

Attic

Vault

Envelope Improvement

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss
Reduction
(Note 3)

Point Assignment
(Note 4)

Code Baseline R-21 Standard 2X6 Framing

0.057

0%

R-21 Intermediate 2X6 Framing

0.054

2%

R-21 Advanced 2X6 Framing

0.051

4%

R-21 Standard 2X6 Framing + R-5 Foam Sheathing

0.043

9%

R-21 Advanced 2X6 Framing + R-5 Foam Sheathing

0.040

11%

11

6 Foam Panel

0.048

6%

8 Foam Panel

0.037

13%

13

R27 2x6 Advanced framing w/ horiz. furring w/ net/blow insul.

0.038

11%

11

R30 2x8 plate w/Staggered 2x4 12oc w/ net&blow insulation

0.034

14%

14

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-38 Standard Framing (FG batts)

0.031

0%

R-38 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.026

2%

R50 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.020

5%

R60 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.016

6%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-30 Standard 2X12 Framing

0.034

0%

R-30 High Density Batts, I Joist or truss framing

0.032

1%

R-38 High Density Batts, 2X12 Framing

0.027

2%

R38 scissor truss blown or R38 framing +R3 rigid foam

0.024

3%

8 Foam Panel

0.034

0%

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Three: Energy Efficiency


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May 2001/Revised June 2008

Score
(Note 5)

Part I-59

Envelope Component

Slab on grade

Below Grade Wall

Below Grade Slab

Envelope Improvement

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss
Reduction
(Note 3)

Point Assignment
(Note 4)

10 Foam Panel

0.026

3%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-10 Foam 2

0.540

0%

R-15 Foam 2

0.520

1%

R-10 Foam 4

0.480

2%

R-10 Full Slab, Not Heated

0.360

3%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-19 Interior Insulation

0.037

0%

R-21 Interior Insulation

0.034

1%

Foam Block

0.032

1%

Code Baseline (Note 6): No Thermal Break

0.540

0%

R-5 Thermal Break

0.500

1%

Score
(Note 5)

TOTAL SCORE
Chart 3-2 Notes:
1. The prescriptive path is the simplest, but also the least flexible, method for estimating heat loss reduction. It does not provide credit for reductions in glazing areas. You may (or may not) have a higher score if you use the component performance method (Chart 3-1).
2. U-Value: Calculated U-value for the described building component. If you select a component that is not described in the text, use the Reference
U-value of the product to score it.
3. Heat Loss Reduction: Estimated reduction in total UA of the structure. Based on two prototypical structures. Note: This is NOT equivalent to energy savings.
4. Assigned Point Value: based on 1 point for each percentage point in heat loss reduction.

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5. Score: Record your score based on assigned point values for the measures you implement. For example, if you use windows with U equal to 0.37, the
estimated heat loss reduction is 3%, so your score for these items is 3 points. If you use more than one component type per category (wall, attic, etc.),
average the scores for the two or more components. Your total score is the sum of all scores for individual items.
6. Code Baseline: WSEC target Path (see WSEC, Table 5-1.) Minimum requirements must be met for all components.
Identifies those products that provide wood savings as well as energy savings.

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3-4

Build a Zero Net Energy Building that Draws Zero Outside Power or Fuel on a Net Annual Basis
A Zero Net Energy building combines state-of-the-art, energy-efficient construction and appliances with renewable energy systems, such as solar water heating and electricity, resulting in a
building that produces as much or more power than it consumes. Generally, Zero Net Energy
buildings are connected to the utility grid, with energy consumption measured on an annual basis,
allowing for excess energy produced to be sold back to the utility.
Zero Net Energy buildings optimize climate-specific design, passive solar heating and cooling,
solar thermal and solar electric systems (active solar), and energy efficient construction, appliances, and lighting. The goal of this strategy is performance-based, so you must use other Action
Items in this section, as well as other sections from the checklist, as part of your plan to achieve a
net zero energy consumption rate for the building. For instance, geothermal heating might
achieve net zero along with photovoltaic power generation, an advanced shell design, a super
high efficiency distribution system, and exceptional ventilation to reduce cooling loads.
Program note: wood burning heating options do qualify for zero-net energy IF it comes from pellet stoves or EPA certified stoves. Absolutely no Russian or Rumsford stoves allowed. Creative
fireplaces use electric power and can be used in place of traditional fireplaces.

3-5

Use Dense Packed Cellulose (Over 2.5 Lbs./Inch) or Wet Blown Cellulose or
Blown In Foam
Blown-in insulation products, including cellulose or Icynene, have an advantage over fiberglass
batts in that they provide better penetration and filling of cavities and are made from non-toxic
materials. The insulation can be dry-blown or poured loose-fill into enclosed cavities, but is most
commonly wet-sprayed. When sprayed, the product leaves few voids, reducing problems with air
infiltration. If you select wet-sprayed cellulose, it is recommended that you also use impermeable
or semi-impermeable insulating sheathings to control water vapor movement for indoor air quality control. See Resources for building science references that discuss tradeoffs and choices for
sheathings, building papers, and cavity insulations that are climate-appropriate.
Blown insulation must be carefully installed to prevent overblowing, which reduces the Rvalue for a given, installed thickness. Careful installation of blown insulation in attics assures
even coverage, avoiding high and low areas with varying R-values, and avoids blocking ventilation paths. Ask how the insulation contractor controls for the proper amount of insulation material and depth.
Cellulose can also be dry-packed into wall cavities. Cellulose insulation is made from 100%
post-consumer recycled newspapers or telephone books and is usually combined with boric acid
or sodium borate as a fire retardant. An additional benefit of boric acid is that it kills carpenter
ants and termites. See also Action Items 5-108, All Insulation to have a Minimum of 40% Recycled Content, and 5-109, Use Environmentally Friendly Foam Building Products (FormaldehydeFree, CFC-Free, HCFC-Free).

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3-6

For Concrete Walls Use Perimeter Insulation for Exterior Slab Edges
Significant heat can still be lost from the slab edge that is closest to the cold outside air in our
climate, even if the vertical walls are insulated to code. It is best to consult the revised WSEC for
specifics. For exterior applications, use proper flashing and termite shield.

3-7

Increase Roof Insulation 20% Beyond Code


In all climate zones, insulation can dramatically help reduce cooling loads and lower energy
costs. According to ASHRAE new requirements that recently proposed a 33% increase in roofinsulation levels and independent analysis, additional roof insulation is cost effective, saves energy, and reduces pollution and carbon emissions. This new ASHRAE standard addresses building
envelope and system requirements for residential buildings higher than 3 stories. Consult WSEC
for component tradeoff options. Also, be aware of proper air barrier installation to ensure that air
movement does not diminish your R-value.

3-8

Participate in a Program that Provides Third-Party Review and Inspection


BUILT SMART, offered by Seattle City Light, is an energy efficiency program that provides technical support, certification, and incentives to builders and developers within their service area for
improvements in thermal efficiency, heating systems, indoor air quality, and lighting. SCL also
provides technical support (but not incentives) for projects outside their service area.
Other programs qualify for this credit, including: LEED, SeaGreen, Green Globes.
LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is the foremost tool for qualifying performance of green commercial buildings. It is a voluntary program that offers a wide variety of
options for commercial projects. The LEED program for new construction or major remodels of
commercial buildings or multi-family projects over four floors is called LEED for New Construction. The program is well supported in our area, Cascadia Chapter of the USGBC US Green
Building Council, the organization behind the program offers assistance and the City of Seattle
has resources online see Resources section for details.
SeaGreen is the City of Seattles Affordable Housing green building program. It is based on
Built Green and was developed in collaboration with affordable housing experts. and have brief
write-ups on them.
Green Globes is a online assessment protocol and rating system for building environmental design, operation and management. The program is interactive, flexible, and affordable and provides market recognition of a buildings environmental attributes through third-party verification.
The Green Building Initiative supports it in the US. See the Resources section.
The US EPA is currently exploring options for qualifying multi-family residential buildings as Energy Star. Currently, at the time of this publishing, this
program is not yet available. However, they are looking at developing a program
through a pilot in a few states. EPA expects to finalize a policy for labeling
high-rise and stacked flat multi-family buildings as ENERGY STAR as soon as
the results of the pilot program can be analyzed and any outstanding issues are resolved.

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As Partners in the Program, builders agree to construct new buildings that use at least 30% less
energy for heating, cooling, and water heating compared to equivalent buildings based on the national Model Energy Code (MEC). Once performance is verified by an independent third-party
expert, the building can bear the ENERGY STAR label. Since WSEC is already rigorous compared
to national standards, ENERGY STAR has developed the Northwest Builder Options Package, a
special program for the Northwest that goes beyond Washington State Code. Contact MBA for
more information.
Features of an ENERGY STAR building include:

Improved insulation

Advanced windows

Tightly sealed ducts

High-efficiency heating and cooling

Reduced uncontrolled air infiltration.

See Section Three Resources in Part II for the web site providing more information about these
programs and how to join.

Air Sealing
Proper air sealing can have a major impact on energy savings. DOE estimates that up to 30% of a
buildings energy can be lost through air leaks. Typical areas for sealing include under sill plates,
around windows, doors, framing members, and electric, plumbing and mechanical penetrations.
Sealing materials, which include caulking, sealant, foam, and tape, are easy to find and inexpensive.
Please note that tightening the building to save energy requires careful attention to indoor air
quality. Providing an adequate, controlled supply of fresh air to the building is addressed in Section Four: Health and Indoor Air Quality.

3-9

Airtight Drywall Approach for Framed Structures


The airtight drywall approach (ADA) for framed structures is an advanced sealing package that
goes beyond basic practice. Specifically, it includes caulk or gasket drywall installed on exterior
walls at the top and bottom plates, windows and doorframes; caulk or gasket drywall installed on
interior walls at intersections with exterior ceilings; and caulk or gasket electrical, plumbing or
mechanical penetrations in the drywall.
Make sure you use good quality, durable materials for sealing and use the proper type of sealing
material for the size of gap. Install quality, self-closing dampers on vents to prevent backdrafts
on windy days.

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3-10

Use Airtight Building Method, such as SIP or ICF


An airtight building method uses airtight structural elements such as structural insulated panels
(SIPs), insulating concrete forms (ICF), and concrete masonry units to replace some or all of conventional stick framing elements. (Note: The use of an airtight wall system as such does not automatically eliminate leakage through or around windows. Systematic air sealing of the entire
building is the most effective way to reduce infiltration. See Action Item 3-9, Airtight Drywall
Approach for Framed Structures.
SIPsSIPs create a continuous air barrier. All field connections, windows, electrical, plumbing
and mechanical penetrations still require careful caulking or gaskets. Taking into account both
the thermal benefits of SIPs and substantial reductions in air leakage, this measure can be cost effective. Also, because SIPS contain few framing members, their use also provides additional energy benefit through reduction of thermal bridging as compared to conventional wood frame construction. Finally, SIP construction is materials efficient because these panel systems use substantially less wood. Note: Some SIPs are manufactured with CFC-containing materials, which
cause ozone depletion. You will want to check with the manufacture to avoid using them. See
Action Item 5-53, Use Structural Insulated Panels, for more information.
ICFInsulating concrete forms (ICFs) are rigid plastic foam forms that hold concrete in place
during curing and remain in place afterwards to serve as thermal insulation for concrete walls.
The foam blocks, panels, or planks are lightweight and result in energy-efficient, durable construction. ICFs are used to make structural concrete walls, and can be used to make either foundation or above-grade walls. ICF walls provide R-values between R-14 and R-23 and, according
to some, lower air infiltration rates when compared to typical wood frame construction.
In addition to higher R-values, advantages over conventional construction include a reduction in
the number of trade contractors required, strength, reduction in through-the-wall sound transmission, and ease of construction. (See Action Item 5-54, Use Insulated Concrete Forms for information about the material efficiencies associated with this technique.)

3-11

Eliminate or Airtight Seal All Air Pathways Between Floors and Units
Compartmentalization eliminates ductwork between floors or between units and corridors, eliminating these potential air leakage paths. If you do not eliminate the air pathway, airtight seal the
ducts.

3-12

Conduct Blower Door Test for a Sampling of Units with Results Better Than 0.30 ACH
or 0.25 ACH
5 or 10 points

0.30 ACH

5 points

0.25 ACH

10 points

Note: For large projects, it is acceptable to perform a test on each representative unit (randomly
selected), then seal all similar units at the identified weak points to gain credit under this item.

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Blower door tests are used to both identify air leakage paths in a unit and to quantify air leakage
ranges. Blower doors are also used to locate duct leaks.
A blower door consists of a variable speed fan sealed into an exterior doorway and used to blow
air into or out of the unit. When air is blown out, the unit develops a slight negative pressure (or
vacuum) relative to outside. The pressure differential drives outside air into the unit (infiltration)
through any available openings in the exterior shell. These leaks can be located by touch or with
smoke, and then sealed.
In addition, the pressure induced by the blower door can be used to yield a quantitative estimate
of the leakiness of the unit (in square inches). Additional calculations yield the approximate
natural air change rate (ACH).
Blower door tests of units built to code average 0.34 ACH. Reducing to 0.30 ACH through improved air sealing will reduce annual energy use by about 8% and is very achievable. (Units with
forced air systems will have a slightly higher ACH.)
Its best to do a blower door test once just before sheet rock and once after sheet rock, but before
attic insulation is blown in.

Reduce Thermal Bridging


In wood frame construction, where framing members make full connection between the interior
drywall and exterior sheathing, a cold spot forms. These areas increase heat loss, reduce comfort,
and increase condensation on interior surfaces. In addition, cold spots attract dirt and will soil
faster.
Limit the number of framing members that fully bridge the interior and exterior surfaces to save
energy and produce a more comfortable building. The thermal bridges that allow heat to escape
include solid headers over doors and windows and other paths for conductive heat loss.

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3-13

Use Rigid Insulation as Thermal Break in Headers


As much as 4% of the area of the typical building envelope consists of window and door headers.
Insulated headers reduce thermal transfer (bridging) found in standard construction using solid
wood headers for exterior window and door openings. Although they can be purchased
pre-assembled, they are often built on-site by sandwiching rigid insulation between the lumber.
In this way, you achieve higher R-values without sacrificing structural integrity.
Typically, 4x and 6x have been used for header stock, but they should only be used when structurally necessary. Doors in non-load bearing walls do not require structural headers. Building
codes allow these practices and recognize this proven performance.
If you use a King Stud and insulated header or a let-in header with framing clips instead of cripple studs, you save lumber and there will be more room in your walls for insulation.

Figure 3-1Insulated Headers


(Source: Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide)

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3-14

Fully Insulate Corners at Intersecting Exterior Walls


Corner construction using two instead of three studs leaves space for additional insulation. Drywall clips spaced two feet apart can provide back-up for interior finish materials. Place the clips
where one wall abuts another, or where two walls intersect at corners.

Figure 3-2Corner Construction


(Source: Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide)

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3-15

Fully Insulate at Interior/Exterior Wall Intersection by Open Cavity Framing


Optional framing details provide for easy placement of insulation.

Figure 3-3Construction Details for Ease of Insulation


(Source: Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide)

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3-16

Use Energy Heels of 6 In. or More on Trusses and Stick Frame Roofs to Allow Added Insulation
Over Top Plate
The figure provides options to maintain full heel insulation (advanced frame ceiling).

Figure 3-4Construction Details, Full Heel Insulation


(Source: Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide)

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3-17

Use Insulated Exterior Sheathing


The use of insulated exterior sheathing eliminates all of the thermal bridging created by framing.
In many cases, the use of exterior sheathing may allow the builder to use 2X4 instead of 2X6
framing, reducing lumber use and cost. Insulated exterior sheathing can reduce condensation in
walls because the wall stays warmer. Exterior insulated sheathing, when properly detailed, can
provide a superior exterior water management system.

3-18

Use Advanced Wall Framing24-inch OC, with Double Top Plate


Sometimes referred to as Advanced Wall Framing, this technique is a code-recognized process
that incorporates 24-inch on-center framing with increased insulation. Other features include
two-stud corners and intersections (see Action Item 3-14, Fully Insulate Corners ), insulated
headers (see Action Item 3-13, Use Rigid Insulation as Thermal Break in Headers), oversized or
raised heel trusses to allow full depth of attic insulation (see Action Item 3-16, Use Energy Heels
of 6 In. or More on Trusses and Stick Frame Roofs to Allow Added Insulation Over Top Plate),
and full insulation where interior partition walls meet exterior walls (see Action Item 3-15, Fully
Insulate at Interior/Exterior Wall Intersection ).
To help increase the efficiency of exterior walls, use ladder partitions. The usual practice of adding extra studs in the exterior wall to provide nailing for drywall creates an inaccessible pocket
that cant be insulated after exterior sheathing is installed. In ladder partition, the horizontal
blocking across the front of the wall cavity allows for plenty of insulation behind. This alternative
saves lumber and improves R-value.
On average, advanced framing uses 30% less lumber, takes less time to construct and costs less to
build because the reduced use of lumber more than offsets the additional cost of header insulation. Construction cost savings are estimated at $0.29 per square foot of wall area. Total savings
for this measure alone are 2 to 4% of total energy use.
Youll need to use sheathing, siding and drywall rated for 24-inch stud spacing. Fewer studs
mean fewer plumbing and electrical penetrations and fewer nail or screw holes to seal and sand.
Although more insulation is required, wider stud spacing results in fewer pieces of insulation and
therefore faster installation.
Tip: To eliminate concerns about wavy walls, install exterior sheathing horizontally rather than
vertically.

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Solar Design Features


Good solar design can reduce heating bills and eliminate the need for mechanical cooling. Solar features
also provide consumers with attractive natural lighting and reduce interior temperature swings. However,
solar design is a comprehensive practice. If you approach it piecemeal, you may end up overheating the
units, causing discomfort and increasing the demand for cooling.
To be effective, solar strategies must be considered during the design phase of a project. By placing approximately 50% of the glazing on the south side of the structure and including thermal mass features in
the living space of the units, you can achieve 20% savings in energy. (There may be additional cost in
construction for these features.) Simple, easy-to-use software is available to help the designer optimize
the solar design.

3-19

Passive Solar Design, Basic Features Installed


Basic passive solar features include east/west orientation, optimal glazing, and properly sized
overhangs. These strategies will prevent excessive solar gains in the summer while allowing the
sun to enter the units during the heating season.
To make the best use of passive solar, orient the majority of the buidings glazing within 22
degrees of due South. Due South can be located with a simple compass. Remember to make the
correction for magnetic North, which is 21 to 22 degrees East in the Puget Sound area. Obviously, this assumes there will be windows on the south side; for solar heating benefit, these should
not be obstructed in winter. To prevent overheating, window glass on the south side of the building should not exceed 8% of the floor area. However, window area can be increased significantly
(and solar performance enhanced) if there is accessible thermal mass in the space to absorb excess heat. Building components that can add mass to the unit include concrete floors, tile, extra
drywall, and to some extent, wood flooring. Consider the installation of skylights in a
south-facing roof. Install with blinds to control the heat.
In Seattle, Washington, optimized south-facing overhangs are illustrated in Figure 3-5.

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Figure 3-5Overhangs
(Source: Washington State University Cooperative Extension Energy Program)

Summer
Sun
Angle
Winter
Sun
Angle

Size of Overhang
A = 0.749

Wall above window


B = 0.326

Vertical dimension of glazing


C = 1.00
A: The overhang is optimized to limit solar gains during the cooling
season without limiting the solar gains in the winter.
B: This dimension optimizes the glazing access to solar heat gains
during the heating season. Glazing placed in this area will not receive
direct solar gains and will not contribute to solar heating.
C: All other functions are based on the vertical dimension of the
glazing.
B + C: Glazing placed below this dimension will not be shaded in the
summer. This will result in solar gains during the summer months.
This figure is for buildings built in Seattle, or other sites at 47.5 degrees latitude. The effectiveness of the shading diminishes if the
building orientation changes. Within 30 degrees of due south, this
formula will provide relatively good results. East and West facing
glazing require shading by other means such as exterior blinds, or
landscaping.

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3-20

Passive Solar Design, Advanced Features Installed


Advanced passive solar is performance based. It is best to document a reduction in total space
conditioning for heating and cooling. Then, demonstrate how the building will stay within reasonable temperature range. See Action Item 3-21, Model Solar Design Features Using Approved
Modeling Software.
If you choose not to demonstrate the total reduction in space conditioning energy, consider that
passive solar designs from the 1970s do not work with contemporary glazing products. Also,
combining passive solar design with advanced framing, see Action Item 3-18, Use Advanced
Wall Framing, is a good idea, but may require adjusting solar techniques to work with the tightness of this framing system.
Advanced passive solar design features may include orienting windows to maximize passive solar, designing thermal mass correctly to correlate with window design, and providing East and
West Shading.
To make the best use of passive solar, orient the majority of the buildings glazing within 22 degrees of due South. Due South can be located with a simple compass. Remember to make the correction for magnetic North, which is 21 to 22 degrees East in the Puget Sound area. Obviously,
this assumes there will be windows on the south side; for solar heating benefit, these should not
be obstructed in winter. To prevent overheating, window glass on the south side of the building
should not exceed 8% of the floor area. However, window area can be increased significantly
(and solar performance enhanced) if there is accessible thermal mass in the space to absorb excess heat. Building components that can add mass to the building include concrete floors, tile,
extra drywall, and to some extent, wood flooring. Consider the installation of skylights in a
south-facing roof. Install with blinds to control the heat.
Use glazing with Solar Heat Gain Coefficient less than 0.40 or provide natural shading with landscaping. East and west shading strategies help protect against overheating the building. The most
shading is provided by means of exterior shading devices, especially trees and other natural landscaping. They block the heat before it gets to the window. In addition, windows made using specially coated or tinted glazing reduce the windows solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). They
block the heat gain without rejecting too much visible light. For comparison, standard clear glass
has a SHGC of 0.85. Special coatings/tinting can produce windows with SHGC down to 0.38,
depending upon the treatment. These can be especially useful if the unit has an attractive view to
the West.

3-21

Model Solar Design Features Using Approved Modeling Software


Gaining experience by using approved modeling software allows you to determine the effectiveness of incorporating solar design strategies into your project. See the Resources Section for a
list of approved modeling software or consult the Program Director.

3-22

Use Landscaping Plans that Reduce Heating/Cooling Loads Naturally


Energy-conscious landscaping and building design can result in reduced operational costs for the
owner, greater comfort, and less energy use. According to the U.S. Forest Service, a single ma-

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ture tree provides more than $70 worth of air conditioning annually. Meanwhile, a well-placed
windbreak of evergreens can reduce a buildings heating bill by up to 20%. (Natural vegetation
can also provide visual pleasure, effective erosion and stormwater control, shelter for wildlife,
and sound absorption. See Section Two: Site and Water, Action Items 2-8, Preserve Existing Native Vegetation as Landscaping, and 2-9, Retain 30% of Trees on Site or Retain Arborist.)
Examples of energy-saving design include:

Retain mature trees whenever possible

Maximize southern exposure with most windows facing south

Use mid-range colored materials for driveways, walkways, and parking spaces to reflect sun
in summer and to absorb and re-radiate heat in winter

Build paved areas away from south windows and shade with plantings.

HEATING/COOLING
Distribution
There are many options for designing a heating/cooling system for multi-family buildings. Many consider central systems that must be designed effectively to ensure energy efficiency, performance, and yet,
still do not encourage individual unit conversation. If you choose a central system, sizing is essential, and
must be calculated only after passive solar, orientation, and other design features are taken into account.
Distributed heating, cooling and domestic hot water components provide for better overall energy conservation since individual residents monitor their own comfort. Distributed systems also help with smoke
control and fire safety, indoor air quality and comfort, and may help lower operating costs because they
are easier to service, and lower in cost to maintain by less skilled personnel than central systems. If problems with an individual system occur, the problem is limited to individual units rather than many units or
the entire building. In practice these systems are being adopted and displacing standard approaches principally for cost reasons.
If you choose a central system, heat loss from the average ducted air distribution system can reduce the
overall system efficiency by 30%. Reducing duct air leakage and improving duct insulation has potential
to significantly reduce utility bills and prevent or eliminate associated comfort and health problems. Specifically:

Heating and cooling costs can be reduced by as much as 20-30%.

Comfort can be improved by ensuring adequate delivery and return of conditioned air.

Downsizing of heating and cooling equipment is possible.

Entry of mold, radon, dust, and moisture into the building can be reduced.
At the beginning of a project, give consideration to:

Location of the duct work.

Duct type and size.

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Sealing method.

Insulation method, R-value.

Providing equal cross-sectional area for supply and return duct openings, and eliminating
non-communicating ducts. (Each supply duct needs to see a return duct, and visa-versa. If there is a
door between them, a transfer duct is required.)

As discussed below, it is preferable to locate ducts within the building envelope. However, this option is
not always possible, even with new construction. In this case, ducts should be sealed with mastic and insulated (See Action Item 3-25, Use Advanced Sealing of Ducts Using Low Toxic Mastic).

3-23

Centrally Locate Heating / Cooling System to Reduce the Size of the Distribution System
Locating the furnace in a central, well-insulated mechanical closet can save energy by reducing
delivery distance and heat loss. Combining this technique with moving the ducts into the conditioned space can cut material and installation costs by over 50% as well as save energy. Make
sure you provide sufficient make-up air.

3-24

Install Ceiling Fans in All Units Minimum One per Unit


Ceiling fans can be used as a low-energy option to provide cooling on hot summer days.

3-25

Use Advanced Sealing of Ducts Using Low-Toxic Mastic


Efficiency of the heating distribution system can be improved by 15% if the ducts are sealed better than standard practice. Using mastic to seal commonly used fittings or using improved duct
fittings with gaskets reduce the air leakage rate of the heating system and the structure as a whole.
Additional benefits may include improved comfort by reducing drafts, improved occupant control
of the distribution of heat to individual rooms, and a reduction of dirt introduced into the units.
The cost for this measure will vary depending upon the HVAC contractor and the system. Be
sure to obtain individual system bids from the HVAC contractor you will use.
Note: The units need to be pressure balanced with the goal of reducing backdrafts. If the furnace
return is adjacent to a combustion appliance it will backdraft even with a perfectly airtight duct
system.

3-26

Third-Party Performance Air Leakage Test Using Prescribed Sampling Method for Each Unit Type
Meets Certification
Duct performance tests prove the airtight integrity of the ducting and provide third-party certification. Performance tests for ducting can be accomplished by the same contractor who performs
blower door tests (See Action Item 3-12, Conduct Blower Door Test). Use acceptance criteria
such as the Performance Tested Comfort Systems (PTCS) standards.

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3-27

Third-Party Duct Test Results Less than 6% Loss of Floor Area to Outside/Total Flow
To qualify for this credit, the results of the duct test performed by a third-party must be less than
6% loss of floor area to outside/total flow, e.g., a 1,000 square foot space should have less than 60
cfm of leakage in the ductwork. If the ductwork is sealed tightly with mastic and other moderate
sealing efforts are employed it should at least pass at level of duct tightness of 6-7% of the floor
area. See Air Sealing sub-section above for ideas on how to maximize air sealing to achieve this
credit. Additionally, consider that achieving this result could be difficult in a large structure.

3-28

All Ducts are in Conditioned Space


A heating systems efficiency can be improved by 30% or better if the entire heating system is located within the conditioned space. Points are warded for this Action Item, ONLY if ALL ducts
are in the conditioned space.
Besides adding energy efficiency, this practice also reduces moisture problems and can also reduce dust and other indoor air quality problems.
Strategies to consider include: constructing bulkheads, dropped soffits, tray ceilings, running
ducts through open-web floor joints, and placing ducts in closets, conditioned crawlspaces, and
attics.
Incorporating all ducts in the conditioned space may cost slightly more than conventional methods, however, costs can potentially be offset by reducing the size of the equipment, eliminating
duct insulation, minimizing duct length, and reducing overall material costs.

3-29

Locate Heating / Cooling Equipment Inside the Conditioned Space


A heating systems efficiency can be improved by 30% or better if the entire heating system is located within the heated space. In many cases this will be a no-cost measure. For forced air heating systems, moving the ducts inside usually increases the cost of framing and drywall. But the
HVAC bid will be lower, off-setting these costs. Even if the total cost increases some, the energy
savings will more than pay for the change in construction details. Carefully planned hydronic
systems or in-space heating systems will also provide these benefits.

Forced Air Systems: Locate most ducts inside heated space; ducts outside heated space to be
insulated to R-11.

Hydronic Systems: Locate most components inside the heated space.

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Controls
3-30

Install Thermostat with On-Switch for Furnace Fan to Circulate Air


Providing a thermostat with an on-switch for the furnace fan allows the occupants to circulate
warm air that rises to any high areas in the unit throughout the rest of the space without running
the furnace.
(Note: Be sure to locate furnace returns high in the room to capture the warm air.)

3-31

Install Thermostat with One Degree Dead-Band (Electronic or Vapor Diaphragm) for Non-Ducted
Electric Heat
Advanced electronic line-voltage thermostats and vapor diaphragm thermostats can offer more
accurate and responsive temperature control than the basic bimetal models, which are commonly
used with electric resistance heating systems. With proper setting and use, they can potentially
reduce heating energy consumption by about 7 to 10 percent.

3-32

Install 60-Minute Timers or Humidistat for Bathroom and Laundry Room Fans
Countdown timers allow effective use of bathroom fans without wasting energy. The room can be
dried out after use, then the fan automatically shuts off. Humidistats measure and control the relative humidity

3-33

Install Programmable Thermostats


Programmable thermostats reduce energy use by providing heat only when and where required.
Most of the latest generation programmable thermostats perform one or more of the following energy control functions: 1) store and repeat multiple daily settings, which can be manually overridden without affecting the rest of the daily or weekly program; 2) store four or more temperature settings a day; and/or 3) adjust heating or air conditioning turn-on times as the outside temperatures change. EPA estimates that ENERGY STAR-labeled programmable thermostats, when
used properly, can save consumers 20-30% on heating and cooling bills.

3-34

Provide Separate Switching for Bathrooms Fan/Heat Lamp and Fan/Light Combination Fixtures
Look for switches that provide for independent operation of bathroom combination fixtures
(fan/heat lamp and fan/light) to save energy by avoiding automation operation of the unneeded
function.

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3-35

Provide Electricity and/or Natural Gas Direct Metering for Each Unit
Studies have shown that when the tenants are directly paying their utility bills, their consumption
averages 30% less than if the landlord pays it through the rent.

3-36

Install Heat Systems with Separate Zones for Sleeping and Living Areas (Not Including Electric
Resistance Heating)
This credit is awarded for installing a zoned heating system, not for programmable thermostats;
see Action Item, 3-33, Install Programmable Thermostats.
Use any heating system that allows for separate zones, see Action Items see Equipment section
below for additional references.

Heat Recovery
3-37

Install a Heat Recovery Ventilator or an Energy Recovery Ventilator


The Energy Star Program allows for Heat Recovery Ventilators or Energy Recovery Ventilators
for Multi-Family buildings in their program that are three stories or less. Heat recovery ventilation systems save heating and cooling energy in applications where mechanical ventilation is required. A heat recovery ventilator (HRV), also known as an air to air heat exchanger (AAHX),
provides an energy efficient and effective ventilation system that cannot be matched by exhaust-only ventilation systems commonly used. With these units, waste heat in the exhaust air
stream is transferred by a heat exchanger into the incoming air stream, significantly reducing the
energy required to heat cold outdoor air to interior comfort levels. These units are able to recover
50% to 80% of the heat energy that would otherwise be lost through ventilation. Even in Western
Washingtons mild climate, these energy savings pay for the HRV long before the equipment
reaches its rated service life.
The system is typically designed to exhaust each bathroom, laundry room, and kitchen, and supply each bedroom and living space (office, living room, and den) using 4-inch or 6-inch diameter
ductwork. This installation meets all the requirements of the Washington State Ventilation Code,
and no other fans or timers are necessary (except perhaps kitchen range hood exhaust). The design provides effective ventilation for the entire unit without relying on passive vents, window
slot vents, or centrally ducted make-up air. Finally, the HRV is effective at controlling indoor
moisture levels and accommodates various filters, which may be incorporated to address other indoor air quality issues.
Another advantage of an HRV system is that it provides high quality ventilation to the unit for
maintaining indoor air quality.
If you install an HRV, be sure to verify air sealing with a blower door air test. See Action Item
3-12, Conduct Blower Door Test . If the building is not tight, there are no benefits.
Energy Recovery Ventilators are models that exchange moisture between the two air streams.
The main difference is the way the heat exchanger works. With an energy recovery ventilator,

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the heat exchanger transfers a certain amount of water vapor along with the heat energy, while a
heat recovery ventilator only transfers heat. In our climate, energy recovery ventilators are not
recommended because they often add moisture to the units, and in Western Washington, we generally do not need added moisture. However, there are units that incorporate humidity regulators
and are recommended for units with air conditioning.
Energy recovery ventilation systems require more maintenance than other ventilation systems.
They need to be cleaned regularly to prevent deterioration of ventilation rates and heat recovery,
and to prevent mold and bacteria on heat exchanger surfaces.

Equipment
3-38

Select High Efficiency Heat Pumps


Most heat pumps act by transferring heat from an environmental source, air, water or ground, into
the dwelling. A new type of heat pump is the absorption heat pump that uses heat as the energy
source. These systems offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. In
fact, high-efficiency heat pumps also dehumidify better than standard central air conditioners, resulting in less energy usage and more cooling comfort in summer months, according to the Department of Energy. All of these varieties are suitable to our climate.
Air-source heat pumps are the most common and are available in a ductless version, called a
mini-split system. Geothermal (ground-source or water-source) systems provide higher efficiencies, however, they cost more to install and has some site-specific limitations. See Action Item, 344, Install Geothermal Heat Pumps.
To select the highest efficiency heat pump, look for the Energy Guide label. Heating efficiencies
are rated according the heating season performance factor (HSPF) and the cooling efficiency is
determined by the seasonal energy efficiency ration (SEER). High efficiency pumps will have a
HSPF between 8 and 10, and a SEER between 14 and 18. In our climate, focus should be on getting the highest HSPF possible. To qualify for the Multi-Family Energy Star Program (Action
Item 3-8), the heat pump must have a HSPF of 7.7 as a minimum and must be of the ductless variety. Also most utility rebate programs require a HSPF rating between 8.5 and 14.
Finally, as with any system, performance is affected by leaky ducts. Be sure to maintain 400-500
cfm airflow for each ton of the heat pumps air-conditioning capacity. Efficiency and performance deteriorate if airflow is less than 350 cfm per ton. To ensure optimum functioning, be sure
to include appropriate servicing information in the Operations and Maintenance Kit that is part of
Section 1.

3-39

Select ENERGY STAR Heating / Cooling Equipment or Equivalent


By selecting ENERGY STAR rated heating and cooling equipment you are assured of significant
energy savings. The upgrade encompasses many different types of equipment, including 90%
AFUE furnaces, 8.5 HSPF heat pumps, and ground source heat pumps. Energy Star ratings
generally apply only to residential equipment, which can be used on a per unit basis. If you find
commercial equipment for whole building systems that meets all Energy Star requirements, you

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may apply to the Director of the program to receive credit for this item (see Resources for link to
Energy Star site).
There are Energy Star light commercial products labeled ES, they are 7-10% more efficient
than average. The ENERGY STAR specification for qualified light commercial HVAC products
covers central air conditioners and heat pumps used in small office buildings, clinics and medical
care facilities, hotels, dorms, military barracks, retail strip malls, and other locations (i.e., units
rated at 65,000 Btu/h or up to 250,000 Btu/h as well as three-phase equipment rated below 65,000
Btu/h). The energy-efficiency specifications are based on equipment type and size category.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides a federal income tax credit to consumers who purchase
Energy Star qualifying products; you can use these as guidelines:

3-40

Furnaces

95% AFUE or greater

Boilers

95% AFUE of greater

Electrically Efficient Gas- and Oil-Fired Furnaces

Gas and Oil-Fired Water Heaters

Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters 2.0 EF or greater.

80 EF or greater

No Gas Fireplaces, or Use Direct Vent Gas or Propane Hearth Product (AFUE Rating)
Combustion appliances in general can be troublesome if not completely sealed. They can inadvertently admit noxious gases such as carbon monoxide into the air. Even if a fuel-burning device is connected to a chimney, pollutants can enter the unit through spillage, backdrafting
(whenever there is even a slightly negative air pressure in the unit), or due to lack of maintenance
or damage to the chimney.

3-41

No Air Conditioner
The best option is to initially design the building to make the best use of natural ventilation and
passive cooling techniques. See Action Items 3-19 through 3-22 on Solar Design Features.
However, if you install an exhaust air heat pump system for the water heater, some systems offer
an option to provide supplemental space heating and cooling. This actually increases their heat
recovery efficiency. The systems require additional ductwork to and from the space(s) being
cooled or heated and a heating / cooling thermostat in each space. Generally, they provide space
conditioning at about 7,000 Btu/hour. This is adequate for supplemental conditioning of a fairly
large zone in the unit, such as a family room, living room, or great room.
If you elected for a high Albedo roof, Action Item 2-28, Install High Albedo or Light Colored
Roof, in Site and Water, use this Action Item for complimentary credits.

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3-42

Direct Use of Natural Gas, i.e., Centralized Boiler with Hydronic Heating System Units
or Units with Fan Coil System that Can Do Both Heating and Cooling
Directly using natural gas for space and/or water heat rather than in a combustion turbine to supply electricity for space and water heat reduces carbon dioxide emissions and increases energy efficiency. The energy content of electricity delivered to a building from a combined cycle combustion turbine is only about 45 percent of natural gas fuel. In contrast, a building furnace typically uses 80 percent of the energy in natural gas to heat the residence.
A recent study in Washington State found that natural gas could cost-effectively displace the need
for about 700 megawatts of electricity by 2010 and lower natural gas use by 6 to 8 trillion Btu per
year.
To receive credit for this Action Item you must select a centralized boiler (use biofuel, see Action
Item, 3-75) with hydronic heating systems or systems with fan coil that can do both heating and
cooling (four-pipe vertical stacked fan coil system provide the greatest comfort and flexibility).

3-43

Install Whole Building Hydronic Heating for Heating in All Units, Point Range Based on Boiler
Efficiency - 85% or 92%

85%

10 points

92%

15 points

Hydronic heating systems work by first heating water in a boiler using natural gas, electricity,
propane, biofuel or solid fuel; then the heated water is circulated through a heat transfer device,
radiators, radiant loops, or in-floor systems. After reaching the heat transfer device, the water is
returned to the boiler for re-heating. This system eliminates space consuming ducts system when
air is heated instead of water. Other advantages include even heat and the ability to adapt for
zoned heating, see Action Item 3-36, Install Heat Systems with Separate Zones for Sleeping and
Living Areas. However, zoned heating is not recommended for hydronic-in-floor systems.
Careful consideration to design is mandatory when considering this option and installation may
have higher first costs, particularly if careful design and proper operation and maintenance are not
considered. Include as much information on this system in the Operations and Maintenance Kit
provided as per Section 1.
To determine boiler efficiency for natural gas systems, look for the AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) rating on equipment. Federal minimum is now 78% AFUE. Energy Star recommends 83% AFUE, and condensing equipment is now widely available at 90-97% AFUE rating.
If using gas instant water heaters instead of a boiler, use the Energy Factor (EF) for efficiency,
see Action Item, 3-48, Install On-Demand (Tankless) Hot Water Heater.

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3-44

Install Geothermal Heat Pumps


As mentioned in Action Item, 3-38, Select High Efficiency Heat Pumps, geothermal (groundsource or water-source) systems provide higher efficiencies, however, they cost more to install
and have some site-specific limitations. Also, they offer green house gas emission reductions
compared to other heating options.
Geothermal systems use the ground instead of outside air to provide heating, cooling, and in most
cases, hot water. Using the grounds relatively constant temperature as the exchange medium for
these systems, results in the most efficient system that is best at producing comfortable heating
and cooling.
Conventional ductwork is generally used with these systems. Many systems are being equipped
with a separate heat exchanger to meet most of the units hot water needs, particularly when the
system is not operating, typically in the spring and fall. Geothermal heat pumps can be coupled
with electric heating systems, as well.
As to site-specific limitations, installation can be impacted by lot size, the condition of the subsoil, and the landscape, which in turn can affect the applicability of this system to a particular site.

WATER HEATING
Overall
Water heating typically accounts for 40% to 75% of the energy used in multi-family buildings in
California. Studies show that in San Francisco, where their heating and cooling loads are more
similar to Western Washington, it is estimated that the energy used is at the high end of this
range. Consequently, improvements in water heating efficiency offer good opportunities to save
resources and money. Fuels with greater heating value include natural gas, propane, and fuel oil.
Also, combined water and space heating systems can also offer green benefits.
The water heating improvements listed below are based on the water heater being located inside
the conditioned space of the unit. Water heaters located in garages or other exterior spaces are
likely to save more. These upgrades are commonly available in 40-gallon and 50-gallon units.

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3-45

Install Drainwater Heat Recovery System (DHR)


A significant amount of energy is lost when draining warm wastewater. Drainwater heat recovery (DHR) devices fit into existing drain lines to capture some of that exiting energy. DHR systems use drainwater to preheat cold water going to a shower or to a water heater. DHR systems
reduce the energy needed to heat water and can increase the capacity of water heaters.
DHR systems are approved under the multi-family Energy Star program if used in conjunction
with hydronic heating.

From EERE, from Toolbase Services

3-46

Install Whole Building Recirculation Pump


Innovative hot water recirculation systems deliver hot water to fixtures quickly without waiting
for water to reach a comfortable temperature before showers or washing hands or dishes. Demand
controlled hot water recirculation systems can result in a 20-30% reduction in water use and enhance the energy performance of water heaters. Rather than relying on low water pressure common in most water lines, recirculating systems use a pump to rapidly move water from a water
heater to the fixtures, while simultaneously sending cooled water remaining in the line through a
return line back to the water heater to be reheated. In addition to having the convenience of hot
water on-demand, the system conserves water and can save energy.
Hot water recirculation systems can be activated by the push of a button, or by a thermostat, timer
or motion sensor. Systems that use a thermostat or timer may use more energy than on/off button
or switch operated systems, due to more frequent recirculation cycles and hot water constantly
being left in the pipes to cool off.
The systems work very much like turning on the hot water faucet and letting the water run until it
gets hot, but instead of water going down the drain, it is returned back to the water heater.

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For water heaters located within dwelling units, provide a manual (on-demand) control or occupant sensor switch for operation of the recirculation pump along with an automatic temperature
sensor shut-off. The recirculation pump needs to be controlled by the user at the time of use rather than circulating hot water through the piping system continuously. A switch or occupant sensor located near the fixture activates a small pump that begins circulating hot water when there is
a demand for it. A temperature sensor at the fixture automatically turns the pump off.
Another option is to design units with a central manifold (home-run) distribution system that use
hot and cold distribution lines to supply each side of each fixture with its own dedicated line. This
minimizes water temperature and pressure changes during simultaneous operation of numerous
fixtures. Additional benefits of a properly designed and installed system include: faster hot water
delivery, water and energy savings, and few fittings located behind the wall.

3-47

Passive or On-Demand Hot Water Delivery System Installed at Farthest Location from Water
Heater
These systems heat the water as it passes through, producing hot water on demand. The heating
is switched on (or ignited, if gas) when water begins to flow through the unit. This saves water at
the tap and can save energy that would otherwise be used to store hot water until needed. Since a
limited amount of water can be drawn off at any one time, this option should be considered for intermittent and low volume demand needs. A two-gallon under the sink water heater is a good
idea, but it should not be supplemented with the main DHW system piping.
Another option is home run piping, a small diameter pipe that serves only the sink farthest from
the water heater, but does go directly to the main water heater overall water loss is less.
See also Action Item 3-48, Install On-Demand (Tankless) Hot Water Heater.

3-48

Install On-Demand (Tankless) Hot Water Heater


See Action Item 3-47, Passive or On-Demand Hot Water Delivery System Installed at Farthest
Location from Water Heater, for additional information.
With instant or demand or tankless water heaters, you only heat the water you use. Instead of
storing hot water in an insulated tank, the water is heated, on demand, at the point of use. These
systems can save as much as 3 to 4 gallons per use, considering that this is the amount of cooled
water that must be drained before hot water arrives at the faucet in traditional systems. In addition, standby energy losses represent 10% to 20% of a households annual water heating costs.
In the past, instant hot water systems were either electric (converting only a third of the primary
energy into usable thermal energy), or if they were gas fired, they were equipped with continuously burning pilot lights that wasted energy. Newer, gas-fired models without continuously
burning pilot lights are available. Such systems save water and energy, providing even more
bang for the buck.

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3-49

Upgrade Electric Water Efficiency Above Code


Current code requires domestic hot water systems meet the requirements of the 1987 National
Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). Upgrading electric water heater efficiency from
an Energy Factor (EF) of 0.88 to 0.93 will save 225 kWh per year. Household operational savings
will support an additional cost of about $50. Be careful to avoid heat loss (through heat traps)
when you have a hot water tank on lower floors feeding upper stories.

3-50

Upgrade Gas or Propane Water Heater Efficiency to 0.61 or 0.81


GAMA Gas Appliances Manufacturers Assoc. lists residential water heaters that go beyond
0.81 for instantaneous, non-storage options; storage options range from 0.58 to 0.65. Many options at 0.61 are available, and 0.64. Current code requires domestic hot water systems meet the
requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). Upgrading gas
water heater efficiency from an EF of 0.55 to 0.60 will save 18 therms per year. Household operational savings will support an additional cost of about $38. Upgrading a propane water heater
from an EF of 0.55 to 0.60 will save 16 gallons of propane per year. Household operational savings will support an additional cost of about $50. Be careful to avoid heat loss (through heat
traps) when you have a hot water tank on lower floors feeding upper stories.

3-51

Install the Water Heater Inside the Heated Space (Electric, Direct Vent, or Sealed Venting Only)
By installing the water heater inside the heated space, you minimize heat loss to the environment.
Combustion water heaters located inside the living area must be sealed combustion type. They
will have outside combustion air ducted to the firebox. They also must be directly vented to the
outside with no possibility of combustion products mixing with indoor air.
Direct vent hot water heaters help protect indoor air quality by venting combustion by-products
outside. They also draw combustion air from outside instead of using treated indoor air.

3-52

Upgrade Electric Water Heater to an Exhaust Air Heat Pump Water Heater or De-Superheater:
EF 1.9
The exhaust air heat pump is a good option for families who require lots of hot water. A unit
with an EF of 1.9 will yield 50% savings in energy use compared to a conventional system

3-53

Install a Timer to Regulate Standby Hot Water Loss in Hot Water Heater
You can save an additional 5-12% of energy by installing a timer on electric water heaters. Timers can be set to turn off at night or during sleeping hours, depending on the occupants schedule,
and/or during peak demand times. Contact your utility to see if they provide a demand management program that reduces your rate during off-peak times. If such programs exist make that information part of the Operations and Maintenance Kit from Section 1.

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3-54

Ultra High Efficiency Central Water Heating


Provide ultra-high efficiency (93% or greater) central water heating system.

3-55

Solar Water Heating System for Common Facilities


Geographic location, system design, collector orientation, and collector size will determine how
much energy can be garnered for hot water heating. A solar water heating system may result in
immediate positive cash flow if the monthly cost of financing the system is less than the net savings.
Limitations include the need for regular maintenance, a relatively high initial cost, and a longer
payback period relative to other water heating equipment options. Lastly, there is potential for
freezing with passive systems. Check local building codes to determine codes related to the installation of solar water heaters. The Solar Ratings and Certification Corporation runs a certification program for solar water heating systems.
Also, consider installing radiant heating in common areas to receive credit for this Action Item.

3-56

Install Solar Hot Water Heating


Solar energy can meet part or all of a buildings domestic hot water needs. Geographic location,
system design, collector orientation, and collector size will determine how much energy can be
provided for domestic hot water heating.
Limitations include the need for regular maintenance, a higher initial cost compared to traditional
systems, and a longer payback period. Payback for multi-family systems is almost always less
than single-family systems and will in most cases pay back in under 10 years and, quite often,
less.
Lastly, there is potential for freezing with passive systems. Check local building codes to determine codes related to the installation of solar water heaters. The Solar Ratings and Certification
Corporation runs a certification program for solar water heating systems.
Solar water heating for all domestic hot water requirements in multi-family facilities is not common, however, the market is acknowledging the need and some vendors are now offering integrated solar hot water and heating systems. Designers acknowledge that solar systems designed
for central boiler applications are most cost effective using centralized arrays and large ASME
(American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code storage vessels.

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Distribution
3-57

Locate Water Heater within 20 Pipe Feet of Highest Use


Locating the hot water heater near the point of highest use will minimize pipeline energy loss.
Typically, the point of highest demand is the shower.

3-58

Insulate All Hot Water Pipes and Install Cold Inlet Heat Traps on Hot Water Heater
This measure reduces standby heat loss from the water tank. The piping and the water in it are
continuously heated by the tank even when no water is being used. They act as cooling rods.
Insulating them reduces the rate of heat loss. Today, many new storage water heaters have factory-installed heat traps or have them available as an option.

LIGHTING
Lighting accounts for 5 to 10% of total energy use in U.S. homes. Although no studies were directed at
multi-family homes, it is reasonable to assume that this figure could be even higher, especially for multistoried building units that do not have fenestrations facing in multiple directions. While this amount is
relatively small, lighting choices can also affect the amount of energy used to heat and cool the home.
More efficient lighting can also mean better lighting, such as when daylighting and task lighting is specifically considered as part of the design.

Natural Light
3-59

Light-Colored Interior Finishes


Light colored interior finishes naturally reflect both natural and artificial light, reducing the demand for additional artificial lighting.

3-60

Use Clerestory for Natural Lighting


Careful design and specification of windows is a cost-effective way to save energy. Further savings are achieved by shading techniques and north-facing clerestory windows (any window with
sill above eye level) that admit natural light without direct solar gain.

3-61

Maximize Daylighting for All Units


Daylighting is the practice of using natural light to illuminate building spaces rather than relying
solely on electric lighting during the day. Daylighting brings indirect natural light into the building. Effective daylighting requires integrated design and must be considered at the design phase.

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When properly designed and effectively integrated with the electric lighting system, daylighting
can offer significant energy savings by offsetting a portion of the electric lighting load. A related
benefit is the reduction in cooling capacity and use by lowering a significant component of internal gains. Additionally, daylighting offers other aesthetic benefits, such as connecting people to
the outdoors, improving occupant satisfaction and comfort, providing pleasing illumination at a
fraction of the cost of the most efficient electric lights.
Today's highly energy-efficient windows, as well as advances in lighting design, allow efficient
use of windows to reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing
heating or cooling problems. Windows also provide visual relief, a contact with nature, time orientation, the possibility of ventilation, and emergency egress. North-facing windows are advantageous for daylighting. They admit relatively even, natural light, producing little glare and almost
no unwanted summer heat gain.
Although east- and west-facing windows provide good daylight penetration in the morning and
evening, respectively, they should be limited. They may cause glare, admit a lot of heat during the
summer when it is usually not wanted, and contribute little to solar heating during the winter.

Efficient Lighting
3-62

Install Low-Mercury T-8 Lamps


In an effort to reduce lighting energy costs, T8 fluorescent lamps with electronic ballast have
quickly become the standard for new fixtures. T8 lamps are the highest efficiency lamps for 4and 8-foot fixtures. Most applications will benefit from T8 technology versus T12 for several reasons. The T8 lamps have a higher efficacy (lumens per watt) rating and better color rendering
than T12 lamps. Depending on the ballast used, the T8 lamp often delivers the same lumen output
for 20% - 40% fewer watts.
New low-mercury T-8 lamps use much less of this hazardous metal, which also contributes to water quality and protection.

3-63

Halogen Lighting Substituted for Incandescent Downlights


Halogen lamps are turbo-charged incandescents that screw into standard sockets and are about
10% more efficient than standard incandescents. Often called punchy, they emit a whiter light
than standard incandescents, making them a good choice for illuminating work requiring high
visual acuity or where color rendition is important, such as lighting works of art. They are available in reflector, flood, spotlight, and standard styles, and are dimmable. Halogens lose less than
10% of their brightness over their lifetimes, compared to 25% for standard incandescents.
Halogen-IR bulbs are even more efficient, using about half the electricity of standard incandescents and last longer than normal incandescents.
Let the owner/occupants know that halogen torchieres are a fire hazard.

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3-64

Install Lighting Dimmer, Photo Cells, Timers, and/or Motion Detectors (Interior) for High
Efficiency Fixtures
If you think fluorescent light is energy-efficient, take a look at new LED (light emitting diode)
lighting options. LED lights consume less than a quarter of the electricity that fluorescents do and
less than 90% compared to incandescent bulbs. The lighting quality is comparable to that of cool
white compact fluorescent lamps. Currently, there are a limited number of manufacturers, but that
is expected to change. In the meantime, light bulbs, bars and strips, task lighting, floodlights, and
controls for interior and exterior applications.
Dimmers allow you to use one light for many purposes, and can save energy and extend the life
of most bulbs when used at lower levels. Look for full-range dimmers that vary the light continuously from off to full brightness. Dimmers can be used with incandescent lights, including low
voltage systems, and with compact fluorescents. There are several choices of wall-mounted
dimmers: toggle, rotary, sliding, solid-state touch, and new integrated systems with remote controls that can recall previous lighting levels. If several high-wattage incandescent lamps are to be
controlled at one point, add a hard-wired dimmer. If you are using traditional incandescent lamps,
you must use a high efficiency fixture to receive points for this credit.
Photo Cells, thin-film devices that work by generating a current when exposed to light, thus this
technology can be used as a light sensor for lighting devices.
Timers can be located at a light switch, a plug, or in a socket, and are available as both mechanical and solid-state. Some offer the option of a manual override. Some screw-base compact fluorescent bulbs cannot be used with timers; check manufacturers recommendations.
Motion detectors or occupancy sensors can result in significant energy savings, especially in bathrooms and bedrooms where lights are frequently left on. Sensors can have manual on/off switches or can operate entirely automatically. Motion detectors should not be used with some compact
fluorescents, or with high intensity discharge lights because of their inability to relight quickly.
Some models feature dimmers that reduce light to a preset level rather than turn completely off;
others come with photosensors that turn lights on only when the light level is below a preset point
and motion is detected.

3-65

Install Photo Cells, Timers, Motion Detectors (Exterior) for 90% of Fixtures
The updated July 2007 Washington State Energy Code requires high efficacy fixtures outdoors.
The only exception to this is if the permanently installed outdoor lights are controlled by a motion-sensor(s) with integral photocontrol photosensor, or those around swimming pools and water
features.
If you think fluorescent light is energy-efficient, take a look at new LED (light emitting diode)
lighting options. LED lights consume less than a quarter of the electricity that fluorescents do and
less than 90% compared to incandescent bulbs. The lighting quality is comparable to that of cool
white compact fluorescent lamps. Currently, there are a limited number of manufacturers, but that
is expected to change. In the meantime, light bulbs, bars and strips, task lighting, floodlights, and
controls for interior and exterior applications.

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Light-sensing controls are increasingly being used to control outdoor lights along driveways and
walkways. Consider motion detectors and photosensors for energy efficiency. Consult with your
lighting supplier for optimal placement.
See Action Item, 3-64, Install Lighting Dimmer, Photo Cells, Timers, and/or Motion Detectors
(Interior), for information on these technologies for use in exterior applications.

3-66

Install LED, ENERGY STAR Compliant CFL Bulbs, or Demonstrated Energy Equivalent in All Units
and Common Areas
Minimum 40% of all lighting in units and common areas must have one of these types of bulbs,
or a combination of these types, in order to qualify for this credit.
Incandescent bulbs waste 90% of their energy producing heat instead of light. Using ENERGY
STAR compliant bulbs assures that you are installing the most energy efficient lighting available.
Commercial bulbs and fixtures have not been certified by the Energy Star program, so you may
substitute demonstrated energy equivalent alternatives that meet Energy Star standards.
According to LightSite (see Resources for Efficient Lighting), switching one incandescent bulb to
a compact fluorescent can save more than $30.00 over the course of 10,000 hours of use.
Also, because they burn at low temperatures, compact fluorescents are a cooler and safer alternative to many traditional halogens. Let the owner/occupants know that halogen torchieres are a fire
hazard.
For hardwired compact fluorescent fixtures, select high power factor ballasts.

3-67

Install LED, ENERGY STAR Compliant Fixtures, or Demonstrated Energy Equivalent in All Units
and Common Areas
1 point for each 10% of lighting up to maximum of 10 points
Incandescent bulbs waste 90% of their energy producing heat instead of light. Using ENERGY
STAR compliant lighting fixtures assures that you are installing the most energy efficient lighting
available. Commercial bulbs and fixtures have not been certified by the Energy Star program,
so you may substitute demonstrated energy equivalent alternatives that meet Energy Star standards.
Let the owner/occupants know that halogen torchieres are a fire hazard.

3-68

Avoid Excessive Outdoor Light Levels While Maintaining Adequate Light for Security and Safe
Access, Meet IESNA Levels
Outdoor floodlights are designed to "broadcast" illumination so as to cover as much area as possible. However, the lack of "light control" in a floodlight causes many detrimental and unwanted
side-effects, such as blinding glare, intrusion into neighboring homes and natural areas (called

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light trespass), and waste light up into the night sky (called light pollution). Additionally, lack of
lighting controls wastes energy.
Good outdoor lighting is:

More cost efficient

Directs light down and to the sides as needed; light control

Reduces glare; more even illumination

Reduces light trespass onto neighboring properties

Helps preserve the dark night sky.

In order to avoid light trespass, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) recommends using full-cut off luminaires and many local jurisdictions require them now. Other options include selecting a pole height and lamp-wattage that maximizes the distribution of light
from the luminaire and designing the lighting layout so that it provides good visibility for horizontal surfaces and vertical surfaces.
Figure 3-7Good Outdoor Lighting
(Source: MacDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas, http://vc.as.utexas.edu/home.html.
Reprinted with permission.)

Use low wattage, energy efficient bulbs that provide only as much illumination as needed, distribute the illumination using shielded fixtures that point light downward, and only use outdoor
nighttime lighting for as long as it is absolutely necessary. Do not exceed the IESNA footcandle
level requirements as stated in the Recommended Practice Manual: Lighting for Exterior Environments. (See Resources.)
Security lighting provides the best performance when administered using infrared proximity sensors that cause lights to turn on suddenly when someone approaches a building. This causes an
immediate change of the surrounding environment that tends to frighten away most people with
ill-intent, and it also raises immediate attention from nearby neighbors and law enforcement officials.

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APPLIANCES
All appliances installed in the unit should be as energy efficient as possible. The reduced electrical costs for operating energy efficient appliances rapidly offset slightly higher initial costs, if
any.
The Energy Guide or ENERGY STAR labels found on many appliances identifies energy efficient options. There may be other guidelines that identify water-saving features. Also, look for
the following energy-saving characteristics:

3-69

Refrigerator/FreezerEnergy-efficient characteristics include freezer-on-top arrangement


(rather than side-by-side), manual defrost, and absence of through-the-door dispensers and
automatic icemakers. In general, the larger the refrigerator, the more energy it takes to run.
However, newer models with some of these features compensate for the energy penalty with
advanced insulation systems look for Energy Star labels.

DishwasherThe primary cost of running a dishwasher is the cost of heating the water. Energy saving features include light load options and air circulation for drying. Also, the smaller the machine the less energy required to run a load.

Washing MachineSimilar to the dishwasher, the primary energy cost is in heating the water. Energy saving features include options for cold water wash and small loads. In general,
front-loading washing machines use one-third less water than top-loading machines, and research shows they do a better job of cleaning the clothes.

DryerThe primary energy saving feature is automatic shut-off when the clothes are dry.

Install Gas Clothes Dryer in Common Laundry or in All Units


In new construction, installation of a gas clothes dryer in lieu of an electric one will result in utility cost savings, even considering installation of the additional gas piping. Consumer benefits are
approximately $35 per year in western Washington. Cost for fuel piping when installed during
construction is minimal$40 to $75. Gas clothes dryers generally cost about $40 more than electric clothes dryers.

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3-70

Install a Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient Washing Machine in All Units


Front-loading or horizontal-axis (H-axis) clothes washers offer significant water and energy efficiencies (up to 30% less) compared to traditional vertical-axis machines. Additionally, clothes
coming out of the H-axis washer at the end of the wash cycle contain less water compared to conventional washers. This reduces dryer energy use as well. Finally, H-axis washers are gentler on
clothes so they last longer. All these benefits are features you can sell to your clients.

Figure 6-1Vertical Axis


Configuration

Figure 6-2Horizontal Axis Configuration

(Source: City of Santa Barbara, CA Public Works Department)


There are new vertical-axis models on the market that use less water and save energy. Look for
environmental guidelines, such as Energy Star or a water-saver label.

3-71

Install Common Laundry Facilities Instead of in Each Unit with Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient
Washers
Commercial Energy Star qualified clothes washers for multi-family facilities allow for up to
$1,200.00 savings per washer over ten years.

3-72

Install a Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient Dishwasher in All Units


As with other home appliances, national energy standards have spurred the development of more
efficient dishwashers. Energy- and water-efficiency are closely related in dishwashers, except for
booster heating and drying cycles. The most water-efficient dishwashers use as little as 3.9 gallons per cycle at the economy setting. Energy savings range from 80 kWh per year to 364 kWh
per year. Some of the most efficient dishwashers also operate significantly more quietly than
conventional dishwashers.
You can market your selection of extra-efficient dishwashers to the owner from several perspectivesperformance, water and energy efficiency, ease of use, total features, quiet operation, and
reliability.

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3-73

Install ENERGY STAR Refrigerator in All Units


ENERGY STAR refrigerators listed are at least 20% more efficient than the current federal minimum standard. Energy savings range from 125 kWh per year to 320 kWh per year, depending on
size, style, and features. A cost effective investment ranges from $25 to $125.

3-74

Install Gas Stove/Cooktop in All Units


Action Items, 1-6 or 1-7, Install CO Detector, are program requirements and required with this
credit.
This credit conflicts with Action Items, 4-82, Do Not Install Gas-Burning Appliances Inside
Units or Building; its purpose here is toward a point for energy efficiency - If you plan to install a
stove or cooktop, install natural gas appliances, electronic ignition devices use 40% less gas than
a pilot light.

3-75

Install Biofuel Appliances


Any oil furnace, water heater, or boiler that runs on fuel oil can run bio-diesel. You may have to
provide some system adjustments, but all equipment should be able to handle a 20/80 mixture of
biofuel to fuel. See Action Item, 2-74, Provide for B20 or Better Equipment, for more information on biodiesel.

3-76

Install ENERGY STAR Exhaust Fans in All Units


Energy Star rated exhaust fans are available that will use less energy for the same amount of
ventilation than non-Energy Star units.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Bonus Points


3-77

Participate in the Local Utilitys Electricity Program for Renewable Electricity Sources
2-5 points

Builder Enrolled

2 points

Enrollment transitioned to owner

5 points

Currently, it costs more to build wind, solar and biomass generating facilities. By signing up for
your local utilitys voluntary green power program that supports renewable energy production,
electricity producers are given the necessary backing to promote more environmentally friendly
resources. As more renewable energy is used, less air and water pollution are produced. Support
your utilities' voluntary renewable energy programs (PSE's Green Power Program, Seattle City
Light's Green Up program and Snohomish County PUD's Planet Power program) through a sim-

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ple sign-up process. Suggested initial participation lengths are one year for builders, two years for
owners.

3-78

Solar-Powered or Low-Voltage Walkway or Outdoor Area Lighting


Solar powered outdoor lighting uses a photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate electricity during the
daytime, which is then stored in a battery. At night, stored electricity is used to power the light.
Some models are manual, while others are turned on automatically by light-sensing controls or
activated by motion-sensing devices. Most of these walkway or security lights require no wiring
or installation other than pushing the stake into the ground, or screwing the fixture to a wall.
Most of the widely marketed solar walkway lights do not put out a lot of light, but they are useful
for lighting the path to the door so guests can find their way. Also available are larger solar lights
that do provide a lot of light, but these can be more expensive.
Solar-powered outdoor lights can be found in many hardware or department stores, or purchased
through catalog retailers of alternative energy and stand-alone power equipment.

3-79

More than 2% of Building Powered by Photovoltaic


Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight directly into electricity. Newer PV modules are integrated into roofing materials, replacing traditional PV modules that are mounted on rooftop racks.
Once installed, PV roofing produces free electricity from sunlight that can power certain building
functions or, if there are sufficient panels, could supply the entire electrical needs of a building or
a portion of a building.
PV roofing products provide environmental benefits because they do not produce pollution or
carbon dioxide emissions like fossil fuel-based utility power. They are also more attractive than
many other solar systems, which increases consumer acceptance.
Expected cost of electricity produced from a PV system is equal to about 13 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) when considering initial cost spread over 25 years (payback), plus maintenance
costs. (However, the cost for PV installations is dropping.) Unlike generators, they operate silently and require little maintenance.

3-80

Install Photovoltaic System, Minimum 1 kW


Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight directly into electricity. Some systems have been
poorly accepted because operators consider the structure unattractive. However, newer PV modules can be integrated into roofing materials, replacing traditional PV modules that are mounted
on rooftop racks. Once installed, PV roofing produces free electricity from sunlight that can
power certain building functions. PV roofing products provide environmental benefits because
they do not produce pollution or carbon dioxide emissions like fossil fuel-based utility power.
They are also more attractive than many other solar systems, which increases consumer acceptance.
The cost for PV installations is dropping. Unlike generators, they operate silently and require little maintenance.

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Installation of a PV system should only be considered after designing the most energy efficient
building possible. Then determine the buildings overall energy needs and the amount of unshaded roof area available.

3-81

Install Innovative Non-Solar Renewable Power Systems That Produce a Minimum of 15%, 30%,
or 50% of the Common Areas Total Annual Energy
5 25 points

15%

5 points

30%

10 points

50%

25 points

Non-solar renewable power systems that could add to the buildings total energy production include wind power, waterpower, biofuel, and geo-thermal.
Small wind systems are available for residential applications. A wind turbine typically lowers a
buildings electricity bill by 50% to 90%. The amount of money a small wind turbine saves you
in the long run will depend upon its cost, the amount of electricity you use, the average wind
speed at your site, and other factors.
Small-site water energy systems are not yet practical. Biofuel and geo-thermal already receive
credit under Action Items, 3-75, Install Biofuel Appliances, and 3-44, Install Geo-thermal Heat
Pumps.

EXTRA CREDIT / INNOVATION for ENERGY EFFICIENCY


3-82

Extra Credit / Innovation for Energy Efficiency


You may submit an energy saving strategy or system, not specifically called out in this Section,
for consideration for an Extra Credit for Innovation. All extra credits will be reviewed by the
Program Director. Extra credits will be worth from 1 to 10 points. If approved, add awarded
points to your Section total.

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Section Four:
Health and Indoor
Air Quality
Overall
Jobsite Operations
Layout and Material Selection
Moisture Control
Overall

Walls Above Grade

Roof

Below Grade
Openings

Air Distribution and Filtration


HVAC Equipment
Health and Indoor Air Quality
Extra Credit / Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality

Section Four:
Health and Indoor Air Quality
The Action Items in this section are intended to promote good indoor air quality, as well as reduce health
risks from toxins and allergens for occupants and installers. Please note that the practices described in
this section are not intended to represent the comprehensive approach required for occupants with unusual
chemical sensitivities or allergies. A product labeled as non-toxic may be harmless for most individuals,
but may cause problems for particularly sensitive individuals.

OVERALL
4-1

Builder or Architect Certified to Have Taken American Lung Association (ALA) of Washington
Healthy House Professional Training Course, or Equivalent Approved by Director
The American Lung Association offers training, which provides an in-depth focus on indoor air
quality issues in residential construction. Topics covered include indoor air quality and health,
design and energy issues, material selection, dust and moisture control, ventilation and filtration
methods, and pesticide and chemical usage. The course is open to the public, but is targeted to
building professionals, including architects, builders, industrial hygienists, engineers, interior designers, and others.
This credit is available to project team members who take this course or other Indoor Air Quality
(IAQ) class with 8 hours of curriculum minimum.

4-2

Certify Building Under an IAQ Program Approved by Director


Certify building under an IAQ Program approved by the BUILT GREEN Director. At the time of
the 2008 update, no programs have been identified; however, it is expected that the American
Lung Association or other program may soon become available. Check with the Program when
you are looking at this credit.

4-3

Building is Designated Non-Smoking


In recent years, many cities, states, and individual institutions have banned smoking inside designated facilities in an effort to protect public health and safety. Studies have shown that the effects
of secondhand smoke can be as lethal as directly inhaling smoke from cigarettes and cigars.
Smoking is considered in this culture to be a serious public health issue. Built Green is not interested in dictated public policy, but does want to award builders who take the extra effort to
protect public health.

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To receive credit for this Action Item, you must designate the entire building as non-smoking if
the facility consists of a single building. If there are multiple buildings, you may still receive
credit for this Action Item if a minimum of 80% of the facility is designated non-smoking and
designated smoking areas are fully separated (separate buildings preferred or separate HVAC systems) from non-smoking areas.
To ensure success of the designation, for privately owned condominiums, the non-smoking provisions shall be incorporated into the covenants and by-laws that not only protect the architectural
integrity and harmony of the community, but also to promote the safety and welfare of residents
and to maintain an acceptable quality of life. For rental properties, similar language should be incorporated into leases for non-smoking units to contain a clause stating that smoking is prohibited
in the unit and that it is a material breach of the lease to violate the terms of the ordinance.
A non-smoking building/ unit applies to all residence balconies, porches and patios, as well as all
interior spaces. An outdoor area, designated as a smoking areas for smokers should be incorporated into the design of the facility.

4-4

Provide Tenants or Homeowners With Maintenance Checklists


At a minimum, include maintenance information for all installed systems. Additionally, include:

Information about proper operation and maintenance of mechanical ventilation system, if applicable (see Action Items, under HVAC Equipment)

A completed copy of Chart 3-1 from Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency, if applicable. (This applies if you have performed Action Item 3-2, Document Envelope Improvements
Beyond Code (Component Performance Approach)

Information about any air filter systems installed (including filter size, type, quality, and the
ideal replacement schedule). This applies if you have incorporated any of the filter Action
Items (see 4-61a and b)

Information about non-toxic and low-toxic mold removal

Information about environmentally friendly landscaping operations and maintenance (if applicable)

Information about operating and maintaining water-using fixtures and equipment to avoid
long-term leaks and optimize use.

Ideas to consider:

Hazard or toxic spill clean-up info

Proper chemical/toxic material storage

List of safer products alternative

List of highly effective vacuums, if carpets are included in the units

Schedule or reminder to clean air supply vents.

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JOBSITE OPERATIONS
4-5

Use Less-Toxic Cleaners


Cleaners and solvents can be sources of hundreds of potentially harmful chemicals. Review
manufacturers Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) before you buy. Avoid products that are
given a health hazards rating higher than 1. In addition, avoid as much as possible products
with ingredients that the MSDS classifies as toxic (poisonous), flammable, caustic (causes burns),
or chemically reactive. Leftovers of these products will be hazardous waste. (For proper hazardous waste handling and disposal procedures, see Action Items 1-9, Dispose of Non-Recyclable
Hazardous Waste at Legally Permitted Facilities, 2-32, Establish and Post Clean Up Procedures
for Spills to Prevent Illegal Discharges, and 2-33 Reduce Hazardous Waste through Good Jobsite
Housekeeping.
Use environmentally friendly alternatives, including biodegradable products and those that are zero-VOC or low-VOC (no- to low-volatile organic compounds).

4-6

Require Workers to Use VOC-Safe Masks When Applying VOC Containing Wet Products and N-95
Dust Masks when Generating Dust
For small projects with short exposures to VOCs, a grey carbon-impregnated dust mask manufactured by 3M or equivalent should suffice. These masks are readily available at most lumberyards
and run about $4 to $5 each.
Whenever workers are exposed to off-gassing or fine particulates (for example, from paints, solvents, adhesives, molds or finishes), a flexible half-mask equipped with two or three straps to ensure a tight fit should be worn. Use filter cartridges to complete the mask. They are color-coded
to identify the kind of contaminant they are designed to capture. Cartridges designed to capture
VOCs are black and filled with activated charcoal. When the charcoal becomes saturated (end of
life), the operator will begin to smell the vapor, signifying that it is time to change the filter. To
extend the life of the filter, store in a plastic bag between uses. The mask usually costs under
$30; a set of filters can run from $30 to $50.
Note: Filtration through a mask is actually the least effective method of reducing worker exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) resulting from applying paints, thinners, and solvents.
The best method is to eliminate or reduce the problem in the first place by choosing low- or
non-toxic alternatives and keeping the work area thoroughly ventilated (see Action Items of 4-14,
Inside Building Envelope Use Only Low-VOC, Low-Toxic, Water-Based, Solvent-Free Sealers,
Grouts, Mortars, Drywall Mud, Caulks, and Adhesives, and 4-31 and 4-32, Use Only Low-VOC
/Low-Toxic Interior Paints, Primers, and Finishes.
For dust generating activities, specify N95 particulate masks to help filter out fine airborne particles including pollens, dander, mite allergen, mold spores, and microorganisms by using advanced electrostatically charged microfibers. This mask can be worn for long periods of time until it becomes damaged, soiled, or breathing becomes difficult. NIOSH government-approved
N95 Respirator provides at least 95% filtration against non-oil particles.

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4-7

Take Measures During Construction Operations to Avoid Moisture Problems Later (Basic or
Expanded Levels)

3 points

Basic

5 points

Expanded

Moisture problems in todays tight buildings are always a concern. Measures to take during
construction operations to avoid moisture problems down the road are worth the investment for
the air quality and building structure considerations. For Multi-Family construction, this is increasingly becoming a lender and insurance consideration. This Action Item is split into to
groups, Basic and Expanded. More points are awarded for strategies that provide either greater
air quality or greater building integrity under the Expanded group as follows:

Basic Requirements:

Keep stored materials dry with tarps or in a protected place, or use


just-in-time delivery to avoid problems with stored materials

Use a moisture meter to make sure moisture content of underlayment,


sheathing, and framing materials does not exceed 15%. If readings exceed 15%, dehumidify before installing insulation and drywall

Protect woodwork from moisture damage during transit, delivery, storage, and handling

Expanded Requirements include Basic, plus:

Pump or drain standing water out of the structure after major rainstorms

Hook up installed rain gutters to temporary pipes to draw water away


from foundation

Install dimpled drainage mats at foundation walls

Use flashing instead of caulking to seal above doors, windows, and other
openings

Properly counter flash chimneys and build a cricket above chimney to


divert water

Properly flash all roof-to-wall intersections

Avoid flat roofs

Use quiet fans (1.5 sonos or less) bathrooms with a 60-minute timer.
Noisy fans will not get used

During construction, remove unwanted moisture with a dehumidifier, not


combustion heaters, which only bring more moisture into the home.

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4-8

Take Measures to Avoid Problems Due to Construction Dust by Performing All Items Listed
Minimize the amount of dust in the air and on surfaces to prevent construction dust problems.
Preventive measures to avoid subsequent problems resulting from construction dust include:

Use local exhaust ventilation systems

Use vacuum-assisted drywall sanding equipment*

Clean/vacuum up dirt, dust, and wood shavings as you go use vacuums instead of brooms

Vacuum stud bays before sheetrocking

Vacuum the floors before final flooring installation

Mask floor registers or use temporary screens or protective boxes to prevent debris from accumulating during construction

Install construction filterschange them after construction is done, then flush and change
them again (mechanical contractor can do this).
* Use wet sanding for gypsum board assemblies. Dry sanding is acceptable if the following
measures are taken:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4-9

Full isolation of space under finishing


Plastic protection sheeting is installed to provide air sealing during the sanding
Closure of all air system devices and ductwork
Sequencing of construction precludes the possibility of contamination of other spaces with gypsum dust
Worker protection is provided. Use safety meetings, signage, and subcontractor agreements to communicate the goals of the construction indoor air quality plan.

Ventilate During All New Wet Finish Applications


The goal of this Action Item is to reduce potential impact on occupant indoor air quality. Each
new finish (for example, paints, stains, and floor finishes) will off-gas for a time after it is applied. Emissions are highest immediately after the finish is applied. The first measure you can
take to reduce the impact on indoor air quality is to sequence installation of all finish materials.
Finishes that could potentially off-gas harmful contaminants should be applied (and properly ventilated see below) prior to the installation of woven, fibrous, or porous materials or finishes.
These materials can become repositories for contaminants. Specify air exchange rates and proper
air filtration procedures in construction documents to ensure that any necessary off-gassing occurs before absorbent materials are installed.
How you ventilate your building will depend on the size, configuration, and window access.
One alternative is to ventilate the building/unit with fans (several box fans in windows work best,
if applicable, or other mechanical ventilation) so that gases will be exhausted outside. Opening
windows and doors are not effective at exhausting contaminants. Depending on the unit configuration, box fans may not be appropriate, instead use ventilation equipment that ventilates indoor
air outside. The fan should be placed in a window or exterior door as close to the work area as
possible, and any openings in the window or door around the fan should be temporarily sealed
with plastic or cardboard. Then open a window or exterior door at the opposite end of the room or
building, so that fresher outdoor air will flow across the work area and sweep polluted air out
through the exhaust fan. The size of exhaust fan needed will increase as the size of the room increases, and as the amount of gases being released into the air increases. The fan should provide
about 5 air changes per hour (5 ACH). Divide the volume of the room in cubic feet by 12 to get
the minimum amount of cubic feet per minute (CFM) that the fan must be able to exhaust.

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Another alternative is to block the ventilation returns. Install a temporary 14 flex duct to the return plenum and run it out of the unit to a small housing with a filter grill. Use the furnace to draw
in the exterior filtered air, heat it and deliver through the unit. The air delivered into the house
will then exhaust to the exterior through windows left open one inch or less.
Venting out should continue for at least two and up to seven days after each application, depending on the amount of surface covered and the toxicity of the finish to assure your results. (For
toxic finishes applied over large areas, vent for seven days.) Use construction filters and change
them out before occupancy. If the unit is not properly ventilated during this phase, the emitted
gases will adhere to interior surfaces in the house and later be re-released into the indoor environment. If time does not allow, vent as long as possible.

4-10

No Use of Unvented Heaters During Construction


The use of unvented combustion heaters produces excess moisture that can become trapped inside
framing members during construction, leading to subsequent moisture damage. In addition, they
produce fumes that can be hazardous to workers. Instead use a vented heater or portable electric
heater.
Also, do not use the buildings heating system during construction. Instead, start up the heating
system for testing and balancing just before the owners move in.
Note: Often heaters are used to dry out the building following a rainstorm. Rent a dehumidifier instead.

4-11

Clean Duct and Furnace Thoroughly Before Occupancy


During construction, debris often enters through the registers to collect in the ducting. Unless removed, fine particles from the debris, which can be respiratory irritants, can circulate within the
ducts and re-enter the spaces through the registers.
In the final stages of construction and just before owners move in, thoroughly clean and vacuum
ducts to remove any particles that may have entered during construction.

4-12

Train Subs in Implementing a Healthy Building Jobsite Plan for the Project
To implement a healthy building jobsite plan, it is important to enlist the support and cooperation
of your subcontractors, especially painters, floor finishers, cabinet maker, as well as any others
that will be applying adhesives and caulks indoors (for example, flooring installers, countertop
installers, finish carpenters, framers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors). Before the job begins
and during on-site work, coordinate with them about:

Using low toxic materials (See Action Items of 4-14, Inside the Building Envelope, Use Only
Low-VOC, Low-Toxic, Water-Based, Solvent-Free Sealers, Grouts, Mortars, Drywall Mud,
Caulks and Adhesives and 4-31/32, Use Low-VOC /Low-Toxic Interior Paints and Finishes
)

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Venting out the building during and after each finish is applied (See Action Item 4-9, Ventilate During All New Wet Finish Applications)

Preventing moisture accumulation and entrapment in the structure during construction that
could cause mold growth or other damage during the life of the structure (See Action Item
4-7, Take Measures During Construction Operation to Avoid Moisture Problems Later)

Using only electric or vented heaters during construction (See Action Item 4-10, No Use of
Unvented Heaters During Construction). Use dehumidifiers or fans, if needed, to dry out the
building during construction

Prohibiting smoking in the structure enclosure

Coordinating closely with HVAC and electrical contractors for installation of whole unit ventilation (if applicable) and/or quiet spot ventilation in wet areas

Making sure any toxic materials such as asbestos, lead, or CCA pressure treated lumber (for
major renovation projects) are handled properly. For new construction, if you cant avoid toxic materials, order only appropriate quantities, handle properly on site, and dispose properly.
(See Action Items 1-9, Dispose of Non-Recyclable Hazardous Waste at Legally Permitted
Facilities, 2-32, Establish and Post Cleanup Procedures for Spills to Prevent Illegal Discharges, and 2-33, Reduce Hazardous Waste through Good Jobsite Housekeeping.

See Action Item 5-9, Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in
Waste Reduction Efforts, for tips on ways to involve subs.

4-13

Cover All Duct Openings During Construction


Temporarily seal all duct-work during construction. As duct-work is being installed, all return
and supply air vents and any open duct-work should be temporarily sealed to prevent the ductwork and air handling units from being contaminated with construction debris or dust.

LAYOUT AND MATERIAL SELECTION


How we finish and furnish our homes can impact the quality of the homes indoor environment. This
means selecting products that are environmentally friendly, healthy, and low in formaldehyde and volatile
organic compounds. It also means using less carpet and other textiles and installing more flooring and
other surfaces that are smooth and easy to clean.

4-14

Inside the Building Envelope, Use Only Low-VOC, Low-Toxic, Water-Based, Solvent-Free Sealers,
Grouts, Mortars, Drywall Mud, Caulks, and Adhesives for:
Conventional construction adhesives, grouts, and mortars used to bond structural components
may off-gas large amounts of toxic VOCs (including solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons).
Choose healthier low-VOC options. This will reduce potential harmful impacts on the health of
the occupants as well as installers.
An accepted industry standard for low-VOC, is the State of California, South Coast Air Quality
Management District (SCAQMD) Rule #1168. Based on these guidelines, Table 4-1 provides

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recommended limits for VOCs in adhesives. Table 4-2 provides recommended limits for VOCs in
Sealants
Table 4-1Recommended Limits for VOCs in Adhesives
(in grams per liter, less water and Exempt compounds)
(Source: State of California, South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule #1168
Amended January 2005)
Adhesives
Indoor Carpet Adhesives
Carpet Pad Adhesives
Outdoor Carpet Adhesives
Wood Flooring Adhesive
Rubber Floor Adhesives
Subfloor Adhesives
Ceramic Tile Adhesives
VCT and Asphalt Tile Adhesives
Dry Wall and Panel Adhesives

Current
VOC Limit
50
50
150
100
60
50
65
50
50

Table 4-2Recommended Limits for VOCs in Sealants


(in grams per liter, less water and Exempt compounds)
(Source: State of California, South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule #1168
Amended January 2005)

Sealants
Architectural*
Non-membrane Roof
Single-Ply Roof Membrane
Other

Current
VOC Limit
250
300
450
420

*Architectural Sealants refer to the use of an adhesive,


sealant, or adhesive or sealant primer on stationary structures and their appurtenances, including, but are not limited
to: hand railings, cabinets, bathroom and kitchen fixtures,
fences, rain gutters and downspouts, and windows.

Other IAQ standards to consult are the SCAQMD 2007/2008 standards or the State of California
01350 standards.

4-14a Tiling
Thin-set adhesives and mortars are available with Greenguard certifications. Also
anti-microbial grout admix, and sanded and unsanded cement grout come with
Greenguard Indoor Air Quality certifications
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4-14b Framing
For framing products, such as caulks and adhesives, choose low-VOC and/or
low-toxic alternatives.

4-14c Flooring
If you choose to finish materials on site, make sure the adhesives, sealers, stains,
and finishes are all low-VOC, low-toxic, water-based, and/or solvent-free. PreFinished floors DO NOT qualify for this credit. This credit only applies to siteapplied finishes.

4-14d Plumbing
When installing plumbing fixtures, choose credit-compliant sealers and caulks.

4-14e HVAC
The HVAC system requires duct sealants and caulks; choose credit compliant
mastic and caulks.

4-14f Insulating
Credit for this Action Items refers to insulation in the building envelope, not for
duct work credit for duct work is given above. To prevent air infiltration using
rigid foam insulation, you will need to seal the seams with caulk or tape. Use
credit compliant caulk for the best in indoor air quality and envelope sealing.

4-14g Drywalling
For drywall mud, look for products that do not add biocides. Biocides include
pesticides, poisonous heavy metals, and other preservatives that prevent materials
from spoiling. Some biocides may off-gas just as VOCs do, and can cause reactions in chemically sensitive people. Use credit-compliant sealers, caulks, and
pigments in any finish paints.

4-15

Use an Alternative to Fiberglass Insulation


Fiberglass materials may still display cancer-warning labels, and at a minimum, it still causes
health concerns for installers, building occupants, and poses a risk to factory workers. Direct
contact with fiberglass materials or exposure to airborne fiberglass dust may irritate the skin,
eyes, nose, and throat.

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Recycled cellulose loose fill, blown-in foam, and textile alternatives such as cotton or wool are all
currently available.

4-16

Use Urea Formaldehyde-Free Insulation or Greenguard Certified Product


Standard fiberglass batt insulation, the most common for new homes, has up to 14% formaldehyde, which can contribute to poor indoor air quality. Look for urea formaldehyde-free fiberglass
insulation, or a Greenguard certified product, preferably one with recycled content (See Action
Item 5-108, All Insulation to Have a Minimum of 40% Recycled Content). If you use rigid insulation, make sure it is formaldehyde-free, CFC-free, and HCFC-free. (See Action Item 5-109, Use
Environmentally Friendly Foam Building Products.) CFCs and HCFCs are not an indoor air quality problem, but should be avoided because they are believed to cause deterioration of the earths
ozone layer, certainly a general threat to the environment and human safety.
Check conventional product for their claim that the insulation has no added urea formaldehyde or
look for a Greenguard certified product.

4-17

Do Not Install Insulation or Carpet Padding that Contains Bromated Flame Retardant
Bromated flame retardants (BFRs) were introduced in 1978 as an effective flame-retardant.
Some BFRs are considered persistent organic pollutants known to bioaccumulate through the
food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health, particularly to developing
infants, and in the environment, to wildlife. This chemical is similar to PCBs, which have been
banned in the US. Avoid materials, particularly insulation and carpet padding, with this flame
retardant. See the Resources section for more information, or ask your supplier.

4-18

Use Plywood and Composites of Exterior Grade with No Added Urea Formaldehyde
(For Interior Use)
Particleboard, interior grade medium density fiberboard (MDF), and other interior use,
glue-containing products use urea-formaldehyde glue as a binder. With an off-gassing half-life of
about 10 years, urea-formaldehyde continues to off-gas formaldehyde for a long time after application. Formaldehyde in the indoor environment can cause a several health problems for the occupants, including headaches and flu-like symptoms, and can be a cause of sick building syndrome.
Instead, use materials containing no added formaldehyde, such as Medex grade MDF, Medite II,
or Skyblend. Or use products with exterior grade glue, which use a phenyl formaldehyde glue.
Phenyl formaldehyde glue off-gases quickly, and most formaldehyde is gone before the product
reaches the jobsite. Exterior grade products include plywoods such as CDX and OSB.

4-19

Use Only Shelving, Window Trim, Door Trim, Base Molding, etc., with No Added
Urea Formaldehyde
Some shelving, window trims, door trim, base molding, and other interior trim and wood products
may also use urea-formaldehyde glue as a binder. With an off-gassing half-life of about 10 years,

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-110

urea-formaldehyde continues to off-gas formaldehyde for a long time after application. Formaldehyde in the indoor environment can cause a several health problems for the occupants, including headaches and flu-like symptoms, and can be a cause of sick building syndrome.
A series of specialty MDF products that are certified by Scientific Certification Services (SCS)
for up to 100% recovered and recycled wood fiber content and for having no added formaldehyde
(lab tested to 0.05 ppm) are available. The products, Medex, Medex NC, Medite II, and Medite
FR, are manufactured using polyurea resin in place of the urea-formaldehyde resin commonly
used in MDF and particleboard and can be used for these applications. Some finish contractors do
not like working with MDF products for some trim and molding applications because it is so brittle, so consider MDF for flat trim areas such as mantles, wall panels, and wainscoting.
Plaster options are also available for molding.

4-20

Install Cabinets Made with Board with No Added Urea Formaldehyde and Low-Toxic Finish
Cabinets are often built from particleboard, which off-gasses formaldehyde for a long time (See
Action Item 4-18, Use Plywood and Composites of Exterior Grade with No Added Urea Formaldehyde (For Interior Use)). Instead, purchase cabinets made from a material with no added urea
formaldehyde, such as Medex, Medite II, Skyblend, or solid wood. Cabinets should be finished
with a low-toxic finish.

4-21

Use Pre-Finished Flooring


A pre-finished floor is finished at the factory, often providing a tougher and more durable finish
than can be obtained with site-applied finishes, and they will also have completed most of its offgassing. Usually, pre-finished flooring also offers the added benefits of not generating dust and
odors associated with on-site sanding and finishing of an unfinished product, but also can save
time on installation.

4-22

Use Ceramic Tile Flooring


Ceramic tile floors usually pose very little health risk on a day-to-day basis. Because they are
more durable than carpet, they also cost less per year of use. During installation, make sure you
use low-toxic grout (Action Item 4-14, Inside the Building Use Only Low-VOC, Low-Toxic, Water-Based, Solvent-Free Sealers, Grouts, Mortars, Drywall Mud, Caulks and Adhesives) and keep
the workspace well-ventilated.
Note: Avoid the use of imported tile. The glazing used on imported tiles can contain lead. Recycled content tiles are also available. See Action Item, 5-70, If Using Tile, Use 75% of Tile that is
40% Recycled Content.

4-23

Bonus Points: No Carpet in Units


Carpet off-gases when it is new. In addition, carpeting acts as a highly effective reservoir for allergens such as dirt, pollen, mold spores, dust mites, and other microbes. Moreover, as carpet

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wears out, the surface yarn breaks down and becomes house dust. For that reason, this program
encourages eliminating carpet in the units. Carpet is allowed in common areas and hallways.

4-24

Limit Use of Carpet to One-Third of Units Square Footage


Carpeting is often preferred by customers and represents a lower first cost. The program recognizes carpets popularity and function, but suggests the amount of carpeting can be limited. The
healthiest floor choices are smooth surfaces, such as tile, linoleum, and wood, which do not harbor dust and other allergy-causing particles. Solid surfaces are easier to clean than carpet, and
they keep vacuuming to a minimum. (Vacuuming stirs up dust, even under ideal conditions.) Area rugs are more easily cleaned and maintained to avoid health problems such as allergies and
chemical sensitivities. Wood and tile floors are also more durable than carpet, so they cost less
per year of use. (See Section Five: Materials Efficiency.)

4-25

If Installing Carpet System (Carpet, Pad, and Adhesive), Specify CRI Green Label Plus or
Greenguard
New carpet can emit formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when first installed. Several labeling options are available to help identify carpets that minimize this impact on
indoor air quality.
The Carpet and Rug Institute has developed testing and labeling programs to aid in the selection
of low-emitting carpet, adhesives, and cushion materials. The Green Label Plus program uses
testing protocols established by the State of California Section 01350 of the California High Performance Schools Protocol and goes beyond its requirements to test for additional chemicals. It
tests for emissions as well as setting a maximum concentration level for a number of chemicals of
concern identified by the State of California OSHA Proposition 65.
Carpet bearing the CRI Green Label Plus indicates that:

The manufacturer voluntarily participates in these programs and is identified by an assigned number in the label

The manufacturer is committed to developing ways to minimize any adverse effects on indoor air quality

A representative sample of the product type is tested by an independent


laboratory and meets stringent requirements for low chemical emissions.
For specific requirements see Resource Section for
link to requirement criteria. Greenguard Environmental Institute also offers a third-party certification program for Indoor Air Quality that qualifies products as
low emitting interior building materials. See the Resources Section for more information.

If, in the future, a new certification arises, you can check with the Program Director to see if that
new certification will qualify for points under this credit.

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-112

4-26

If Using Carpet, Install by Dry Method


Adhesives used to install the carpet to the floor are a significant source of odor and air pollution.
Tack strips eliminate this problem.

4-27

Install Low Pile or Less Allergen-Attracting Carpet and Pad


Carpet off-gases when it is new. In addition, carpeting acts as a highly effective reservoir for allergens such as dirt, pollen, mold spores, dust mites, and other toxins carried into the building by
shoes. Moreover, as carpet wears out, the surface yarn breaks down and becomes house dust. For
that reason, this program encourages limiting or eliminating carpet (see Action Item 4-23, No
Carpet in Units).
However, if you do select carpet for the units or common areas, protect air quality by choosing a
low pile type and installing it with urethane padding. Preferably, select a carpet made from natural fibers (see Action Item 4-28, Install Natural Fiber Carpet) or an all-nylon carpet, which is less
attractive to dust mites and mold. Also look for recycled content carpets and pads (see Action
Items 5-66, Use Recycled Content Carpet Pad and 5-67, Use Recycled Content or Renewed Carpet); the processed materials used in them tend to be less toxic than virgin synthetics. Finally,
avoid dark colors; these carpets contain more toxins than light carpets because more dye is needed to create the dark color.
Take care when selecting a pad or carpet/pad system. The pad is often the most toxic component
and, depending upon assembly/installation methods, can interfere with the carpets recyclability
at the end of its life. Avoid carpet pads treated with brominated flamed retardants (see Action
Item above).
Also, carpeting should never be applied to a concrete slab unless provisions for a moisture/vapor
retarder or insulation have been incorporated in the slab that will allow the carpet to remain warm
and dry. If not, moisture can migrate through the floor and cause mold growth under the carpet.

4-28

Install Domestically Produced Natural Fiber Carpet


Today, 97% of all manufactured carpets consist of synthetic fibers. These synthetic components
off-gas and the glues that bind the fibers to the backing may contain chemical compounds, a
number of which are known to be toxic. Several companies make carpets with natural fibers,
such as wool or cotton. However, these natural fiber alternatives tend to cost more than synthetics.
Wool provides many benefits: it is soil and stain resistant, has long-term appearance retention,
color retention and texture recovery, is flame-resistant, mildew resistant, and water repellant.
Wool is non-allergenic and has been proven hygienically safe in medically sensitive areas. Wool
does not promote the growth of dust mites or bacteria and actually contributes to air purity in
buildings by absorbing polluting gases. (Note: Even natural carpets can be a source of noxious
gases if treated with chemicals. For example, wool carpet is often moth-proofed; wool carpets
are available without moth proofing.)

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Part I-113

4-29

Avoid Carpet in Environments Where It Can Get Wet


Avoid installing carpet in basements, bathrooms, and near entryways, areas that are frequently
wet. Studies show that carpet that remains wet for more than 24 hours can foster mold and mildew growth, which can contribute to poor indoor air quality and health.

4-30

Optimize Air Quality in Family Bedrooms to Basic or Advanced Level by Completing Items Listed
2-6 points

Basic

2 points

Advanced

6 points

Program Note: HRV (see Action Item 3-37, Install a Heat Recovery Ventilator) does not qualify as an alternative to cross-ventilation. Also requirements only apply to family bedrooms, not the
whole house.
The most important area of the home to optimize the indoor air quality is in the bedrooms, by
eliminating toxic finishes, dust, and/or moisture-prone surfaces in these rooms. This is because
we spend the most time there. For example, make sure that the paints, varnishes, and wall coverings used to finish the family bedrooms are low-VOC and easily maintained without the use of
harsh chemical cleaners or waxes. In addition, it is especially important to avoid use of carpets,
heavy draperies, or other dust-catching furnishings in the sleeping areas.
Optimizing air quality in sleeping areas is one example of air quality zoning, a strategy that
recognizes that different rooms have different functions and air quality control requirements. Another example is isolating air distribution systems serving hobby rooms and office areas, which
produce odors, from the rest of the home.
Basic Level Requirements

No carpets

Low-VOC/low-toxic paints & finishes

Low toxicity cleaners (construction).

Advanced Level Requirements:

Install operable windows for cross ventilation

Install hygrometer/thermometer

Reduce chances of exposure to EM fields (electronic panels, timers, generators, PV inverters,


refrigerators, large wire chasers)

Install damp-proof ledges or alcoves

Provide return ducts or air communication vents to hallways;

No materials with added urea formaldehyde within bedroom.

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-114

4-31

Use Only Low-VOC / Low-Toxic Interior Paints, Primers, and Finishes for Large Surface Areas
Solvent-based paints are traditionally considered the most durable, but they produce toxic emissions when curing and require the use of hazardous solvents for cleanup. In addition, they off-gas
trace amounts of volatiles (gases) for months following application, which can cause upper respiratory irritation to the occupants.
Zero-VOC or low-VOC, water-based paints are generally safer to handle, can be cleaned with
water, and produce little or no off-gassing. For most indoor applications, there is almost no difference in performance between solvent-based and water-based paints. Many low-VOC paints
are comparable in price to conventional paint.
Paints, Primers, and Finishes VOC Limits:
The VOC concentrations of the product shall not exceed:

150 (VOC weight in grams/liter of product minus water) for Non-Flat paint

50 (VOC weight in grams/liter of product minus water) for Flat paint for interior paints and primers.

You must use paints and finishes that meet this requirements, note that GreenSeal
products meet these standards.
Choose your colors carefully, as well, since darker colors inherently have higher
VOC content because of the pigments added.
Low-VOC, water-based paints may still contain toxic ingredients, however. Although these toxic
ingredients are not generally an air quality problem for occupants, they may be hazardous to
painters and those involved in manufacture of the paint. In addition, hazardous ingredients can
degrade the natural environment during production and after disposal. They may also leave an
odor for a much longer period. Fortunately, several locally available, water-based paints perform
well and are low-toxic, that is they do not contain heavy metals or organic compounds. These
paints tend to cost 5% to 30% more than most conventional paints.
Low-toxic, clear sealers are also available to use as finishes for woodwork. Water-based varnishes, polyurethanes, and other finishes for hardwood floors are very durable and much safer to handle than traditional products. Low-toxic solvents, water-based strippers, and all-natural thinners
are also locally available.

4-32

Use Only Low-VOC / Low-Toxic Interior Paints and Finishes for All Surface Areas (Including
Doors, Windows, Trim)
This credit awards you more points for using only low-VOC / low-Toxic paints and finishes for
all surface areas, see Action Item above for more information.

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Part I-115

4-33

Select Materials Such That the Building is Free From the Following Materials/Chemicals:
Added Formaldehyde, Halogenated Flame Retardants, PVC, Mercury, CFCs, HCFCs, Neoprene
(Chloroprene), Cadmium, Chlorinated Polyethylene, Xylene, Toluene
The materials included in this Action Item are known to cause human health effects, some have
been linked with causing cancer, and other persist in the environment. Many of these chemicals
are widely used in the construction industry and it will take a significant effort to avoid all of
these materials. That is why the point value of this item is so high. It is up to your material specifier to ensure that the materials used for the project do not contain any of the chemicals listed
here.
Since constructing a building without all of these chemicals is a significant undertaking and a major environmental benefit, you may take credit for other Action Items in the checklist that prohibit
the use of these chemicals, such as, the items in Section Five that give credit for using wood
products that do not contain added urea-formaldehyde, or carpet pad or insulation with halogenated flame retardants.

MOISTURE CONTROL
Moisture that enters the building through the foundation walls and floor can lead to problems such as
mold growth and can contribute to a variety of health problems for the occupants. Specific construction
techniques and materials can eliminate moisture.

Overall
4-34

Use Building Envelope Consultant During Design


Hire a qualified building envelope consultant during the design phase to ensure that exterior wall,
glazing, roofing, and waterproofing design will effectively eliminate moisture problems. The review should ensure that the envelope design controls rain water absorption, air flow, and vapor
diffusion.
The design should ensure that if the envelope gets wet, that there are mechanisms that allow it to
dry. In our mixed climate, building science specialists suggest that the building be designed to allow drying to the exterior, interior, or both. Make sure that the building assembly and the materials selected for that assembly produce the desired result. Typical strategies involve a vapor retarder, air barriers, air pressure control, and control of interior moisture levels through ventilation
and dehumidification. Material choices for insulations, sheathing, and vapor retarders will depend on the method of drying out selected.
The consultant should also check for proper design of flashings at windows and exterior wall corners, the proper roof design to eliminate air movement, the design of roof overhangs to help reduce rain water impacts to the foundation and wall assembly, and proper foundation design that
keeps groundwater, soil gases and water vapor out and allows water vapor out if it get into the
foundation.

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-116

4-35

Grade to Drain Away from Buildings


There are a combination of strategies that ensure rainwater and snowmelt drain away from the
building. The first ten feet of soil adjacent to a building should act as a continuation of the roof
and allow water to drain away from the building. Slope soil adjacent to the building for a 6-inch
drop in the first 10 feet. At the foundation footing, install drain tile so water will flow down the
drainboard and drain away from the building. Garage floor and driveways are sloped to drain out.
Provide a combined length of 2 to 6 feet of extenders and splash blocks on downspouts. These
combined strategies allow rainwater and snowmelt to drain away from the building and minimizes soil saturation near the building.

4-36

Envelope Inspection at Various Stages of Envelope Installation by a Qualified Professional


A Qualified Professional is someone who specializes in air sealing inspections and is aware of
building assemblies and materials and their combined effect on moisture control.
If you select Action Item 4-34, Use a Building Envelope Consultant During Design, work with
them to determine the appropriate stages for inspection. Otherwise, consider inspection at framing, pre-insulation, fenestration installation, etc.
The envelope inspection should focus on ensuring that installed air barriers have continuity, that
vapor barriers are strategically placed to minimize moisture, that flashings are installed at all critical areas, and that the foundation is designed and constructed to eliminate water intrusion. Elements of air leakage in the building shell that should be addressed include: air sealing, such as, air
tight recessed cans, building envelope penetrations are sealed, chases are capped and sealed; insulation and windows are properly installed; basement walls insulated properly, roof vented properly, windows sealed; heating and cooling systems, such as ducts are supported and run properly,
ducts stay out of insulated cavities; and moisture management and IAQ issues have been thoroughly addressed.
See the Resources Section for more information.

Roof
4-37

Provide 50% Minimum 2 inch 12 Pitch Sloped Roof Surface


Although roofs should be sloped, a very steep slope does not shed water away from the building.
Flatter roofs can increase moisture problem through the risk of puddling and collection of water.
Steep-slope roofs are considered water-shedding, not waterproof. Whereas, low-slope roofs are
considered waterproof. As such, low-slope roofs need to pay particular attention to material selection, plan detailing, and construction management.
To receive credit for this item, a minimum of 50% of the roof should be pitched at 2 in. 12 (2 inch
rise per foot of horizontal run). A roof flatter than this slope is at greater risk of both leaks and
high wind loads. Avoid details and trim that allow puddling and collection of water. Make sure
decks, balconies, trim and all other protrusions are sloped. Ensure all roof penetrations are
properly flashed. Eaves extend out far enough to keep water off windows.

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-117

4-38

Provide 100% Minimum 2 inch 12 Pitch Sloped Roof Surface


To receive credit for this item, 100% of the roof should be pitched at 2 in. 12. See above Action
Item.

Walls Above Grade


4-39

Provide Continuous Weather Resistive Barrier and Continuous Air Seal Barrier with
Manufacturers Recommended Termination (Seal or Tape)
An effective air barrier system should be continuous over the entire building enclosure or continuous over the enclosure of any given unit. In multi-unit construction, the air barrier system is also the fire barrier and smoke barrier in inter-unit separations. In such assemblies, the air barrier
system must also meet the specific fire resistance rating requirement for the given separation. An
effective air barrier system must also resist air pressure differences.
Typically, air barrier systems are comprised of materials interconnected into assemblies that are
interconnected to create the enclosure. Rigid materials such as gypsum board, exterior sheathing
materials like plywood or OSB, and supported flexible barriers are typically effective air barrier
systems if joints and seams are sealed. Spray foam systems can also act as effective air barrier
systems, either externally applied over structural elements, or internally applied within the cavity
system.
The Builders Guide, by the Building Science Corporation (see Resources Section), recommends
minimum resistances or air permeances for the three components of the air barrier system materials, assemblies, and the enclosure:
Material

0.020 l/s-m2 @ 75 Pa

Assembly

0.200 l/s-m2 @ 75 Pa

Enclosure

0.200 l/s-m2 @ 75 Pa

Air barrier enclosures that do not meet these minimum requirements are considered air retarders
and do not receive credit under this Action Item. Since air barrier systems can be located anywhere in the building enclosure and are climate-sensitive, no specific approach will be defined
here, just the performance standard.

4-40

Use Self-Adhering Membrane Flashing and Counter-Flashing at All Inside and Outside Corners
and at Exterior Siding Materials
Self-adhering membrane flashings provide a flexible and durable material that conforms to various wall planes and provides for instant overlap integrity. It is difficult to install flashing successfully at corners, particularly outer corners. Consider using prefabricated flashing corners because
they are easy to install. Insure the integrity of all corner conditions, and provide optimum protection from moisture infiltration. Field fabrication of corner flashings is not recommended.

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Self-adhering products are generally available between 40 mils and 20 mils in thickness. The
thicker product will be more durable and have a greater tendency to seal around fastener penetrations. The thinner products are useful where flashing laps can build-up the overall thickness that
can interfere with the installation of windows and other products, such as at corners. The 20 or 25
mil products are well suited for counter-flashing other flashings, such as metal head flashing.
Flashing overlaps shall be a minimum of 4 allowing for each flashing section to adhere to the
next forming a continuous moisture barrier system. Where required, flashing primer and mastic
should be used in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.
Use self-adhering membrane flashing and counter-flashing at exterior siding material intersection.

4-41

Install an Enhanced Drainage Plane with an Air Space to Allow Ventilation Between the Weather
Barrier and Cladding and Include Weep Control System
The best design of a weather-resistant exterior wall assembly depends on climate and average annual rainfall. In the Pacific Northwest, where we generally have a mixed-humid climate with severe wind-driven rain and average annual rainfall around 40 inches, building scientists agree that
a rain-screen system a drainage plane with a ventilated air space is the optimum approach.
Drain-screen systems drainage planes without ventilated air spaces are suitable for our region;
however, the program is only awarding points for a rain-screen system because it is considered an
important improvement beyond the drained cavity approach. The improvement comes from the
addition of some details that help reduce the air-pressure differential across the cladding system
during wind-driven rain events that helps to reduce water penetration into the drainage cavity.
In general, a rain-screen system includes a cavity that separates the cladding material from the
surface of a moisture barrier place on the structural wall behind the cladding. The depth of the
cavity depends on the type of cladding used. Consult references in the Resource section to determine appropriate cavity depth for each cladding material type. As mentioned above, this approach also includes an air barrier. Cladding choices, insulation levels, interior and exterior climatic conditions and cross-assembly or inter-assembly air flows will ultimately affect the performance of the rain-screen wall assembly. To be most effective, choose moisture incentive materials with a high-drying potential. Additionally, the materials that form the drainage plane should
overlap each other shingle fashion or are sealed so that the water drains down and out of the wall
through the weep control system. Finally, cladding materials, such as brick veneers, stuccos,
wood siding, wood trim, and fiber cement cladding, can store water in a reservoir that can migrate and cause problems. The solution to this is to disconnect the reservoir from the building
through back priming or back-venting.
Rain-screens are a complicated and important envelope consideration. Make sure you consider
all elements of the system and design the wall assembly accordingly. Consult the Resources or a
Building Envelope Consultant.

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May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part I-119

4-42

Use Moisture Test to Ensure that Wood Framing Contains Less Than 15% Moisture Content Prior
to Installation of Any Interior Finish

Test performed by builder

3 points

Test third-party verified

7 points

Building assemblies can start out wet as a result of the construction process, particularly here in
the Northwest. They can also get wet from rain, dew, or groundwater capillary suction or by air
movement and vapor diffusion. Good just-in time delivery scheduling can help avoid the materials from starting out wet, and good construction sequencing can help avoid additional wetting
problems from rain and dew. However, wood can still get wet on site. Once the wood is wet and,
if interior finishes are applied while the wood is wet, it can lead to mold and other moisture problems.
Perform a moisture test on a sampling of the wood frame structure to make sure the moisture content is below 15%. If you use an independent third-party to conduct the test, you can receive
more points.

4-43

In Wood-Framed Structures, Use Low-Toxic Mold-Inhibitor Product


There are several mold and mildew resistant coatings on the market that are applied inside and
outside of new buildings during the framing process. These permanent coatings provide longterm, residual protection against the affects of water intrusion, excessive moisture, and mold and
mildew growth on their surface, effectively transforming the structure into an antimicrobial surface. To receive credit for this item, the product selected should be a low-toxic alternative. New
formulations use silver as the active agent.

Below Grade
4-44

For Slab On Grade, Use 10 Mil Polyethylene Vapor Barrier or Equivalent Performance Under
Slab
The goal in controlling moisture with slab on grade construction is two fold: keep water vapor
and water in the ground out of the slab, and provide sufficient drying of the water already in the
slab (see Action Item 4-46).
If a slab is installed, use gravel fill beneath the foundation slab with a poly membrane (min.
thickness of 10 mm) or vapor retarder, sealed over the no fines gravel prior to pouring the basement floor. Seal the poly at the edges and seams to prevent moisture from migrating into the
building. (Note: The poly barrier also protects against radon and other soil gases. However, soil
gases are generally not a problem in western Washington.) If no slab is used, the bottom of floor
structure should be sealed and at least 12 inches (1 foot) above backfilled, poly covered dirt.
Similarly, any concrete walls and ducting in the crawlspace should be tightly sealed against air
and moisture penetration.

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Note: A polyethylene vapor retarder under a concrete slab is unnecessary when sub-slab insulation is used. You should use either a polyethylene vapor retarder as described above or sub-slab
insulation. If you use both, put the polyethylene over the top of the insulation directly in contract
with the concrete slab.

4-45

Perform Moisture Test for Any Slab On Grade Prior to Installing Any Finish to Manufacturers
Specifications
Installing flooring over concrete that has not been allowed to dry sufficiently leads to mold, buckled flooring, and lifted tile. The calcium chloride vapor emission test quantifies the volume of
water vapor radiating from a concrete slab surface. Kits are available locally. Conducting this
test can help prevent expensive callbacks and may be required by many warranties for floor covering installations. ASTM F1869-04 provides a protocol for the use of the calcium chloride test.

4-46

Install Working Mechanical Vent System to Eliminate Potential Moisture, Methane, and Radon
Problems in Crawl Space or Under Slabs On Grade
In most of Western Washington, we are fortunate that we have little or no problem with radon gas
in our soils. The same technology for mitigating radon exposure, however, is effective for keeping moisture and other soil gases away from and out of buildings. Depending upon type of foundation (basement, slab, or crawlspace), options include:
Mechanically Ventilated Crawlspace SystemThe system uses a fan to increase ventilation within a crawlspace or achieve lower air pressure in the crawlspace relative to air pressure in the living spaces.
Sub-Membrane Depressurization SystemThis system vents air/moisture from under a
soil-gas/moisture-retarder membrane by either using a fan-powered vent (active system) or vent
pipe routed through the conditioned space of a building and connecting the sub-slab area with
outdoor air (passive). The latter relies solely on the convective flow of air upward in the vent to
draw air from beneath the slab.

4-47

Install a Rigid Perforated Footing Drain at Foundation Perimeter, Not Connected to Roof Drain
System
Depending on the soil type, install perforated footing drainage along the foundation perimeter and
tie them into an appropriate drainage at least 5 from the building to help control moisture in the
building. Check with your local jurisdiction. Soils report identifies degree of backfill compaction plus minimum slope to achieve adequate drainage.
Perforations point down to allow water to enter the drainpipe. Drain discharges by gravity (preferable) or mechanical means into the approved drainage system, not connected to the roof drain
system.

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4-48

Install Moisture Management System for Below Grade Walls Beyond Code, i.e., Drainage Mat
Rain penetration management is the single most important factor in assuring durability of the
structure. Rainfall in King and Snohomish Counties average 40 to 65 inches a year in developing
areas, and can exceed 65 inches a year in outlying areas. Leading building scientists recommend
that walls include rain-screens, vented cladding, or vented drainage spaces in locations with 40 to
66 inches of rain per year. A pressure equalized rain-screen is recommended if average rain fall
exceeds 40 inches per year. In all climates, properly flashed window details are recommended.
Do not rely on caulking to keep moisture out. For details see Action Items listed under Openings
below.
Detail a moisture management system for below grade walls that go beyond code.
Best practices indicate that there are six elements of waterproofing below grade walls. Slope surface soil away from the structure. Install roof water management system that keeps water away
from basement walls. Install a waterproof barrier, either roll membrane or liquid-applied membrane, from 6 above final grade down to and onto the die of the footing or slab. Install a perforated footing drain around perimeter of foundation, and cover with geotextile filter fabric. Install
dimple drainage mat on exterior face of waterproofing membrane to provide protection for the
membrane and over top of the footing drain and drain rock. The dimple drainage mat provides an
air channel for water to be carried by gravity to the footing drain. Finally, if you install dimple
board air barrier with a filter fabric, backfill with native soil.
Another practice in protecting the building from water moving up into the foundation is the use of
capillary breaks. A capillary break is created using either an elastomeric asphalt coating or a polyethylene sheet. On the vertical face of the foundation (exterior walls) be sure to clean the surface
and fill any cracks or gaps larger than 1/8" wide. Spray on a coat of elastomeric asphalt starting
4" from the ground and completely covering the surface to the top. Place a capillary break between the footing and the foundation wall. This can be done by spraying the footing with an elastomeric asphalt coating or by covering the footings with a polyethylene sheet.

Openings
4-49

Provide Appropriately Sized Overhangs at 25% of Openings


Roof overhangs provide multiple functions to protect a building exterior from the elements. See
the Energy Efficiency Section, under Solar Design Features for a discussion of the importance of
overhangs in moderating solar gain.
Roof overhangs also serve to protect the envelope doors, windows, framing, and siding from
wind-driven rain and related moisture problems. Two-foot-wide overhangs provide the best balance of water shedding and shade benefits without creating wind load uplift challenges; 18-inch
overhangs can suffice.
To receive credit for this Action Item, roof overhangs must be placed over 25% of the buildings
openings.

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4-50

Provide Appropriately Sized Overhangs on 100% of South and/or West Side Openings
To receive credit for this Action Item, roof overhangs must be placed over 100% of the buildings
openings on the south and/or west sides. See Action Item above for details.

4-51

Properly Seal Building Openings and Penetrations Against Moisture and Air Leaks
Sealing these penetrations is required by code but often difficult to enforce. As part of quality
control, make sure your crew seals all penetrations at doors, windows (including window jambs
with wood trim or drywall returns), plumbing and electrical penetrations, as well as at the intersection of interior partition walls and the exterior wall and insulated ceilings and the intersection
of floor joists with the exterior wall.
Effective barrier systems for multi-family structures include separating indoor conditioned air
from the outdoors and the conditioned air from any given unit to adjacent units. In order to provide an effective moisture and air barrier system in our climate, it is recommended to use both an
interior and exterior system. The significant advantage of an exterior air system is the ease of installation and the lack of interior detailing required to seal openings. However, the air barrier is
not sufficient to control air-transported moisture.
You can use an exterior air barrier system using exterior sheathing or housewrap. Using exterior
sheathing requires that the sheathing be caulked, glued, or gasketed to the bottom and top plates,
taping or sealing joints in the sheathing, and that the drywall is caulked, glued, or gasketed to the
top plate in the ceiling. Using housewrap requires sealing to the ceiling air barrier system across
the top of the exterior perimeter walls, and folding the housewrap strip up and under the wall under the bottom plate and sealing the intersection, as well as taping all joints in the wall.
Air barrier materials can also act as a vapor barrier, as with polyethylene. However, using polyethylene is not recommended for our climate due to the impermeability of the polyethylene. Furthermore, polyethylene should never be installed in an air-conditioned building.
The most effective approach then to creating an an interior air barrier is to use the drywall and
framing, in what is called the Airtight Drywall Approach, see Action Item 3-9. Components of
the air barrier system include: bottom plate installed over sill gaskets and caulked or gasketed to
the subfloor; drywall caulked, glued, or gasketed to bottom plate and top plate; rim joist/ rim closure caulked or gasketed to top plate; subfloor glued, caulked, or gasketed to rim joist/rim closure; and ceiling drywall taped to wall drywall.
Pay special attention to plumbing stacks that run from a crawlspace to the attic, if applicable, adjacent to baths and kitchen. Leaky pathways in these locations act as chimneys that continuously
draw cool air from the crawlspace to the attic. During winter months especially, the cold air
drawn through rooms with high relative humidity cools interior surfaces and promotes condensation and mold growth.

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4-52

Install Additional Moisture Control Measures:


4-52a Sill Pans with Back Dams at Windows
Back dams prevent water that has entered the window cavity from penetrating into the envelope. The best design is to use sills with back dams, end dams, and
sloped to the outside. Many new prefabricated units are available. To create a
back dam, fold flashing into rough opening, adhere flashing to the sill, use overhang of flashing that extends beyond the depth of the sill to form the back dam.
Window sits inside sill pan; back dam of the sill pan should just clear the back
edge of window sill when it is placed in the rough opening. Back dam of the sill
flashing assembly should be even with the interior surface of the window. Flashing is used to go up and over the back dam to form a permanent air and water
tight connection. Then tape the interior side of the window/wall interface with
Air Seal Tape.

4-52b Door Pans with Back Dams at Doors


The goal of a door pan with back dams is the same as the window sills described
above.

4-52c Sill Protection at Windows


The first cost of pan flashing/sill protection installation is worthy of consideration given the potential costs of structural damage, mold growth, remediation
work, and litigation.
Pan flashing and drainage mediums are very useful components for managing
unwanted water in wall assemblies, provided that these components are properly
integrated with the water resistive barrier and other wall components. Adding
redundancy in the self-adhering membrane layers along with incorporating slope
to the sill pans and using supplementary heat or a primer to improve adhesion of
the membrane products will provide for the best sill protection.

4-52d Threshold Protection at Doors


Multi-family facilities utilize many entry door alternatives. The goal of this active item is to add additional threshold protection to any entry door to ensure that
wind, water, and snow do not inhibit the integrity of the fenestration.

4-52e Metal Head Flashing at Windows


Flashing must be durable, weather resistant, able to accommodate movement,
and compatible with adjacent materials. The traditional overlapping assembly
composed of multiple layers of flashing adjusts to movement like the scales of a
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fish and provides repetitive layers of resistant materials while covering the fasteners with each lap. Overlapping the material below prevents water from migrating in opposition to the forces of gravity when an unequal pressure condition exists, as in high wind storms. The longer the lap the greater the force required to
draw the water upward.
Non-corrosive metals such as copper, aluminum, and lead are popular flashing
materials because of their durability, malleability, and impervious nature. Sheet
metal and vinyl flashing are appropriate for traditional assemblies of lapped materials. New continuous drainage barriers employ self-adhering membrane and
tape materials to work in conjunction with doors and windows with integral nailing fins.

4-52f Metal Head Flashing at Doors


The head detail must intercept water draining down the wall above the window
and divert it away from the vulnerable joint between the window and wall. In order to achieve this, some form of diverter flashing is required. The flashing must
be carefully integrated with the wall assembly above to ensure that all elements
are positively lapped. The flashing laps over the window frame and is in turn
lapped by the sheathing paper in the wall assembly. Use metal flashing, see Action Item 4-52e, Metal Head Flashing at Windows, above.

4-53

Provide Hose Testing or Negative Pressurization Testing to Pre-Installed Sample of Each Window
Type to Test Assembly for Moisture Control Protection
Laboratory tests on standard production window made from a variety of wood, clad wood, and
vinyl configurations, revealed that a large percentage of the units failed a common field test of
water penetration resistance (AAMA 502-90) and another standard water penetration test that
used an air pressure differential (ASTM E-547). Water intrusion often occurred at the sill/jamb
location and the interface between the window and the wall assembly.
To ensure performance of sill pan and sill protection measures, perform with specified testing
protocol on the first installed windows (perform test for each type of window installed). Use the
first installed window, once fully installed with all appropriate flashing and sealing into the wall
system as the test case. The window is factory-tested, but job-site installation can lead to potential
water and air leakage into the building assembly. For instance, joints between windows and walls
may not have been properly sealed, or there may not have been proper sealing to the adjoining
cladding. Correct any improperly sealed areas and retest.

AIR DISTRIBUTION AND FILTRATION


4-54

Provide Ideal Relative Humidity and Air Circulation to Prevent IAQ Problems
Providing for free air circulation to and from all rooms is most important. In the Pacific Northwest, a RH of 30% to 55% is considered ideal.

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4-55

Ensure Ceiling Plenums Contain No Hazardous/Unhealthy Materials


All air moving through ceiling areas should be ducted. Avoid exposed fiberglass or cellulose insulation and formaldehyde containing products.

4-56

No Stud or Joist Cavities Used as Plenums


Using ventilation ducting for all exhaust and return air flow paths ensures that the airstream does
not entrain dirt, dust, mold, moisture and other indoor air contaminants. This strategy also ensures
a more efficiently controlled distribution system.

4-57

Do Not Install Electronic, Metal Mesh, Horse Hair, or Non-Pleated Fiberglass Filters
Electronic filters are a high maintenance item. Unless the filter elements are cleaned frequently,
and in practice this is rarely done, the result will be air quality that is degraded, rather than improved. Metal Mesh and horse hair filters are equally ineffective.
Non-pleated fiberglass filters primarily serve to protect the fan and minimize dust in air distribution systems. Although they may capture large particles from the air, they miss the tiny particles
that make up 99 percent of the particles in indoor air. Pleated filters remove 40 50% of all particulate matter.

4-58

Make Sure Air Intakes are Placed to Avoid Intake from Air Pollutant Sources that Go Beyond
Code
Intakes located near pollutant sources are a common cause of indoor air quality problems, often
affecting occupant health. Intakes and operable windows should be located as far as possible from
potential pollutant releases.
To minimize the risk of drawing contaminated air from building vents and exhausts into air intakes:

Ensure that combustion equipment vent outlets on roofs extend to a sufficient height to avoid
mixing with incoming air, carefully considering code requirements, building orientation, other rooftop building equipment, and on-site operations

Exhausts with significant contaminants, toxic fumes, or gases should be directed vertically to
ensure their plumes are carried away from the roof and turbulent wake downwind of the
building

Avoid locating intakes in semi-enclosed areas with exhausts, vents, cooling towers, or evaporative coolers

Consider the operations of the as-built building and avoid locating outdoor air intakes where
they may capture air from automobiles and trucks, especially where vehicles may be idling
while stopped, such as loading bays, passenger drop-off zones and parking areas, or near
roads with heavy traffic.

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Code requires that outdoor air inlets should not be closer than 10 feet from an appliance vent outlet or vent opening of a plumbing drainage system unless the vent opening is at least 3 feet above
the air inlet. Inlets should also be placed so as not to take air from a hazardous or unsanitary location, attic, crawlspace, or garage, or where it might pickup objectionable odors, fumes or flammable vapors.

4-59

No Parking Within 40 Feet of Building Air Intakes


Design to keep all parking areas at least 40 feet away from building air intakes to minimize the
risk of drawing auto exhaust into the building. Home Builders Institute recommends 50 feet.

4-60

Use Effective Air Filter:


When purchasing filters, look for the highest efficiency filter that works with your furnace. Filter
efficiency is based on the Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value, or MERV. MERV ratings are
usually listed on the product packaging. Look for the highest MERV ratings as possible, since
this industry standard rating system measures the ability of the filter to trap particulates.

4-60a Use Medium Efficiency Pleated Filter, MERV 10


Medium efficiency pleated filters filter air through an extended surface area
(pleating) to remove between 40% and 50% of all particulate matter. They are
relatively inexpensive and sufficient for most applications. Look for product
with a minimum of 10 MERV rating.
Make sure you include information about the air filter system you choose (including filter size, type, quality, and the ideal replacement schedule) in the owners kit so they can properly maintain it (see Action Item 1-1, Provide Owner
with an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit).

4-60b Use High Efficiency Pleated Filter, MERV 12 or Better, or HEPA


High efficiency pleated filters with a MERV of 12 or better are available on the
market. Since the MERV rating is higher, so is the filter efficiency.
More efficient filters, such as HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters, remove 99% or more of all particulate matter in the air. They are expensive, have
high flow resistance and may require custom design for some applications.
However, because of its high efficiency at filtering out tiny particulates, HEPA
filtration is recommended for those individuals who suffer from allergies, asthma, or other respiratory problems. The filtration system connects in-line with the
furnace ductwork and offers three-stage filtration. An anti-microbial polyester
pre-filter with a five-pound, activated carbon filter is attached to the filtration
system. For these reasons, they are not commonly used in residential filtration at
this time.
Make sure you include information about the air filter system you choose (including filter size, type, quality, and the ideal replacement schedule) in owners
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kit so they can properly maintain it (see Action Item 1-1, Provide Owner with an
Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit).

4-61

Install Operable Windows in All Occupied Spaces to Allow for Cross Ventilation and Daylighting
Strategically placed operable windows promote indoor air quality by providing a means to bring
fresh air into the home and exhaust stale air. Open floor plans with a minimum of interior partitions improve air circulation throughout the unit.

4-62

Install CO Detector (Hardwired) for All Units with a Combustion Device


To receive credit for this Action Item, the detectors must be hardwired.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by incomplete combustion of materials such as natural gas,
wood, coal, oil, kerosene, gasoline, and even tobacco. Sources include wood or gas burning
stoves and fireplaces, contamination from furnace flue leaks and backdrafting, and automobile
exhaust from attached garages. At low levels, CO causes fatigue in healthy people and chest
pains in those with heart disease. At higher levels, symptoms range from impaired vision and coordination, to headaches, dizziness, nausea, and death.
Home detectors warn occupants of unsafe CO levels and are relatively inexpensive and easy to
install. A detector should be installed wherever there is a fuel-burning device and near the bedrooms. Check consumer test results before buying.

4-63

Separately Ventilate All Janitorial Spaces, Copy Rooms, and Chemical Storage Areas
Since ventilation systems leak due to initial construction irregularities, insufficient maintenance,
or disrepair, to ensure improved indoor air quality it is essential to separately ventilate areas
known to contribute to degrading indoor air quality, such as janitorial spaces, copy rooms, and
chemical storage areas.

4-64

Install CO2 Detectors in Community Rooms


Some ventilation control systems use carbon dioxide (CO2) detectors to monitor air quality and
adjust ventilation controls as required, based on actual occupancy. This is referred to as CO2 demand controlled ventilation. These systems are especially appropriate for rooms with varying occupancy/use, such as community rooms.
HVAC systems without CO2 sensors, typically, have to assume full occupancy regardless of the
actual number of people in the building, resulting in costly over-ventilation. CO2 sensors help reduce energy costs by allowing the HVAC system to change the ventilation rate based on the
number of individuals in a building. Energy savings derived from using CO2 control typically
range from $0.10 to $0.50 per square foot, depending on ventilation requirements, weather, local
utility rates, and occupancy patterns. The payback period, which varies based on the number of
sensors and cost of installation, is typically six months to two years.

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HVAC EQUIPMENT
4-65

Design to Ensure Accessibility of All System Components


System components must be accessible for inspection, cleaning, maintenance, and repair. This
includes filters, coils, drain pans, ductwork, duct liners, plenums, valves, and controllers. Accessibility (and therefore maintenance) is frequently neglected, and this can lead to serious IAQ
problems.

4-66

Design to Prevent Standing Water in HVAC System


Eliminate the potential for standing water in ducts and HVAC equipment. Pay particular attention
to coils, drain pans, humidifiers and cooling towers. Coil drain pans should have:

a generous slope to a drain equipped with a trap and a trap primer

traps deep enough to ensure that water will not be drawn back into the pan

an air gap between the pipe ends for inspection

sufficient space for continuously sloped drain piping, avoiding high pockets.

Humidifier and cooling coils should be located so that moisture droplets and condensation will
not accumulate on duct surfaces. Avoid placing duct liners or other absorbent materials within 10
duct diameters downstream. Cooling towers should be located distant from outdoor air intakes,
and specified with drift eliminators with water treatment facilities convenient to the tower. Post
logs at each towel, detailing treatment and inspection dates and the amount and type of chemicals
added. Treatment schedules should reflect manufacturer requirements and local water quality.
Figure 4-1Designing to Prevent Standing Water in HVAC Systems
(Source: City of Santa Monica, Green Building Design & Construction Guidelines
Guideline HS1, Eliminate Mechanical System Sources of Indoor Air Pollution)

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4-67

Flow Test All Spot Ventilation Fans in Units


Research has shown that code required ventilation rates are adequate, but are not always met in
the field. Test your installations using a flow hood or flow grid to verify that measured flow rates
meet code requirements. You must tell all spot ventilation fans in ALL units for credit under this
item
Cooking produces odors, water vapor, and particulates, such as grease and smoke. Bathrooms,
laundry rooms, and pool and hot tub rooms generate lots of moisture. Exhaust fans capture and
remove these pollutants from the interior of the unit to prevent airborne contamination.
With respect to kitchen exhaust range hoods, bigger is not always better. Range hoods should be
carefully sized and installed. If combustion appliances are present or the fan flows are high, provide make-up air to assure safe operation. In these situations, test to assure that pressure imbalance caused by the exhaust fans do not exceed minus 3 PA indoors to outdoors, or equivalently,
the test meets PCTS performance criteria for controlling de-pressurization..

4-68

Use Heating System Controls that are Free of Mercury


While manufacturers of building equipment have made substantial progress in reducing or eliminating mercury in building system control devices, some HVAC and building equipment on the
market today still contain mercury components. Builders, be sure to ask your suppliers and architects, and Specifiers, be sure to call out no mercury components in heating system controls.

4-69

Limit Kitchen Exhaust Fan to 300 CFM Maximum


With respect to kitchen exhaust range hoods, bigger is not always better. Range hoods should be
carefully sized and installed. If combustion appliances are present or the fan flows are high, provide make-up air to assure safe operation. In these situations, test to assure that pressure imbalance caused by the exhaust fans do not exceed minus 3 PA indoors to outdoors, or equivalently,
the test meets PCTS performance criteria for controlling de-pressurization (see Note under Action
Item, 4-67, Flow Test All Spot Ventilation Fans in Units).
100 CFM is the minimum required by ASHRAE Standard 62, and it is generally adequate. The
industry recommendation is for a minimum of 40 CFM per linear foot of cooktop, thus a 48
cooktop would only need a 160 CFM fan. So limit the kitchen fax to 300 CFM as a maximum.

4-70

Install a 60-Minute Timer or Humidistat for Bath Exhaust Fans


Occupants are more likely to use an exhaust fan with a crank timer switch, avoiding moisture
buildup and eventual mildew problems in bathrooms. Look for low-sone fans to encourage use;
the quietest fans can hardly be heard when youre in the same room.

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4-71

Install Quiet (0.8 sone) Bath Fan with Smooth Ducting, Minimum 4 Inch
Spot ventilation removes moisture, odors, and pollutants directly at the source. ASHRAE requires
a ventilation rate of at least 50 cubic feet per minute for the bath fan. Manufacturers offer many
options for quiet fans. In fact, Panasonic offers many fans rated at 0.5 to 1.0 sones. Make sure
ducts are smooth (contain no fiberglass or insulation in the air stream), this provides better air
flow. Using minimum 4 ducts are suitable for fans of less than 80 CFM.
Other quiet ventilation strategies include using a ducted central exhaust fan, it offers the quietest
operation, introduces only one roof penetration, and the least wiring. Spot ventilation designs
that require mounting fans on walls and ceilings can be modified to use fans that can be mounted
in-line in the duct between the living space and the exterior, or on the roof or outside wall and
connected to the room by a duct. The space between the in-line or exterior-mounted fan and the
interior reduces the noise level in the house. In-line units cost more for product and installation,
but offer the quietest alternative. Additionally both single-point and multi-point fans offer credit
compliant alternatives.
With any spot ventilation exhaust fans; be aware of back drafting that may introduce elevated
concentrations of pollutants back into the living space. In that case, consider using sealed combustion appliances if using natural gas, and placing these appliances separate from the living
space.

4-72

Reduced or Zero Use of Ozone-Depleting Compounds in Refrigeration and Fire Suppression


Systems
Certain chemicals containing chlorine and bromine, such as CFCs and halons, have been determined to be responsible for the observed depletions of the ozone layer.
While not an indoor air quality problem, the stratospheric ozone layer is the earth's main shield
against the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Increased UV radiation heightens the
incidence of human skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened human immune systems, and it also endangers the environment by threatening important crop yields, and other plant and animal life.
In 1978 CFCs were banned as propellants in most aerosol products. Congress passed the Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1990 that included additional measures to protect the ozone layer. Most
important, the law requires a gradual end to the production of chemicals that deplete the ozone
layer. As a result, the refrigerant industry is developing safer alternatives to these ozonedepleting chemicals, and many are now available for use in commercial air conditioning and fire
suppression systems.
Select refrigeration, fire suppression systems and air conditioning systems that have a significant
reduction or zero use of ozone-depleting compounds.

4-73

No Sound Insulation or Other Fibrous Materials Installed Inside Ducting


To reduce noise coming from particular rooms or between units, contractors have put sound insulation or other fibrous material inside the ducting. Although this is effective at noise reduction, it
also significantly reduces the air flow, which in turn compromises indoor air quality.

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To achieve desired sound insulation from particular rooms or between units, consider additional
wall, floor, and ceiling insulation rather than adding material to the ducts, or a double wall framing. Other ideas include: using foam gaskets under plates around receptacles and switches, caulking between baseboard (or drywall) and floor, use air-tight recessed cans, and sealing around
HVAC registers and surface light fixtures.

4-74

Install Sealed Combustion Heating and Hot Water Equipment


Sealed combustion equipment draws combustion air from outside the living space and exhausts
combustion by-products to the outside, allowing no spillage or backdrafting into the living space.
Maximize the distance between exhaust vents and fresh air intakes.

HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY


4-75

Build a Lockable Storage Closet for Hazardous Cleaning and Maintenance Products, Separate
from Occupied Space
A lockable storage closet that is vented to the outside (away from fresh air intakes such as windows) prevents fumes from getting into the living area, as well as toxic or otherwise dangerous
chemicals from getting into the hands of curious children. Keep the storage closet small, to discourage occupants from accumulating hazardous products, and locate it away from any source of
ignition, such as a water heater.

4-76

Install Biodegradable Carbon Filter at Sink


As a result of growing concern about the quality of drinking water, the popularity of domestic
water filters has increased dramatically. In fact, one third of consumers surveyed in a 1997 Water
Quality Association study reported they currently use a home water-treatment device other than
bottled water.
There are many kinds of filters available, some expensive, some inexpensive. Whichever you install, make sure it uses biodegradable carbon filters.

4-77

Install Showerhead Filter in All Units, Include Information in the Tenant Handbook
Recent studies indicate that exposure to chlorine, absorbed through the skin during showering,
can contribute to increased risk of associated health problems. Showerhead filters on the market
today effectively remove 90% or more of chlorine from shower water. Some products have
pop-in replaceable cartridges that install in seconds and last nine to twelve months and do not require backflushing.

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4-78

Provide Permanently Installed Track-Off Mats and/or Shoe Grates at Common Entryways to
Building
Studies show that shoes are the source of up to 80% of the indoor air pollution load in the average
home. Our shoes not only track in the extra dirt we see, but also many pollutants we cannot see
excess moisture, mold, germs, dust, fertilizers, and pesticides. Once airborne, these materials
produce indoor air pollution.
Track-off mats and slotted grates are designed to efficiently brush dust, dirt, and moisture from
shoe soles. As a rule the mat should be 4 lazy steps in length, or about 15 feet, a length sufficient
to remove about 85% of the dirt from shoes. With a slotted grate, the dirt and debris fall through
the grate, which is recessed in the floor into a collection area, which then needs to be emptied periodically.

4-79

Provide Track-Off Mats at Exterior Unit Main Entrances to Each Unit and a Shoe Storage Area
Studies show that shoes are the source of up to 80% of the indoor air pollution load in the average
home. Our shoes not only track in the extra dirt we see, but also many pollutants we cannot see
excess moisture, mold, germs, dust, fertilizers, and pesticides. Once airborne, these materials
produce indoor air pollution.
Provide track-off mats at all exterior unit main entrances so that residents can scrap outside dirt
from their shoes prior to entering the building/units. Also, provide a shoe storage area at the entry of each unit.

4-80

Design a Shoe Removal Vestibule at Major Entrances to Units


One of the single most important indoor air quality measure you can take is to minimize bringing
pollutants into the house in the first place. The first line of defense is to remove shoes from the
living space that can bring in pesticides, hydrocarbons, and pollen in from the outside.
Include a closet and/or bench in entryway to accommodate shoe removal and storage.
You can build an exterior vestibule if this design can be accommodated, or build one indoors in
an underused over-designed foyer.

4-81

Do Not Install a Wood-Burning Fireplace Inside Unit or Building


Wood burning stoves inside the dwelling have been found, under some conditions, to contribute
to indoor concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particles. These pollutants enter the indoor environment during fire-starting and tending operations,
or they can be emitted continuously if chimneys and flues are improperly installed or maintained.
Best solution is not to place wood burning fireplaces inside.

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4-82

Do Not Install Gas-Burning Appliances Inside Unit or Building


Combustion appliances apply to any heating, cooking, clothes dryers, or decorative appliance using natural gas. Points are awarded in the Indoor Air Quality section to avoid using gas-burning
appliances inside the units as a technique to improve indoor air quality, even though, points are
awarded in the Energy Efficiency section for using these appliances (see 3-74, Install Gas
Stove/Cooktop (Requires a Carbon Monoxide Detector) and 3-75, Install Biofuel Appliances) because of the energy benefit.
Mostly these appliances are safe to run, thus their inclusion in the Energy Efficiency section,
however, under certain circumstances, these appliances can produce combustion pollutants that
can degrade overall indoor air quality, often leading to damaging the occupants health. Therefore, credit is given here to discourage the use of these potentially harmful off-gassing appliances
inside the conditioned space.

4-83

Install Floor Drain or Catch Basin with Drain Under Washing Machine
This measure helps to avoid additional moisture problems within the dwelling if the washing machine flooded.

Extra Credit / Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality


4-84

Extra Credit / Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality


You may submit a health and indoor air quality strategy or system, not specifically called out in
this Section, for consideration for an Extra Credit for Innovation. All extra credits will be reviewed by the Program Director. Extra credits will be worth from 1 to 10 points. If approved,
add awarded points to your Section total.

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Section Five:
Materials Efficiency
Overall
Jobsite Operations
Reduce
Reuse

Recycle
Source-Separation Recycling
Comingled Recycling

Design and Material Selection


Overall

Ceilings

Framing

Exterior Walls

Foundation

Windows

Sub-Floor

Trim

Doors

Cabinetry

Finish Floor

Roof

Interior Walls

Insulation
Other Exterior

Extra Credit / Innovation for Materials Efficiency

Section Five:
Materials Efficiency
The Action Items in this Section will help your increase the efficiency of your jobsite operations through
use of the Three RsReduce, Reuse, Recycleas well as make your design and material selection
more resource efficient.

OVERALL
5-1

Practice Waste Prevention and Recycling and Buy Recycled Products


To qualify for this credit, you must:

5-2

Practice at least six waste prevention strategies. (See Reduce and Reuse under Jobsite Operations.)

Recycle at least 50% of your waste/garbage. (See Recycle under Jobsite Operations.)

Use six or more recycled content products. (See Design and Material Selection.)

Conduct at least one activity that promotes waste prevention to your employees, customers
and/or the community.

Design and Build for Deconstruction Concept 50%, 75%, or 90%


5 or 7 or 9 points

50% of building materials chosen for simplifying deconstruction:

5 points

75% of building materials chosen for simplifying deconstruction:

7 points

90% of building materials chosen for simplifying deconstruction:

9 points

Deconstruction is an expanding alternative to traditional building demolition for removing existing structures. Deconstruction is a coordinated process of disassembling a building and salvaging
materials. Deconstruction increases material life, reduces environmental impact on landfills and
harvesting new materials, and saves money in dumping fees. The Design and Build for Deconstruction concept assimilates design, construction, and demolition, so as to maximize reusability
and durability of building component throughout their functional and end-of-lifetime.
To qualify for this credit, demonstrate or assert that the minimum percentage required for each
point range represents the amount of selectively chosen building components and design elements
that contribute to simplified construction in preparation for future deconstruction.
Materials and system ideas include modular framing, prefabricated structural elements, precast
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ishes, mechanical fasteners for piping connections instead of soldered joints, and centralized accessible wiring and utilities.
If there are dwellings on your building site, see Action Item 5-10, Use Deconstruction to Dismantle and Reuse Existing Building(s) On Site.

5-3

Eliminate Materials and Systems That Require Finishes or Finish Materials on a Minimum of 100
Square Feet in Common Areas
1 to 5 points

Each 100 square feet

1 point, up to 5 points

Pre-finished materials do NOT apply for this credit.


The intent of this credit is to reduce finishes. Minimizing finishes will reduce materials cost and
maintenance and also aid in improving indoor air quality.
Acceptable applications of this credit include unfinished garage or basement floors, decking material that does not require finish, such as dense-tropical hardwood or plastic composites, OSB
used as flooring, and exposed concrete walls that can serve as both a structural and finish material.

JOBSITE OPERATIONS
5-4

Provide Weather Protection for Stored Materials


Prevent damage to materials from weather (and accidents or vandalism) by storing materials in a
secure, protected place, or by covering them with tarps. Used shipping pallets and other used
packaging can temporarily store materials off the ground and protecting them from the weather.
Be sure to follow manufacturers recommendations for proper storage to prevent structural or finish damage. For example, panelized materials should be kept dry and flat. Siding and other finish materials should be stored back-to-back and face-to-face, taking measures to protect the faces
from marring one another. Refer to manufacturers recommendations.
Storing materials in a dry, protected place on a construction site can be a challenge. Rather than
trying to store materials safely on site until needed, many builders opt for just-in-time delivery.
This item is critical for framing elements and can contribute to good indoor air quality.

5-5

Substitute Products that Require Solvent-Based Cleaning Methods with Solvent-Free or WaterBased Methods
Traditional solvent-based cleaning products can contribute to global warming and ozone depletion, adding dangerous chemicals to sewage discharges, and compromising indoor air quality.

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Some examples of product substitutions include, choosing water-cleanup caulks for interior and
exterior applications and construction adhesives or avoiding Swedish finished or porous stone
products that require solvent-based cleaners. Also consider drip-free caulk guns to avoid cleanup
in the first place.

5-6

Purchase a One-Time Carbon Offset to Account for Construction Carbon Footprint


Doing all you can to limit the vehicle and electricity use on site is one way to offset the amount of
carbon produced by your project. Eliminating it entirely isnt possible, but you can buy offsets,
where you pay someone else to reduce or remove global warming pollution in your name. The
idea is that an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide is going to be reduced as a result of your offset. There are a number of organizations that can help you calculate your carbon footprint the
amount of carbon the project will produce during construction, and then direct you to credible,
high-quality offsets. Examples of offset programs include, an industry switching to cleaner fuel
sources, or capturing and storing carbon as with landfills and dairy farms. Prices of the offset
range from $5 to $40 per ton. Choose your offset carefully, ask for verification and the source of
the offsets.

Reduce
Reduce means preventing waste before it happens. The following practices can help you realize significant reductions in waste and cost of materials on a construction project. Many of the Action Items in this
section require only slight modifications to standard procedures.

Avoid damage. Train site crews to handle and store materials properly.

Use materials efficiently. Encourage site crews to use scraps and use less materials overall.

Estimate as accurately as possible. The more accurate, the less waste. Suppliers can often provide
tips on estimating specific materials.

Purchase precut and prefab components.

Choose strong materials and exploit structural advantages.

Purchase high-grade materials. These will get more usage and generate less waste in the long run.

Limit framing waste to 3%. Use efficient framing.

Consider durability and maintenance issues. Select durable, low-maintenance materials.

5-7

Create Detailed Take-Off and Provide as Cut List to Framer


Having a list identifying the intended location of each piece of lumber reduces the overall volume
of lumber needed to construct the building as well as the volume of leftover scraps because it reduces the risk of large pieces being unintentionally cut for alternative uses. Create a
board-by-board take-off that can be used as a cut list for framers and an order list for your supplier. This list increases accountability of framers and suppliers and can result in significant savings.

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5-8

Use Central Cutting Area or Cut Packs


Designating a centralized cutting area(s) reduces wood waste, reduces the total amount of wood
that must be supplied to the site, and saves time by making it convenient for carpenters to reuse
cutoffs and scrap. It also makes the cutting process itself more efficient. Studies of construction
sites with a centralized cutting area showed total waste reduction of as much as 15%. See Action
Item 5-13k, Re-Use Framing Lumber, for reuse suggestions.
A central cutting area also creates an ideal location for the wood scraps bin or pile, convenient for
subcontractors so theyll reuse the wood. (See Action Item 5-9, Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in Waste Reduction Efforts, below).
Cut packs greatly reduce on-site waste since they are pre-measured and cut at the lumberyard.

5-9

Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in Waste Reduction Efforts


A Waste Reduction Plan should include all elements of waste reduction reducing, reusing, and
recycling. You may also want to make a commitment to buying recycled content products here as
part of your plan because it contributes to large-scale waste reduction. Part of successfully
achieving subcontractor participation is clearly communicating your intentions to reduce waste on
the jobsite. Subcontractors need to be aware and committed to the program youve established.
This starts with the bid and contract negotiation process. Here are some tips:

Require waste reduction in written agreements with your subcontractors (see sample language
below)

Clearly indicate materials you will be targeting for recycling on this job and explain how you
will be collecting recyclable materials. Require compliance to your Jobsite Recycling Plan
(see Action Item 1-4, Prepare Jobsite Recycling Plan and Post On Site). Language in the
subcontractor agreement should commit them to comply with your jobsite recycling plan.
Make sure each subcontractor has a copy of the plan and that they clearly are aware of the
materials being collected on site. Engage subcontractors in developing the jobsite recycling
plan by soliciting input from them. Ask them about container location and phasing so that
their recycling coincides with the overall program

Assign an employee whose responsibility it is to manage the required recycle and waste reduction plans

Communicate your waste reduction goals at a jobsite kick-off meeting and during safety
meetings

Require full participation in training and assessment. Additional contract language could require the subcontractor to attend orientation and mid-course assessment meetings as part of
fulfilling their waste management requirement. Also consider putting this information in multiple languages to reach as many of the crew as possible that might come from non-English
speaking backgrounds.

Provide examples of reusable materials

Require subcontractors to adhere to recycled content purchasing practices. Specify in the


contract that the subcontractor will purchase recycled content building products and packaging whenever feasible.

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Provide incentives to encourage subs to participate. Recognize subcontractor participation.


Whether recycling is required or not, it always a good idea to recognize a job well done,
through jobsite signage or other incentives. This positive feedback will help your site produce clean, uncontaminated recyclables, adding to the efficiency of the program and therefore, your bottom line.

Sample contract language:


Subcontractor will be required to reduce the amount of waste generated on the site and recycle
materials per the Contractors Jobsite Recycling Plan. Subcontractor will follow
source-separation recycling requirements for each waste type targeted in the plan and use the
appropriate on-site containers for each waste type. Subcontractors are required to participate in
jobsite meetings during the course of the project as part of the waste reduction program. In addition, subcontractors are to use recycled content products whenever feasible.

Reuse
Reuse means reusing materials and scraps removed during demolition and generated during construction. Salvage or reuse prevents building materials from becoming waste and preserves the embodied energy originally used to manufacture the item. Reuse decreases air and water pollution generated by creating new materials and reduces the strain on valuable resources and wildlife habitat. For salvage in particular, reuse often preserves unique materials not currently manufactured and creates an affordable supply of
high quality goods. Although labor costs for deconstruction can be higher than for demolition, landfill
disposal fees are significantly reduced. New materials purchases can also be reduced through planned reuse.
To make reuse easier and dismantling more convenient in temporary structures, apply methods such as
fastening with screws rather than nails. If storage space is available, reusable materials can be stored for
use in future projects.
When reusing structural materials, check with your local building authority regarding strength reductions
or limits. They may be able to assist in determining the strength of various materials, such as reclaimed
I-beams. Code may require some downgrading of structural capacity. In other cases, such as old timbers,
structural capacity may actually be increased.

5-10

Use Deconstruction to Dismantle and Reuse Existing Building(s) On Site


2-20 Points

Architectural Elements/Fixtures

2 points

Architectural Elements/Fixtures plus Large Pieces

10 points

Everything salvageable from building was at least


20% of total Deconstruction Waste by weight excluding concrete

20 points

This credit is designed to salvage reusable material from existing buildings on site through deconstruction. See Action Item 5-2, Design and Build for Deconstruction Concept, for ideas on how to
design for future deconstruction.

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This credit is distinguished from others in this category through requirements of reusing materials
specifically salvaged from the project site, not from other locations. Salvaged items may be reused on the current project site or donated, see Action Item 5-12, Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish Products.
Rising raw materials costs and landfill tipping fees are making it more economical for builders to
salvage materials for reuse than to pay for new materials and/or disposal costs. Prior to the start
of a demolition or a renovation project, the builder, designer, and owner should schedule a
walk-through to identify materials that might be salvaged. If you intend to sell salvaged materials, a representative from the salvage business should be included in the initial walk-through to
help identify salvageable materials that are in demand.
Products with consistent demand include:

Hardwood flooring

Windows that are in good condition (matching sets preferable)

Kitchen cabinets and solid wood doors

Architectural detailing and window and door hardware.

King County, in cooperation with the City of Seattle, offers a construction recycling directory.
The directory includes a section on Reusable Building Materials, Salvage Services and Materials
Exchanges. Companies and organizations that accept reusable building materials are listed.
Snohomish Countys directory also has a similar section. See the Part II, Section Five Resources,
for details. You can also consult your local telephone book.
Architectural Elements/Fixtures include antique original lighting and hardware, mantels, timbers,
tongue and groove paneling, flooring, window trim, faucets, shelving, bricks, and pavers.
Architectural Elements/Fixtures plus Large Pieces includes cabinets, windows, (consider energyefficiency for windows in the envelope, but may be used as interior architectural element), crown
molding, sinks, bathtubs, built-in china hutches, and wrought-iron railings.
Everything salvageable includes all the above listed items plus reusing scrap wood to build
shelves or shoe removal vestibule, or reusing roof shingles, bricks, slate, broken concrete, see Action Item 4-80, Design a Shoe Removal Vestibule at Major Entrances to Units.

5-11

Sell or Give Away Wood Scraps, Lumber, and Land Clearing Debris
Sell or give away logs not used as timber, or wood scraps that are less than one foot long since
they are unlikely to be reused on the job. Lumber may be desirable for small renovation projects
by local homeowners or could be donated to a used building materials store for tax credit. Many
contractors provide wood scraps free to the public at the jobsite. Land clearing debris can be
dropped off at local organics recycling centers where they will be composted or mulched into
valuable soil amendment products.
Keep clean fill separate.

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5-12

Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish Items


Rising raw materials costs and landfill tipping fees are making it more economical for builders to
salvage materials for reuse than to pay for new materials and/or disposal costs. Donating materials to a registered 501c3 not only avoids the cost of disposal, but also provides a tax deduction.
Prior to the start of a demolition or a renovation project, the builder, designer, and owner should
schedule a walk-through to identify materials that might be salvaged. If you intend to sell salvaged materials, a representative from the salvage business should be included in the initial
walk-through to help identify salvageable materials that are in demand.
Products with consistent demand include:

Hardwood flooring

Windows that are in good condition (matching sets preferable)

Kitchen cabinets and solid wood doors

Architectural detailing, window and door hardware

King County, in cooperation with the City of Seattle, offers a construction recycling directory.
The directory includes a section on Reusable Building Materials, Salvage Services and Materials
Exchanges. Companies and organizations that accept reusable building materials are listed.
Snohomish Countys directory also has a similar section. See the Part II, Section Five Resources,
for details. You can also consult your local telephone book

5-13

Reuse Materials:
See Action Item 5-12, Donate, Give Away or Sell Reusable Finish Items, for a list of vendors who
sell or accept used building materials. Reusing building materials provides wide-ranging environmental benefits including, reducing waste, avoiding disposal costs, preserving embodied energy, reducing pollution, and preserving natural resources and habitats. Credit is available if you
purchase materials from salvage and reuse operations, re-use materials from other jobsites, or use
reclaimed items from demolition. See sub-Items below.
When reusing structural materials, check with your local building authority regarding strength restrictions or limits. They may be able to assist in determining the strength of various materials,
such as reclaimed I-beams. Code may require some downgrading of structural capacity. In other
cases, such as old timbers, structural capacity may actually be increased.

5-13a Doors
This credit is available if salvaged doors are purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. See Resources Section.
Consider this credit for interior doors so as to not compromise the integrity of the
building envelope.

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5-13b Flooring
Re-use flooring purchased from salvage and reuse operations or environmental
specialty stores that sell salvaged flooring, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Salvaged wood flooring can add an attractive feature that
adds a rich historical appeal. Many salvaged woods come from original oldgrowth timbers, have fewer knots, longer lengths or widths, and come from species no longer available. Quality and availability can vary widely, but reusing
wood flooring causes no new trees to be harvested.

5-13c Windows
This credit is available if salvaged windows are purchased from salvage and reuse operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. See Resources Section. This provides opportunity to retain or reproduce architectural
heritage.
Consider this credit also for reused windows that are placed on the interior where
they will not compromise the integrity of the building envelope.

5-13d Appliances
This credit is available if salvaged appliances are purchased from salvage and reuse operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Ranges,
furnaces, dishwashers, refrigerators and hot water tanks are examples of appliances that can be reused in suitable projects. Reusing appliances saves resources
and reduces the environmental impact of the production of virgin materials.

5-13e Fixtures
This credit is available if salvaged fixtures are purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Many fixtures
can provide an architectural element that can be incorporated into new designs.

5-13f Hardware
This credit is available if salvaged hardware is purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Many salvaged hardware items provide a period-authentic look that could be incorporated
into new homes. Consider handles, drawer pulls, cabinet hardware, drapery
hardware, registers, hooks and brackets.

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5-13g Cabinets
This credit is available if salvaged cabinets are purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Salvaged
kitchen cabinets can be restored and reused in the home or for storage cabinetry
in garage or workshop. Period-specific cabinetry can also be restored to add a
distinctive look for bathrooms. These materials/components are available from
building salvage and architectural salvage operations. See Resources Section.

5-13h Siding
This credit is available if salvaged siding is purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Reuse siding
in good condition. Be aware of building envelope considerations when selecting
any siding product/material. See Action Item 4-42, Install an Enhanced Drainage
Plane..

5-13i Decking
This credit is available if salvaged decking is purchased from salvage and reuse
operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Decking can
be reused as part of new construction.

5-13j Trim
This credit is available if salvaged trim is purchased from salvage and reuse operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. Trim and moldings can be easily savaged and reused.

5-13k Framing Lumber


This credit is available if salvaged framing lumber is purchased from salvage and
reuse operations, re-used from other jobsites, or reclaimed in demolition. According to EPA statistics, a 2000 square foot residential project generates 127 tons of
demolition debris. Ten percent of this is recoverable framing lumber, which averages 6,000 board feet or 33 mature trees.
Even when builders order carefully, and store and handle materials to keep from
damaging them, there will still be some good scrap generated from cutoffs and
possibly from warped or knotty boards. Most estimates place wood waste at
25-35% of the total waste generated from new construction and demolition (including demolition conducted as part of remodels). Finding applications for the
wood on site can prevent a significant part of this waste.
Blocking, bracing, shims, back framing, and forming stakes can be fabricated
from small pieces of dimensional lumber that would otherwise be wasted. Some
builders use warped pieces of wood in blocking. Make this extra wood available
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in a central area so everyone on site knows it can be reused (see Action Item 5-8,
Use Central Cutting Area or Cut Packs).
When reusing large pieces of dimensional lumber, be aware that grading may be
required, especially if youre using it for structural purposes. Check with your
local building inspector.

5-14

Bonus Points for Reuse of Salvaged Materials


1 point per $1,000.00 worth of reused salvaged material up to 10 point maximum.

Recycle
To Recycle means to separate recyclable materials from non-recyclable materials and supply them to a
hauler or business so they can be processed and used to make new products. By choosing to recycle on
your jobsite you will:

Reduce disposal fees and overall construction costs

Provide stock for new materials to be manufactured

Keep valuable material from entering landfills.

Two recycling options are available: Source Separation Recycling or Comingle Recycling.
Source separation recycling is the process of sorting materials into separate on-site containers based on
recycling categories. These containers are taken to specific facilities for recycling or by a single hauler
interested in pre-sorted material.
Comingle recycling is the process of collecting all recyclable materials in one on-site container. The container must have a minimum of 90% recyclable materials. This container is taken to a facility where materials are sorted for recycling.
In some cases, jobsite logistics may determine your recycling option selection. In confined jobsites,
comingle recycling offers the benefit of a single container. In other cases, your crew may determine your
choice. If a crew is committed to the environment and you can depend on them to manage the on-site recycling and complete separation of materials, you may choose source separated recycling because it is
usually the best economic choice.
For source separation, evaluate your waste stream and target materials that have significant market value,
that have local cost-effective recycling options, and can be conveniently source-separated. Typically this
includes wood, cardboard, metal, drywall, concrete, and masonry. To assist in source separation, identify
locations on site to collect these materials and use signs to clearly identify materials being collected in
that location. (You may want to limit the number of bins by setting them up on a phased basis to correspond to the phases of construction and the typical waste streams generated during each phase.)
Recycling opportunities exist for the following materials in King County:

Clean and demolition wood, land clearing, pallets and yard waste

Plants and trees

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Cardboard

Plastic and plastic film

Glass

Scrap metals (steel, cast iron, tin, aluminum, brass, lead, copper, electrical wiring and metal pipes)

Concrete, asphalt, rock, brick, soil and porcelain

Asphalt and other composite roofing materials

Drywall, sheetrock, plaster and plasterboard

Acoustical ceiling tile

Carpet, carpet padding and upholstery foam

Electronics

Fluorescent lights and ballasts.

In Snohomish County, the following materials have recycling outlets:

Asphalt roofing materials

Cardboard

Concrete, asphalt, rock and brick

Drywall and plasterboard

Metals including aluminum

Plastic and plastic film

Glass

Paper

Yard debris, wood, soil, pallets, and land clearing.

You can transport your recyclable materials to these facilities in a variety of ways. Consider the following methods:

Full-service recycling contractors - they provide all bins, on-site sorting, and pick-up

Garbage hauler - your hauler may provide bins and pick-up for certain materials

In-house recycling - working with individual recyclers, you arrange bins, pick-up, and/or self-haul

Subcontractors recycling - subs work with individual recyclers to arrange bins, pick-up, and/or
self-haul.

Some companies, such as scrap metal dealers, will pay for recyclable material. Others charge to accept or
pick up recyclables. Even if a fee is charged, however, it is generally less than fees paid for disposal.
Recyclers have specifications for the quality, types, and grades of materials they can accept. To achieve
the most benefit from your efforts, find out what these specifications are.

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Source Separation Recycling


Credit in this section will require careful attention to tracking disposal and recycling weights, quantities,
and costs.

5-15

Recycle Cardboard by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Cardboard is generated throughout most residential construction projects, but the largest volume
occurs during the finish phase of the project, when electrical and mechanical fixtures are being
installed. Cardboard can often be recycled for free, either at drop-off sites or picked up by a hauler who may provide a bin. Wax, moisture, and metal banding can be considered contaminants.
Check with cardboard recycler to identify any restrictions on the cardboard they accept.

5-16

Recycle Metal Scraps by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Copper scraps have been recycled for years because the metal has a high market value. As other
metals (steel, iron, aluminum) have increased in value, it has become more beneficial to recycle
them as well. Metal can be collected or accepted for free, with higher value metals providing
revenues. Rebates available for recycled metals vary with market value.
Separated metals have a higher value than mixed metals. Some recyclers will pay for sorted metals. Check with recycler for their specifications.
The 90% rate is set because if more than 10% of the container is contaminated with nonrecyclable materials, the recyclables will not be accepted.

5-17

Recycle Clean Scrap Wood and Broken Pallets by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling
Rate
On average, about 25% of discarded construction material is dimensional lumber and another
10% is waste from manufactured wood products. Wood scrap you cant reuse should be targeted
for recycling. Clean wood scraps refer to unpainted and untreated materials.
Wood processing technology has improved significantly, and more and more of the construction
wood waste stream can be recycled. Check with the wood recycler to identify any restrictions on
the wood they accept. Depending on the final use of the material, the following may be considered unacceptable contaminants: paint, stain, pressure treatment, lamination, adhesives, and nails
or other fasteners.
Many of the regions wood recyclers also accept pallets as part of their wood waste stream. Consult the directories of services or contact your wood recycler first.
The 90% rate is set because if more than 10% of the container is contaminated with nonrecyclable materials, the recyclables will not be accepted.

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5-18

Recycle Package Wrap and Pallet Wrap by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate
Material packaging makes up a substantial percentage of construction material waste. Keeping
material out of the waste stream helps to preserve landfill space and lower your disposal fees.
Recycle packaging or have subcontractors make arrangements to take the packaging back to the
supplier. Plastic film is more readily recycled today. See Resources for specifics.
The 90% rate is set because if more than 10% of the container is contaminated with nonrecyclable materials, the recyclables will not be accepted.

5-19

Recycle Drywall by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Drywall generally makes up 11% by volume and 26% by weight of a residential buildings waste
stream or roughly 1-1.2 lbs. per square foot. Drywall is most often recycled as feedstock for
more drywall. If your drywall subcontractor handles his or her own waste, work with the subcontractor to develop a recycling program. See Action Item 5-9, Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in Waste Reduction Efforts, for more information.

5-20

Recycle Concrete/Asphalt Rubble, Masonry Materials, or Porcelain by Source Separation, 90%


Minimum Recycling Rate
Concrete, brick, and asphalt rubble can be collected on site and recycled for less money than it
costs to be landfilled. On large demolition projects, where a significant amount of asphalt or concrete is being demolished as part of site preparation, the material can be ground to meet base or
fill specifications and reused on site.

5-21

Recycle Paint by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Minimize paint waste by using a paint calculator. Leave leftover paint for homeowner/tenant for
touch-ups or donate to used building materials stores. See Resources for locations.
Options for recycling paint exist in both King County and Snohomish Counties. There may be a
fee based on the type of paint. Optimally, paint for recycling should be usable, clean of debris,
and stored above freezing.

5-22

Recycle Asphalt Roofing by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Asphalt roofing is being collected in the Puget Sound area and ground for use as road base.
The 90% rate is set because if more than 10% of the container is contaminated with nonrecyclable materials, the recyclables will not be accepted.

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5-23

Recycle Carpet Padding by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Several companies in King County offer programs to recycle carpet and carpet padding.

5-24

Recycle Carpet by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Several companies in King County offer programs to recycle carpet. Recycled carpet is remanufactured back into new feedstock and also used for parking stops.

5-25

Recycle Glass by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Fluorescent bulbs and ballasts are recyclable and not allowed in landfills. See Resources for recycling options. Also, provide source separation glass recycling container to collect beverage
containers and other non-reusable glass materials.
If youre involved in a demolition project, and are interested in recycling fluorescent bulbs, be
aware that the law specifies that any one disposing over 25 fluorescent bulbs at one time qualifies
as a hazardous waste generator, so consider recycling these materials instead.

5-26

Recycle Land Clearing and Yard Waste, Soil, and Sod by Source Separation, 90% Minimum
Recycling Rate
Many companies throughout King and Snohomish Counties collect and process land clearing debris and yard waste. In addition there are companies that offer mobile grinding services in which
they will process land clearing debris at the jobsite. This reduces transportation costs and provides you with a material to use on your site for site protection activities.

5-27

Recycle Batteries
Most dry-cell batteries have hazardous properties: corrosivity, reactivity, and heavy metals, including mercury, silver, cadmium, and zinc.. There are many types with different properties.
It is becoming easier to recycle dry cell batteries in King and Snohomish Counties because they
are regulated as universal waste. Universal waste is not counted toward waste generation totals
and does not need to be manifested. If you send your batteries to a Universal Waste Handler, be
sure the batteries end up at a treatment, storage, disposal or recycling facility. Different vendors
accept different types of batteries, call for more specific information.

5-28

Comingle Recycle at Least 50% of Remaining Jobsite Debris, and Take to a Facility with a
Minimum Recycling Rate of 50%
To receive credit for this Action Item, the project must divert at least 50% of the jobsite waste (by
weight, excluding concrete) to a Comingle Recycling Facility with an appropriate for processing

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recycling rate of 50%. See the Resources listed above for an on-line web link and a phone number to get information on which comingled recycling facilities meet these criteria.

Comingle Recycling
Many jobsites are not ideal for source separation recycling or the project team is focused on a simplified
system. The ease of comingle (or mixed material) recycling maximizes the potential of overall diversion
with the least amount of effort. There are several companies that offer services for comingle recycling.
They can provide containers and haul recycling to appropriate facilities. See Section Five Resources.
Three Action Items in this category require that the project recycling rates meet a minimum of 85%. The
distinction between the three items is based on the recovery rate of the recycling facility with whom you
contract. More points are awarded for contracting with comingle recycling facilities that are diverting
more material from the mixed material feedstock. King County maintains information on their web site
that list the Facility Recycling Rates. Diversion rate information is provided to King County on a monthly
basis and is processed and posted quarterly at http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/constructionrecycling/comingled.asp. Diversion rates for past months are available. The facility recycling rate is the
Appropriate for Processing Recycling Rate list in column two of the table in the web link

5-29

Send Less Than 1 lb Per Square Foot of Gross Construction Waste to Land Fill, or Less Than
lb Per Square Foot to Land Fill (Does Not Include Deconstruction)
In order to meet this extremely high standard, you will need to do things differently from typical
construction. For instance, one study in Portland found that a 17-unit apartment building generated 2 pounds of construction waste per square foot; commercial construction rates range from 2.68
to 3.98 pounds per square foot; and typical residential construction waste can average 1.3 to 2.1
pounds per square foot for just wood waste, and another 1- 1.5 pounds per square foot for drywall, according to the National Association of Home Builder (NAHB).
Getting down to a total of pound to 1 pound per square foot will require careful planning, beginning with the architect, modular or pre-cut building components, and a carefully planned and
executed Waste Reduction Plan (see Action Item 5-9, Require Subcontractors and Contractors
Employees to Participate in Waste Reduction Efforts.

5-30

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 50% Recycling Rate
To receive credit for this Action Item, the project must divert at least 85% of the jobsite waste (by
weight, excluding concrete) to a Comingle Recycling Facility with an appropriate for processing
recycling rate of 50%. See below for an on-line web link and a phone number to get information
on which comingled recycling facilities meet these criteria.

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5-31

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 75% Recycling Rate
To receive credit for this Action Item, the project must divert at least 85% of the jobsite waste (by
weight, excluding concrete) to a Comingle Recycling Facility with an appropriate for processing
recycling rate of 75%. See the Resources listed above for an on-line web link and a phone number to get information on which comingled recycling facilities meet these criteria.

5-32

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 90% Recycling Rate
To receive credit for this Action Item, the project must divert at least 85% of the jobsite waste (by
weight, excluding concrete) to a Comingle Recycling Facility with an appropriate for processing
recycling rate of 90%. See the Resources listed above for an on-line web link and a phone number to get information on which comingled recycling facilities meet these criteria.

DESIGN AND MATERIAL SELECTION


This category includes Action Items intended to help you make design and material selection choices that
benefit the environment while still providing the quality and performance you demand for your projects.
In addition to promoting the purchase of materials that include recycled or reworked content, these Action Items also suggest methods to reduce the use of limited resources.
Many standard construction materials that you are accustomed to using contain recycled content and have
for years. Furthermore, technology advancements have allowed the introduction of many new high quality building products made with recycled content that are also cost-effective.
By buying building products with recycled content you reduce the use of virgin materials to produce
construction products. Also, by specifying engineered products and waste-limiting framing options, you
conserve materials which otherwise would have contributed to your site waste. All of these efforts conserve limited landfill capacity. In addition, you help encourage the market for recycled and engineered
products. The end benefit will be competitive pricing for the finished products as well as better value for
the recycled material used to make those products, including materials you recycle from your jobsite.
Recycled content products can include two kinds of recycled materialpost-industrial and
post-consumer. Post-industrial recycled content means the product includes waste material created as a
by-product of an industrial process, such as sawdust produced in the milling process, or plastic grinds
produced during the manufacture of a plastic product. Post-consumer recycled content means the product
includes waste material created as a result of actual use by the consumer (such as carpet or wood waste).
The highest post-consumer content in a product is preferred. However, any recycled content is better than
none at all, when compared to using products with virgin materials that can require a lot of energy or other resources to produce.
When ordering building products from suppliers, it is important to let them know your preference for recycled content alternatives. Manufacturers producing recycled content building products typically produce an equivalent without recycled content (often with no price differential), and if you do not specify
recycled content, you may not get it.
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Another way to be a BUILT GREEN builder is to use products manufactured in the area (500 mile radius), thus reducing the amount of energy used to get them to your site. The energy used to transport finished building products to their distribution site or directly to your site is one form of embodied energy.
Embodied energy is energy contained in materials that has been used in resource extraction, manufacture, transport, installation, and, after useful life is over, removal and disposal. Besides reducing energy
use, using locally manufactured products reduces air pollution associated with that energy use and supports the local business community.
This section provides information about resource-efficient products available as of this writing. Many
products are readily available and are, for the most part, cost-competitive see the Resources Section below for specific product information.
Many Action Items in this Section require choosing wood products that come from sustainably harvested
forests. There are over 50 voluntary forestry standards programs worldwide at the time of this writing.
Many of the programs are still evolving and others are emerging.
Credit in the BUILT GREEN program will require that the wood products selected for the project can be
independently certified to be coming from forests that meet one of the following two criteria:

Table 5.1
WOOD CERTIFICATION GUIDELINES FOR SECTION FIVE
(Applies to all credits requiring third-party certification)
Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements:

Independently third-party audited chain of custody. Chain of custody refers to a certification that
guarantees a wood product has been tracked from a certified forest to the final product to ensure it
came from a sustainable forestry source. Tracking also guarantees that products will not be mixed
with non-certified products during processing, manufacturing and distribution.

No conversion of natural forest to plantation

No mass harvest of old growth trees

No GMO/Pesticides (GMO genetically-modified organisms)

Multi-stakeholder governance with transparent decision-making process

Rules for control of non-certified components in certified products

Supported by leading environmental and social organizations

Policy of removal for non-compliance.

Certified Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements:

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Independently third-party audited chain of custody

No conversion of natural forest to plantation

No mass harvest of old growth trees

Rules for control of non-certified components in certified products

Policy of removal for non-compliance.

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Overall
5-33

Use Standard Dimensions in Design of Structure


Incorporating standard sizes in the design will result in less wasted lumber, drywall, and other
materials. It also requires less cuttingwhich ends up saving you time and labor. For example:

5-34

Use increments in floor and roof wall layout to correspond with the standard two- and
four-foot increments of most materials.

Pay close attention to door and window placement to avoid the need for extra studs or cutting
materials to special sizes.

Incorporate standard finish dimensions in design. For example, keep standard carpet sizes in
mind when creating floor dimensions.

Involve trades people in design review of your projects to catch inefficiencies and to include
extra knowledge of how to more efficiently assemble the building parts.

Design and Install Recycling Stations on Each Floor, Including a Maintenance Service Plan
Effective household recycling that diverts the most waste materials depends on convenience and
ease. Design a residential recycling program that includes a recycling collection station on each
floor and build into the covenants or building maintenance plan, a service collection plan to ensure the material set aside for recycling is collected and to ensure the station stays clean and clutter-free.
One way to encourage recycling is to build a space for recycling containers in or near the kitchen,
where 80% of a homes waste is generated. Most millwork manufacturers now design cabinetry
lines with storage areas geared to hold recycling bins. For new cabinetry that includes factory installed pull-out bins, the estimated cost range is $30 to $40 per linear foot. There may be additional costs associated with extra floor space, if required. Installing bins in existing base cabinets
or closets can be done fairly inexpensively.

5-35

Install Materials with Longer Life Cycles


Whenever possible, choose materials that offer durability over lowest first cost. Selecting environmentally preferable building materials is one way to improve a buildings environmental performance. To be practical, however, environmental performance must be balanced against economic performance. One method to evaluate materials with this balance in mind is to use a tool
known as life cycle assessment (LCA). Simply put, LCA evaluates a material based on its cradle-to-grave, or life cycle, including raw materials extraction and processing, intermediate materials manufacture, material manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance, and ultimately
recycling and waste management following the end of a products useful life. Life cycle costs
pro-rate the cost over the life of the product. Your supplier or manufacturer should be able to
supply life cycle costing for materials they provide.

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Also, the manufacturers warranty will reflect how long the product is expected to last. Look for
30- to 50-year warranty products, in other words, 50-year roofing, cement siding, appliances, interiors, or clad windows. Other durability features/characteristics to look for are:

Exterior finish materials installed with proper detailing to control degradation from sun, heat,
and moisture

Materials with minimum maintenance requirements

Long lasting interior finish materials

Properly sized equipment that avoids short-cycling, which results in premature equipment
failure and excess maintenance. Proper sizing can also mean reduced equipment first costs
and operational energy savings.

Warranties are some indication, though not a perfect indication, as to how long a product will
last, check with the manufacturer. Also try:

5-36

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

Install Locally/Regionally Produced Materials


Locally produced materials are considered to be produced/manufactured within Washington
State. Regionally produced materials are considered to be produced/manufactured within the
Pacific Northwest region Washington, Oregon, or Idaho ideally within a 500-mile radius.
See your local supplier and ask for information on the origin of the materials.

5-37

Install Locally/Regionally Produced Materials, Minimum 5 Materials Used in All Units


Locally produced materials are generally considered to be produced within the Pacific Northwest region, ideally within a 500 mile radius. Regionally produced materials are considered to
be produced/manufactured within the Pacific Northwest region Washington, Oregon, or Idaho
ideally within a 500 mile radius.
See your local supplier and ask for information on the origin of the materials.
To receive credit for this item, you must use at least 5 different materials in each unit that are locally or regionally produced.

5-38

Use Salvaged Lumber, Minimum 1,000 Board Feet


This credit does not apply to new wood from trees cut on site, but does apply to salvaged lumber
from an existing on-site, deconstructed building or commercially salvaged, and reused building
material sources. See Action Item 5-10, Use Deconstruction to Dismantle and Reuse Existing
Building(s) On Site, for further information. Points for this credit are awarded for the quantity of
salvaged lumber from deconstructed sources.

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The most common commercially salvaged and reused building component is wood salvaged from
beams in turn-of-the-century buildings or abandoned railroad trestles. Consequently, reclaimed
wood is often available in species, coloration and wood quality not found in todays new material
markets. Some companies offer original hand-hewn beams for reuse in their present form. Others
provide salvaged wood re-milled into flooring, millwork, or paneling. Most companies grade the
wood depending on its grain, the number and type of knots, and the number of nail holes left from
its prior use.

5-39

Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials and Products Made From Plants
Harvested Within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter
This credit does not apply to finish flooring or OSB. To achieve flooring credit, see Action Items
5-64, Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from Plants Harvested
within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet), and Action Items 5-65, On More Than
250 Square Feet, Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from Plants Harvested within
a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet).
Acceptable materials include cork, bamboo, agricultural panel board, strawboard, and plant-based
finishes. Acceptable applications could include: cork as a wall finish, bamboo for countertops,
paneling, or wall finish, agricultural panel boards as cabinets, countertops, wall and ceiling finish,
and plant based finish on any wood surface.
Cork and bamboo are both renewable resources and natural materials. Cork is sustainable because
the bark is harvested and the tree is left to regenerate more bark. The bark is harvested on an
eight-year cycle. Cork is durable, sound absorbing, and naturally moisture-, mold-, and
rot-resistant. Bamboo is sustainable because it can be harvested on a six to eight year cycle. Bamboo is a very durable and dimensionally stable material. Despite the long-distance transport of the
products to the United States, the durability, hardness, and short regeneration time of bamboo
provide justification for specifying bamboo instead of wood. There are also indoor air quality advantages to using natural materials - they off-gas less due to fewer or no chemicals used in the
manufacturing process.
Paneling made from reclaimed agricultural fibers is plant-based and sustainable because it is harvested on an annual or semi-annual cycle. The straw that makes up strawboard for example can
be harvested every 2-3 years. Strawboard can be a substitute for wood particleboard and mediumdensity fiberboard. Seek out products that have no added formaldehyde in the bonding agents and
finishes.
Plant-based finishes refer to products made from rapidly renewable vegetable oils, citrus oils,
waxes and mineral oils. They often create a more natural looking final product.

5-40

In Three Applications, Use Rapidly Renewable Building Materials and Products Made From Plants
Harvested Within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter
See Action Item 5-39, Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials and Products
Made From Plants Harvested within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter, above.

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To receive credit for this Action Item, you must use one of the accepted materials in at least three
separate applications.

5-41

Use No Endangered Wood Species


Wood species listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) list
represents plant species determined to be endangered or threatened if international trade were left
unrestricted or where international trade could threaten their survival. This is the best source for a
complete listing, see Resources for link to CITES. Also consult Woods of the World, see Resources.

5-42

Use Environmentally Preferable Products with Third-Party Certifications (Not Applicable to Carpet)
Third-party certification is based on standards developed by an unaffiliated organization. Thirdparty certification standards establish criteria and verify manufacturer claims regarding the environmental, social and economic benefits of their products.
To receive credit for this Action Item, use any certified products from any the following organizations, other than carpet (carpets are not applicable under this credit).
Science Certification Systems (SCS) is a third-party certifier that promotes sustainable development in the forms
of environmental protection and social responsibility.
Greenguard Environmental Institute governs the Certification Program, another third-party certification organization that provides information related to Indoor Air
Quality on insulation, air filters, doors, floor finish, flooring, and wall finish.
Green Seal is a third-party certification organization that
evaluates, tests, and visits manufacturing facilities to
identify a product as environmentally preferable.
Cradle to Cradle Certification provides a company with a
means to tangibly, credibly measure achievement in environmentally-intelligent design and helps customers
purchase and specify products that are pursuing a broader
definition of quality
The Pharos Project seeks to define a consumer-driven vision of truly green building materials and establish a
method for evaluation that is in harmony with principles
of environmental health and justice.

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The FloorScore program, developed by the Resilient


Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) in conjunction with
(SCS), tests and certifies flooring products for compliance with indoor air quality emission requirements.
Flooring products include linoleum, laminate, wood
flooring, ceramic flooring, rubber flooring, wall base, vinyl, and associated sundries.

5-43

Use No PVC or CPVC Piping for Plumbing or Sprinkler Within the Building Envelope
Some studies indicate that use of PVC plastics in the home is related to increased incidence of
bronchial obstruction (asthma) in children (source: American Journal of Public Health. 1999;
89:188 & SHY;192). Also, in the event of a fire, PVC can release toxic smoke. If the water is
slightly acidic or alkaline, copper plumbing can release copper ions into drinking water, which is
potentially harmful to health.
Instead, use polyethylene piping for plumbing.

Framing
5-44

Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the dimensional lumber selected for the project must meet
Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood
Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
As of this update, Winter 2008, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and
depends on independent companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and
monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
Two private companies in the U.S. are authorized to issue the FSC stamp of approval: Scientific
Certification Systems (SCS) in Oakland, CA, and SMARTWOODCM Certified Forestry, based in
Richmond, VT (with an affiliate in Oregon). By purchasing wood from certified forests, you ensure a given product comes from a well-managed forest and demonstrate support for sustainable
forest stewardship practices worldwide. At the conception of the BUILT GREEN program (2000)
5 million acres of forestland had been certified by FSC. As of January 2006, there is 22 million
acres of FSC certified forestland in the U.S. Many more retailers lately are certified in the chainof-custody and supply FSC certified products. Also, the variety of materials available in FSC is
also expanding.
Although there are several Certified Wood Distributors nationally listed in GreenSpec (see Resources, Product Information), several are located in the Pacific Northwest.

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5-45

Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 2 Requirements, 50% Minimum
For credit for this Action Item, use dimensional lumber that meets Certified Wood Products Tier
2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guidelines for
Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to be online soon.
As of February 2008, no certification program meets the Tier 2 requirements. Contact the BUILT
GREEN program for updates.

5-46

Use Sheathing that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the sheathing selected for the project must meet Certified
Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification
organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody
for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent
companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-47

Use Sheathing that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
For credit for this Action Item, use sheathing that meets Certified Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guidelines for Section
Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to on-line
soon.
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

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5-48

Use Beams that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the beams selected for the project must meet Certified
Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification
organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody
for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent
companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements

5-49

Use Beams that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
For credit for this Action Item, use beams that meet Certified Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guidelines for Section
Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to be online soon.
See Resources listed for 5 45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements Outlined in the Handbook.

5-50

Use Factory Framed Wall Panels (Panelized Wall Construction)


Pre-fabricated wall panels are built in a factory based on individual building plans. Since the panels are manufactured in a quality-controlled environment, they are stronger, more dimensionally
accurate, and more durable structures. They are built, labeled for assembly and shipped to the job
site. Builders follow assembly procedures defined by factory specifications.
In wood frame panelized construction, the roof and/or wall panels are constructed off-site in a
factory, using kiln-dried materials. This results in higher quality (less warpage/shrinkage) units
and eliminates framing waste. The panels, trusses and beam assemblies are typically assembled
and stored at the manufacturers warehouse until ready for shipment to your construction site.
On-site construction with the panels is completed in less than one-third the time of conventional
stick frame construction. Every part of this type construction is pre-engineered, precut, numbered, labeled and color coded, minimizing time-consuming and expensive delays.

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5-51

Use Engineered Structural Products and Use No 2xs Larger than 2x8, and No 4xs Larger
than 4x8
There is a large family of engineered structural products, including laminated veneer lumber
(LVL), wood I-beams and I-joists, and wood roof and floor trusses. These products combine efficient raw material use with improved strength and performance capabilities to produce a superior
option to traditional materials. Engineered lumber manufacturers use fast-growing,
small-diameter trees efficiently, which ultimately protects old-growth forests.
Combining wood veneer and fiber with adhesives produces laminated veneer lumber. The LVL
manufacturing process allows more of the log (up to 80%) to end up as product. LVL lumber is
very consistent and stable. Wood I-beams and I-joists also combine veneer and adhesives.
LVL headers and I-beams are accepted by all major building codes. They provide more
load-bearing capacity than solid sawn lumber, and resist shrinking, twisting, splitting, warping,
and crowning. They are capable of long spans, thereby increasing design flexibility. They can
cost more than dimensional lumber, but in general are considered better products. The American
Plywood Association estimated that in 1998 I-joists alone accounted for over a third of all residential floor joists installed in the U.S.
Wood roof and floor trusses are commonly used instead of cut rafters because they save both time
and materials. They can also reduce wood waste because, ideally, you order only what you need,
and because of efficiencies in the production process.
Prevent waste by making sure you and your truss supplier are on the same page. Supply a detailed building plan (calling out any unusual requirements due to an oddly shaped cathedral ceiling or an opening planned through the roof framing). Also, make sure trusses are stored flat to
prevent warping.
Be aware of the indoor air quality issues associated with formaldehyde binders. Look for products
that do not contain this type of binder or at a minimum used phenol formaldehyde in place of urea
formaldehyde binders. Ask your supplier for more information. Also ask them about manufacturers who use certified wood in their engineered wood products.

5-52

For Interior Walls, Use Steel Studs with Minimum 50% Recycled Content
For interior walls, use steel studs with minimum 50% recycled content. Although wood may
seem abundant in the Pacific Northwest, it is a valuable resource that should be used wisely.
Substituting steel studs for the interior walls:

Reduces wood use, saving a valuable resource for a higher-value use

Provides straighter, stronger wall studs that make drywall easier to install

Reduces waste from rejected, warped, or split boards.

Ask your supplier to provide documentation on recycled content.

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5-53

Use Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)


Although points are awarded in Section Three, Energy Efficiency, for using SIPs (see Action
Items 3-10, Use Airtight Building Method, such as SIP or ICF.) Additional points are awarded
here to recognize the material benefit in addition to the energy efficiency benefit of using this
product.
Using structural insulated panel (SIP) systems for wall, roof, and flooring applications instead of
traditional stick framing can be an effective way to reduce the amount of wood used in a building.
Panel systems have been in use for over 30 years and a variety of systems are available. The most
common system includes a foam core sandwiched between oriented strand board (OSB) skins.
Avoid structural insulated panels produced with ozone-depleting HCFCs. EPS (expanded polystyrene) does not contain HCFCs or other ozone-depleting chemicals. Non-ozone-depleting polyurethane is now available.
In order to get optimum performance and waste reduction out of a panel system, first carefully
evaluate your building plans to see if panels are appropriate. A complex shell design with lots of
window or door openings can make it more difficult to use panels resourcefully. If you decide to
use panels, make sure your framer understands how to work with them. Improper installation can
negate the benefits. (The manufacturer should be able to provide some assistance when you start
using these products.)

5-54

Use Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs)


See Energy Efficiency section Action Item 3-10, Use Airtight Building Method, Such as SIP or
ICF, for more information on the energy aspect of this building method. In addition to energy
savings, this method also represents an opportunity to use a waste product, fly ash, in standard
building material, which coincidentally offers superior performance. Flyash waste from coal
burning has been shown to improve the strength of concrete (see Action Item 5-58, Use Regionally Produced Flyash or Blast Furnace Slag For 25% by Weight of Cementitious Materials for All
Concrete (20% for Flat Work).
In addition, some ICF systems are made with waste wood. The system offers significant savings
in labor by combining framing, insulating, and sheathing. Less waste is produced because of the
systems flexibility (the forms can be cut to any shape). Additionally, many systems have studs
built in so theres something to nail or screw to, and sheetrock may be attached directly to the
foams interior surface. Exterior siding material, such as wood, vinyl, brick, or stucco, can be easily attached.

5-55

Use Finger-Jointed Framing Material (e.g., Studs)


Finger-jointing (gluing short lengths of wood together) makes use of wood that traditionally
would have been disposed of as waste. Finger-jointed products are generally straighter and
stronger than solid wood; you wont have to reject and waste warped or split boards. Commonly
used finger-jointed products include studs and painted trim.
Ask your local supplier for these materials or consult Resources, Product Information listings.

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5-56

Use Advanced System Framing with Double Top Plate


With Advanced Framing, studs are placed at 24-inch on-center and include insulated headers,
corners, and intersections. Although this approach is primarily considered an energy efficiency
strategy (see Energy Efficiency Section, Action Items 3-13 through 3-18), this method contributes
significantly to minimizing material use as well.
Some builders continue to use densely framed walls, but as costs of framing lumber rise and the
availability of straight tight lumber decreases, advanced framing can add to savings on the bottom
line. Because an advanced frame structure uses 20-30% less lumber, it should also take less time
to construct and be less expensive to build. Recent studies by building scientists also show that
this system generates less movement in the wall system resulting in less nail pops. Finally, fewer
plumbing and electrical penetrations result in fewer nail or screw holes to seal and sand.
Youll need to use sheathing, siding, and drywall rated for 24 stud spacing. More insulation will
be required, but the wider stud spacing results in fewer pieces of insulation and therefore faster
installation.
Using two-stud, rather than 3-stud corner construction reduces material use (See Action Item
3-14, Fully Insulate Corners. Two studs are all that you need where two walls intersect at corners; however, most builders use at least three studs and spacer blocking. The extra studs are
non-structural nailers for interior finishing. With two-stud corners, drywall clips spaced two feet
apart can provide back up for interior finish materials. Drywall stops or clips eliminate the need
for extra studs. Place the clips where one wall abuts another, or where two walls intersect at corners.
To help increase the efficiency of exterior walls, use ladder partitions. The usual practice of adding extra studs in the exterior wall to provide nailing for drywall creates an inaccessible pocket
that cant be insulated after exterior sheathing is installed. In ladder partition, the horizontal
blocking across the front of the wall cavity allows for plenty of insulation behind. This alternative
saves lumber and improves R-value.

Foundation
5-57

Use At Least 90% Regionally or Locally Produced Block


Puget Sound regions provide sufficient options for purchasing blocks. Points are awarded for using locally produced block in recognition that this strategy reduces the amount of fuel used to
transport material to the site.
Ask your local supplier and ask about the origin of the material.

5-58

Use Regionally Produced Flyash or Blast Furnace Slag for 25% by Weight of Cementitious
Materials for All Concrete (20% for Flat Work), If Available
The goal of this Action Item is to reduce the quantity of Portland cement in concrete by introducing high quality alternatives that can effectively substitute for the material AND have less environmental impact.

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Green building programs have been recommending the use of flyash in concrete for a number of
years because of its status as a reclaimed product, coupled with its superior performance. As a
result of this increased demand coupled with the closing of the Centralia Washington plant, local
material is not available. Flyash being used locally is transported from the east coast, adding to
the already high-embodied energy cost for cement, negating some of the intended environmental
benefit.
Flyash is a by-product of burning coal for electricity production. It can be added to concrete slabs
and foundations mixes as a substitute for up to 60% of the Portland cement mixture, in practice, it
is closer to 20%. The general rule of thumb recommends 15-30%. It has been shown to improve
the strength of concrete as well as increase its workability. Be advised that concrete with flyash
content sets up more slowly, but it is easy to work with and has a slightly smoother finish. It can
be readily available and involves no added cost.
Another alternative is blast furnace slag. Blast Furnace Slag is a co-product of iron production,
commonly used as feedstock for steel production. It can be used to replace 35% of Portland cement. Pelletized blast furnace slag can be used as a lightweight mineral admixture in blended cement for durable concrete structures. Blast furnace slag reduces the risk of damage caused by Alkali-silica Reaction, reinforcement corrosion and sulfphate. This concrete material has extended
the lifespan of buildings from 50 to 100 years. Using blast furnace slag also requires 1/5th of the
energy needed to produce Portland cement and produces less than 1/10th the carbon dioxide emissions of Portland cement generation.

5-59

Use Recycled Concrete, Asphalt, or Glass Cullet For Base or Fill


If you choose to do this, make sure concrete, asphalt, or glass cullet is ground properly to meet
base or fill specification. When ground to specs, the materials compact nicely to form a stable
base.
Depending on current supply and price, recycled concrete, asphalt, or glass cullet may be
cost-effective options. Consult the Washington Department of Transportation (WADOT) specifications for using these materials (see BUILT GREEN Resource Library).
See your pavement supplier for recycled concrete and asphalt options. There are also mobile concrete crushers, see your local phone book for vendors. They can crush concrete on site to spec.
Glass cullet is an excellent alternative for fill. See the BUILT GREEN Resource Library for a
copy of the WSDOT specifications. Post-consumer glass is primarily clear, amber, and green bottle glass. Post-industrial glass is a by-product of manufacturing activity. It is generally cleaner
and more uniform in size.

Sub-Floor
5-60

Use Recycled Content Sub-Floor


Using underlayment products below wood, tile, resilient flooring, or carpet and carpet cushion
provides a level surface, covers cracks, and helps insulate floors from sound transmission and
some heat loss. Standard particleboard is traditionally used for underlayment, even though it is

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known to be the primary source of formaldehyde gas in new homes. Exterior grade plywood or
no added urea formaldehyde wood fiberboard with recycled content is a superior choice for underlayment. OSB does not apply unless it is certified with recycled content. Other environmentally preferable materials for flooring underlayment include natural cork and options made with recycled rubber, paper, jute hemp and/or agricultural fiber. (See Section Four: Health and Indoor
Air Quality, Action Item 4-18, Use Plywood and Composites of Exterior Grade or Formaldehyde-Free (for Interior Use).

Doors
5-61

Use Domestically-Grown Wood Interior Doors


Domestically grown wood interior doors offer the same performance without compromising limited and endangered hardwood species stock. They also represent an opportunity to reduce embodied energy through minimizing the transportation impact.
Ask your supplier for information on the origin of materials.

Finish Floor
5-62

If Using Vinyl Flooring, Use Product with Recycled Content


Vinyl flooring is a commonly used material and often preferred for economy and durability. It is
not environmentally preferred, however, due to the manufacturing process required and fairly
limited potential for recycling the material after it has been used as flooring. If you do not use
any vinyl flooring, you earn 4 points. If you do use it, you can mitigate the environmental drawbacks somewhat by using flooring with recycled content (1 point).

5-63

No Vinyl Flooring
Vinyl flooring is a commonly used material and often preferred for economy and presumed durability. It is not environmentally preferred, however, due to the toxic manufacturing process and
limited potential for recycling the material after it has been used as flooring.

5-64

Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from Plants Harvested within a
Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet)
Cork and bamboo are examples of rapidly renewable flooring resources.
Cork is sustainable because the bark is harvested and the tree is left to regenerate more bark. The
bark is harvested on an eight-year cycle. Cork flooring is durable, sound absorbing, and naturally
moisture-, mold-, and rot-resistant.

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Bamboo is sustainable because it can be harvested on a six to eight year cycle. Bamboo flooring
is a very durable and dimensionally stable material. The short regeneration time of bamboo provide justification for specifying bamboo flooring instead of wood.
There can also be indoor air quality advantages to using natural materials, such as less off-gassing
due to fewer or no chemicals used in the manufacturing process. Check product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) to make sure adhesives and other flooring components do not contain hazardous materials, such as formaldehyde.

5-65

On More Than 250 Square Feet per Unit, Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from
Plants Harvested within a Ten-Year Harvest Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet)
Points allotted for use on more than 250 square feet in the project.
See Action Item 5-64: Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from
Plants Harvested within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet), above.

5-66

Use Recycled Content Carpet Pad


A variety of options are available for cost-competitive, resource-efficient carpet padding. In general, these products have been found to be very resilient and possess good performance characteristics.
Carpet padding may be made from several recycled content materials including nylon and polypropylene waste from carpet manufacturing and recycled tire rubber and rebound urethane, reprocessed from virgin prime urethane products.

5-67

Use Recycled Content or Renewed Carpet


A variety of cost-competitive resource-efficient carpet options are available. In general, these
products have been found to be very resilient and possess good performance characteristics.
Recycled content carpets may include plastic yarns produced from recycled pop bottles or recovered fibers from recycled textiles. The yarn or the backing may have recycled content.
Renewed carpet is used carpet that has been cleaned and restamped. A variety of attractive renewed styles are available. Ask your supplier.
Wool carpet is another resource efficient option that is renewable, biodegradable, naturally fire
and stain resistant, and colorfast; see Action Item 4-28, Install Natural Fiber Carpet.
Regardless of which carpet you select, make sure it has the Carpet and Rug Institutes (CRI)
Green Label. Your local carpet suppliers or installers may have resource-efficient products they
carry or have installed. Compare their suggestions with the products and information available
through these resources:

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5-68

Use Replaceable Carpet Tile for 50% of Carpeted Area or 100% of Carpeted Area
2 or 4 points

Replace 50% of Carpeted Area

2 points

Replace 100% of Carpeted Area

4 points

Carpet tiles are a sustainable material choice because they are often made of recycled fiber content. In addition, one or more tiles can be replaced if damaged without having to replace an entire
wall-to-wall carpet. Carpet tiles allow easy access to wiring or plumbing located under the floor.
They can be used in high and low traffic areas and require less time and fewer tools than traditional carpet. They can be installed using either special adhesive or double-faced tape or can be
ordered with self-stick backing. Carpet tiles come in many thicknesses, patterns and colors.

5-69

If Using Tile, Use 75% of Tile that is 40% Recycled Content


Several manufacturers make ceramic, porcelain, and glass tiles with recycled content. Other cement-based composites that use flyash, stones, recycled glass, wood, and plastic as aggregate alternatives can contain up to 40% combined recycled content. These are durable and offer an attractive opportunity to highlight (and market) the use of an environmentally friendly material to
your client or market. To qualify for this credit, either post-consumer or post-industrial content is
acceptable, although post-consumer content is always preferred.

5-70

Use Natural Linoleum


Linoleum is made from all-natural materials and is a durable, low-maintenance flooring made of
linseed oil, pine resin, sawdust, cork dust, limestone, natural pigments, and jute backing. Linoleum does not contain significant petroleum-based products or chlorinated chemicals, as does vinyl
flooring, which is often mistakenly referred to as linoleum. From a raw materials standpoint, linoleum is an outstanding product. All of its ingredients are minimally processed and commonly
available.
Check with your local flooring supplier.

5-71

If Using Wood Flooring, Use Locally Salvaged Wood Flooring on 25%, 50%, or 90%+ of Total
Flooring
1 or 3 or 5 points

25% of total wood flooring in project is locally salvaged flooring

1 point

50% of total wood flooring in project is locally salvaged flooring

3 points

100% of total wood flooring in project is locally salvaged flooring

5 points

For this credit salvaged wood flooring refers to previously used wood flooring that has been salvaged for reuse, as opposed to re-milled wood made from salvaged timbers.

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5-72

Use Flooring that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the flooring selected for the project must meet Certified
Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification
organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody
for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent
companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-73

Use Flooring that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
For credit for this Action Item, use flooring that meets Certified Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guidelines for Section
Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to be online soon.
See Resources listed for 5 45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-74

Use Spot Repairable Floor Finish


Spot repairable floor finishes, also known as penetrating oil or wax finishes, penetrate into wood
fibers unlike products like polyurethane, which coat the floor with a plastic film. As polyurethane
wears down over time, everything must be removed from the floor so screening and recoating can
be done. This inconvenient process prevents many floors from being properly maintained, sacrificing the life span of the wood floor. If a polyurethane finish wears down too far, the floors need
to be sanded down to bare wood. Most wood floors can only be sanded 3 or 4 times. In contrast, a
spot repairable finish can be touched-up in only areas that need it. This is more convenient for the
homeowner and also minimizes the need for sanding.

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Interior Walls
5-75

Use Drywall with a Minimum of 90% Recycled Content Gypsum or Flue Gas Substitute for
Recycled Gypsum
Drywall manufactured with recycled gypsum is commonly available at most building material
suppliers and is cost-competitive with conventional drywall. However, it must be specified if you
want to use it (in other words, it is not automatic).
Check with your local supplier to see if they carry drywall with recycled content gypsum (including post-consumer gypsum collected from construction and demolition projects and processed locally). If they do not, they should be able to source the following products:

5-76

Use Recycled or Reworked Paint and Finishes on Main Surfaces or All Surfaces
2 or 3 points

Main Surfaces

2 points

All Surfaces

3 points

Companies are marketing recycled paint on a regional basis. Recycled paint was formerly offered only in limited colors and styles, but the selection is expanding, and recycled paint is usually cheaper than its virgin counterpart. Keep in mind that you will NOT want to use these paints in
frequently occupied living spaces, such as bedrooms, childrens playrooms, or in homes for individuals with chemical sensitivities. (See Action Items 4-30, Optimize Air Quality in Family Bedrooms and 4-31, Use Low VOC/Low-Toxic Interior Paints and Finishes for Large Surface Areas.)

5-77

Use Recycled Newspaper or Cork Expansion Joint Filler


Cork expansion joint filler is strong, light weight, flexible, acid-resistant, waterproof and regains
up to 95% as joint expansion takes place. This material is made from cork, a rapidly renewable
material. It is preformed from granulated cork particles, bonded with an insoluble phenolic resin,
and molded under heat and pressure.
100% recycled newsprint is being used to manufacture pre-molded wood fiber strips for use in
concrete and masonry joints. Suitable for any building construction application where nonbituminous contraction joint is applicable, concrete floors, walls, retaining walls, gutters, curbs,
pavement, and swimming pool aprons. The natural grey color blends with concrete to further enhance the appearance of the finished job.

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5-78

Use Natural Wall Finishes, Like Lime Paint and Clay


Natural finishes refer to lime paints, milk paints, and clays free of plastics and acrylics and low in
solvents and VOCs.
Lime paint is an interior or exterior finish that contains slaked lime, clay, marble dust, earth pigments, natural glue, and water. Lime paint can be applied to a variety of surfaces including wood,
drywall, and masonry.
Milk paint is a durable, economical, matte finish made of milk protein, lime, and clay. Milk paint
dries quickly without the solvents and VOCs of traditional paint.
Natural clay plaster is an interior, trowel-on finish that comes in a wide variety of colors and can
be highly polished or heavily textured. It contains clay, marble dust, borax and earth pigments.
Clay plaster is mold resistant, hypoallergenic, and low toxic.

5-79

Reduce Interior Walls Through Open Plan for Kitchen, Dining, and Living Areas
This strategy reduces material use and cost for walls and creates an adaptable space that allows
for maximum daylighting, occupant interaction, and natural ventilation.

5-80

Install Toilet/Shower Partitions with Recycled Content


For common areas such as common baths and sauna, pool areas, install toilet/shower partitions
with recycled content. Many of these new materials have shown to be more durable that conventional metal stalls.

Ceilings
5-81

If Installing Acoustical Ceiling, Select a Recycled Content Product


Ceiling tile is a common ceiling finish in commercial buildings. Due to its large area, its potential for disturbance during renovation, and its contact with HVAC systems, it is an important
product to consider for air quality and resource efficiency.
Currently available types include RC ceiling tiles made of recycled newspaper, mineral wool,
perlite, glass, and clay. Natural fiber acoustic ceiling panels are also available, but are currently
two to four times more expensive than conventional panel systems (prices may drop as demand/production increase).

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Exterior Walls
5-82

Use Recycled Content Sheathing (OSB Does Not Apply)


Sheathing comprises a significant portion of the material use of a building project. Therefore,
choosing a sheathing product made with a minimum of 50% pre- or post consumer recycled content can have a significant impact on resource conservation. Many options are available including products made from certified sustainable wood.

5-83

Use Exterior Cladding with Reclaimed or Recycled Material On At Least 20% of Solid Wall
Surface
Two types of siding currently include recycled content: metal and to a small degree, vinyl. These
products also offer durable and low-maintenance alternatives to wood siding. Metal offers the
greatest opportunity to use post-consumer recycled content in your project. Aluminum or steel
siding products contain high percentages of recycled metalup to 100%. The scrap is also recyclable.
Vinyl siding can include a small percentage of post-industrial scrap in the manufacturing process.
However, PVC is difficult to recycle, and there are no vinyl siding products with post-consumer
vinyl at this time.
Fiber-cement composites are also resource-efficient, and in addition to durability and low
maintenance, offer a very good fire rating when compared to wood or metal siding. The wood fiber in these products is reclaimed from wood processing waste. It can also be harvested from
small diameter, fast-growing tree species.
Other reclaimed options include building salvage materials.

5-84

No Vinyl Siding or Exterior Trim


Vinyl siding or exterior trim is a commonly used material and often preferred for economy and
presumed durability. It is not environmentally preferred, however, due to the toxic manufacturing
process required and limited potential for recycling the material after it has been used as siding or
trim.

5-85

Use Salvaged Masonry Brick or Block, 50% Minimum


King County and Seattles construction recycling directory lists a number of reusable building
material companies. Check with these vendors or consider establishing a reuse policy for the masonry brick or block.
See your local supplier of brick masonry or block and ask for reclaimed materials. Also look at
jobsites for discards. Salvage yards may also stock these materials, including:

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5-86

Use Regionally Produced Stone or Brick


Regionally produced materials are generally considered to be produced within the Pacific
Northwest region, ideally in WA, OR, or ID.
Use locally quarried, indigenous stone that is cut and polished locally. Use of regional materials
helps keep material transport costs down, reinforces a regional aesthetic, and supports the local
economy.
Ask your local supplier and ask about the origin of the material.

5-87

Use 50-Year Siding Product


Minimizing the need to replace any siding product offers a maximum consumer benefit to the
owner, in addition to the obvious environmental impact. Many of the fiber-cement composites
offer a 50-year warranty. Ask your local supplier for this and other options.

5-88

Use Wood Siding that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements On At Least 20% of Solid Wall Surface
To receive credit for this Action Item, the wood siding selected for the project must meet Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material
Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification
organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody
for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent
companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-89

Use Wood Siding that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements On At Least 20 % of Solid Wall Surface
For credit for this Action Item, use wood siding that meets Certified Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guidelines for Section
Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to be online soon.
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

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Windows
5-90

Use Wood, Composite, or Fiberglass Windows


Manufacturers have developed new window frame materials from a composite of recycled polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or high-density polyethylene (HPDE) plastics and waste wood fiber. Combining the two materials creates a product that has important advantages over both wood and vinyl windows: the dimensional stability and thermal performance of wood, and the uniformity and
decay resistance of plastics. The cost of wood/plastic composite windows is often less than that of
wood or vinyl.
Wood/plastic composites consist primarily of waste sawdust and scrap PVC generated in the production of wood and vinyl windows, or from post-consumer bottle waste. Wood content ranges
from 40 to 70%, depending on the manufacturer. According to recent tests, the frames have
roughly the same energy performance as solid wood, but perform slightly better than vinyl window frames.
Wood fiber increases the dimensional stability of the composite material. Dimensional stability is
commonly a problem with PVC plastic frame materials. The composite coefficient of expansion
more closely matches glass than vinyl and helps keep the seal between the frame and glass intact
for long-term performance. Further, the composite does not absorb moisture and will not swell
like wood.
Some window manufacturers offer a line that can qualify under the ENERGY STAR program.
Windows made of fiberglass produce the highest energy efficiency and minimal environmental
impact. Fiberglass requires less energy to produce into a final product than PVC or aluminum. It
reduces condensation, wont contract or expand like wood, and is least likely to crack, corrode,
rot, or leak.

5-91

No Vinyl Windows
Green building is about trade-offs. Vinyl, is not environmentally preferred, due to the toxic manufacturing process required and limited potential for recycling the material after it has been used
as a window material. However, vinyl windows offer superior energy efficiency and are commonly selected for economy and presumed durability. The program awards points for choosing
another environmentally preferred alternatives under the Materials section, recognizing the tradeoff that has to be made. PVC windows also use more energy to produce than other window assemblies, see Action Item 5-90, Use Wood, Composite, or Fiberglass Windows, above).
Windows made of fiberglass produce an energy efficient window and the lowest environmental
impact. Fiberglass requires less energy to produce into a final product than PVC or aluminum. It
reduces condensation, wont contract or expand like wood, and is least likely to crack, corrode,
rot or leak.

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5-92

Use Finger-Jointed Wood Windows


Traditionally, the finest clear-grained wood has been used for doors and window frames. However, the availability of stable, clear, mature wood has declined. As a result, the industry has responded by developing finger-jointed wood productstaking smaller scraps of lower value wood
and edge-gluing them together, covered by top-quality wood veneers on the finish surface. This
represents efficient wood use and reduces the demand for high quality wood for this application.

5-93

Use Regionally Produced Windows


Using regionally produced windows reduces the embodied energy of the product. Use regionally
produced windows, especially if you select vinyl windows, so that there is some environmental
benefit associated with the selection of vinyl windows.

Trim
5-94

If Using Wood Trim:


Although commonly used MDF trim materials may be less costly, they require stringent protection from fluctuations in heat and humidity during transit between manufacturing facility and the
job site. This can be difficult to control and may result in excessive shrinkage, cracking and bowing that creates difficult installs and product waste. MDF trim pieces also lack lateral strength,
off-gas if bonded with urea formaldehyde, and create noxious dust during cutting.
Solid wood and urethane trim products are proving to be the highest quality, durable, and long
lasting trim option.

5-94a Use Regional Products, 50% Minimum


Regionally materials are generally considered to be produced within the Pacific
Northwest region, ideally in WA, OR, or ID.
Use of regional materials helps keep material transport costs down, reinforces a
regional aesthetic, and supports the local economy.
See local suppliers and ask about origin of materials.

5-94b Use Domestic Hardwood Trim that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested
Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the trim selected for the project must meet
Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material
Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the
beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)

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Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few
programs that require a chain of custody for certification. FSC sets standards for
sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent companies for thirdparty certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure
public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-94c Use Domestic Hardwood Trim that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested
Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements, 50% Minimum
Select trim from certified or sustainable sources. Although there may be a slight
cost premium associated with this choice, it allows you to contribute to a sustainable enterprise and ensure protection of endangered hardwood forests.
For credit for this Action Item, use dimensional lumber that meets Certified
Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection,
Wood Certification Guidelines for Section Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to on-line soon.
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-94d Use Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-94e Use Third-Party-Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-95

Use Finger-Jointed or MDF Trim with No Added Urea Formaldehyde, 90% Minimum
Since the availability of stable, clear, mature wood has declined, any application, which requires
straight, knot-free wood is affected. As a result, the industry has responded by developing finger-jointed wood productstaking smaller scraps of lower value wood and edge-gluing them together, covered by top-quality wood veneers on the finish surface. Interior trim is an excellent
application for this new product; it offers improved product consistency and durability, while at
the same time uses harvested wood fiber more efficiently.

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MDF is commonly bonded with urea formaldehyde adhesives. These materials can off-gas in the
home and create noxious dust during cutting. Choose products with no added urea formaldehyde.

5-96

Use Wood Veneers that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum
To receive credit for this Action Item, the wood veneers selected for the project must meet Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at the beginning of the Design and Material
Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification
organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few programs that require a chain of custody
for certification. FSC sets standards for sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent
companies for third-party certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-97

Use Wood Veneers that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 2 Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

Cabinetry
5-98

For Cabinets:
Select cabinet materials from certified or sustainable sources. Although there may be a slight cost
premium associated with this choice, it allows you to contribute to a sustainable enterprise and
ensure protection of endangered hardwood forests.

5-98a Use Regional Products, 90% Minimum


Regionally materials are generally considered to be produced within the Pacific
Northwest region, ideally in WA, OR, or ID.
Use of regional materials helps keep material transport costs down, reinforces a
regional aesthetic, and supports the local economy.

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5-98b Use Domestic Hardwood that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood
that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum
Select wood from certified or sustainable and domestic sources. Although there
may be a slight cost premium associated with this choice, it allows you to contribute to a sustainable enterprise and ensure protection of endangered hardwood
forests.
To receive credit for this Action Item, the wood selected for the project must
meet Certified Wood Products Tier 1 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection, Wood Certification Guideline for Section Five. (See Table 5.1, at
the beginning of the Design and Material Selection section.)
Currently, only the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a voluntary, market-based, certification organization, meets Tier 1 requirements. It is one of few
programs that require a chain of custody for certification. FSC sets standards for
sustainable forestry practices and depends on independent companies for thirdparty certification of forestlands. It evaluates and monitors certifiers to ensure
public credibility.
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-98c Use Domestic Hardwood that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood
that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements, 50% Minimum
For credit for this Action Item, use dimensional lumber that meets Certified
Wood Products Tier 2 Requirements listed under Design and Material Selection,
Wood Certification Guidelines for Section Five.
Currently, there are no programs that meet these criteria, however, a few are expected to on-line soon.
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-98d Use Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-98e Use Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5 45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

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5-98f Use Cabinet Casework and Shelving Constructed of Agricultural Fiber


(Strawboard or Wheatboard) with No Added Urea Formaldehyde for 50% or
90% of All Casework

50%

2 points

90%

3 points

Strawboard and wheatboard are suitable material choices for this credit.
Check with your local cabinet supplier, as of this writing, strawboard, the primary agricultural fiber board used for cabinet casework is no longer available. Industry sources expect that to change in the future.

5-99

Use Resource Efficient Countertop Material in Lobby/Reception Areas


For administrative and reception areas use countertops made of from resource efficient materials.

5-100 Use Countertops that are Salvaged, Recycled, or Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested
Wood with a Chain of Custody in All Units
Use countertops salvaged from projects or those made of untreated salvaged woods such as reclaimed butcher-block products. These are minimally processed, natural, and can be reused at the
end of their lifespan. Look for products with no added urea formaldehyde.
Third-party certified wood countertops are also an option. Look for untreated wood products certified through organizations such as FSC or SCS.
There are many countertop options available in recycled materials. Paper composite countertops
are made of paper pressed in a resin binder and can be found with high recycled content and lowVOC resins. Products come in a variety of colors and thicknesses and are easy to maintain and
repair. Recycled glass countertops come in the form of tiles and crushed glass set in cement binders. One hundred percent recycled aluminum tiles are also on the market.
For salvaged countertops, see 5-12, Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish Items and Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center below.

Roof
5-101 Use Recycled Content Roofing Material
Several new composite options are available that provide lower maintenance along with increased
durability. Many of these options include recycled content or reclaimed materials: recycled content asphalt shingles, plastic shakes, ridged sheet material made with fiber and asphalt, and metal
shingles.

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Asphalt shingles contain recycled mixed waste paper or reclaimed mineral slag resulting in
20% to 25% recycled content. Roof panels made from recycled plastic resins provide a lightweight roofing alternative in additional to recycled aluminum shingles which may contain up to
100% recycled content.
Fiber-cement composite slates are lightweight, long lasting, and fireproof. They offer an efficient
use of wood fiber and can be used on standard roof structures. Asphalt shingles contain recycled
mixed waste paper or reclaimed mineral slag resulting in 20% to 25% recycled content. Roof
panels made from recycled plastic resins provide a lightweight roofing alternative in additional to
recycled aluminum shingles which may contain up to 100% recycled content.

5-102 Upgrade Material Quality and Durability (Metal is Better than Torch Down)
Low-slope metal roofs allow water to drain away from the roof surface, have a long-service life,
low life cycle cost, requires low maintenance, is light weight and resistant to wind. Low slope
structural roofing is generally used on roof pitches ranging from :12 to 3:12. If you use a 2:12
pitch, you can get additional points from Action Items 4-37 and 4-38, Provide 2 Inch 12 Pitch
Sloped Roof Surface. Metal roof systems generally contain at least 25% recycled content and at
the end of its service life is 100% recyclable.
Metal roofing options can also contribute to reducing a buildings long term energy use with heat
deflecting metal coating, becoming a high albedo roof, see Action Item 2-28, Install a HighAlbedo or Light Colored Roof. Additionally, unlike non-metal systems which require an underlying substrate or deck, low slope metal roofs can be applied directly over bar joists or purlins.
Another alternative to hot bitumen and torch applications is self-adhered modified bitumen
(SAMBs) systems. These systems have been introduced to address safety concerns associated
with torch down applications and environmental issues surrounding solvent-based cold-adhesive
applications. These roof systems have been used extensively in Europe. SAMBs are applied using no heat and no fumes, and they contain no volatile organic compounds in the material. Endlap adhesion can be reinforced by applying manufacturer-approved adhesives or by heat welding.
The waterproofing for modified bitumen systems is accomplished by the reinforcement of the
sheet, not the bitumen. Installation can be adversely affected by temperature, foreign matter in
the substate, and moisture

5-103 Use 30-Year Warranted Roofing Material


Talk to your local supplier about options that provide a 30-year warranty. Warranties are one
way to assess a durable product alternative.
Varieties of organic felt-based shingles are available with up to 30-year warranties. Talk to your
local supplier about other options, which provide a 30-year warranty. Certainteed has an option
with recycled content. See your local supplier.

5-104 Use 40-Year Warranted Roofing Material


Using durable materials with long-lasting value helps prevent the need for replacement an asset
to the building owner which adds to the value of any building.
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Some brands of aluminum or steel shingles have a 40-year limited warranty and in addition, come
with a coating approved by HUD, which allows the roof to be used for collecting rainwater. Fiberboard shakes, a durable product, which can be nailed and sawn, similar to wood shakes, come
with a 30 to 60 year warranty.
See your local supplier.

5-105 Use 50-Year Warranted Roofing Material


Many fiber-board shakes fit this criteria, plus another product manufacturer, DECRA manufacturer of stone coated steel roofing products Decra Tile, Shake, Shingle, and Shingle Plus.
See your local supplier.

5-106 Use Solar Shingles


Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells are now being incorporated into rooftop shingles. They are available
in the same patterns of traditional asphalt shingles, are exceptionally durable, and are wind and
water tight. Using solar shingles can lower electricity bills and increase building value.
Installation involves nailing PV shingles in place on roof decking over 30 lb. felt sheeting.

5-107 Install a Metal Roof


Metal roofs are made of recycled material and are 100% recyclable at the end of their lifecycle.
They come with warranties ranging from 30 to 50 years compared to 15 to 20 year life expectancies of asphalt shingles. Metal roofs will not decompose under sun exposure, are noncombustible,
can fit over existing roofing materials, are less than 1/3 the weight of asphalt and can withstand
winds up to 140 mph.
Metal is naturally heat and light reflective and can reduce energy costs by as much as 25%. Metal
roofs are a better choice for rain water collection for irrigation, see Action Item 2-49, Install
Rainwater Collection System (Cistern) for Reuse and Action Item 4-37 and 4-38, Provide 2
Inch 12 Pitch Sloped Roof Surface.

Insulation
5-108 All Insulation to have a Minimum of 40% Recycled Content
Commonly available types of insulation that include recycled content: cellulose, fiberglass, mineral wool, and cotton.
Cellulose insulation is made from 100% post-consumer recycled newspapers or telephone books.
The insulation can be dry-blown or poured loose-fill into enclosed cavities, but is most commonly
wet-sprayed. When sprayed, the product leaves few voids, reducing problems with air infiltration.
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Cellulose is usually mixed with boric acid or sodium borate as a fire retardant. An additional benefit of boric acid is that it kills carpenter ants and termites.
Several brands of fiberglass insulation bats are manufactured using recycled glass, including
post-consumer glass collected in curbside recycling programs.
Mineral wool insulation is another option and is available in loose-fill or bats. It has, on average,
75% post-industrial recycled content.
Cotton insulation contains up to 85% post-industrial recycled fibers, such as blue jean material. It
contains no VOCs, and no chemical irritants. Cotton insulation is Class-A fire rated, rot, and pest
proof.

5-109 Use Environmentally Friendly Foam Building Products (Formaldehyde-Free, CFC-Free, HCFC-Free)
Building environmentally friendly multi-family housing requires eliminating the use of foam
building materials manufactured using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs).
CFCs are known to contribute significantly to ozone depletion and global warming, two of our
most serious environmental concerns. HCFCs are considerably less damaging than CFCs, but
should also be avoided if at all possible. In addition, avoid products that include formaldehyde,
because indoor formaldehyde is gaining recognition as a severe health hazard causing reactions
ranging from flu-like symptoms to death in individuals that become sensitized through exposure.
New bio-based products, including soy-based, are emerging.

5-110 Use Backer Rod Around Windows for Infiltration Sealing


Backer rod is a cylindrical foam rod that enhances adhesion and performance in joints around
windows by acting as a stopper when used in conjunction with polyurethane, silicone, polysulfide, butyl and acrylic sealants. By preventing sealant adhesion to the bottom of the joint, backer
rods provide additional moisture protection, fire protection, and add to thermal performance. To
ensure a proper air seal, do not use backer rod by itself, use in conjunction with a sealant. Backer
rods WILL make the area that needs sealing much smaller, providing an opportunity for greater
quality control in your final perimeter sealing, plus you will use less of the expensive sealing/caulking material.

Other Exterior
5-111 Use Reclaimed or Salvaged Material for Landscaping Walls
Using discarded stone, brick, masonry, or wood materials to construct the landscaping walls not
only saves resources, but also can provide a unique appearance to match the style of the building.
See your local supplier of brick masonry for broken or reclaimed materials. Also, look at jobsites
for discards.
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Also, see Action Item 5-12, Sell or Give Away Wood Scraps, Lumber, and Land Clearing Debris,
especially:

5-112 Use 100% Recycled Content HDPE, Salvaged Lumber, or Lumber that is Third-Party Certified
Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements for Decking and Porches
There are many manufacturers of recycled plastic lumber nationwide. Recycled plastic lumber
provides durable alternatives to solid wood for exterior applications such as fences, benches,
decking, docks, retaining walls, picnic tables, and landscape borders. Due to its weather- and insect-resistant nature, plastic lumber can readily substitute for treated wood in non-structural applications. Plastic lumber is also rot and corrosion-proof, and will not crack, splinter, or chip. It
has a long life expectancy in exposed, sub-grade or marine applications, and does not leach chemicals into ground or surface water or soil as treated wood can.
Plastic lumber resists vandalism and does not require painting. It is available in a variety of colors, including white, although many companies have a standard color of either brown or black.
These products can be nailed, screwed, sanded, glued, or turned on a lathe with standard woodworking tools. One challenging aspect of working with plastic lumber is its high expansion coefficient, which must be considered during installation. Check with the manufacturer regarding
structural support specifications.
Decking from local building deconstruction/salvage applies for credit.
For information on Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood, see Action Item 5-44, Use
Dimensional Lumber that is Third--Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements.
Recycled plastic/wood composite lumber does NOT qualify for credit. These composites cannot
be recycled or reclaimed at the end of its life span. In addition, many of these products contain
virgin materials.
Ask your local supplier or see Section Two: Site and Water, Action Item 2-38, Use Non-Toxic or
Low-Toxic Outdoor Lumber for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least Toxic Treated Wood).

5-113 Use 100% Recycled Content HDPE, Salvaged Lumber, or Lumber that is Third-Party Certified
Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements for Decking and Porches
The emphasis of this Action Item is targeted at the third-party certified sustainably harvested
wood. Ask your local supplier or see Section Two: Site and Water, Action Item 2-38, Use
Non-Toxic or Low-Toxic Outdoor Lumber for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least Toxic Treated
Wood).

5-114 Use Recycled Content Lumber for Decking (e.g., Trex)


There are a variety of recycled content plastic lumber options available on the market. Recycled
content lumber can contain as much as 100% post-consumer plastic or a blend of recycled plastic
and recycled wood waste. Buying recycled content lumber conserves energy and keeps plastic
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waste out of landfills and incinerators. Plastic lumber is an excellent alternative to chemically
treated wood since it wont leach chemicals into the environment and it has a long service life. In
2001 ASTM created a standard for plastic lumber and many manufacturers have adopted this
standard.
Not all options are suitable for decking. Look for options that have UV stabilizers and are fiberreinforced, such as Trex. There are many benefits to using plastic lumber:

Works like wood, and can be sawed and drilled using ordinary tools.

Weather-resistant and graffiti-resistant.

No waterproofing, staining or regular maintenance required

Long lasting; many manufacturers guarantee their products to last for 50 years and replace
planks that may occasionally crack or splinter in extreme temperatures.

Unaffected by bacteria, worms, insects, fungi or rodents.

Sold in a variety of standard dimensional sizes, colors and textures.

Ask your local supplier or see Section Two: Site and Water, Action Item 2-38, Use Non-Toxic or
Low-Toxic Outdoor Lumber for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least Toxic Treated Wood).

5-115 If Lumber is Used, Use No Pressure Treated Lumber


Naturally rot-resistant wood species are an option. Choose materials from certified, well-managed
forests, see Action Item 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third--Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirement.
Recycled Plastic lumber is an alternative for some applications, 100% and plastic/wood composites are acceptable for this credit. See items 5-114 above.

5-116 If Using Pressure Treated Lumber, Use CAB


When cost is a consideration, many residential deck builders choose pressure treated lumber. In
the past the product of choice was CCA-treated wood. CCA has been banned because of environmental and human contact concerns. CAB treated wood, uses a copper azole preservative,
which has been tested for exposure concerns for builders and long-term and short-term exposure
concerns with children. The EPA approved this study and determined that CAB does not pose a
potential health risk.
Additionally, unlike its treated wood predecessors, CAB wood can be disposed of with ordinary
trash collection.
Treated wood is effective against termites and fungal decay and CAB wood is suitable for aboveground and ground-contact applications.
See your local supplier and Resources, Product Information.

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Extra Credit / Innovation for Materials Efficiency


5-117 Extra Credit / Innovation for Materials Efficiency
You may submit a materials efficiency system or product, not specifically called out in this Section, for consideration for an Extra Credit for Innovation. All extra credits will be reviewed by
the Program Director. Extra credits will be worth from 1 to 10 points. If approved, add awarded
points to your Section total.

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Part II:
Resources
Section One:

Build to Green Codes/Regulations and


Program Requirement

Section Two:

Site and Water

Section Three:

Energy Efficiency

Section Four:

Health and Indoor Air Quality

Section Five:

Materials Efficiency

Part II: Multi-Family


Resources
The following pages contain detailed resource listings for each of the Action Items in the five corresponding sections of Part I. The Resources section provides general resources as well as specific information
about locally available products whenever possible. With the 2008 Revision, additional resources have
been added to accompany newly added Action Items. However, due in part to the extensive amount of
information available, a thorough literature search was not always conducted for each Action Item, and
many of the resources listed are from the original 2000 handbook. Information, websites, web pages, and
contact information may have changed. The field of green building is rapidly expanding, and any
printed resource listing should only be considered a starting point.
The BUILT GREEN Program recognizes the dynamic nature of green building resource information, and has developed the On-Line Resources page, available at
www.builtgreen.net/links.html where you can get the most current up-to-date information available. If you cannot locate a resource for any of the Action Items, contact
the Built Green Program for additional information.
Due to space constraintsand because there are excellent product directories available already
product-specific information provided here is not exhaustive. In all cases, we have identified local distributors and manufacturers as much as possible. Additional product information is available in the many
good product directories we reference (some of these will be available at the BUILT GREEN Resource
Library). Your suppliers as well as product announcements in trade magazines can provide you with information on new products as they become available (Builder, , Journal of Light Construction, and Environmental Building News).
If your local supplier does not carry these products, we encourage you to support any efforts on their part
to expand their inventory to include them. If you buy them, they will come!
Also, if youve come across a resource that you find valuable, drop a line to the MBA office at
800-522-2209, we may be able to include it in the next revision or add it to the BUILT GREEN Resource
Library.
Finally, product information provided in the Handbook is not intended to act as or imply a recommendation for using a particular product in a specific application. Where appropriate, products should be tested
before installation. All products should be used according to manufacturers recommendations.

Section One
Resources:

Build to Program Requirements and Green


Codes /Regulations

Owners Operation and Maintenance Kit


General Program Requirements
Green Codes / Regulations
Water Use Efficiency Standards of the Uniform
Plumbing Code with Washington State Amendments
Stormwater / Site Development Standards
Washington State Energy Code & Local Amendments
Washington State Ventilation/Indoor Air Quality Code

Section One Resources:


Build to Program
Requirements and Green
Codes/ Regulations
1-1

Provide Owner with an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Kit


The Master Builders Association of King and Snohomish Counties offers free materials you can
include in every kitcheck with the BUILT GREEN Program Administrator. You might also
provide any of the resources listed elsewhere in this manual. Additional materials are available
from distributors or manufacturers of environmentally friendly products you have installed. Most
are available in the BUILT GREEN Resource Library at the MBA. Some useful resources for
owners are:

Consult equipment manufacturers documentation for related equipment and systems (roof
and exterior wall systems; heating/cooling systems including boilers, furnaces, chillers, cooling towers; ventilation equipment; lighting systems).

Building Owners Management Association. www.boma.org, email rkauffman@bomaseattle.org.

Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers, an EPA publication on pollutant sources in buildings and methods to prevent and resolve IAQ problems.
Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iaq/base/baqtoc.html.

The Janitorial Products Pollution Prevention Project is sponsored by the US EPA and several
jurisdictions in southern California. Their web site
http://www.westp2net.org/Janitorial/jp4.htm provides a number of fact sheets and tools to
help you develop a safe and non-toxic facilities cleaning plan.

Recommended General-Purpose Cleaners, a report from Green Seal,


http://www.greenseal.org/chart.htm

The Washington chapter of the American Lung Association (ALA), for questions relating to
ventilation, insulation, or pollutant source control, 800-732-9339 or www.alaw.org.

WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program can provide you with consumer fact sheets on
energy-efficient appliances: 360-956-2000 or www.energy.wsu.edu.

Home Water-Saving Methods, by Ronald E. Hermanson, Publication #EB0732, WSU Cooperative Extension, 800-723-2763, ($1.00).

Consumer Reports, August 1998. A thorough and informative report for consumers on buying carpets, including a section on carpet and indoor air quality. Copies of the issue ($5) can
be obtained by writing: Back Issue Dept., Consumer Reports, PO Box 53016, Boulder, CO
80322-3016, www.consumerreports.com.

LightWise Compact Fluorescent Bulbs: More Value for Your Energy Dollar, Puget Sound
Energy publication. Includes a list of stores offering compact fluorescents at discount prices.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section One Resources:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-7

Puget Sound Energy, 411 108th Avenue NE, PO Box 97034, Bellevue, WA 98009-9734,
888-225-5773.

1-2

Take Extra Precautions to Not Dispose of Topsoil in Lowlands or Wetlands


No specific resources listed.

1-3

When Construction is Complete, Leave No Part of the Disturbed Site Uncovered or Unstabilized
For hydroseeding, compost suppliers, and erosion control options see Resources for Action Item
2-14, Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes. Mulch, vegetation and matting can be obtained
at your local nursery or landscape supplier.

1-4

Prepare Jobsite Recycling Plan and Post On Site


See Resources, Section 5 Jobsite Recycling Plan at the end of the section. Also:
See Resources, Section 5 Hazardous Waste, Local Hazardous Waste Resources. Also:

1-5

Washington State Department of Ecology Recycling Hotline. 800-RECYCLE (732-9253) or


www.1800RECYCLE.wa.gov.

IMEX, the Industrial Materials Exchange, a free service designed to match businesses that
produce wastes, industrial by-products, or surplus materials with businesses that need them.
The bi-monthly print catalog lists wanted or available materials. The catalog is also available
online at www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/imex/. For more information, contact IMEX at
206-296-4899.

Talk to your local service station or consult the local phone book under Waste Disposal
Hazardous.

If Using Can Lights, Use Energy Star Can Lights or Can Lights Approved by Washington
Energy Code for All Can Light Applications

Talk to your local supplier

Energy Star website, http://www.northwestenergystar.com/lighting

See Washington State Energy Code, 2006 Edition, residential recessed lighting code has been
modified:

502.4.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting
fixtures shall be Type IC rated and certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air
movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at
75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance with
this test method. Recessed lighting fixtures shall be installed with a gasket or caulk between the
fixture and ceiling to prevent air leakage.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section One Resources:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-8

1-6

2 4 Stars: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwire Preferred) with a Combustion Device or
Attached Garage
Carbon monoxide detectors are available at hardware stores and home supply centers.

1-7

5 Star: Install CO Detector for All Units (Hardwire Required) with a Combustion Device
Carbon monoxide detectors are available at hardware stores and home supply centers.

1-8

1-9

Prohibit Burying Demolition and/or Construction Waste

Department of Ecology, Solid Waste, http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/swfa/index.html.

Environmental Handbook for Washington Construction Contractors: Regulatory Guidance


(Publication #96-503), Solid Waste and Financial Assistance Program, Washington State Department of Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Dispose of Non-Recyclable Hazardous Waste at Legally Permitted Facilities


Use care when choosing a vendor. Remember that you are liable for your waste from cradle to
grave even though someone else is handling it. Make sure the company you choose is permitted
to handle your waste.
See Resources, Section 5, Hazardous Waste. Also:

Contact the Washington State Department of Ecology to see if a vendor is permitted or has
any violations, Northwest Regional Office, Hazardous Waste Specialists. 425-649-7040.

The Yellow Book is an online directory of the King County, Department of Natural Resources, Hazardous Waste Management Program designed to help business and other facilities that generate small quantities of hazardous waste. The directory is at
www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb. The site contains links to How to Choose a Hazardous
Waste Vendor (www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb/ybchoose.html) and a vendor directory
(www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb/ybvendir.html). For more information or for a print copy of
the directory, contact:

The Hazardous Waste Directory, Local Hazardous Waste Management Program in King
County, Dept. of Natural Resources, 130 Nickerson Street, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98109.
Phone, 206-263-3051, fax, 206-263-3070, TTY, 206-296-0100, or e-mail at
haz.waste@metrokc.gov.

In Snohomish County a permanent Household Hazardous Waster Drop-off Station is open


three days a week in Everett at 3434 McDougall Street. This facility accepts almost all common household hazardous waste products, including paints, stains, thinners, solvents, motor
oil, garden chemicals, pesticides, oil and fuel filters, and more. The site is also available to
Small Quantity Generator (SQG) businesses by appointment. Call 425-388-6050 for an appointment or more information. See also www.co.snohomish.wa.us/haxwastedrop-off.htm.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section One Resources:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-9

1-10

Consult your local phone book under Waste Disposal, Hazardous.

Meet All Applicable State and Local Codes, Regulations, and Development Standards
Consult with your local code office. Also see resources for relevant section.
Meet Stormwater / Site Development Standards
Meet applicable state and local stormwater controls and site development requirements. (Section
Two: Site and Water contains additional Action Items that go beyond regulations.)
Meet Washington State Energy Code and Local Amendments, if Applicable
Meet the Washington State Energy Code. Effective July 1, 2007, the State Energy Code has been
updated. Major changes have been incorporated into the 2008 update of the Multi-Family Manual; however, it may be that not all changes have been incorporated. To see all the changes, download a new copy of the code and look for a vertical bar in the margin indicating a change in the
code, see http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/wsec2006/wsec_2006.pdf. See the Chart
in the Resources, Section 3 or the Worksheet Instructions provided by WSU at
http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/CPWorksheets/CPWorksheet_instruct.pdf. (Section
Three: Energy Efficiency provides Action Items that go beyond code.)

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, 3rd edition. Available through
WSU Cooperative Extension, Educational Materials. Cost is $10.00. To order, call
360-956-2000. This guide is available as a free PDF download from
www.energy.wsu.edu/buildings.

Also see resources for Section Three: Energy Efficiency.


Meet Washington State Ventilation / Indoor Air Quality Code
Meet the Washington State Mechanical Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code. Effective July
1, 2007, the State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code has been updated, see
http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/wsec2006/VIAQ2006.pdf. (Section Four: `Health
and Indoor Air Quality provides Action Items that go beyond code.)
The Mechanical Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code is available online at
http://www.mrsc.org/wac.htm (click on Click here to search the WAC, in the left pane, scroll
down and click on Title 51, then click on 51-13, Ventilation and indoor air quality.)

Also see resources for Section Three: Energy Efficiency, and Section Four: Health and Indoor Air Quality.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section One Resources:


Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes/Regulations
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-10

Section Two
Resources:
Site and Water
Site Protection
Overall
Protect Sites Natural Features
Protect Natural Processes On-Site
Hardscapes
Reduce Urban Heat Island Effect
Eliminate Water Pollutants

Water Conservation
Outdoor Conservation
Indoor Conservation
Eliminate Water Pollutants

Design Alternatives
Transportation
Training and Education
Extra Credit / Innovation for Site and Water

Section Two
Resources:
Site and Water
General Resources

The Sustainable Sites Initiative, Standards and Guidelines Preliminary Report. November
2007. ASLA, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, US Botanic Garden
http://www.sustainablesites.org.

Environmental Handbook for Washington Construction Contractors: Regulatory Guidance (Publication #96-503), Solid Waste and Financial Assistance Program, Washington State Department
of Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Watershed Protection Tools, Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD. 410-461-8323
or www.cwp.org, multiple publications including Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection.

Seattle Public Utilities website, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/rescons. A good source for information


and publications about composting, natural landscaping/lawn care, and water efficient practices/fixtures.

King County Conservation District. 206-764-3410.

Snohomish County Conservation District. 425-335-5634.

Soil and Water Conservation Society, www.swcs.org. An organization focused on fostering the
science and art of sustainable soil, water, and related natural resource management.

Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes, by A. Dwight Baldwin and others,
University of Minnesota Press, 1994. Available from www.amazon.com for $49.95 for hardback;
$19.95 paperback.

Design for Human Ecosystems: Landscape, Land Use, and Natural Resources, by John Tillman
Lyle and Joan Woodward, Milldale Press, 1999. Available from www.amazon.com for $30.00.

Landscape Restoration Handbook, by Donald Harker, Lewis Publishers, 1999. Available from
www.amazon.com for $115.00.

Product Information

GreenSpec The Environmental Building News Product Directory and Guidelines Specifications,
E Build, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, 1999. 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com. GreenSpec is
organized in standard CSI divisions. Environmental Building News (EBN) also offers product
reviews, information and lists some articles at the following web address:
www.buildinggreen.com/products/productslist.html.

REDI Guide (Resources for Environmental Design Index), web database, diskette, or printed
handbook; a good resource for energy-efficient products. Available from Iris Communications,
Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104, or online at data.oikos.com/products.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-13

Surface Water Management

1998 King County Surface Water Design Manual. Appendices C and D. Available for reference
at the King County regional libraries, the UW Engineering Library, and at several County departments. It is available for purchase at Water and Land Resources for $125 plus tax (and postage). For questions regarding availability or purchase, call Water and Land Resource Division at
206-296-6519 or e-mail Andrea.perkinsmyntti@metrokc.gov. Supporting documents and software can be downloaded from dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/dss/manual.htm or
www.metrokc.gov/ddes//usd/erosion.htm.

On-Site Residential Stormwater Management Alternatives. Washington State Department of


Ecology, 1995. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html. Prepared by UW Department
of Civil Engineering (Stephen Burges).

Stormwater and Urban Runoff SeminarsGuide for Builders and Developers, NAHB, Edited by
Susan Asmus, Washington DC, 800-368-5242 x538 or www.nahb.com.

Stormwater Erosion and Sediment Control for Small Parcel Construction (WQ-R-93-012, Report
#3 of 5). Washington State Department of Ecology, Water Quality Program. 360-407-7472 or
www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Stormwater Management: Environmentally Sound Approaches, Environmental Building News,


Sept/Oct 1994. 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com.

Stormwater Management For Construction Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans


And Best Management Practices: Summary Guidance. EPA#833-R-92-001, October 1992, EPA
Office of Wastewater Management, 401 M St. SW, Mail Code EN-336, Washington DC, 20460.
800-245-6510, 202-260-7786 or www.epa.gov/owm/sw/construction/.

Final Draft, Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, Volume V, Runoff
Treatment BMPs (Publication #9915). Washington State Department of Ecology, October 1999,
Revised August 2000. This Final Draft can be downloaded at
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/9915.html or call 360-407-6614.

Final Draft, Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, Volume II, Construction
Stormwater Pollution Prevention. Washington State Department of Ecology, Water Division.
August 1999, revised August 2000. This Final Draft can be downloaded at
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/9912.html or call 360-407-6614.

International Erosion Control Association (IECA). 800-455-4322 or www.ieca.org. Provides


technical assistance and an annual Erosion Control Products and Services Directory. IECAs
Western Chapter addresses issues that are unique to the Western U.S

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-14

SITE PROTECTION
Overall
2-1

2-2

Build on an Infill Lot to Take Advantage of Existing Infrastructure and Reduce Development
of Virgin Sites

Designed to Fit, by Susan Jenkins, Builder, July 1998, pp. 136-148. Washington, DC,
www.builderonline.com. (Four projects that demonstrate different forms of infill housing: attached, detached, high-density, and low-density).

Infill Housing That Fits, by Jamie Fisher, Journal of Light Construction, June 1998,
p. 21. Williston, VT. 802-859-3669 or www.jlconline. Order by phone or online at
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Build in a Planned Built Green Development


To find out which developments have been certified by the Program, call the MBA:
425-451-7920 or 800-522-2209.

2-3

Build on a Previously Developed Site (Greyfield or Brownfield)


Resources for Greyfield Redevelopment:

Greyfields is a real estate private equity company with a singular focus on the investment
in, restructuring and redevelopment of functionally and/or financially underutilized real
estate assets, aka "greyfields" or "grayfields". The site includes news about current national projects. http://www.greyfields.com/index.php

Congress for the New Urbanism, http://www.cnu.org.

Urban Land Institute, http://www.uli.org.

American Planning Association, http://www.planning.org.

International Council of Shopping Centers, http://www.icsc.org.

Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers, Greyfields into Goldfields: from falling shopping centers to great neighborhoods (February 2001),
http://cnuinfo.stores.yahoo.net/greyingoldea.html.

Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers, Greyfield Regional Mall
Study (January 2001), http://www.cnu.org/sites/files/Greyfield_Feb_01.pdf.

Resources for Brownfield Redevelopment:

King County/City of Seattle Brownfields Program


http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/brownfields/index.asp

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment:


http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/index.html.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-15

2-4

U.S. EPA has introduced two Web-based tools to give the public additional access to information about Brownfield properties and cleanup efforts. The tools allow residents to
locate Brownfields in their area and provide access to information about cleanup grants http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/bfwhere.htm

Create a Low Impact Development

Better Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Development Rules in Your Community,
see listing under General Selection & Design Resources above.

City of Seattle Stormwater, Grading and Drainage Code includes four new technical
manuals on required and recommended BMPs for Construction, Flow Control, Source
Control, and Stormwater Treatment. These manuals are available on the City of Seattle's
site, http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/dclu/codes/sgdccode.htm. If questions, call DCLU Site
Development Desk at 206-233-7232.)

EPA and the LID Center conducted a literature review of LID studies to assess the state
of knowledge about LID practices. This report contains a brief overview of LID principles and programmatic issues such as use, ownership and cost. The heart of the document
is a summary of the information available regarding the pollutant removal effectiveness
of the most common LID practices. Also included are four fact sheets on bioretention,
permeable and porous pavements, rooftop meadows, and street storage that contain descriptions of local projects where LID practices were used.
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lidlit.html.

It's time to try zero-impact by Thomas W. Holz of SCA Engineering, Seattle Daily
Journal of Commerce, August 19, 1999,
http://www.djc.com/special/enviro99/10057227.htm

The Low Impact Development Center was established to develop and provide information to individuals and organizations dedicated to protecting the environment and water resources through proper site design techniques that replicate pre-existing hydrologic
site conditions. See www.lowimpactdevelopment.org.

Low Impact Development in Puget Sound, proceedings of June 2001 conference, and
many other useful design resources are available at the Puget Sound Water Quality Action Teams low impact development site,
http://www.wa.gov/puget_sound/Programs/LID.htm

Low-Impact Development Design Strategies An Integrated Design Approach EPA 841B-00-003 and Low-Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis EPA 841-B-00-002: These
documents were prepared by The Prince George's County Maryland Department of Environmental Resources Programs and Planning Division (PGDER), with Assistance from
USEPA. The design charts in the appendices of the Hydrologic Analysis document are
not available on the internet at this time but may be obtained from the PGDER at 301883-5833.

Infiltration General Resources

Better Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Development Rules in Your Community, see listing
under General Selection & Design Resources above.

City of Seattle, SEAStreets Project, Seattle Public Utilities, 206-684-5851 or visit


http://www.cityofseattle.net/util/urbancreeks/SEAstreets/default.htm.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-16

Consensus Agreement on Model Development Principles to Protect our Streams, Lakes and Wetlands, Center for Watershed Protection, April 1998. Available from the Center for Watershed
Protection, 410-461-8323, www.cwp.org.

Impervious Surface Reduction Study, Final Report, May 1995, Olympia Public Works Department, Water Resources Program. 360-753-8454

Impervious Surface Reduction Study Fact Sheet #3: Guidance for Using Alternative Surfaces.
City of Olympia Public Works Department, Water Resources Program. 360-753-8454

Roof Gardens, History, Design, and Construction, Theodore Osmundson, 1999.


www.wwnorton.com.
Also, see the following website:

2-5

http://www.greenroofs.com/ for information on Eco-roof technology, plants lists, suppliers, etc.

Meet City of Seattles Green Factor Standards


Green Factor Standards - This City of Seattle website has a link to the Worksheet necessary
to determine your projects Green Factor. The site also links to planting area calculation
worksheet, rainwater harvesting worksheet, and Green Factor street trees lists that identifies
large, medium, and small tree characteristics,
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Permits/GreenFactor.
See General Resources for additional information regarding elements of Green Factor planning.

2-6

For Each Acre of Development, Set Aside an Equal Amount of Land as a Conservation
Easement or Transfer the Development Rights
For general information on conservation easements, see:

The Nature Conservancy,


http://www.nature.org/aboutus/howwework/conservationmethods/privatelands/conservati
oneasements/

The Trust for Public Lands, Northwest Programs,


http://www.tpl.org/tier2_cl.cfm?folder_id=1445

For information on King Countys Greenprint for King County a program of the Trust of
Public Lands, see ftp://dnr.metrokc.gov/dnr/library/2005/KCR1856/0505_Greenprint.pdf
There are many local land trusts in our area, see Cascade Land Conservancy
http://www.cascadeland.org/
For information on transfer of development rights in Snohomish and King County, see:

Snohomish County Planning and Development Services, Transfer of Development


Rights, Bulletin #69, answers questions about TDRs.
http://www.co.snohomish.wa.us/documents/Departments/pds/bulletins/69tdr1206.pdf also see,

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-17

http://www1.co.snohomish.wa.us/Departments/PDS/Divisions/LR_Planning/Projects_Pro
grams/Agriculture_Resources/Transfer_of_development_rights.htm

King County, Transfer of Development Rights program, http://dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/tdr/

Protect Sites Natural Features


2-7

Avoid Soil Compaction by Limiting Heavy Equipment Use to Building Footprint and
Construction Entrance
No specific resources listed.

2-8

Preserve Existing Native Vegetation as Landscaping


Also see Resources for Action Item 2-5, Take Extra Precautions to Protect Trees during
Construction. Resources on preservation include:

Building Greener Neighborhoods: Trees as Part of the Plan (see Chapter 5: The Construction Process). Available from American Forests, Washington, DC, 202-955-4500
or www.amfor.org. Also available from NAHB. 800-223-2665 or
www.builderbooks.com.

Preservation Specifications for New Construction Sites, specs for protecting on-site
vegetation. Isabelle Greene & Associates, landscape architects, 2613 De la Vina St., Santa Barbara, CA 93105, 805-569-4045.

Pacific Northwest Chapter, International Society of Arboriculture, Silverton, OR.


503-874-8263, fax 503-874-1509, or e-mail info@pnwisa.org. Website
www.teleport.com/~pnwisa/. Provides a list of certified arborists in King and Snohomish
Counties.

Other local resources include:

King County Native Salvage Program. Visit their website at


http:dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/Pl/salvage.htm. The website includes information on program
setup logistics, salvaging techniques, recruiting volunteers, and costs and benefits of the
program.

The Native Plant Salvage Program of the Snohomish County Public Works Department.
425-388-6462 or www.co.snohomish.wa.us/publicwk/index.htm. The website also provides access to the programs quarterly newsletter, Going Native.

Center for Urban Horticulture Library, University of Washington,


www.depts.washington.edu/hortlib.

Green Gardening Program. 206-547-7561.

King County Master Gardeners. 206-296-3440 or king.wsu.edu/hort/mastergd.htm.

Seattle Tilth Association. 206-633-0451 or www.speakeasy.org/~tilth/. Also try their


Green Gardening Line at 206-547-7561.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-18

2-9

Snohomish Master Gardeners. 425-338-2400.

Washington Native Plant Society, Central Puget Sound Chapter. 206-527-3210,


888-288-8022 or www.wnps.org/cps.

Retain 30% of Trees On Site or Retain Arborist to Determine Tree Retention Plan for Site
Resources on preservation include:

2-10

Construction Damage to Trees, Plant Amnesty, Seattle, WA. 206-783-9813 or


www.plantamnesty.org. Packet of information on avoiding construction damage to trees,
including Tree City USA Bulletin #7 (How to Save Trees During Construction) and
#20 (A Systematic Approach to Building with Trees). Bulletins also available from National Arbor Day Foundation, Nebraska City, NE. 402-474-5655 or www.arborday.org.

Tree Protection during Construction, Owen E. Dell, landscape architect and contractor,
P.O. Box 30433, Santa Barbara, CA 93130, 805-962-3253. Fact sheet with tips for making decisions about trees during site evaluation, design and construction.

Pacific Northwest Chapter, International Society of Arboriculture, Silverton, OR.


503-874-8263, fax 503-874-1509, or e-mail info@pnwisa.org. Website,
www.teleport.com/~pnwisa/, provides lists of area certified arborists.

City of Seattles Tree Steward Program. 206-684-5008 or


www.ci.seattle.wa.us/td/treestew.asp.

Cooling Our CommunitiesA Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing,


Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-31587 (1992). To order, write to Superintendent of Documents (GPO Document #055-000-00371-8), PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh,
PA 15220-7954. Attn: New Orders. Also available from Iris Communications, Eugene,
OR, 800-346-0104 or shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Do Not Build On or Adjacent to Sensitive Ecological Areas: Wetlands, Shorelines, Bluffs, Old
Growth Forests, or Other Critical Areas

Streamside Savvy: SWMs Guide to the Good Life at the Waters Edge, King County Water and Land Resources Division, Attn: Customer Account Services, 700 Fifth Avenue,
Suite 2200, Seattle, WA 98104. 206-296-1968 or dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/pobindex.htm.
This booklet, written for owners and managers of streamside properties, is designed to
help preserve the health of the water, fish, wildlife, plants, and people. (Free).

Protecting Natural Wetlands A guide to Stormwater BMPs, EPA, Office of Water


(45 02F) Washington, DC, EPA 843-13-96-001, October 1996. Call the Wetlands Hotline: 800-832-7828 or www.epa.gov/region04/water/wetlands/technical/bilio-online.htm.

Stabilization and Erosion Control Using Vegetation: A Manual of Practice for Coastal
Property Owners. Washington State Department of Ecology. 360-407-7472. Available
on the Surface Water and Groundwater on Coastal Bluffs website:
www.wa.gov/ecology/sea/pubs/95-107/using01.html. This site also contains information
on drainage control, slope drainage, planning, case studies, links, and more.

Vegetation Management: A Guide for Puget Sound Bluff Property Owners. Washington
State Department of Ecology, 360-407-7472, www.wa.gov/ecology.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-19

2-11

If Building Near Sensitive Ecological Areas, Limit Development Footprint and Preserve and
Protect Beyond Code

2-12

See above.

Restore Percentage of Site Outside the Footprint for the Life of the Building 10%
20% 35%

Building Greener Neighborhoods: Trees as Part of the Plan (see Chapter 5: The Construction Process). Available from American Forests, Washington, DC, 202-955-4500
or www.amfor.org. Also available from NAHB: 800-223-2665 or
www.builderbooks.com.

The American Forests website, www.amfor.org, has information about CITYgreen, a GIS
software that can model and map the cost savings from maintaining trees for a small site,
such as a new subdivision. Select Green Cities option.

Protect Natural Processes On-Site


2-13

Install and Maintain Temporary Erosion Control Devices that Significantly Reduce Sediment
Discharge from the Site Beyond Code Requirements
See Composting Resources below.
Check with King or Snohomish County officials for guidelines on implementing erosion control measures.
King Countys guidelines for erosion and sediment control are posted on the web at
www.metrokc.gov/ddes/lusd/erosion.htm or dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/dss/manual.htm. For questions about erosion control in King County on single-family residential projects, call
206-296-7232.
Many resources are listed in Resources, Surface Water Management, above. Also see:

City of Seattle, Department of Design, Construction and Land Use. 206-684-8850 or


www.ci.seattle.wa.us/dclu.

Natural Resource Conservation Service. 206-764-3325.

Washington State University Co-op Extension in King County. 206-296-3900 or


king.wsu.edu.

"Compost Filter Berms and Blankets Take on the Silt Fence" by Rod Tyler, and "Composted Woody Materials Become Erosion Control Product," BioCycle, January 2001.
Excellent articles demonstrating the cost, maintenance, and effectiveness advantages of
using compost filter berms and blankets for erosion control, including for steep slopes.

Local firms with compost/mulch blowing equipment for erosion control applications:

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-20

2-14

Beautiscape, Lynden, 360-354-2359.

Mt. Rainier Blower, Kent, 253-859-1755.

Pacific Topsoils, Bothell, 425-337-2700.

Owen Enterprizes, Tacoma, 253-926-1489.

Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes

Composting Resources

BioCycle. www.biocycle.net. Monthly journal with regular articles on compost applications.

US Composting Council. www.compostingcouncil.org. Specifications, research, publications.

Washington Organic Recycling Council (WORC). www.compostingwashington.org.


Educational programs.

Also:

Field Guide to Compost Use, U.S. Composting Council, Alexandria, VA. 440-989-2748
or compostingcouncil.org. Limited supplies available: read-only version on web site.

1998 King County Surface Water Design Manual. Appendix D. See Resources, Surface
Water Management, above or dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/dss/manual.htm.

Summary of Projects Using Yard Debris Compost for Erosion Prevention and Control,
Portland Metro, Portland, OR. Available from Metro Regional Environmental Management, 600 NE Grand Ave., Portland, OR 97232-2736, Attn: Records. Send $5.00 check
for postage and handling.

"Compost Filter Berms and Blankets Take on the Silt Fence" by Rod Tyler, and "Composted Woody Materials Become Erosion Control Product," BioCycle, January 2001.
Excellent articles demonstrating the cost, maintenance, and effectiveness advantages of
using compost filter berms and blankets for erosion control, including for steep slopes.

Local firms with compost/mulch blowing equipment for erosion control applications:

Beautiscape, Lynden, 360-354-2359.

Mt. Rainier Blower, Kent, 253-859-1755.

Pacific Topsoils, Bothell, 425-337-2700.

Owen Enterprizes, Tacoma, 253-926-1489.

Erosion control fabric:


There are a number of quality landscape fabrics available through local suppliers. When requesting a fabric, check to see if a recycled-content option has become available locally.
Some environmentally friendly erosion control fabrics are:

FibreNet , American Excelsior Co. 800-777-7645 (SOIL) or www.amerexcel.com.


100% biodegradable erosion control netting.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-21

North American Green erosion control blankets made of wheatstraw and coconut fiber,
available at ACF West, Portland, OR. 503-771-5115 or www.acfwest.com.

BonTerra coconut or straw (or mixed) erosion control blankets, BonTerra America.
800-882-9489, e-mail: bonterra@moscow.com, or www.bonterraamerica.com. Available
through Layfield Plastics. 800-796-6868 or www.geomembranes.com. Layfield carries
other organic erosion control products for all applications.

Landlok, Synthetic Industries, Chattanooga, TN. 800-FIX-SOIL, 423-899-0444 or


www.fixsoil.com. Erosion control mats with 15% recycled content. Available through
Northwest Linings. 800-729-6954.

Fabriscape, Inc., Chicago, IL. 800-992-0551 or www.fabriscape.com. Supplier for landscape fabrics for a variety of purposes, including slope containment. Check for environmentally friendly options.

Hydroseeding:
Specify hydro mulch with recycled cellulose:

2-15

Fiber Mulch, Thermoguard. 800-541-0579 or 509-535-4600 (warehouse in Tukwila).

Natures Own, Hamilton Mfg. Inc. 208-733-9689 or www.hmmfg.com.

Agri Fiber Mulch, Greenstone/LP Corp. 916-387-9754 or www.greenstone.com.

Conwed Hydro-Mulch, Pacific Products. 888-933-7770. Distributor in Woodinville.

Retain all Native Topsoil and Protect Stockpiles from Erosion


A variety of materials are available from local distributors.

2-16

Balance Cut and Fill, while Maintaining Change to Original Topography


No specific resources listed.

2-17

Amend Disturbed Soil with Compost to a Depth of 8 to 10 Inches (or Better Than Code) to
Restore Soil Environmental Functions
See Composting Resources above and:

Building Soil: Guidelines and Resources for Implementing Soil Quality and Depth BMP
T5.13, 2007 edition, www.soilsforsalmon.org

Guidelines for Landscaping with Compost-Amended Soils, 1999. Prepared for the City
of Redmond Public Works by Chollak Services and the University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 306-556-2815 or online at
depts.washington.edu/cuwrm/PUBLICTN/soilamnd.pdf.

The Relationship Between Soil and Water How Soil Amendment and Compost Can
Aid in Salmon Recovery. King County Department of Natural Resources. 206-296-4429
or online at www.metrokc.gov/dnr/swd/ResRecy/soil4salmon.htm

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-22

2-18

2-19

Replant or Donate Removed Vegetation for Immediate Reuse

King Conservation District, Native Plant Salvage Program, Wetland Plant Cooperative.
206-764-3410 or www.kingcd.org.

King County Department of Natural Resources, Native Plant Salvage Program.


206-296-8065 or dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr.pl.sallops.htm.

The Native Plant Salvage Program of the Snohomish County Public Works Department.
425-388-6462 or www.co.snohomish.wa.us/publicwk/index.htm. The web site also provides access to the programs quarterly newsletter, Going Native.

Use Plants Donated from Another Site


No resources listed.

2-20

Grind Landclearing Wood and Stumps for Reuse


Grinders generally handle 6-inch maximum diameter materials. A 10 x 10 woodpile can be
reduced to mulch and used to landscape the final project. Trees that are not ground can be cut
for landscaping posts, fences, or firewood. For local mobile grinding services see:

2-21

Seattle/King County Construction Recycling Directory, 1999-2000, a publication of King


County Solid Waste Division. Call the GreenWorks hotline at 206-296-8800 or download from dnr.metrokc.gov/greenworks/sus_build/CDLguide.pdf. (Readers be aware that
the apparently open space in the web site address is in fact an underscore (_). To ensure
you get to the proper address, make sure you add this notation.)

Snohomish County Recycling Guide for Construction, Demolition, and Land Clearing
Debris, a publication of Snohomish County Public Works, Solid Waste Management.
425-388-3425. Also available at the BUILT GREEN Resource Library.

Check the phone book under Land Clearing for additional mobile grinder operators in
your area.

Use a Water Management System that Allows Groundwater to Recharge


See Resources, Surface Water Management, for sources of information related to stormwater
management and erosion control: particularly:

The 1998 King County Surface Water Design Manual (see Resources, Surface Water
Management).

Also contact:

King County Department of Natural Resources. 206-296-8323

Snohomish County Department of Public Works, Surface Water Management Branch.


425-388-3464.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-23

2-22

Manage Specified Percentage of Stormwater and Building Water Discharge On Site by 60%,
80%, or 100%
See Resources for 2-40, On-Site Wastewater Treatment.

Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment, Sherwood C. Reed, Ronald W.
Crites, E. Joe Middlebrooks. McGraw Hill Professional, 1998.

Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape, Craig Campbell, FASLA, and Michael Ogden, P.E. LEED AP, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

Hardscapes
2-23

Design to Achieve 50%, 75%, or 90% Effective Pervious Surface Outside of Building
Footprint

2-24

Impervious Surface Reduction Study Fact Sheet #3: Guidance for Using Alternative
Surfaces. Olympia Public Works Department, Water Resources Program.
360-753-8454.

Use Pervious Materials for at Least One-Third of Total Area for Hardscapes
See your local supplier for pervious paving options, including crushed stone and gravel (for
areas that will not be compacted by vehicles), concrete paving blocks or cast-in-place systems
(such as Grasscrete), and plastics such as Grasspave or Geoblock. Proprietary systems that
have been used successfully include:

Geoblock Porous Pavement System, Presto Products. Appleton, WI. 800-548-3424.


www.prestogeo.com. A porous pavement system, manufactured from up to 50% recycled
polyethylene, is a series of interlocking blocks designed to offer turf protection and load
support in areas used by heavy vehicles. The blocks create a flexible structural bridge
system within the topsoil layer to support and distribute concentrated loads.

Grasscrete Structurally Sound Porous Pavement, Bomanite Corp., Madera, CA.


559-673-2411 or www.bomanite.com. A cast-in-place, monolithic, porous concrete
pavement that is continuously reinforced to provide superior structural integrity. After the
concrete is sufficiently hardened, the voids are filled with topsoil and grass, thus providing a free draining "pavement" with the structural capacity to handle most heavy vehicle
loads. Great for emergency access lanes, delivery access routes, overflow parking areas,
and for intermittent drainage channels to help prevent erosion.

Grasspave2 and Gravelpave2, Invisible Structures, Aurora, CO. 800-233-1510 or


www.invisiblestructures.com. Grasspave2 is a recycled plastic reinforcing grid porous
paving system. Gravelpave2 contains 100% post-consumer recycled plastic content. A
porous geotextile filter fabric backing holds small aggregate particles in place. Compacts
less than conventional gravel paving.

Hastings Checker Block Reinforced Porous Paving System, Hastings Pavement Company. 800-874-4717 or www.hastingspaver.com.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-24

UNI-Eco-Stone Interlocking Concrete Paving System, Mutual Materials, Bellevue, WA.


425-452-2300, 800-922-6699 or www.mutualmaterials.com.

Also, a good source of information on the costs and appropriate applications of different permeable paying options:

2-25

Permeable Pavement Demonstration Project. Available online at


depts.washington.edu/cuwrm/.

Install Vegetated Roof System (e.g. Eco-Roof) to Reduce Impervious Surface on 25%, 50%,
or 90%+ of Total Roof Surface
Pacific Northwest companies offering green roof assemblies include:

American Hydrotech, Inc., Seattle, WA. 206-441-6125, 800-877-6125 or


www.hydrotechusa.com.

Coastal Atlantic Associates, Portland, OR. 503-639-7360.

Garland Company, Inc., Portland, OR. 800-762-8225 Ext. 655 or www.garlandco.com.

Sarnafil, Kent, WA. 253-872-2393, 800-727-6234 or www.sarnafilus.com.

Total Work of Art, Inc., Portland, OR. 503-232-7554.

Other domestic companies include:

2-26

Roofscapes, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 215-247-8784 or www.roofmeadows.com.

SopraNature, Soprema USA, Inc. Wadsworth, OH, 800-356-3521 or www.soprema.com.

W.P. Hickman, Ashville, NC. 828-274-4000 or www.wph.com. Contact them for local
representatives.

Integrate Landscaping with Parking Area Beyond Code


See General Resources and speak to your local code official.

2-27

For Urban Infill, Replace Impervious Surfaces with Permanent Pervious Surfaces Outside
Building Footprint
See Action Item 2-24, above.

Reduce Urban Heat Island Effect


2-28

Install High Albedo or Light Colored Roof


Cool Roofing Materials Database, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, January 4, 2000.
- http://eetd.lbl.gov/CoolRoofs/

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-25

California Energy Commission website with links to sites related to cool roofs, urban heat islands, and roof coating associations,
http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/coolroof/links.html.

2-29

Provide Shading for 30% of Hardscapes by Using Landscape, Landscape Features, or


Overhangs
See General Resources.

2-30

USEPA website, Heat Island Effect, includes Energy Savings calculator, and the Tree
Benefit Estimator, also includes shading graphics to illustrate effectiveness, see
http://www.epa.gov/hiri/strategies/vegetation.html.

For All Exterior Hardscape, Including Surface Parking, Use Only Light Colored Pavement for
90% of Project Area

The Encyclopedia of Earth website includes a summary and link to the EPA report
Cool Pavement Report, June 2005. See full reference below:
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Cool_paving

Cool Pavement Report, EPA Cool Pavements Study - Task 5, Cambridge Systematics,
Inc. Maryland, June 2005, www.camsys.com.

Eliminate Water Pollutants


The Washington State Department of Ecology offers a variety of publications as part of their Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program. To order, by telephone call 360-407-7472. Or see
www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html or e-mail ecypub@ecy.wa.gov. Recommended publications include
(URL given where the publication is available online):

Free Help for Businesses (Publication #96-407). This fact sheet summarizes free technical assistance offered by the DOEs Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program. Available online
at www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/96407.pdf.

Hazardous Waste Generator Checklist (Publication #91-012b). This checklist will help you determine if your business produces hazardous wastes and summarizes your responsibilities if you
do.

Hazardous Waste: More Common Than You Think (Publication #91-012a.) This report identifies
businesses, which generate hazardous waste, and gives examples of the different categories of
hazardous waste. It also offers suggestions about reducing and recycling hazardous waste.

Hazardous Waste Service Providers Directory (Publication #98-412). This directory is intended
to assist hazardous waste generators to identify and contact businesses that will help manage hazardous wastes. It also contains names and addresses for Moderate Risk Waste Coordinators listed
by County and Native American Tribal Contacts. Available online at
www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/98412.pdf.

Pollution Prevention Planning Guidance Manual (Publication #91-2). Available online at


www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/91002.pdf.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-26

Sara Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know, A Guide for Business (Publication #93-BR-01). Available online at www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/93br001.pdf.

Site Hazard Assessment Guide (Publication #F-TC-91-111). This Washington State Department
of Ecology Focus Sheet relates to site hazard assessments, which is the first step in the process for
cleaning up a hazardous waste site.

Step by Step: Fact Sheets for Hazardous Waste Generators (Publication #91-012). This packet
of information contains guidance for generators of hazardous waste. It includes the following information sheets: how to identify hazardous waste; obtaining a RCRA identification number; filling out annual reports; performing preventive maintenance; how to properly accumulate hazardous waste; planning for emergencies; using and managing containers; arranging for proper transportation and disposal; manifesting shipments of hazardous waste; and keeping records of hazardous waste activities.

What is a Small Quantity Generator? Your Regulatory Status Under the Dangerous Waste Regulation (Publication #96-404). This brochure offers an overview of the standards that apply to
small quantity generators. It also lists resources that can offer help. Available online at
www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/96404.pdf.

Also see:

The Regulation of Solid and Hazardous Wastes: A Builders Guide, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD, 800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

Local hazardous waste resources include:

In King County, call the Business Waste Line at 206-296-3976 or check the online directory at
www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb.

The King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program. Seattle, WA. 206-263-3051 or
e-mail: haz.waste@metrokc.gov

In Snohomish County, contact the Department of Public Works, Solid Waste Division,
425-388-3425.

The Washington State Department of Ecology, Northwest Regional Office, Hazardous Waste
Specialists, 425-649-7040.

Also see the General Resources at the beginning of this Section for information on erosion control.

2-31

Wash Out Concrete Trucks in Slab or Pavement Subbase Areas


For general information about washing out work vehicles see:

2-32

Vehicle and Equipment Washwater Discharges (excerpted from Best Management


Practices Manual) (Publication No. WQ-R-95-56). Washington State Department of
Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Establish and Post Clean Up Procedures for Spills to Prevent Illegal Discharges
See Resources, Hazardous Waste, above. Especially, see:

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-27

Pollution Prevention Planning Guidance Manual (Publication #91-2). Available online


at www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs/91002.pdf, order by telephone 360-407-7472, online at
www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html or e-mail ecypub@ecy.wa.gov.

Step by Step: Fact Sheets for Hazardous Waste Generators (Publication #91-012). See
Resources, Hazardous Waste, above.

Also, ask for:

2-33

Reporting Releases of Hazardous Substances (Publication Number R-TC-94-133). Washington State Department of Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Reduce Hazardous Waste through Good Jobsite Housekeeping

See Resources, Hazardous Waste and Action Item 2-30, Establish and Post Cleanup Procedures for Spills to Prevent Illegal Discharges.

Software estimating/take off systems are available to help accurately estimate the quantity of
materials you will need for a specific job. Trade magazines often review these programs and
provide cost and contact information.

2-34

Construct Tire Wash, Establish and Post Clean Up Protocol for Tire Wash
For information about washing out work vehicles in general see:

2-35

2-36

Vehicle and Equipment Washwater Discharges (excerpted from Best Management


Practices Manual) (Publication No. WQ-R-95-56). Washington State Department of
Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.

Use Slow-Release Organic Fertilizers to Establish Vegetation

A series of fact sheets is available, including Choosing Fertilizers for the Lawn and Garden and Lawn Care, available from the Washington Toxics Coalition, Seattle WA.
206-632-1545 or e-mail info@watoxics.org. Or see WTCs publication page at
www.watoxics.org/p.htm.

WSU Cooperative Extension/King County, Seattle, WA. 206-296-3900. Free tapes about
pests, vegetable gardens, lawns, and soil health. Publications on fertilizer use and other
aspects of Integrated Pest Management. See WSU Cooperative Extensions web site,
Gardening in Western Washington at gardening.wsu.edu or try king.wsu.edu/.

Seattle Tilth Association, Seattle, WA. 206-633-0451 or www.speakeasy.org/~tilth/. Offers workshops on all aspects of gardening without pesticides.

Use Less Toxic Form Releasers

Kick hard. Dont use form oil at all and clean forms promptly after use. This works on
smaller pours.

Use vegetable oil sprays (mix vegetable oil with water and apply using pump can).

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-28

Wax or paint the forms.

Cast Off-W, ChemRex, Inc. (makers of Sonneborn Building Products), Shakopee, MN.
800-433-9517. Contains a significantly lower level of petroleum distillate than traditional products.

BioForm, Leahy-Wolf Co. 847-455-5710. Product is non-toxic, biodegradable, and


non-staining.

New products that eliminate the need for wood forms include:

2-37

2-38

Steel forms

Formadrain, CertainTeed Corporation, Pipe and Plastics Group, Valley Forge, PA.
610-341-6950 or www.certainteed.com. Manufactured out of PVC, it serves as the form,
but stays in place. The product is perforated and is designed to drain the foundation or
vent radon as well

Soy Form Away, SoySolv Industrial Solvents and Cleaners, Tiffin, OH. 800-231-4274,
419-992-4595, or www.soysolv.com. Water-based, non-toxic, soap and water clean up
and made from a renewable resource. Available through D.J. Stevens Distributing, San
Diego, CA. 614-424-3220.

Provide an Infiltration System for Rooftop Runoff

1998 King County Surface Water Design Manual. Appendix C: Small Site Drainage Requirements. (See General Resources). Also check their web site: splash.metrokc.gov.

On-Site Residential Stormwater Management Alternatives. (November 1995). Washington State Department of Ecology. 360-407-7472 or www.wa.gov/ecology/pubs.html.
Prepared by UW Department of Civil Engineering.

Use Non-Toxic or Low-Toxic Outdoor Materials for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least-Toxic Treated
Wood)
For general and product information for low toxic landscape materials and methods, consult:

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle WA.
206-682-7332, 800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. A good source for low-toxic finishes.

Resource Guide to Sustainable Landscapes and Gardens, Wesley Groesbeck and Jan
Striefel, 1995. Environmental Resources Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

Unlike wood, recycled-content plastic lumber and landscape edging does not need to be treated with toxic finishes for outdoor use. It also has the benefit of being resource efficient. Your
local supplier may carry a brand of recycled-content plastic lumber, but if not, some locally
distributed products include:

ChoiceDek, manufactured by A.E.R.T. (Advanced Environmental Recycling Technologies), Akron, OH. 800-951-5117 or www.choicedek.com.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-29

SmartDeck, Eaglebrook plastic lumber, Chicago, IL. 312-491-2500 or


www.eaglebrook.com. Distributed by Northwest Recreation, Tualatin, OR.
800-448-4858.

Enviroedge landscape edging (plastic bender board and stakes), Enviroedge Products Co.,
Huntington Beach, CA. 800-549-3343. Available at Home Depot stores.

Rebound, Recycled Plastics Marketing (RPM), Redmond, WA. 800-867-3201 or


425-867-3200.

RESCO plastic lumber, by RESCO Plastics, Coos Bay, OR. 541-269-5485 or


www.rescoplastics.com. Available from T. R. Strong Building Systems in Olympia.
360-705-2868 or www.baubuilder.com.

TREX Easy Care Decking, Winchester, VA. 800-BUY-TREX or www.trex.com.


Many local suppliers.

Vanco Associates, Edmonds, WA. 253-826-9659. Distributes recycled-content plastic


landscaping timbers.

See also Section Five Resources: Materials Efficiency for sustainable lumber (Action Item
5-35, Use Wood Products Certified by FSC or Other Recognized Agency as Sustainable,)
and least toxic pressure treated wood Action Item 5-81, Use Least Toxic Pressure Treatment
for Pressure-Treated Wood (No CCA).

2-39

No Clearing or Grading During Wet Weather Periods


No specific resources listed.

2-40

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Greywater Only, or Blackwater and Greywater

EPA web site, Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat,
http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/construc/content.html.

Onsite Water Treatment, bi-monthly journal by Forrester Publishing, complimentary subscription copy available, see http://www.onsitewater.com/ow.html

Allen, G.H. and R.H. Gearheart (eds). 1988. Proceedings of a Conference on Wetlands
for Wastewater Treatment and Resource Enhancement, Humbolt Sate Univ., Arcata, CA

Reed, S.C., E.J. Middlebrooks, R.W. Crites. 1988. Natural Systems for Waste Management & Treatment. McGraw Hill, New York, NY

Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape, Craig Campbell and Michael Ogden, 1999. John Wiley and Sons.

Living Machines, Inc. has built more than 20 commercial-scale wastewater treatment facilities in six countries for such clients as M&M Mars, Master Foods, the Body Shop, National Audubon, the State of Vermont, Battelle Foundation and U.S. EPA, ranging in size
from 4,000 to 1,000,000 gallons per day.
(http://www.livingmachines.com/htm/machine.htm)

In a Living Machine, a diversity of organismsincluding bacteria, plants, zooplankton, and


other invertebratesbreak down and digest organic pollutants, with the help of sunlight and a
managed environment. Depending on the climate, Living Machines can be housed in a proBUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-30

tective greenhouse, under light shelter, or in the open air. With effluent polishing, Living Machines produce a high quality effluent that is suitable for reuse or a number of disposal alternatives, such as landscape irrigation, toilet flushing and vehicle washing.

WATER CONSERVATION
Outdoor Conservation

WaterWiser is a program of the American Water Works Association operated in cooperation with
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The web site www.waterwiser.org provides information and
resources including links for all aspects of outdoor and indoor water conservation, recycled water
collection and reuse, irrigation, landscaping, and efficient fixtures and appliances. AWWA number is 202-628-8303.

Sources of information about drought tolerant plants, native plants, and natural lawn care include the
agencies and web site below.

King County Master Gardeners 206-296-3440, king.wsu.edu/hort/mastergd.htm.

Snohomish County Master Gardeners 425-338-2400.

Free tapes about pests, vegetable gardens, lawns, and soil health from WSU Co-op Extension in
King County, 206-296-3900. Many gardening publications available, including fertilizer use and
aspects of Integrated Pest Management. See WSU Cooperative Extensions web site, "Gardening
in Western Washington" at gardening.wsu.edu. Includes information about use of native plants,
gardening.wsu.edu/text/nwnative.htm.

Seattle Tilths Green Gardening Line, 206-547-7561 or the Seattle Tilth Association
206-633-0451, www.speakeasy.org/~tilth.

City of Seattles Tree Steward Program, 206-684-5008, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/td/treestew.asp.

Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) online Conservation and Environment web site at
www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/rescons. Available online is SPUs new brochure, How to be a Salmon-Friendly Gardener, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/RESCONS/plantNaturally/salmonfriendly.htm
or call 206-386-1981 to request a copy.

SPU Natural Lawn Care Program hotline, 1-888-860-LAWN, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/lawncare.

Washington Toxics Coalition, 4649 Sunnyside Ave N, Suite 540 East, Seattle WA 98103,
206-632-1545 or e-mail info@watoxics.org or online at www.watoxics.org. Good source of information on many aspects of gardening. Fact sheets include Choosing Fertilizers for the Lawn
and Garden and Lawn Care.

2-41

Mulch Landscape Beds with 2 inches of Organic Mulch


No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-31

2-42

Use Grass Type Requiring Less Irrigation and Minimal Maintenance

The Wild Lawn Handbook: Alternatives to the Traditional Front Lawn, Stevie Davis,
1995, Macmillian Publishing Company, NY, NY. Available from Conscious Media,
www.conciousmedia.com.

Natural Lawn Care Program, 888-860-LAWN, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/lawncare.

WSU Cooperative Extension, 206-296-3900.

Ask your local nursery for Fleur de Lawn, a mix of grass, clover, yarrow, English daisy,
alyssum and baby blue eyes that will thrive with no fertilizer, herbicides, or watering, and
only one or two mowings a year.

See Composting Resources in 2-14, Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes, and:

2-43

2-44

King County Compost Hotline, 206-633-0224, dnr.metrokc.gov/swd/resrecy/coompost.

The Relationship Between Soil and Water How Soil Amendment and Compost Can Aid
in Salmon Recovery, King County Department of Natural Resources, 206-296-4429 or
online at dnr.metrokc.gov/ swd/ResRecy/soil4salmon.htm.

Guidelines for Landscaping with Compost-Amended Soils, 1999. Prepared for the City of
Redmond Public Works by Chollak Services and the University of Washington, College
of Forest Resources, 206-556-2815 or online at
depts.washington.edu/cuwrm/PUBLICTN/soilamnd.pdf.

Limit Use of Turf Grass to 25% or Less of Landscaped Area

The Wild Lawn Handbook: Alternatives to the Traditional Front Lawn, Stevie Davis,
1995, Macmillian Publishing Company, NY, NY. Available from Conscious Media,
www.conciousmedia.com.

Landscaping With Wildflowers: An Environmental Approach to Gardening, Jim Wilson,


Houghton Mifflin Company, ($17.56 from www.amazon.com.)

No Turf Grass
See Resources listed under Action Items 2-43, Limit Use of Turf Grass to 25% of Landscaped
Area, and 2-45, Landscape with Plants Appropriate for Site Topography and Soil Types.

2-45

Landscape with Plants Appropriate for Site Topography and Soil Types, Emphasizing Use of
Plants with Low Watering Requirements (Drought Tolerant)

Many local nurseries carry a selection of native and drought-tolerant plants. Northwest
wildflower seeds are also available from most nurseries and garden shops.

Ask your local nursery for Fleur de Lawn, a mix of grass, clover, yarrow, English daisy,
alyssum and baby blue eyes that will thrive with no fertilizer, herbicides, or watering, and
only one or two mowings a year.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-32

gardening.wsu.edu/text/nwnative.htm, a Web site with information on identifying, propagating, and landscaping native plants. Includes multiple photos and tips.

King County Department of Natural Resources online web page Native Plan Sources,
dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/pi/npnursry.htm.

Washington Native Plant Society, 5221 S. Mayflower, Seattle, WA 98118, Central Puget
Sound Chapter, 206-527-3210, 888-288-8022, www.wnps.org/cps. Offers brochures,
fact sheets and a list of retail nurseries that offer native plants.

King County Water and Land Resources Division, Native Plant Salvage Program. Salvage native plants from sites slated for construction. Contact Cindy Young at
206-296-8065, dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/pl/sallops.htm.

The Native Plant Salvage Program of the Snohomish County Public Works Department,
phone 425-388-6462 or www.co.snohomish.wa.us/publicwk/index.htm. The web site also provides access to the programs quarterly newsletter, Going Native.

King Conservation District. Call 226-4867 for technical assistance, information, and
some funding for soil and water conservation projects. Native Plant Salvage Program,
Wetland Plant Cooperative, annual sale. 206-764-3410.

Department of Fish and Wildlife, Backyard Sanctuary Program, 425-775-1311 for information about planting natives in your yard to attract wildlife,
www.wa.gov/wdfw/wlm/byw_prog.htm.

For further information about low water use plants, see:

Appropriate Plants for Northwest Landscapes, by David Johnson, Washington Toxics


Coalition, Seattle: 206-632-1545, www.watoxics.org.

Gardening with Native Plants, by Arthur Kruckeberg. University of Washington Press.


1982, 800-441-4115, www.washington.edu/uwpress. A favorite reference among landscapers.

Whats so Smart About SmartScape, Department of Ecology, Northwest Regional Office:


425-649-7000. Brochure includes information on plant selection for this demonstration
project. Information includes the following categories for each plant in the list: water requirements, drought tolerance, flowering, attractive to wildlife, year-round color, native,
and sun-shade requirements.

Water-Wise Landscaping (with references). Recommended also for the O&M Kit.
Available from Washington Public Utility Districts Association, Seattle, 206-682-3110.

Water Conservation in Action: Introduction to Low Water Use Landscaping, publication


#WR-M-92-02 (an excellent resource on xeriscaping in the Pacific Northwest). Contact
the Department of Ecologys Water Resource Program, 360-407-6640. Also request their
Resource List of Low Water Use Landscaping Materials.

Water Conservation in a Northwest Garden (with list of drought-tolerant plants) and Water-Wise Plants for the Northwest Garden, Water Conservation Coalition of Puget Sound.
Available through your local water utility.

Grow Your Own Native Landscape: A Guide to Identifying, Propagating, and Landscaping with Western Washington Native Plants, WSU Cooperative Extension, 206-296-3900.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-33

2-46

Install Intelligent Irrigation System


Timers, moisture sensors, micro-spray nozzles, and drip irrigation devices are available from
all major irrigation manufacturers. For more information contact your local supplier or landscape designer/contractor or Kitsap PUD waterwise information, 360-779-3284.
See also:

Drip Irrigation for Every Landscape And All Climates, by Robert Kourik,
Metamorphic Press, PO Box 1841, Santa Rosa, CA 95402. ($16 postpaid)

Irrigation Association (http://www.irrigation.org) and various publications, including


Common Obstacles to Irrigation Efficiency and Drip Irrigation Technology. Available
online at http://www.igin.com/irrigation/irrigation.html.

All commercial, industrial and institutional customers of Seattle Public Utilities and the Local
Water Utilities are eligible to participate in SPUs water efficient irrigation program. Call Seattle Public Utilities at 206-684-5955 for a free, no obligation consultation. Services include:

2-47

Free Irrigation System AssessmentSPU will make a personal visit to review your
planned/current irrigation practices and provide recommendations to improve efficiency.

Free Irrigation System Audit This is a detailed evaluation of irrigation efficiency including system pressure, site coverage, computer-generated irrigation schedules and water budgets.

Financial Incentives Qualifying customers may receive financial incentives for capital
upgrades of existing or planned irrigation systems, or for other projects that result in dependable, consistent water savings. The amount of the financial incentive is based on the
amount of water saved, the cost of the project and the availability of funding. This will be
discussed individually with each site's owner.

Install Sub-Surface or Drip Systems for Irrigation with Timers


Consult your supplier.

2-48

Install Landscaping That Requires No Potable Water for Irrigation Whatsoever After Initial
Establishment Period (Approximately 2 Years)
Timers, moisture sensors, micro-spray nozzles, and drip irrigation devices are available from
all major irrigation manufacturers. For more information contact your local supplier or landscape designer/contractor.
See Resources for 2-45, Landscape with Plants Appropriate.(Drought Tolerant), above.
See also:

Drip Irrigation For Every Landscape And All Climates, by Robert Kourik, Metamorphic
Press, PO Box 1841, Santa Rosa, CA 95402. ($16 postpaid)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-34

Builders Greywater Guide: Installation of Greywater Systems in New Construction and


Remodeling, Art Lugwig, Oasis Design, Santa Barbara, CA, 1997, ($15), 805-967-9956,
www.oasisdesign.net. Also available from IRIS Communications, Eugene, OR,
800-346-0104, shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Greywater Handbook, Peter Warshall and Associates, City of Malibu, Department of Environment, Building and Safety, 1995. A manual for design, construction, installation,
operation and maintenance of greywater systems.

Create an Oasis with Greywater, Your Complete Guide to Managing Greywater in the
Landscape, Revised and Expanded Third Edition, Art Lugwig, Oasis Design, Santa Barbara, CA, 1997, ($15), 805-967-9956, www.oasisdesign.net. Also available from IRIS
Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104, shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Companies providing greywater equipment include:

2-49

Greywater Treatment Systems, Lawrence, MA, 800-425-4887, www.clivusmultrum.com.


Company provides treatment systems including filter box and vegetated soil-box.

ReWater System, ReWater System Inc., Chula Vista, CA, 619-585-1196. Filtering and
distribution systems, www.jumbojet.net/rewater.

Install Rainwater Collection System (Cistern) that Reduces Water Consumption for Irrigation
by 50% Annually
Rainwater collection systems are not usually available as complete kits. However, most parts
needed are available at hardware and plumbing supply stores. Check your local yellow pages
under Tanks or Cisterns. Also check with your local landscape/irrigation supplier.
Also see the following:

Case study of a home rainwater harvesting system in Oregon, see


www.rdrop.com/users/krishna/rainwatr.htm.

California Department of Water Resources (rainwater collection system plans), PO Box


942836, Sacramento, CA 94236-0001. Send $1.00 postpaid for Captured Rainfall
Small-Scale Water Supply Systems, Bulletin #213.

Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply, Design, Construction and Implementation, John Gould and Erik Nissen-Petersen, Intermediate Technology Publications,
1999, London, UK, +44 20 7436 9761, www.oneworld.org/itdg/publications.

Texas Guide to Rainwater Harvesting, Available online at


www.twdb.state.tx.us/conservation/AltSource/Rain.htm.

Rainwater Collection Systems, available from Iris Communications, 800-346-0104 or


shop.oikos.com/catalog . ($30). This video and 45-page illustrated booklet covers benefits, planning, components, and materials for rainwater collection systems.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-35

Portland Rainbarrel Company has designed a rain water collection system that connects to
downspouts. Systems are shipped for self-install. For information e-mail
bardelp@teleport.com or visit www.teleport.com/~bardelp.
Figure 6-1RPortland Rainbarrel Company, Typical Installation
(Source: Portland Rainbarrel Company)

Rainwater Collection Over Texas, San Marcos, TX, 800-222-3614 or


www.rainwatercollectioninc.com. Company provides complete systems, supplies, consultation, and design work for rainwater collection systems.

Olympic Supply (makes rain barrels from recycled food-grade plastic drums), Selah, WA, 509-697-8239.

Other products and manufacturers are listed in GreenSpec and the REDI Guide.
If the building owner would like information on using the rainwater collection system for potable purposes, you might provide a copy of the EPAs Manual of Individual and Non-Public
Water Supply Systems (EPA 570/9-91-004) (May 1991). Local Department of Health contacts are:

King County Public Health Drinking Water Program in King County, has regulatory
oversight for individual and small public water systems serving 2 to 9 connections,
206-296-0100 or 800-325-6165 or online at
www.metrokc.gov/health/env_hlth/dwp/wtrprogr.htm#rules.
Snohomish Health District, Environmental Health Division has regulatory oversight for
individual and small public water systems in Snohomish County, 425-339-5250 or e-mail
envhealth@shd.snohomish.wa.gov.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-36

2-50

The State Department of Health regulates water systems with ten or more houses,
206-464-7670.

Provide 100% of Building and Landscaping Water Use with Captured Precipitation or
Reused Water Purified Without the Use of Chemicals
See Resources for this sub-section and 2-40, On-Site Wastewater Treatment.

Indoor Conservation

The Plumbing Manufacturers Institute (PMI) is the national trade association of plumbing product
manufacturers. Its member companies produce most of the nations plumbing products,
847-884-9PMI (9764), www.pmihome,org.

The American Water Works Association (AWWA) is an international nonprofit scientific and
educational society dedicated to the improvement of drinking water quality and supply, Washington, DC, 202-628-8303 or www.awwa.org.

WaterWiser is a program of the American Water Works Association operated in cooperation with
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The web site www.waterwiser.org provides information and resources including links for all aspects of outdoor and indoor water conservation, recycled water
collection and reuse, irrigation, landscaping, and efficient fixtures and appliances.

WaterWiser listserv. An international list serve for staying current on water conservation technology and policy, waterwiserlist-owner@listserv.waterwiser.org

Saving Water, Saving Dollars: Efficient Plumbing Products and the Protection of Americas Waters by Edward Osann and John Young, April 1998, Washington, DC, Potomac Resources, Inc.
Available from the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 202-429-0063,
www.aceee.org/pubs/h20.htm.

Seattle Public Utilities Conservation web site. Significant water efficiency and salmon information on a wide range of topics. www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/rescons.

2-51

Install ALL Bathroom Faucets with GPM 1.5 or Better

2-52

How to Buy a Water-Saving Faucet, available online at


www.eren.doe.gov/femp/procurement/pdfs/faucet.pdf. Publications of the US Department of Energy Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheets are
primarily for federal agencies, but provide good general information for residential builders as well.

Install ALL Kitchen Faucets with GPM Less than Code


See your local supplier for other suggestions.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-37

2-53

Install Motion-Sensor for Bathroom Faucets One per Unit and in ALL Common Areas

2-54

Install ALL Showerheads with GPM Less than Code

2-55

Consult your plumbing fixture supplier for makes and models.

How to Buy a Water-Saving Showerhead, available online at


www.eren.doe.gov/femp/procurement/pdfs/toilet.pdf. Publications of the US Department
of Energy Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheets are primarily for federal agencies, but provide good general information for residential builders
as well.

Stub-In Plumbing to Use Greywater for Toilet Flushing

Builders Greywater Guide: Installation of Greywater Systems in New Construction and


Remodeling, Art Lugwig, Oasis Design, Santa Barbara, CA, 1997, ($15), 805-967-9956,
www.oasisdesign.net. Also available from IRIS Communications, Eugene, OR,
800-346-0104, shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Greywater Handbook, Peter Warshall and Associates, City of Malibu, Department of Environment, Building and Safety, 1995. A manual for design, construction, installation,
operation and maintenance of greywater systems.

Create an Oasis with Greywater, Your Complete Guide to Managing Greywater in the
Landscape, Revised and Expanded Third Edition, Art Lugwig, Oasis Design, Santa Barbara, CA, 1997, ($15), 805-967-9956, www.oasisdesign.net. Also available from IRIS
Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104, shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Companies providing greywater equipment include:

2-56

Greywater Treatment Systems, Lawrence, MA, 800-425-4887, www.clivusmultrum.com.


Company provides treatment systems including filter box and vegetated soil-box.

ReWater System, ReWater System Inc., Chula Vista, CA, 619-585-1196. Filtering and
distribution systems, www.jumbojet.net/rewater.

Use Greywater or Rainwater for Toilet Flushing


See resources listed under Action Item 2-52, Stub-in plumbing to use greywater Irrigation.

2-57

Provide Water Sub-Metering for Each Unit

Sub-Metering: The next Big Conservation Frontier? A paper by Al Dietemann, Senior


Program Analyst, Seattle Public Utilities. An informative paper on sub-metering conservation studies, available technologies, cost and other benefits, and drawbacks. Available
at the MBA Resource library. Mr. Dietemann: phone 206-684-5881, email
al.dietemann@ci.seattle.wa.us.

Submetering Equipment Sales Only

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-38

Fog Tite Metering, Seattle, 206-935-8000.

Miners & Pisani, Sammamish, Dave Nickerson, 800-528-3813.

Nebar Supply Corporation, Seattle, 206-622-6292.

Radiopath, Redmond, 425-883-8380.

Meter Install and/or Billing Services and RUBS (allocations)

Viterra Energy Services (formerly The American Energy Services, Raab Karcher Energy
Services, and Aquameter), Seattle, Kevin Marcinek, 206-729-8252.

Water Systems Inc., Jeff Parrish, Phone 888 551-0988, e-mail jeffreyparrish@email.msn.com www.watersystems.com.

ATI Energy Group, Indiana, Account Manager for Pacific Northwest, Mike Clancy,
800-456-3837 ext. 162.

Allocation Services and Billing ONLY

2-58

Telepro Utility Management Services, Bellevue, Jim Kemp, 425-818-8903

Minol-Mtr, Redmond, Frank Dean, 425-460-6478

Install High Efficiency Toilets in Highest Use Area and At Least One Per Unit in ALL Units

US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website has a great
number of documents that talk about water conservation products, www.eere.energy.gov

Greening Federal Facilities, Second Edition., US Department of Energy, FEMP Available online at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267-6.2.pdf. A publication of the Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheet is primarily for federal
agencies, but provides good general information for residential builders as well.

Choosing a Toilet, an article in Fine Home Building magazine that includes discusses
several varieties of water efficient toilets. Available online at
www.taunton.com/fh/features/materials/toilet/1.htm.

For a recent report/survey on low flow toilets performance and cost comparison, see terrylove.com/crtoilet.htm. Top performers in consumer and plumber surveys include models manufactured by Toto (Drake and Ultramax series), Gerber, and Western, which can
be purchased from plumbing contractors. Brands like American Standard, Briggs, Crane,
Eljer, Kohler, Mansfield, and Universal Rundle can be purchased from both plumbing
contractors and in many hardware stores.

Highly rated low flow toilets include:

Caroma Caravelle 305

Toto Drake CST744S and CST744SL (ADA compliant)

Gerber Ultra Flush toilet with the Sloan FLUSHMATE Flushometer Tank System

All of the above are available from Love Plumbing and Remodel, 18628 NE 25th St, Redmond,
WA 98052, 425-649-5683 or 877-867-5862 (toll free) or e-mail sales@terrylove.com or terrylove.com/toilet1.htm.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-39

2-59

2-60

Install No-Cartridge Waterless Urinals or 1/8 Gallon Urinals and High Efficiency Toilets in
ALL Common Areas

US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website has a great
number of documents that talk about water conservation products, www.eere.energy.gov

Buying a Water-Saving Urinal, US Department of Energy, FEMP Available online at


http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/procurement/eep_urinals.html. A publication of the
Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheet is primarily for federal agencies, but provides good general information for residential builders as well.

Consult your plumbing fixture supplier for makes and models of both the waterless and
1/8 gallon low flow urinals.

For information on dual flush toilets, see above.

Install Point-Source, On-Demand (Tankless), or Recirculation Pump Hot Water Systems


(Where Appropriate)
See Section Three Resources for Water Heating

Eliminate Water Pollutants

Weed Management for the Lawn and Garden, a fact sheet of the Washington Toxics Coalition
4649 Sunnyside Ave N, Suite 540 East, Seattle, WA 98103, 206-632-1545 or online at
www.watoxics.org/thlw.htm.

Moss Control in Lawns, a fact sheet of the Washington State University Cooperative Extension
Gardening in Western Washington Program, available online at gardening.wsu.edu/library/lawn003/lawn003.htm.

See also resources listed for Water Protection, Outdoor Conservation, above.

2-61

Develop and Provide a Building-Wide Food Waste Disposal Strategy

Waste Management, offers a commercial food scrap program,


http://wmnorthwest.com/seattle/comguidelines/composting.htm, they might offer this service to
multi-family residential complexes in the future.

Cedar Grove Compost, offers a commercial a single-family residential food scrap collection program in King County, www.cgcompost.com, they might offer this service to multi-family residential complexes in the future.

Innovations Case Studies: Food Waste Recovery - General Information. General Information:
Food Waste Recovery. California Integrated Waste Management Board. March 2006.
http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/LGLibrary/Innovations/FoodWaste/Program.htm

Mayors Office of Sustainability, Oakland Food System Assessment, Oakland, CA, Chapter Five
Food Waste Recovery. June 2005, http://oaklandfoodsystem.pbwiki.com/

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-40

One equipment product to consider is:

Kitchn Komposter, Joneca Corp., Anaheim, CA, 714-993-5997 or www.joneca.com, The


Kitchn Komposter filters ground-up kitchen scraps from a garbage disposers waste water. The
organic matter is collected for composting in a small centrifuge that installs below the kitchen
sink. (Reviewed in Environmental Building News 7:3 and 2:3). (Environmental Building News,
Brattleboro, VT, 802-257-7300, www.buildinggreen.com.)

2-62

Do Not Install Garbage Disposal


No specific resources for this item.

DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

A Blueprint for Greening Affordable Housing: Developer Guidelines for Resource Efficiency and
Sustainable Communities, a manual prepared by Global Green USA with support from the US
Department of Energy. 1999. The manual supports community-based affordable housing developers throughout the development process by demonstrating environmental building principles
through case studies, and makes recommendations for design, construction and operation. Order
from Global Green USA, 227 Broadway, Suite 302, Santa Monica, CA 90401, phone:
310-394-7700, email ggusa@globalgreen.org or download from www.globalgreen.org/newspubs,
$35.00.

A Primer on Sustainable Building, Barnett, D.L. 1995. Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass,
CO. An excellent overview of issues and benefits of sustainable building, $16.95 from the Rocky
Mountain Institute Bookstore, http://www.rmi.org/store or phone 970-927-3851.

Cities and Natural Process, M. Hough. 1995. Routledge, London. A good discussion of the processes that define the growth and operation of cities, and how, in understanding natural ecological
process, cities can develop more balanced relationships with natural ecosystems. Available from
www.amazon.com, $27.99 for paperback.

Cost Effective Home Building, A Design and Construction Handbook, NAHB Research Center,
Upper Marlboro, MD, 800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, and Green Developments CD-ROM,
Version 1.0, Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, CO. 970-927-3851 or www.rmi.org. Information on over 100 green developments.

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

Sun, Wind, and Light: Architectural Design Strategies. G.Z. Brown. 1985. John Wiley & Sons,
New York. Good introduction to form-generating potential of sun, wind and light in the earliest
stages of building design with emphasis on reducing energy use. Covers design strategies, analysis techniques and strategies for supplementing passive systems. Available from
www.amazon.com, $54.95.

Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning. W.E. Dramstad, J.D. Olson, and R.T Forman. 1996. Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge. Presents and explains the principles of landscape ecology and provides numerous exam-

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-41

ples of how those principles can be applied in specific situations. Available from
www.amazon.com, $19.95.

Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications. W. M. Marsh. 1991. John Wiley & Sons, New
York. A definitive reference for landscape architects, planners and designers on the definition
and application of environmental design principles to landscape and site planning. Available from
www.amazon.com, $58.95.

Regenerative Design for Sustainable Development. J.T Lyle. 1994. John Wiley & Sons, New
York. One of the seminal books on the theory, design and construction of regenerative systems
and the practical application of ecological design. Available from www.amazon.com, $44.95.

2-63

Follow Comprehensive Integrated Design Plan for Site and Structure


See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above.

2-64

Hold Design Charette during Various Stages including Pre-Design, Schematic Design, Design
Development, and Construction Documents
See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above.

2-65

US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website, Building


Toolbox, Conduct Design Charrette,
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/info/design/wholebuilding/conductdesign.html

High Performance Green Building Design Charrette Report, High Performance Green
Building Design Meeting. October 20 and 21, 2005, Chapel Hill, NC. A Summary of the
Charrette Process. www.sevengroup.com/pdf/Greenbridge%20Charrette%20Report.pdf.

Provide Community Common Areas Accessible to All Building Occupants


See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above.

2-66

Take Advantage of Parking Reduction Credits that are Available in Your Jurisdiction
See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above.

2-67

Provide Structured Parking within the Proposed Building Footprint at a 50% Minimum or
100% with No Surface Parking
See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above.

Parking Spaces / Community Places, Finding the Balance through Smart Growth Solutions, Development, Community, and Environment Division (1807T), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, EPA 231-K-06-001, January 2006,
www.epa.gov/dced/pdf/EPAParkingSpaces06.pdf

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-42

TRANSPORTATION
2-68

Create a Transit-Oriented Development

King Countys website for local Transit Oriented Development plans, projects and incentives, http://www.metrokc.gov/kcdot/tod.

Pedestrian- and Transit-Friendly Design: A Primer for Smarter Growth, Smart Growth
Network, 1999.

The Puget Sound Regional Councils Transit Station Communities focuses on Transit
Oriented Development and Livable Communities in the Central Puget Sound Region,
http://www.todcommunities.org. Request Creating Transit Station Communities in the
Central Puget Sound Region: a Transit-Oriented Development Workbook, 1999, 134
pages, free. Also request Developing your Center: a Step-by-Step Approach.

Real Estate Trends and Transit-oriented Development: A Compendium for 21 Metropolitan Regions, University of California at Berkeley, June 1997.

The Role of Transit in Creating Livable Metropolitan Communities, Project for Public
Spaces, Inc, 1997, 164 pages $35. http://www.pps.org/Products/nutransbookhtml.htm.

The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry, Robert Cervero, 1998, $45, ISBN 1-55963591-6, http://www.islandpress.com/books/bookdata/transitm.html.

Additional sites:

2-69

Federal Transit Authority, www.fta.dot.gov.

Center for Livable Communities, http://www.lgc.org/clc/welcome.html.

Public Interest Transportation Forum, http://www.gt-wa.com/RTA/.

Build within Mile of a Transit Stop or Park and Ride


See Resources listed above.

2-70

Create a Mixed-Use Development


See General Resources and resources listed under Design Alternatives above

2-71

Provide Subsidized Bus Passes


No specific resources listed.

2-72

Provide Bicycle Lockers or Bicycle Storage Beyond Code


No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-43

2-73

Provide Bus Shelters


No specific resources listed.

2-74

Points for B20 Biodiesel or Better Equipment

2-75

The Official Site of the National Biodiesel Board. www.biodiesel.org/resources/faqs/.


General and technical resource for Biodiesel and related products.

Provide Dedicated Parking Spots for Carpool or Car-Share Vehicles


No specific resources listed.

2-76

Provide a Hardwire Outlet(s) for Electric Vehicles


No specific resources listed.

2-77

Provide a Link to Community Trails


No specific resources listed.

2-78

Provide Alternative Fueling Station

Dr. Dans Biodiesel website, http://www.fuelwerks.com, provides general information on


alternative fueling stations.

TRAINING AND EDUCATION


2-79

Prepare an Environmentally Friendly Operations and Maintenance Plan for Common Area
Facilities
See Resources in Section 1-1.

2-80

Prepare an Environmentally Friendly Landscape Operations and Maintenance Plan

Seattle Public Utilities web site, http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/rescons. A good source


for information and publications about composting, natural landscaping/lawn care, and
water efficient practices/fixtures.

IPM Access, and online IPM Information Service at www.efn.org/~ipmpa.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-44

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Urban Landscapes, available


online at http://www.efn.org/~ipmpa/ipmintro.html.

See resources for Action Item 2-35, Use Slow-Release Organic Fertilizers to Establish Vegetation for information about integrated pest management, appropriate fertilizing, and other
environmentally sound landscaping practices. See resources for Action Item 2-9, Use Compost to Stabilize Disturbed Slopes for compost resources.

2-81

Conduct Training Sessions for Maintenance Staff and/or Occupants


Consult with your equipment vendors and/or commissioning authority to provide this training.

2-82

Provide Educational Materials Designed for the Public that Highlight the Green Building
Features and their Performance that are Included in the Project
No resources listed.

EXTRA CREDIT / INNOVATION for SITE and WATER


2-83

Extra Credit / Innovation for Site and Water


No specific resources listed. See Resources for City of Seattle Green Factor (2-5) and the
Sustainable Sites Initiative listed under General Resources.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Two Resources: Site and Water
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-45

Section Three
Resources:
Energy Efficiency
Envelope
Thermal Performance

Reduce Thermal Bridging

Air Sealing

Solar Design Features

Heating/Cooling
Distribution

Heat Recovery

Controls

Equipment

Water Heating
Overall
Distribution

Lighting
Natural Light
Efficient Lighting

Appliances
Alternative Energy Bonus Points
Extra Credit / Innovation for Energy Efficiency

Section Three Resources:


Energy Efficiency
General Resources

For Washington State Energy Code and Mechanical Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code resources, see Section One Resources: Build to Program Requirements and Green Codes / Regulations
in Part II of this Handbook.

Washington State Energy Code Update, Residential Code Changes for R1 & R1, 2006,
http://www.energy.wsu.edu/code/

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, 6th edition, 2004. Available through WSU
Cooperative Extension, Educational Materials. Cost is $10.00. To order, call 360-956-2000. This
guide will is available for a free PDF download at http://www.energy.wsu.edu/pubs/

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. The EIC is your library for information on energy efficient construction. EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions about energy efficiency, moisture
control, ventilation, and green building. 800-872-3568 or e-mail EnergyLine@energy.wsu.edu. Or
you can browse for resources yourself online at www.energyideas.org. The EIC is funded by the
Northwest Energy Alliance, Olympia, WA, www.nwalliance.org.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), a free information source from the Department
of Energy, 800-363-3732. See also related web site www.eere.energy.gov.

Building AmericaThe U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program works with members of the home building industry in using a whole building systems engineering approach to produce quality homes that use up to 50% less energy without costing more to build. For more information, see the Building America web site at http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/building_america/

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

The Florida Solar Energy Center has done extensive research and testing on a range of issues related
to energy efficiency in buildings, including comparisons of different building systems, 407-638-1000
or their web site at www.fsec.ucf.edu.

Building Science Corporation, see also technical guides below, offers great information on building
science concerning envelope and HVAC design, installation, and maintenance. See the website for
articles, links, bookstore, and more. In particular, see publication, BSD-110: HVAC in Multi-Family
Buildings, October 2007. www.BuildingScience.com.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-49

Product Information

GreenSpecThe Environmental Building News Product Directory and Guideline Specifications, E


Build, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen,com. GreenSpec is organized in
standard CSI Divisions. Environmental Building News also offers product reviews, information, and
also posts some journal articles at www.buildinggreen.com/products/productslist.html.

REDI Guide (Resources for Environmental Design Index), web database, diskette, or printed handbook; a good resource for energy-efficient products. Available from Iris Communications, Eugene,
OR, 800-346-0104, or online at data.oikos.com/products.

Software

Building Energy Software Tools Directory is available from EERE at


http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/countries_sub.cfm.

Energy Gauge, http://energygauge.com/, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL, 321-638-1492. Approved
for 2007 edition.

RemRate, available from Architectural Energy Corporation, www.archenergy.com/products/rem,


2540 Frontier Avenue, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80301, 303-444-4149. Approved for 2007 edition.

Technical Books and Guides

Builders Guide, by Joe Lstiburek. Published for four climate versions (For Pacific Northwest, appropriate climate type is Mixed-Humid.) The guide includes illustrations and resources for such subjects as home layout and design, foundations, framing, HVAC, insulation, drywall, plumbing, electrical systems, painting, sheathings and windows all with respect to moisture control, energy efficiency
and proper ventilation. Published by and available from Building Science Corporation, Westford,
MA, 978-589-5100, or www.buildingscience.com/books.html. Cost is $40.00 plus S&H. Also available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore, 800-859-3669, or online at
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Iris Catalog, publications, videos and software for the building industry, from Iris Communications,
Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104 for a free printed catalog or browse the online at shop.oikos.com/catalog.

No-Regrets Remodeling: Creating a Comfortable Healthy Home That Saves Energy (1997), published
by Home Energy Magazine (See www.homeenergy.org/booksnguides) Cost is $19.95 U.S. (plus
$3.50 S&H). To order, call 510-524-5405.

Twenty-First Century Townhouses: An Illustrated Guide, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro,
MD. Cost is $10.00 for the book and $25.00 for the video. To order, call 800-638-8556 or order
online at eshop.nahbrc.org/cgi-bin/nahbrc.storefront.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-50

Solar

Passive Solar Buildings, ed. by J. Douglas Balcomb, MIT Press, 1992. ($70.00 at amazon.com).

Passive Solar Design and Construction Handbook, by Steven Winter Associates. Published by John
Wiley & Sons, 1997, ISBN: 0-471-18308-3. To order from John Wiley & Sons, call 800-225-5945 or
e-mail catalog@wiley.com or order online at catalog.wiley.com. Cost is $90.00 plus S&H. Also
available from Iris Communications, 800-346-0104 or online at shop.oikos.com/catalog.

The Passive Solar House. Ten solar principles highlight key concepts. Includes a series of worksheets and extensive tables. Available from Iris Communications, 800-346-0104, or www.oikos.com.
($25.00)

The Residential Building Design and Construction Workbook, available from Cutter Information
Corp. in Arlington, MA. 800-964-5118 or www.cutter.com.

3-1

Building Systems Commissioning Beyond Code

USDOE, EERE, Energy-Efficient Operation and Maintenance for Multifamily Buildings, includes, a Commissioning Activities and Documentation Checklist, visit the Building
Toolbox section of this site.
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/info/multifamily/maintain.html.

Pacific Gas and Electric page has good information, a library, and other resources at,
http://buildingcommissioning.wordpress.com/.

The Building Commissioning (Cx) Associationhttp://www.bcxa.org. The Executive Director of the local chapter is John Heinz, Phone: 206-417-0586, Fax: 206-417-0590.

DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), in cooperation with the General Services Administration, developed the Building Commissioning Guide as part of GSAs facility
commissioning program to ensure that construction of new facilities meets the requirements.
Chapter 10 of this document is an extensive list of additional resources related to building
commissioning. Version 2.2 of the Guide, along with Model Commissioning Plan and Guide
Specifications and sample functional tests and checklists can be downloaded from FEMPs
web site at: http://www.eren.doe.gov/femp/techassist/bldgcomgd.html.

A web site dedicated to providing access to documents dealing with the Guidelines for Total
Building Commissioning being developed under the auspices of the National Institute of
Building Sciences. The site is maintained by the Florida Design Initiative and is organized
around the individual technical guidelines that will comprise the complete set of Guidelines
for Total Building Commissioning. http://sustainable.state.fl.us/fdi/edesign/resource/totalbcx/

Implement Building Commissioning, (U.S. Department of Energy, Rebuild America, EnergySmart Schools, Washington, DC, 2000),
http://www.eren.doe.gov/energysmartschools/om_implement.html. Defines building commissioning; discusses the selection of a commissioning agent; the benefits, approaches, and components of commissioning; and lists resources.

Sustainable Building Technical Manual: Green Building Design, Construction, and Operations, produced by Public Technology, Inc., U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and U.S.
Department of Energy, with support from EPA, 1996. See Chapter 15, Building Commis-

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-51

sioning. Available from USGBC, San Francisco, CA. 415-445-9500 or download online at
http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/pdf/sbt.pdf.

ENVELOPE
Thermal Performance
3-2

Document Envelope Improvements Beyond Code (Component Performance Approach) by 10%,


20%, 50%, or 75%
Document results using Chart 3-1, BUILT GREEN Component Performance Methodat the end
of this Section. Provide a completed copy of Chart 3-1 to the owner as part of their Operations &
Maintenance Kit. For information on Code Updates, resent publications, including the builders
field guide, see WSU website: www.energy.wsu.edu. For link to worksheet for all residential occupancies, including instructions on the Component Performance Worksheet see:

3-3

http://www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/code/CPWorksheets/cpworksheet2006.xls

this link has instructions on which file is required for code U-values and how to link this file
to your worksheet.

Document Envelope Improvements Beyond Code Minimum (Prescriptive Approach)


See Chart 3-2, BUILT GREEN Prescriptive Scoring Method Upgrades for all Fuel Types at the
end of this Section.
For information on Code Updates, resent publications, including the builders field guide, see
WSU website: www.energy.wsu.edu. For instructions on the Prescriptive Method see:

3-4

http://www.energy.wsu.edu/code/

Build a Zero Net Energy Building that Draws Zero Outside Power or Fuel on a Net Annual Basis
See General Resources above, particularly, USDOE EERE or Solar.

3-5

Use Dense Packed Cellulose (Over 2.5 Lbs./Inch) or Wet Blown Cellulose or
Blown In Foam

3-6

Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association, information about performance and use of


cellulose thermal/acoustical insulation, http://www.cellulose.org/.

For Concrete Walls Use Perimeter Insulation for Exterior Slab Edges
Contact your supplier.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-52

3-7

Increase Roof Insulation 20% Beyond Code


Contact your supplier.

3-8

Participate in a Program that Provides Third-Party Review and Inspection

For information about Seattle City Lights BUILT SMART program for multifamily housing,
see their web site at www.ci.seattle.wa.us/light/conserve/resident/cv5_bs.htm or contact John
Forde, Program Manager, by e-mail at john.forde@ci.seattle.wa.us or at 206-684-4288 to discuss what incentives and design approaches are applicable for your project. (Note: Seattle
City Light provides technical support to builders and developers within their service area for
improvements in thermal efficiency, heating systems, indoor air quality, and lighting. SCL
also provides technical support (but not incentives) for projects outside their service area.)

For information about LEED, see the City of Seattles website at


http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/GreenBuilding/MultifamilyResidential/DesignToolsStrategies/LE
EDforMultifamily/default.asp or Cascadia Chapter, Green Building Council at
http://www.cascadiagbc.org/.

City of Seattle, SeaGreen, Greening Seattles Affordable Housing,


http://www.seattle.gov/housing/SeaGreen/Default.htm.

Green Globes, http://www.greenglobes.com/.

Northwest ENERGY STAR http://www.northwestenergystar.com/index.php?cID=589 or call


the ENERGY STAR Hotline at 888-STAR-YES (888-782-7937). Inspection checklists for
documenting ENERGYSTAR compliance are available as part of the BUILTGREEN Resource Library at the Master Builders Association (MBA).

Air Sealing

See Super Good Cents Builders Guide to Energy-Efficient Construction for information on advanced
air sealing techniques. Available from Bonneville Power Administration, 800-622-4520 ($10).

For information on quality sealants and caulks, see Gap Goop: Sorting Out Silly Putties From Serious Caulks by Brad Lemley, This Old House, Sept/Oct 1996, pp. 43-46. Order at
www.pbs.org/wghb/thisoldhouse/magazine.

Also see Chapter 4, Air Sealing. in No-Regrets Remodeling (listed in Resources, Technical Books
and Guides, above).

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, Chapter 5, Air Leakage Control (listed in
General Resources, above).

3-9

Airtight Drywall Approach for Framed Structures

Advanced Framing, Techniques, Troubleshooting, and Structural Design. 46 Selections from


the Journal of Light Construction, pp. 274-276. Order at 800-859-3669 or
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Builders Guide, by Joe Lstiburek (See Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above).

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-53

3-10

Use Airtight Building Method, such as SIP or ICF

See the web site of the Structural Insulated Panel Association for a current list of SIP manufacturers, www.sips.org. For ICF and SIP manufacturers/suppliers, also see also the REDI
Guide and GreenSpec (listed in Resources, Production Information, above).

See the following web site for U-values for ICF systems:
www.energy.state.or.us/code/respub/res20.pdf.

See also resources for Action Item 5-39, Use Structural Insulated Panels.

3-11

Eliminate or Airtight Seal All Air Pathways Between Floors and Units
See Resources for Air Sealing above, and under Technical Books and Guides above, see:

3-12

Builders Guide, EEBA, Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA, 978-589-5100.

Conduct Blower Door Test for a Sampling of Units with Results Better than 0.30 ACH or 0.25 ACH
Blower Door Testing, a seven-minute video, demonstrates generic blower door set-up procedures
and shows how to conduct air leak diagnostics using smoke sticks; also includes examples of
many air leakage sites. Available from Iris Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104 or
www.shop.oikos.com/catalog. Many full-service heating contractors will perform blower door
tests.
Blower door manufacturers include:

The Energy Conservatory, Minneapolis, MN, 612-827-1117. See


www.energyconservatory.com/articles.html for links to articles is Home Energy Magazine
about blower doors and testing.

Infiltec, Falls Church, VA, 703-820-7696 or 540-943-2776, or www.infiltec.com.

Retrotec, Bellingham, WA, 360-738-9835 or www.retrotec.com.

Reduce Thermal Bridging


3-13

Use Rigid Insulation as Thermal Break in Headers


See Chapter 3, Framing, in Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide (listed in
General Resources above) as well as references listed in the Field Guide.
Ask your local building supply house for The Nailer, a recycled-content plastic drywall clip
that is wider and easier to use than many other clips. It can be installed with a stapler using
1/2-staples.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-54

3-14

Fully Insulate Corners at Intersecting Exterior Walls


See Chapter 3, Framing, in Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide (listed in
General Resources above).
Ask your local building supply house for The Nailer, a recycled-content plastic drywall clip
that is wider and easier to use than many other clips. It can be installed with a stapler using 1/2
staples.

3-15

Fully Insulate at Interior/Exterior Wall Intersection by Open Cavity Framing


See Chapter 3, Framing, in Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide (listed in
General Resources above).

3-16

Use Energy Heels of 6 In. or More on Trusses and Stick Frame Roofs to Allow Added Insulation
Over Top Plate
See Chapter 3, Framing, in Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide (listed in
General Resources above).

3-17

3-18

Use Insulated Exterior Sheathing

See Chapter 3: Framing in Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, 6th edition
(listed in General Resources, above).

Builders Guide (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above.)

Plywood Siding Over Rigid Foam Insulation Sheathing Recommendations and Test Results,
Form C465, a 3-page booklet, available for $1.00 from APA, The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, WA, 253-565-6600, fax 253-565-7265, or e-mail help@apawood.org. Or order online at www.apawood.org/.

Use Advanced Wall Framing24-inch OC, with Double Top Plate

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide. (See General Resources, above.) See
Framing Chapter.

Builders Guide, by Joe Lstiburek. (See Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above.)

Advanced Framing, Techniques, Troubleshooting, and Structural Design. Published by the


Journal of Light Construction. A good general reference for advanced framing. Covers a
broad range of topics on tools, building layout, floor, wall, and roof framing, engineered lumber, energy details and more. Available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore,
800-859-3669, fax 802-434-4467 or online at www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

See Super Good Cents Builders Guide to Energy-Efficient Construction for information on
advanced air sealing techniques. Available from Bonneville Power Administration,
800-622-4520 ($10).

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-55

For information about efficient (or Advanced) framing, contact the Energy Ideas Clearinghouse (See General Resources, above.)

Solar Design Features


3-19

Passive Solar Design, Basic Features Installed


See diagram in Part I for this Action Item.

3-20

Turn to Solar for Lower Heating Costs, Energy Source Builder #42, December 1995, IRIS
Communications, Eugene, OR, www.oikos.com/esb/42/solar.html. Provides good general
background information.

Sun Angle shareware program, susdesign.com/sunangle. Allows you to find solar angles at
any time of day; a useful tool for locating and sizing overhangs.

See Resources, Solar, above.

Passive Solar Design, Advanced Features Installed


See Solar listing in General Resources above.
Efficient Windows Collaborative, www.efficientwindows.org, provides general but useful information for selecting windows for different types of climates and orientations. Also see resources
for Action Item 3-22, Use Building and Landscaping Plans that Reduce Heating/Cooling Loads
Naturally.

3-21

Model Solar Design Features Using Approved Modeling Software


See Software above under General Resources, for approved modeling software for Washington
State code.

3-22

Use Landscaping Plans that Reduce Heating/Cooling Loads Naturally


See Section 2, Reduce Urban Heat Island Effect.

HEATING/COOLING SYSTEM
Distribution
3-23

Centrally Locate Heating / Cooling System to Reduce the Size of the Distribution System
No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-56

3-24

Install Ceiling Fans in All Units Minimum One per Unit


No specific resources listed.

3-25

Use Advanced Sealing of Ducts Using Low-Toxic Mastic


Local sources for low toxic duct mastics include:

3-26

Hardcast Versa Grip Mastic, Gensco, Tacoma, WA, 253-620-8203, www.gensco.com. Many
northwest distributors.

Hardcast Versa Grip Mastic for RCD Mastic, Albina Wholesale, 888-639-3330,
www.albina.com/whsl/

Third-Party Performance Air Leakage Test Using Prescribed Sampling Method for Each Unit Type
Meets Certification
For general information, see the article, Pipe Dreams, in Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Newsletter, Volume 3, Issue 1 (Winter 1999), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance,
800-411-0834, www.nwalliance.org/news/newsletters/neeaWinter99.pdf.
For information about Performance Tested Comfort Systems air leakage testing/criteria, contact a
certified contractor or call the WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program, 360-956-2000,
www.energy.wsu.edu/buildings.

3-27

Third-Party Duct Test Results Less than 6% Loss of Floor Area to Outside/Total Flow

To locate ENERGY STAR Builder Option Package Verifiers, go to


http://www.energystar.gov/. Verifiers are listed as Home Energy Raters on the New Home
Partner Locator Search Page
(http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=new_homes_partners.showHomesSearc
h).

BUILT GREEN Third-Party Verification program, www.builtgreen.net/verification.html.

For general information, see the article, Pipe Dreams, in Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Newsletter, Volume 3, Issue 1 (Winter 1999), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance,
800-411-0834, www.nwalliance.org/news/newsletters/neeaWinter99.pdf.
For information about Performance Tested Comfort Systems air leakage testing/criteria, contact a
certified contractor or call the WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program, 360-956-2000,
www.energy.wsu.edu/buildings.

3-28

All Ducts are in Conditioned Space

Ducts in Conditioned Space from the ToolBase TechSpecs of The Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH), available online at
www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/ductsinconditionedspace_techspec.pdf /.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-57

3-29

Locate Heating / Cooling Equipment Inside the Conditioned Space


No specific resources listed.

Controls
3-30

Install Thermostat with On-Switch for Furnace Fan to Circulate Air


No specific resources listed.

3-31

Install Thermostat with One Degree Dead-Band (Electronic or Vapor Diaphragm) for Non-Ducted
Electric Heat
Check with your electric heating contractor for available electronic line-voltage thermostats and
vapor diaphragm thermostat products. Local manufacture of electronic line voltage thermostat is
King Electrical Manufacturing in Seattle (206-762-0400). Major manufacturers include Airex,
Carrier, Cadet, Honeywell.

3-32

Install 60-Minute Timers or Humidistat for Bathroom and Laundry Room Fans
No specific resources listed.

3-33

3-34

Install Programmable Thermostats

Check with your heating contractor.

For a list of programmable thermostats that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label
(not required for this Action Item, but a good idea) and a store locator, see
www.epa.gov/appdstar/hvac/thermostats.html, or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call the
ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

Provide Separate Switching for Bathrooms Fan/Heat Lamp and Fan/Light Combination Fixtures
No specific resources listed.

3-35

Provide Electricity and/or Natural Gas Direct Metering for Each Unit
Coordinate with your local gas or electric utility.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-58

3-36

Install Heat Systems with Separate Zones for Sleeping and Living Areas (Not Including Electric
Resistance Heating)
No specific resources listed, consult your HVAC supplier.

Heat Recovery
3-37

Install a Heat Recovery Ventilator or an Energy Recovery Ventilator


For information about air exchangers or other ventilation systems, contact your mechanical subcontractor or:

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions
about ventilation, 800-872-3568 or e-mail EnergyLine@energy.wsu.edu. Or you can browse
for resources yourself online at www.energyideas.org (listed under General Resources,
above).

Healthy House Building: A Design and Construction Guide, by John Bower, The Healthy
House Institute, Unionville, IN. (Good information on optimizing air distribution and ventilation.) . Available from Iris Communications, 800-346-0104 or www.oikos.com (Item #
7503, $22).

Understanding Ventilation: How to Design, Select, and Install Residential Ventilation Systems, by John Bower. Available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore:
800-859-3669 or www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

HRV manufacturers include:

Aldes compact heat recovery ventilators, from American Aldes Ventilation Corporation, Sarasota, FL, 941-351-3441, www.americanaldes.com.

Guardian, by Broan Mfg. Company, Hartford, WI, 800-368-8663, www.broan.com.

PerfectAire, by Research Products Corp., Madison, WI, 800-334-6011, www.resprod.com.

Perfect Window fresh air ventilation system, by Honeywell Corporation, Minneapolis, MN,
800-345-6770 or www.honeywell.com.

VanEE, by Conservation Energy Systems, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 800-667-3717.

ERV manufacturers include:

Ask your supplier

Green Depot, Olympia, WA, 360-705-2868, http://www.greendepotinc.com, carries the Recouperator

American Aldes, Sarasota, FL, 800-225-7749, 741-351-3441

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-59

Equipment

Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association, consumers directory of energy efficient ratings heating
and water heating equipment, www.gamanet.org.

USDOE, EERE, USDOE Technology Fact Sheet Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection,
www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/info/documents/pdfs/26459.pdf

Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, by Alex Wilson and John Morrill, is updated annually
(See General Resources above).

American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, for the gas and oil furnaces listed as Top-Rated
Energy-Efficient, see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topfurn.htm.

American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, for top-rated conventional (air source) heat
pumps, see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topcashp.htm.

American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, for top-rated water-heater and combo systems,
see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwater.htm.

Green Affordable Housing Coalition, Build It Green, Combination Water & Space Heating Systems,
June 2007. http://frontierassoc.net/greenaffordablehousing/FactSheets/FactSheetsTechnical.shtml#Heat_anchor.

3-38

Select High Efficiency Heat Pumps


See Equipment Resources above.

3-39

Select Energy Star Heating / Cooling Equipment or Equivalent


The EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator, see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call
the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.
See http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lchvac.pr_lchvac for more info
For more information on the Energy Star Homes Northwest Certification Requirements for residential multi-family homes, 3 stories or less, see http://energystarhomestracking.org/secure/resources/Multi-Family_BOP.pdf

3-40

No Gas Fireplaces, or Use Direct Vent Gas or Propane Hearth Product (AFUE Rating)
No specific resources listed.

3-41

No Air Conditioner
No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


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Part II-60

3-42

3-43

Direct Use of Natural Gas, i.e. Centralized Boiler with Hydronic Heating System Units or Units
with Fan Coil System that Can Do Both Heating and Cooling

Energy Efficiency Manual, Donald R. Wulfinghoff, Energy Institute Press, 2003.


http://www.energybooks.com/index.htm

Solar Hot Water, Heating and Cooling Systems, A Source Book for Green and Sustainable
Building http://www.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook/HeatCool.html

Install Whole Building Hydronic Heating for Heating in All Units, Point Range Based on Boiler
Efficiency - 85% or 92%
For boiler efficiencies, see Water Heating Items.

3-44

Association for Energy Affordability, Training Program for Hydronic Heating System Designer, http://www.aeanyc.org/site/c.dhJJJTOzFoH/b.1715165/. Check website for event
schedule.

Install Geothermal Heat Pumps

Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Energy Library, Geothermal Heat


Pumps, information on closed- and open-loop geothermal heat pump systems. Residential,
multifamily and commercial applications are all covered. A special section on installations
provides testimonials from owners, developers and facilities managers on the money savings
and increased efficiency and longevity they've experienced from their geothermal systems,
http://tristate.apogee.net/

Ask your supplier

WATER HEATING

Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, by Alex Wilson and John Morrill, is updated annually (See General Resources above). For the water heaters that the 7th Edition lists as
Top-Rated Energy-Efficient, see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwater.htm.

See the Seattle City Light web site at www.ci.seattle.wa.us/light/conserve. (Follow water
heating link.)

Water heaters with space heating capability, see Green Affordable Housing reference under
heating Equipment, above,

Overall
3-45

Install Drainwater Heat Recovery System (DHR)


Drainwater heat recovery systems are available from:

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-61

Green Depot, Olympia, WA, 360-705-2868, http://www.greendepotinc.com, carries PowerPipe

Doucette Industries, Inc., York, PA, 800-445-7511, www.doucetteindustries.com.

Earthstar Energy Systems, Waldoboro, ME, 207-832-6861.

Vaughn Manufacturing Corporation, Salisbury, MA, 800-282-8446 or


www.vaughncorp.com/gfx.html.

GFX Wastewater Heat Reclaimer in Contention, Environmental Building News Volume 8,


No. 9, September 1999, and Recovering Heat from Wastewater, Environmental Building
News Volume 6, No. 8, September 1997. Available online at
www.buildinggreen.com/products/gfx.html.

See also the NAHB Research Centers fact sheet on Drainwater Heat Recovery Systems, available online at: www.nahbrc.org/ToolBase/pandt/tech/abstracts/plumbab3.html.

3-46

3-47

Install Whole Building Recirculation Pump

Controlling Recirculation Loop Heat Losses, Multifamily, Home Energy Magazine Online
January/February 1993, Mary Sue Lobenstein,
www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930106.html

Central Hot Water Distribution Systems in Multifamily Buildings: 2008 California Building
Energy Efficiency Standards, Owen Howlett, Nehemiah Stone, Home Energy Magazine
Online, www.homeenergy.org

Passive or On-Demand Hot Water Delivery System Installed at Farthest Location from Water
Heater
An example of the on-demand system is the Metlund Hot Water Demand System. A recirculating
pump brings hot water quickly to the faucet when it is needed. The pump is installed between the
hot and cold water lines at the faucet furthest from the water heater. It is activated by push buttons connected with low-voltage wire or via a wireless remote control.
Once activated, the pump pulls hot water from the water heater down the hot water line. At the
same time, it pushes the cold water back through the cold water line to the water heater. The
pump comes on only when its needed. Once hot water has filled the line, the system shuts off.
See the article Hot Water on Demand--And No Energy Penalty, Environmental Building News
Volume 4, No. 2, March/April 1995 available online at
www.buildinggreen.com/products/metlund.html.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-62

Figure 6R-2The Metlund Hot Water Demand System

The Metlund Hot Water Demand System is available from ACT, Inc. Advanced Conservation
Technology, Costa Mesa, CA, 800-METLUND (800-638-5863), www.metlund.com.

See local suppliers for other systems and product ideas.

3-48

Green Depot, Olympia, WA, 360-705-2868, http://www.greendepotinc.com.

Install On-Demand (Tankless) Hot Water Heater


Energy Guide labels are not required on demand-type water heaters. For an evaluation of their
energy-conserving features, see the Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, by Alex Wilson
and John Morrill, pp. 146-147, 160-164 (listed under Action Item 6-1, Provide An Operations &
Maintenance Kit for Each Unit).

See fact sheet on demand (tankless) water heaters by the US Department of Energy, Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) at
www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/bc1.html.

Manufacturers include:

Rinnai America, LaGrange, GA, 800-621-9419 or www.rinnaiamerica.com. The Rinnai


Continuum 2424 designed for exterior mounting, which keeps all combustion outdoors, eliminating risk of combustion gas spillage and saving valuable indoor space. It is one of the few
gas-fired demand water heaters with electronic ignition instead of a pilot light, one of the features that enables it to achieve its high 82% AFUE efficiency. See New Demand Water
Heater from Rinnai, Environmental Building News, Volume 9, Number 2, February 2000.
(Environmental Building News, Brattleboro, VT, 802-257-7300, www.buildinggreen.com.)
AquaStar, distributed in the U.S. by Controlled Energy Corporation (CEC) of Waitsfield,
Vermont.

The AquaStar 125-EI demand water heater has a pilot light, but it is usually unlit. When hot
water is called for, two integral D-cell batteries ignite the pilot, which in turn ignites the water heater burner. It uses just a tiny amount of electricity, as evidenced by the two D-cell batteries, and is almost instantaneous, according to CEC marketing vice president Kyle Murray.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-63

Contact R. Kyle Murray, Controlled Energy Corporation, 800-642-3111 or www.cechot.com.


See A New Generation of Demand Water Heaters, Environmental Building News, Volume
7, No. 4, April 1998 and An Update on Demand Water Heaters, Environmental Building
News, Volume 8, No. 2, February 1999. (Environmental Building News, Brattleboro, VT,
802-257-7300, www.buildinggreen.com.)
Low Energy Systems (distributor of various demand water heaters), Englewood, CO,
303-781-9437, palomawaterheaters.com.
Other manufacturers are listed in GreenSpec and the REDI Guide.

3-49

Upgrade Electric Water Efficiency Above Code


The best source for efficiency information for water heaters is the GAMA (Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association) guide. 703-525-7060, www.gamanet.org. GAMA will answer questions
on residential gas appliances and equipment, and electric and oil-fired water heaters.

3-50

How to Buy an Energy- Efficient Electric Water Heater, US Department of Energy, FEMP.
Available online www.eren.doe.gov/femp/procurement/ewh.pdf,. A publication of the Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheet is primarily for federal agencies, but provides good general information for residential builders as well.

Upgrade Gas or Propane Water Heater Efficiency to 0.61 or 0.81


The best source for efficiency information for water heaters is the GAMA (Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association) guide. 703-525-7060, www.gamanet.org. GAMA will answer questions
on residential gas appliances and equipment, and electric and oil-fired water heaters.

3-51

How to Buy an Energy-Efficient Gas Water Heater, US Department of Energy, FEMP.


Available online at www.eren.doe.gov/femp/procurement/gwh.pdf, A publication of the Federal Emergency Management Program, this two-page fact sheet is primarily for federal agencies, but provides good general information for residential builders as well.

Navien Condensing Tankless Water Heater, new on the market, has a 98% efficiency rating.
800-519-8794 or www.NavienAmerica.com.

Install the Water Heater Inside the Heated Space (Electric, Direct Vent, or Sealed Venting Only)
No specific resources listed.

3-52

Upgrade Electric Water Heater to an Exhaust Air Heat Pump Water Heater or De-Superheater
EF 1.9
Talk to your plumbing contractor and see products and manufacturers listed in GreenSpec and the
REDI Guide.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-64

3-53

Install a Timer to Regulate Standby Hot Water Loss in Hot Water Heater
Consult your supplier.

3-54

Ultra High Efficiency Central Water Heating


See Resources for this section. Talk to your plumbing contractor about available options.

3-55

Solar Water Heating System for Common Facilities


See the REDI Guide and GreenSpec (See General Resources above) for solar water heating systems product information.

3-56

Green Affordable Housing Coalition, Fact Sheet No. 14, Financing Photovoltaic Systems for
Affordable Multi-Family Housing, November 2005.
http://frontierassoc.net/greenaffordablehousing/index.shtml

Install Solar Hot Water Heating

Solar Village Prospect model 16 unit condominium project in Longmont, Colorado designed solar hot water and heating system that is estimated to supply 100% of the domestic
hot water and significantly reduce the heating bills in winter. Colorado Renewable Energy
Society, http://www.cres-energy.org/reba_2006_svp.html

Northwest EcoBuilding Guild, Green Pages, www.ecobuilding.org/green_pages

Distribution
3-57

Locate Water Heater within 20 Pipe Feet of Highest Use


No specific resources listed.

3-58

Insulate All Hot Water Pipes and Install Cold Inlet Heat Traps on Hot Water Heater
No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-65

LIGHTING
Natural Light
3-59

Light-Colored Interior Finishes


No specific resources listed.

3-60

Use Clerestory for Natural Lighting


No specific resources listed.

3-61

Maximize Daylighting for All Units


Your local supplier can probably source these products for you. Some light tubes to consider are:

Solatube, distributed by Northwest Natural Lighting, Lynnwood, WA, 800-773-SOLA


(800-773-7652) or www.solatube.com.

Sun Pipe, first light pipe sold for homes in North America. Sunpipe Co., Northbrook, IL,
800-844-4786, www.sunpipe.com.

EZ Light, manufactured and distributed by odl Inc, Zeeland, MI, 800-288-1800.

Sun Tunnel with flexible tubing, distributed by The Sun Tunnel Skylights, 800-369-3664 or
www.suntunnel.com.

US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,


http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/info/design/integratedbuilding/passivedaylighting.html

Efficient Lighting

The Lighting Design Lab provides a variety of services related to implementing high quality, energy
efficient lighting, including consultations for residential and commercial projects. The lab is located
at 400 E. Pine St., Suite 100 in Seattle, Phone 800-354-3864 or 206-325-9711. The web site
http://www.northwestlighting.com provides additional information, including a list of approved energy-efficient products. Call 206-325-9711 to set up a free consultation.

See also The Seattle Lighting Design Labs series of articles on home lighting. See northwestlighting.com/residential.

The National Lighting Product Information Program (NLPIP) is an objective source of manufacturerspecific performance information on efficient lighting products. Publications can be purchased at our
Online Store. Our databases of performance data for electronic ballasts and compact fluorescent
lamps have been updated with new products. We have also recently added a section on alternatives to
halogen torchieres.

Lighting Research Center, Troy, NY, phone 518-687-7100 or www.lrc.rpi.edu

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-66

The LightSite, An online resource of the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance for energy efficient
lighting information and products. Call 1-800-379-4121 or see their web site at:
http://www.lightsite.net/index.html

The Lighting Pattern Book, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Lighting Research Center, Troy, NY 12180,
518-276-8716. Cost is $60.00 including shipping. This and other publications related to energy efficient,
high quality lighting design for residential and commercial applications can be found on their web site:
www.lrc.rpi.edu. Also contact the Seattle Lighting Lab for more information and technical assistance.

3-62

Install Low-Mercury T-8 Lamps


See general resources for product information and:

3-63

Alto 4 Ft T8, Philips, 80% less mercury. 800-631-1259.

Ecolux, GE, mercury not in leachable form. 800-435-4448.

Pentron T5, Osram/Sylvania, 96.4-104.3 lumens/watt depending on lamp wattage.


978-777-1900.

Silhouette T5, Philips, 91.1-98.5 lumens/watt depending on lamp wattage. 800-631-1259.

Halogen Lighting Substituted for Incandescent Downlights


See your local lighting supplier for suggestions.

3-64

Install Lighting Dimmer, Photo Cells, Timers, and/or Motion Detectors (Interior) for High
Efficiency Fixtures
See your local lighting supplier for suggestions.

3-65

Install Photo Cells, Timers, Motion Detectors (Exterior) for 90% of Fixtures
See your local lighting supplier for suggestions.

3-66

Install LED, Energy Star Compliant CFL Bulbs or Demonstrated Energy Equivalent in All Units
and Common Areas
Most building and lighting supply houses stock compact fluorescent lights.

The EPA lists online compact fluorescent lights that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR
label and a store locator, see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

For additional information, contact the Puget Sound Power Energy Efficiency Hotline:
800-562-1482, www.psechoice.com/advisor.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-67

3-67

Install LED, Energy Star Compliant Fixtures, or Demonstrated Energy Equivalent in All Units
and Common Areas
EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator,
see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call the
ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

3-68

Avoid Excessive Outdoor Light Levels While Maintaining Adequate Light for Security and Safe
Access, Meet IESNA Levels
Some manufacturers of floodlights offer attachable visor shields. They can also easily be made
from flashing aluminum or stainless steel sheet metal. Once the shields are installed, floodlights
can be re-aimed at night to properly "tune" the illumination to the property boundaryas shown
below. Another added benefit from shielding floodlight glare is that it creates a more visually inviting appearance to an area.
For the best performance in new outdoor lighting installations, consider full-cutoff type fixtures
instead of floodlights to avoid glare, light trespass, and light pollution.

Lighting for Exterior Environments, IESNA Publication No. RP-33-99 is available to order
online at www.iesna.org, $45.00.

The web site www.darksky.org/ida/ida_2/manuf.html#road lists specific makes and models


of good outdoor lighting fixtures, from major manufacturers including General Electric,
McGraw-Edison, Ruud, Pemco, Hubbell, and Magnaray.

Manufacturers include:

Magnaray International, Phone 941-755-2111, email magnaray@sprynet.com or web site


http://www.magnaray.com.

McGraw-Edison, Cooper Lighting , Phone 601-638-1522.

RUUD Lighting, Phone 800-236-7000 or online at www.ruudlighting.com.

Architectural Area Lighting, Phone 714-994-2700, www.aal.net

Hubbell Lighting, Inc., phone 540-382-6111 or online at www.hubbell-ltg.com

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-68

APPLIANCES
3-69

Install Gas Clothes Dryer in Common Laundry or in All Units


Clothes dryers are not required to display Energy Guide labels. Unlike most other types of appliances, energy consumption does not vary significantly among comparable models of clothes dryers. Here are some consumer buying tips from the US Department of Energy:
1. Look for a clothes dryer with a moisture sensor that automatically shuts off the machine when
your clothes are dry. Not only will this save energy, it will reduce the wear and tear on
clothes from over-drying.
2. The best dryers have moisture sensors in the drum for sensing dryness, while most only infer
dryness by sensing the temperature of the exhaust air. Compared with timed drying, you can
save about 10% with a temperature sensing control, and 15% with a moisture sensing control.
3. Look for a dryer with a cycle that includes a cool-down period, sometimes known as a perma-press cycle. In the last few minutes of the cycle, cool air, rather than heated air, is blown
through the tumbling clothes to complete the drying process.

3-70

Install a Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient Washing Machine in All Units


The EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator, see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call
the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES. The ENERGY STAR database provides a calculation of the annual energy use based on the number of loads washed per week. Utility savings
depend on the cost of heating hot water and the number of loads washed per week.

A New Spin On Clothes Washers, Consumer Reports, July 1998, pp. 50-53. A good comparison of front-loading versus top-loading washing machines. Consumer Reports also periodically reviews clothes washers; check the most recent index, www.consumerreports.com.
Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, by Alex Wilson and John Morrill, is updated annually (See General Resources above). For the washers listed as Top-Rated Energy-Efficient, see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwash.htm.

WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program can provide you with consumer fact sheets on
energy-efficient appliances, 360-956-2000, or www.energy.wsu.edu. You can include these
fact sheets in the O&M Kit (see below).

New Generation of Horizontal-Axis Washing Machines on the Way, Environmental Building News Volume 6, Number 4, April 1997. Available online at
www.buildinggreen.com/products/washers.html.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-69

3-71

Install Common Laundry Facilities Instead of in Each Unit with Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient
Washers

3-72

Green Affordable Housing Coalition, Fact Sheet No. 14, Financing Photovoltaic Systems for
Affordable Multi-Family Housing, November 2005.
http://frontierassoc.net/greenaffordablehousing/index.shtml

Install a Water-Saving, Energy-Efficient Dishwasher in All Units


Dishwashers with increased efficiency are most easily identified by the ENERGY STAR label.
The EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator, see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call
the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

Clean Enough for You? Consumer Reports, March 2000, pages 47-50,
www.consumerreports.com.
Dishing it Out, Consumer Reports, March 1999, pages 50-53.

Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, by Alex Wilson and John Morrill, is updated annually (See General Resources above). For the dishwashers listed as Top-Rated Energy-Efficient, see www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwash.htm.

See Action Item 3-48, Install On-Demand (Tankless) Hot Water Heater, above for references.

See also GreenSpec and the REDI Guide for more information.

3-73

Install Energy Star Refrigerator in All Units


Refrigerators with increased efficiency are most easily identified by the ENERGY STAR label.
The EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator, see www.epa.gov/appdstar/estar/products.html. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call
the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

3-74

Install Gas Stove/Cooktop in All Units


Ask your supplier

3-75

An Introduction to IAQ is provided by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,


www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html

Install Biofuel Appliances


Ask your supplier, most boilers, with a simple modification, can use biofuel at 20/80 mix.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-70

3-76

Install Energy Star Exhaust Fan in All Units


Exhaust Fans with increased efficiency are most easily identified by the ENERGY STAR label.
The EPA lists online products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR label and a store locator, see www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roomac.pr_room_ac. Or e-mail labeling@energystar.gov or call the ENERGY STAR hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES.

See also the NAHB Research Centers ToolBase TechSpecs on In-Line Fans, available online
at: www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/HVAC/in-line-fans.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Bonus Points


3-77

3-78

3-79

Participate in the Local Utilitys Electricity Program for Renewable Electricity Sources

Puget Sound Energy, Renewable Energy Advantage Program, 888-225-5773,


http://www.pse.com/solutions/rebatesOnRenewable.aspx, site includes information on how to
participate and the incentives available.

Snohomish County Public Utility Division, Planet Power Program, 425-783-1000,


http://www.snopud.com/?p=2176, site includes information on enrollment and benefits.

Solar-Powered or Low-Voltage Walkway or Outdoor Area Lighting

Outdoor Lighting Pattern Book, by Lighting Research Center. Available from Iris Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104 or www.oikos.com (Item #7562, $50.00).

Green Affordable Housing Coalition, Fact Sheet No. 14, Financing Photovoltaic Systems for
Affordable Multi-Family Housing, November 2005.
http://frontierassoc.net/greenaffordablehousing/index.shtml

More than 2% of Building Powered by Photovoltaic

5000 Solar Roofs in Washington, a program to promote solar energy in Washington State.
Contact Washington State University, Mike Nelson, 360-956-2148.

For current information on the state of PV technology in Washington, see the online Washington State University Cooperative Extension fact sheet on PV at
www.energy.wsu.edu/renewables/pv/SolarPV/.

Solar Shingles Can Turn Your Rooftop into a Miniature Power Plant, by April Reese, E
Green Living, available online at
www.environmentaldefense.org/pubs/emagazine/2000/solar.html.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC, 202-586-5000 or www.eren.doe.gov.

Web site of the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV), www.nrel.gov/ncpv. Provides
clearinghouse information on all aspects of PV systems.

See the REDI Guide and GreenSpec (See General Resources above) for PV systems product information
BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-71

3-80

Install Photovoltaic System, Minimum 1kW


See Resources for this section and above.

3-81

Install Innovative Non-Solar Renewable Power Systems That Produce a Minimum of 15%, 30%,
or 50% of the Common Areas Total Annual Energy

American Wind Energy Association provides many resources and tutorials about wind energy, including the tutorial, Small Wind Energy Systems at
www.awea.org/faq/wwt_smallwind.html.

EXTRA CREDIT / INNOVATION for ENERGY EFFICIENCY


3-82

Extra Credit / Innovation for Energy Efficiency


See Resources for this Section.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-72

Chart 3-1. BUILTGREEN Component Performance Method


For buildings that qualify for the Washington State Energy Code using the component trade-off method.
Improvement represents a reduction in heat loss compared to the code reference house. (Total UA of the
proposed building / UA of the WSEC code reference building. Based on minimum performance to qualify the building, using the WSU Component Performance Worksheet or equivalent.)

Heat Loss Reduction

Points

10% improvement

10

20% improvement

20

50% improvement

30

75% improvement

40

_______________________________ Total heat loss reduction.

To document what you have done for the client, please record U values below.
Building Component

Upgrade

Window

Upgrade U-Value to _________________________

Skylight / Vault

Upgrade U-Value to _________________________

Floor Over Crawl

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Wall

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Attic

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Vault

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Slab on Grade

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Below Grade Slab

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Below Grade Wall

Upgrade R-Value to _________________________

Other

Upgrade U- or R-Value to _____________________

Improve heating (AFUE


or HSPF)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


REVISED TO REFLECT ENERGY CODE CHANGES (7/02)
Prepared by WSU Energy Extension 1/03
Part II-73

Chart 3-2. BUILT GREEN Prescriptive Scoring Method; Upgrades for All Fuel Types.(See Note 1)
Envelope Component

Envelope Improvement

Vertical Multifamily Code baseline (Note 6): U = 0.40 (based on total glazing area = 15% of
heated floor area)

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss Reduc- Point Assignment


tion
(Note 4)
(Note 3)

0.40

0%

U = 0.37, 15% glazing area, Low-e

0.37

3%

U = 0.35, 15% glazing area, Low-e

0.35

6%

U = 0.32 , 15% glazing area, Low e argon

0.32

9%

U = 0.28 15% glazing area, Low e argon, insulated spacers

0.28

14%

14

U = 0.24 Tri pane Low e argon

0.24

18%

18

U = 0.17 Tri pane or quad pane range of best values available

0.17

23%

23

Code baseline: Area weighted U value = 0.48

0.480

0%

U = 0.37 (best values range)

0.37

1%

1%

0%

2%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-30 Standard

0.029

0%

R-38 2X12 I-Joist

0.025

4%

Score
(Note 5)

(reduce points by 1 for each percent glass area over 18%)


Skylight

No skylights (tubular skylights OK)


Doors

Code baseline door R-5 with 28SF exempt


R-5 insulated doors all opaque doors

Floor

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


Prepared by WSU Energy Extension 1/03
REVISED TO REFLECT ENERGY CODE CHANGES (@2008)
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-75

Envelope Component

Above Grade Wall

Attic

Vault

Envelope Improvement

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss Reduc- Point Assignment


tion
(Note 4)
(Note 3)

Code Baseline R-21 Standard 2X6 Framing

0.057

0%

R-21 Intermediate 2X6 Framing

0.054

2%

R-21 Advanced 2X6 Framing

0.051

4%

R-21 Standard 2X6 Framing + R-5 Foam Sheathing

0.043

9%

R-21 Advanced 2X6 Framing + R-5 Foam Sheathing

0.040

11%

11

6 Foam Panel

0.048

6%

8 Foam Panel

0.037

13%

13

R27 2x6 Advanced framing w/ horiz. furring w/ net/blow insul.

0.038

11%

11

R30 2x8 plate w/Staggered 2x4 12oc w/ net&blow insulation

0.034

14%

14

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-38 Standard Framing (FG batts)

0.031

0%

R-38 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.026

2%

R50 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.020

5%

R60 flat attic Truss w/ blown in insulation (add 1 point for raised heel)

0.016

6%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-30 Standard 2X12 Framing

0.034

0%

R-30 High Density Batts, I Joist or truss framing

0.032

1%

R-38 High Density Batts, 2X12 Framing

0.027

2%

R38 scissor truss blown or R38 framing +R3 rigid foam

0.024

3%

8 Foam Panel
10 Foam Panel

0.034
0.026

0%
3%

0
3

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency


Prepared by WSU Energy Extension 1/03
REVISED TO REFLECT ENERGY CODE CHANGES (@2008)
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Score
(Note 5)

Part II-76

Envelope Component

Slab on grade

Below Grade Wall

Below Grade Slab

Envelope Improvement

U-value
(Note 2)

Heat Loss Reduc- Point Assignment


tion
(Note 4)
(Note 3)

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-10 Foam 2

0.540

0%

R-15 Foam 2

0.520

1%

R-10 Foam 4

0.480

2%

R-10 Full Slab, Not Heated

0.360

3%

Code Baseline (Note 6): R-19 Interior Insulation

0.037

0%

R-21 Interior Insulation

0.034

1%

Foam Block

0.032

1%

Code Baseline (Note 6): No Thermal Break

0.540

0%

R-5 Thermal Break

0.500

1%

Score
(Note 5)

TOTAL SCORE
Chart 3-2 Notes:
1. The prescriptive path is the simplest, but also the least flexible, method for estimating heat loss reduction. It does not provide credit for reductions in glazing areas. You may (or may not) have a higher score if you use the component performance method (Chart 3-1).
2. U-Value: Calculated U-value for the described building component. If you select a component that is not described in the text, use the Reference
U-value of the product to score it.
3. Heat Loss Reduction: Estimated reduction in total UA of the structure. Based on two prototypical structures. Note: This is NOT equivalent to energy savings.
4. Assigned Point Value: based on 1 point for each percentage point in heat loss reduction.
5. Score: Record your score based on assigned point values for the measures you implement. For example, if you use windows with U equal to 0.37, the
estimated heat loss reduction is 3%, so your score for these items is 3 points. If you use more than one component type per category (wall, attic, etc.),
average the scores for the two or more components. Your total score is the sum of all scores for individual items.
6. Code Baseline: WSEC target Path (see WSEC, Table 5-1.) Minimum requirements must be met for all components.
Identifies those products that provide wood savings as well as energy savings.
BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Three Resources: Energy Efficiency
Prepared by WSU Energy Extension 1/03
REVISED TO REFLECT ENERGY CODE CHANGES (@2008)
May 2001/Revised June 2008

Part II-77

Section Four
Resources:
Health and Indoor
Air Quality
Overall
Jobsite Operations
Layout and Material Selection
Moisture Control
Overall

Below Grade

Roof

Openings

Walls Above Grade

Air Distribution and Filtration


HVAC Equipment
Health and Indoor Air Quality
Extra Credit / Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality

Section Four Resources:


Health and Indoor Air Quality
General Resources

For Washington State Mechanical Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code resources, see Section
One Resources: Build to Green Codes and Regulations.

Northwest EcoBuilding Guild, guide for identifying specialists in healthy design and construction, see
listings in Green Pages for Architects, Builders and General Contractors, Building Design, Building
Materials and Supplies, Healthcare and Enviro-Illness, and Indoor Air Quality, 206-575-2222.
www.ecobuilding.org/green_pages.

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, 3rd edition. Available through WSU Cooperative Extension, Educational Materials. Cost is $10.00. To order, call 800-723-1763. This guide will
be available as a free PDF download at www.energy.wsu.edu/buildings.

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. The EIC is your library for information on energy efficient construction. EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions about energy efficiency, moisture
control, ventilation, and green building. 800-872-3568 or e-mail EnergyLine@energy.wsu.edu. Or
you can browse for resources yourself online at www.energyideas.org. The EIC is funded by the
Northwest Energy Alliance, Olympia, WA, www.nwalliance.org.

Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers, an EPA publication on
pollutant sources in buildings and methods to prevent and resolve IAQ problems. Available online at
http://www.epa.gov/iaq/base/baqtoc.html.

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

Building Science Corporation web site, www.buildingscience.com. Offers useful information regarding frequently found problems in buildings and how to avoid them. Moisture control is emphasized.
Also available from this site is Joe Lstibureks Builders Guide, published by Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA, 978-589-5100.

Environmental Building News, Brattleboro, VT, 802-257-7300, www.buildinggreen.com.

Building Concerns Newsletter, by Building Concerns, Mill Valley, CA, 415-389-8049,


www.interiorconcerns.com.

Product Information

GreenSpecThe Environmental Building News Product Directory and Guideline Specifications, E


Build, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, 1999. GreenSpec is organized in standard CSI Divisions. Environmental
Building News also offers product reviews, information, and also posts some journal articles at
www.buildinggreen.com/products/productslist.html.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-81

REDI Guide (Resources for Environmental Design Index), web database, diskette, or printed handbook; a good resource for energy-efficient products. Available from Iris Communications, Eugene,
OR, 800-346-0104, or online at data.oikos.com/products.

Technical Books and Guides

Builders Guide, by Joe Lstiburek. Published for four climate versions (For Pacific Northwest, appropriate climate type is Mixed-Humid.) The guide includes illustrations and resources for such subjects as home layout and design, foundations, framing, HVAC, insulation, drywall, plumbing, electrical systems, painting, sheathings, and windows all with respect to moisture control, energy efficiency,
and proper ventilation. Published by and available from Building Science Corporation. 70 Main
Street, Westford, MA. 978-589-5100, or www.buildingscience.com/books.html. Cost is $40.00 plus
S&H. Also available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore: phone 800-859-3669 or
online at www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Healthy by Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes, by David Rousseau and James Wasley, Hartley & Marks Publishers, Point Roberts, WA. Available from IRIS
Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-104, shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Healthy House Building for the New Millineum, John Bower, The Healthy House Institute, Bloomington, IN, 812-332-5073, www.hhinst.com. Good information on optimizing air distribution and ventilation.

Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings, by Joseph Lstiburek and John Carmody, published by John Wiley & Sons. Deals almost exclusively with moisture and water management. Some of the areas covered, including illustrations, are
moisture movement, wall assemblies in various climates, moisture control practices in various climates, case studies/moisture problems that create mold, odor, roof decay, and condensation, peeling
paint on wood trim, and hardboard panel problems. Available from Building Science Corporation,
Westford, MA, 978-589-5100 or shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders, and Homeowners,
Paul Baker, AIA, Eric Elliott, MD, and John Banta, InWord Press, Santa Fe, NM. Identifies the full
range of potential indoor health problems and then offers solutions. Organized by CSI Divisions and
includes specification language for construction documents. Available from Iris Communications in
Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104 or www.oikos.com/catalog.

Sustainable Building Technical Manual: Green Building Design, Construction, and Operations, produced by Public Technology, Inc., U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and U.S. Department of
Energy, with support from EPA, 1996. Useful for multi-family projects. Available from USGBC,
San Francisco, CA. 415-445-9500 or download online at http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/pdf/sbt.pdf.

OVERALL
4-1

Builder or Architect Certified to Have Taken American Lung Association (ALA) of Washington
Healthy House Professional Training Course, or Equivalent Approved by Director
This seven-week course provides an in-depth focus on indoor air quality issues in residential construction. Topics covered include indoor air quality and health, design and energy issues, material
selection, dust and moisture control, ventilation and filtration methods, and pesticide and chemi-

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-82

cal usage. Open to the public but targeting building professionals such as architects, builders, industrial hygienists, engineers, interior designers, and others.
Trainings are made possible by support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Building
Technology, State and Community Programs and Dr. Subrato Chandra, Florida Solar Energy
Center. For information on Healthy House Training classes, contact the American Lung Association of Washington.
American Lung Association of Washington
2625 3rd Ave, Seattle WA 98121
206-441-5100, 800-732-9339
www.alaw.org

4-2

Certify Building Under an IAQ Program Approved by Director


At the time of publication, no program exists, consult with the Built Green Program Director.

4-3

Building is Designated Non-Smoking


No specific resources listed.

4-4

Provide Tenants or Homeowners With Maintenance Checklists


At a minimum, include maintenance information for all installed systems. Additionally, include:

Information about proper operation and maintenance of the ventilation system, if applicable

Information about any air filter systems installed (including filter size, type, quality, and the
ideal replacement schedule) or showerhead or other water fixture filters.

Information about non-toxic and low-toxic mold and moss removal

Information about environmentally friendly landscaping features

Information about pervious surfacing products for outdoor projects/surfaces (to avoid increasing stormwater runoff)

Information about irrigation equipment

Information about operating and maintaining water-using fixtures and appliances to avoid
long-term leaks and optimize use.

Ideas to consider:

Hazard or toxic spill clean-up info

Proper Chemical/toxic material storage

List of safer products alternative

List of highly effective vacuums, if carpets are included in the house (see credit for no carpet)

Schedule or reminder to clean air supply vents

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-83

Duct cleaning Schedule or reminder, if ducts are part of HVAC

JOBSITE OPERATIONS
4-5

Use Less-Toxic Cleaners

Citra-Solv from Shadow Lake Inc., Ridgefield, CT, 800-343-6588 is sold in concentrated
form in many local grocery or department stores (such as Fred Meyer) and hardware stores.
Lists of vendors are available on the web site www.citra-solv.com. Do not use on vinyl as the
product will dissolve it.

Red Devil TSP/90 Heavy Duty Cleaner from Red Devil, Inc., Union, NJ, 800-4-A-Devil. Red
Devil also has a phosphate-free product, which is sold in most paint and hardware sores,
www.reddevil.com.

Also see GreenSpec, listed under Resources, Product Information above.

4-6

Require Workers to Use VOC-Safe Masks when Applying VOC Containing Wet Products and N-95
Dust Masks when Generating Dust
Dust and paint masks for limited exposure are manufactured by 3M. These gray carbon- impregnated masks cost around $4 to $5 each. For more information see:

4-7

Suit Up, OSHA-Style, Journal of Light Construction, July 1995, 800-859-3669 or


www.jlconline.com.

Protecting Your Lungs on the Job, Fine Home Building, April/May 1994, 800-888-8286,
www.taunton.com/fh. Or call the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) at 800-356-4674, www.cdc.gov/niosh.

General Occupational Health Standards, WAC Chapter 296-62, Part C: Hazard Communication, www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/regs/wasindex.htm. (Requirements for notifying workers of
jobsite hazards.)

Take Measures During Construction Operations to Avoid Moisture Problems Later (Basic or
Expanded Levels)

Builders Guide (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above).

Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial
Buildings by Joseph Lstiburek and John Carmody. (listed in Resources, Technical Books and
Guides, above.)

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. The EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

The Building Science Corporation web site www.buildingscience.com. This web site offers
useful information, emphasizing moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-84

4-8

4-9

Take Measures to Avoid Problems Due to Construction Dust by Performing All Items Listed

ZipWall is a temporary dust barrier that is both easy to install and does not damage ceiling,
wall, or floor finishes. Telescopic poles friction-seal plastic, canvas, or dropcloth material
against ceiling and floor. Zipwall, Stamford, CT, 800-718-2255 or www.zipwall.com.

FEIN Power Tools Inc. claims its FEIN Sander with Fein Turbo II Vacuum eliminates 98%
of the dust created by sanding. 800-441-9878.

Mechanical contractors provide services or check your yellow pages for duct-cleaning services.

Ventilate During All New Wet Finish Applications


No specific resources listed.

4-10

No Use of Unvented Heaters During Construction


No specific resources listed.

4-11

Clean Duct and Furnace Thoroughly Before Occupancy


Mechanical contractors provide services or check your yellow pages for duct-cleaning services.

4-12

Train Subs in Implementing a Healthy Building Jobsite Plan for the Project

4-13

Fact Sheet, Jobsite Planning for IAQ, Construction Waste Management, and Site and Water
Protection, by OBrien & Company, Inc., PO Box 10705, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110,
206-842-8995 or info@obriendandco.com ($7.50).

Cover All Duct Openings During Construction


No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-85

LAYOUT AND MATERIAL SELECTION


4-14

Inside the Building Envelope, Use Only Low-VOC, Low-Toxic, Water-Based, Solvent-Free Sealers,
Grouts, Mortars, Drywall Mud, Caulks, and Adhesives for:
Options include:

4-15

Auro Cold Casein Wood Glue, Sinan Company, Davis, CA, 530-753-3104, or
www.dcn.davis.ca.us/go/sinan/productguide.html. Also make a line of natural, all-purpose
floor adhesives.

Envirotec, a line of low-toxic flooring and multi-purpose adhesives, W.F. Taylor, Fontana,
California, 800-397-4583, www.wftaylor.com.

D-50 Plus Mortar and D-40 Latex Fortified Mortar, low-toxic mortars from DAP, Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1-888-DAP-TIPS.

Latapoxy SP-100 low toxic grout, epoxy grouts, and thin-set mortars, Laticrete International,
Bethany, CT, 800-243-4788, www.laticrete.com.

PL Premium Wood Glue and other low-toxic adhesives, ChemRex (makers of Sonneborn
Products), Shakopee, MN, 800-433-9517, www.chemrex.com.

Safe-Set, a line of solvent-free, low odor, professional quality adhesives by CHAPCO (Chicago Adhesive Products Co.), 800-621-0220.

Safecoat Grout Sealer, 3-in-1 Adhesive, Tile Grout and Caulking Compound, AFM Enterprises, San Diego, CA, 619-239-0321, www.afmsafecoat.com. Available through Ecohaus,
formerly Environmental Home Center in Seattle, 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785,
www.enviroresource.com.

Titebond Solvent-Free Construction Adhesive, Franklin International, Columbus, OH,


800-669-4583, www.titebond.com.

Use an Alternative to Fiberglass Insulation


For more information about insulation products, see:

Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association, Dayton, OH, 888-881-2462 or


www.cellulose.org.

Insulation Materials: Environmental Comparisons, Environmental Building News, Jan/Feb


1995, 800-861-0954, www.buildinggreen.com.

See Action Items, Materials, Insulation 5-108 and 5-109, regarding recycled content and formaldehyde free foam insulation.

4-16

Use Urea Formaldehyde-Free Fiberglass Insulation or Greenguard Certified Product


See Greenguard online for updated list, http://www.greenguard.org/Default.aspx?tabid=16.
Some environmentally friendly alternatives include:

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-86

CertainTeed Corporation, Valley Forge, PA, 800-523-7844, or www.certainteed.com. Offers


full line of formaldehyde-free insulation products. Ask your local supplier.

Johns Manville, Inc., Product Information Center, Denver, CO, 800-654-3103 or


www.johnsmanville.com. Offers full line of formaldehyde-free insulation products. Ask your
local supplier. JM Spider new blown-in insulation,
http://www.specjm.com/products/blownin/spider.asp

Also, see resources for Action Item 5-78, Use Environmentally Friendly Foam Building Products
(formaldehyde-free, CFC-free, HCFC-free.

4-17

Do Not Install Insulation or Carpet Padding that Contains Bromated Flame Retardant
Ask your supplier for products without bromated flame retardants.

4-18

4-19

Use Plywood and Composites of Exterior Grade with No Added Urea Formaldehyde
(for Interior Use)

Medex and Medite II MDF, formaldehyde-free alternatives for underlayment, cabinet frames,
countertops, interior door and window casings, and trim. Medex is water-resistant, Medite
Corporation, Medford, OR, 541-826-2671. Available through local suppliers.

PacificBoard from Pacific Northwest Fiber, 208-686-6800, email info@pacificfiber.com,


www.pacificfiber.com.. A premium strawboard produced in Idaho from recycled agricultural
by-products from bluegrass seed production. According to the manufacturer, PacificBoard
can be substituted from all uses of particleboard and many applications of medium density fiberboard (MDF).

FIBEROCK Brand Gypsum Fiber Underlayment is a fiber-reinforced gypsum panel specially


designed for use in residential construction as an underlayment for vinyl, carpeting, hardwood flooring, and ceramic tile (dry areas only). Manufactured by U.S. Gypsum Co.,
800-874-4968, www.usg.com.

Use Only Shelving, Window Trim, Door Trim, Base Molding, etc., with No Added
Urea Formaldehyde

SkyBlend, SCS and EPP certified to be 100% pre-consumer recycled wood fiber particleboard with no Urea Formaldehyde added during the manufacturing process. For use in any
particleboard application such as, shelving, countertops, cabinets, millwork, furniture. Roseburg Forest Products, Dillard, OR, 800-245-1115,
www.rfpco.com/particleboard/skyblend.htm

Extira, a treated wood composite panel product for non structural applications, treated with
zinc borate and manufactured with phenolic resins so that it resists moisture, rot and termites
Has a uniform density and thickness, more consistent physical properties throughout the
board Essentially no formaldehyde emissions. CMI, Chicago, IL, 866-382-8701
www.craftmasterdoordesigns.com/

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-87

4-20

4-21

Install Cabinets Made with Board with No Added Urea Formaldehyde and Low-Toxic Finish

Neil Kelly Naturals Collection is a line of manufactured cabinets that uses certified woods
and veneers as well as environmentally friendly finishes and case materials. Neil Kelly Signature Cabinets, Portland, OR, 503-288-6345 or www.neilkelly.com. Available from the
Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in Seattle, 206-682-7332.

Also see other products available through Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in
Seattle: 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785, www.enviroresource.com.

Use Pre-Finished Flooring


Ask your supplier.

4-22

Use Ceramic Tile Flooring


Consult with local suppliers. See also resources for Action Item 5-69, If Using Tile...

4-23

Bonus Points: No Carpet in Units


See GreenSpec, listed under Resources, Product Information, above, for environmentally friendly
alternatives to carpet. Also see Section Five Resources, Action Item 5-57, Use Linoleum, Cork,
or Bamboo Flooring.

4-24

Limit Use of Carpet to One-Third of Units Square Footage


See GreenSpec (listed under Resources, Product Information, above) for environmentally friendly
alternatives to carpet.

4-25

If Installing Carpet System (Carpet, Pad, and Adhesive), Specify CRI Green Label Plus or
Greenguard
Most local suppliers will be familiar with the CRI IAQ label.

4-26

CRI Green Label Plus test protocol, CRI Indoor Air Quality Green Label Plus,
http://www.carpet-rug.org/commercial-customer, search for green building

Greenguard online listings, www.greenguard.org/Default.aspx?tabid=16

Reference state of California Section 01350 and the Pharos project.

If Using Carpet, Install by Dry Method

TacFast is a velcro-like system for installing carpets to the floor without adhesives or tack
strips. TacFast Systems, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada, 800-216-0662.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-88

If you use an adhesive, choose a low-odor, water-based product. Never use solvent-based carpet
adhesive. Options include:

4-27

Envirotec Healthguard adhesives by W.F. Taylor, Fontana, CA, 800-397-4583,


www.wftaylor.com.

Install Low Pile or Less Allergen-Attracting Carpet and Pad


Low-emission carpet/pad alternatives include:

Bellbridge natural fiber carpets and pads, made by Bellbridge in Concord, CA:
800-227-3408.

Bentley Mills low-VOC carpets, City of Industry, CA, 800-423-4709, www.bentleymills.com.

Collins & Aikman low-VOC carpets, Dalton, GA, 706-259-9711, www.powerbond.com. Or,
call Collins & Aikmans Bellevue office, 425-641-1958.

Harbinger carpet, Mohawk Industries, Dublin, GA, 800-241-4216,


www.mohawkindustries.com. Harbinger is actively involved in developing a conventional
synthetic carpet with reduced rates of chemical off-gassing.

Homasote 440 Carpet Board, contains no asbestos or formaldehyde, and is made from recycled paper. Homasote Company, West Trenton, NJ, 800-257-9491, www.homasote.com.

Natures Carpet, 100% natural wool carpet and pads manufactured without toxic chemicals,.
Colin Campbell and Sons, Vancouver, BC, 800-667-5001, www.colcam.com. Available
through Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in Seattle, 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, www.enviroresource.com.

Sustainable Lifestyles markets sisal floor coverings and sisal broadloom and area mats. Excelsior, MN, 800-287-3144.

See also resources for Action Items 5-66, Use Recycled Content Carpet Pad, and 5-67, Use Recycled Content or Renewed Carpet.

4-28

Install Natural Fiber Carpet

Earthweave Carpet Mills, Inc., Dalton, GA, 706-695-8800, www.earthweave.com.

Natrlich Natural Home, Sebastopol, CA, 707-824-0914, www.monitor.net/~nathome.

Also see other products available through Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in
Seattle: 206-682-7332.

Also see resources for Action Item 4-27, Install Low Pile or Less Allergen-Attracting Carpet and
Pad.

4-29

Avoid Carpet in Environments Where It Can Get Wet


No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-89

4-30

4-31

Optimize Air Quality in Family Bedrooms to Basic or Advanced Level

Healthy House Building: A Design and Construction Guide, by John Bower (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above).

Healthy by Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes, by David Rousseau and James Wasley (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above).

Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders, and Homeowners, by Paul Baker, AIA, Eric Elliott, MD, and John Banta (listed in Resources, Technical
Books and Guides, above).

Use Only Low-VOC / Low-Toxic Interior Paints, Primers, and Finishes for Large Surface Areas
Most suppliers have a good selection of low-VOC products. Some product alternatives to look at
include:

Best Paints, low-toxic latex paints from Best Paint Company, Seattle, WA, 206-783-9938.

Concure, a clear, environmentally safe concrete sealer, Edgemont, PA, 800-925-7746.

CURATOR Commercial Waterborne Finish. Preferred Products, Inc., Seattle, WA,


800-774-0034. It is an easy-to-use, two-component, 100% urethane waterborne finish designed especially for high wear residential and commercial applications.

Enviro-Cote by Kelly-Moore. Available from Kelly-Moore in Seattle, 206-763-0300,


www.kellymoore.com. The web site has a store locator.

Interior Health Spec, zero-VOC paint, Sherwin Williams Co., Cleveland, OH, 800-336-1110,
www.sherminwilliams.com.

Miller Low-Biocide Paint, with preservatives and fungicides removed. Miller Paints,
503-255-0190, www.millerpaint.com. Order from Ballard store on Leary Way in Seattle,
206-784-7878.

Pristine, from Benjamin Moore & Co., Montvale, NJ, 888-236-6667,


www.benjaminmoore.com.

Right-on Crystal Shield and Right-on Crystal Aire Clear Finish (environmentally safe,
fast drying, non-toxic, hypo-allergenic, water cleanup). Available from Ecohaus, formerly
Environmental Home Center in Seattle: 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785,
www.enviroresource.com.

Rodda Paints, LLC, Horizon Clean Air Select paints. Available from Rodda Paint and Decor
Centers, two locations in the area: 5055 4th Ave S, Seattle, 206-767-6043 and 3633 Stone
Way N, Seattle, 206-547-7405.

Safecoat line of sealants (including Penetrating Water Seal and Dynoseal) from AFM, San
Diego, CA, 619-239-0321. They also offer enamels, exterior stains, and interior transparent
finishes. Available at Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in Seattle,
206-682-7332, 800-281-9785, www.enviroresource.com.

Spread 2000 and Lifemaster 2000, zero-VOC paints, ICI Dulux Paints, (formerly Glidden),
800-984-5444, www.gliddenpaints.com. Available at ICI Paint stores, in over 70 colors.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-90

4-32

Tried & True, an old-fashioned, boiled linseed oil waterproof finish that is all natural and
food-safe, New York, 607-387-9280.

3-M Safe Strip is one of the least toxic strippers available. Call Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center in Seattle, 206-682-7332.

Use Only Low-VOC / Low-Toxic Interior Paints and Finishes for All Surface Areas (Including
Doors, Windows, Trim)
See above.

4-33

Select Materials Such That the Building is Free From the Following Materials/Chemicals:
Added Formaldehyde, Halogenated Flame Retardants, PVC, Mercury, CFCs, HCFCs, Neoprene
(Chloroprene), Cadmium, Chlorinated Polyethylene, Xylene, Toluene
You must acquire the MSDS for every product being considered, review ingredients to rule out
listed materials/chemicals, make a list of approved products, enforce through structured purchasing agreement.

MOISTURE CONTROL
The following provide resources for multiple aspects of moisture control in residential construction:

Builders Guide, by Joe Lstiburek (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above).

Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings by Joseph Lstiburek and John Carmody (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides,
above).

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. The EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions
moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

www.buildingscience.com -- This site offers useful information regarding moisture control is emphasized. (See General Resources, above.)

Overall
4-34

Use Building Envelope Consultant During Design

See Northwest EcoBuilding Guild under General Resources, above.

4-35

Grade to Drain Away from Buildings


See resources listed for Moisture Control above.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-91

4-36

Envelope Inspection at Various Stages of Envelope Installation by a Qualified Professional

BUILT GREEN Third-Party Verification program, www.builtgreen.net/verification.html

Roof
4-37

Provide 50% Minimum 2 inch 12 Pitch Sloped Roof Surface

4-38

Low Slope Metal Roofs Provide Years of Low Cost, Low Maintenance Performance,
http://www.themetalinitiative.com/content/building_with_metal/building_products/roofs/low_slope.
cfm.

Provide 100% Minimum 2 in 12 Pitch Sloped Roof Surface


See above.

Walls Above Grade


4-39

Provide Continuous Weather Resistive Barrier and Continuous Air Seal Barrier with
Manufacturers Recommended Termination (Seal or Tape)
See Building Science Corporation, under General Resources, or ask your supplier.

4-40

Use Self-Adhering Membrane Flashing and Counter-flashing at All Inside and Outside Corners,
and at Exterior Siding Materials
See Building Science Corporation, under General Resources, or ask your supplier.

4-41

Install an Enhanced Drainage Plane with an Air Space to Allow Ventilation Between the Weather
Barrier and Cladding and Include Weep Control System
See Building Science Corporation and Builders Guide, under General Resources (listed in Resources, Technical Books and Guides, above), Resources listed under Moisture Control, or ask
your supplier.

For a good description of Enhanced Drainage Plane with Air Space, see PATH, MoistureResistant Homes, http://www.pathnet.org/si.asp?id=2434.

Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial
Buildings by Joseph Lstiburek and John Carmody (listed in Resources, Technical Books and
Guides, above).

Moisture Control in Buildings, manual, Heinz R. Trechsel, editor. Philadelphia, PA. ASTM,
1994.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-92

4-42

Use Moisture Test to Ensure that Wood Framing Contains Less Than 15% Moisture Content Prior
to Installation of Any Interior Finish

Ask your wood supplier for meter.

4-43

In Wood-Framed Structures, Use Low-Toxic Mold-Inhibitor Product

Forsite is a permanent, mold-resistant, protective coating & sealer. ForSite is waterbased making it easy to apply to wood, concrete, tile, gypsum and other surfaces, available
locally at Ecohaus, 4121 1st Ave. S., 206-682-7332 or Dunn Lumber, 206-632-2129

Mold Solutions NW, full service provider, uses Microbe Guard, a permanent, surfacemodifying treatment that, once applied to a product, creates a new surface. This surface is
permanently resistant to microbial attack. http://www.moldsolutionsnw.com/

Below Grade
4-44

For Slab On Grade, Use 10 Mil Polyethylene Vapor Barrier or Equivalent Performance Under
Slab
See resources listed for Moisture Control above.

4-45

4-46

Perform Moisture Test for Any Slab On Grade Prior to Installing Any Finish to Manufacturers
Specifications

Available at Environmental Home Center in Seattle, 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785,


www.environmentalhomecenter.com.

www.vaportest.com.

Install Working Mechanical Vent System to Eliminate Potential Moisture, Methane, and Radon
Problems in Crawl Space or Under Slabs On Grade

4-47

Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon In New Residential Buildings, a EPA
publication available online at www.epa.gov/iedweb00/radon/pubs/newconst.html

Install a Rigid Perforated Footing Drain at Foundation Perimeter, Not Connected to Roof
Drain System

The Building Science Corporation website www.buildingscience.com. This website site offers useful information, emphasizing moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-93

4-48

Install Moisture Management System for Below Grade Walls Beyond Code, i.e., Drainage Mat

The Building Science Corporation website www.buildingscience.com. This website site offers useful information, emphasizing moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

Openings
4-49

Provide Appropriately Sized Overhangs at 25% of Openings

4-50

Provide Appropriately Sized Overhangs on 100% of South and/or West Side Openings

4-51

Sun Angle shareware program, www.susdesign.com/sunangle. Allows you to find solar angles at any time of day; a useful tool for locating and sizing overhangs.

Sun Angle shareware program, www.susdesign.com/sunangle. Allows you to find solar angles at any time of day; a useful tool for locating and sizing overhangs.

Properly Seal Building Openings and Penetrations Against Moisture and Air Leaks
See Builders Guide and Building Science.com, in General Resources, and Moisture Control listings.

4-52

4-53

Install Additional Moisture Control Measures:

The Building Science Corporation website www.buildingscience.com. This website site offers useful information, emphasizing moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

Pan Flashing/Sill Protection Installations Effective in Reducing Water Intrusion, April 2006,
NAHB Research Center, Inc,.400 Prince Georges Blvd., Upper Marlboro, MD, see Appendix E, Manufacturer/Product Survey Matrix, http://www.toolbase.org/Newsletters/News/tbnspring2006#2 or http://www.toolbase.org/PDF/CaseStudies/PanFlashingReport.pdf

Suresill Sloped Sill Pan, www.suresill.com/home.html

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Pan Flashing/Sill Protection and Water-Resistive Barriers, PATH NAHB Research Center, Inc. 14 April 2006.
http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/fieldevaluations/PanFlashingFinalReport.pdf.

Provide Hose Testing or Negative Pressurization Testing to Pre-Installed Sample of Each Window
Type to Test Assembly for Moisture Control Protection

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Pan Flashing/Sill Protection and Water-Resistive Barriers, PATH NAHB Research Center, Inc. 14 April 2006.
http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/fieldevaluations/PanFlashingFinalReport.pdf.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-94

AIR DISTRIBUTION AND FILTRATION

Understanding Ventilation: How to Design, Select, and Install Residential Ventilation Systems, by
John Bower. Available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore, 800-859-3669 or
www.constructionbookstore.com.

Healthy House Building: A Design and Construction Guide (listed in Resources, Technical Books
and Guides, above). Good information on optimizing air distribution and ventilation.

See your local building materials or heating supplier for improved filters. For quiet fan options, see resources listed under Action Item 4-48, Install and Test Bath, Laundry, Pool, Hot Tub, and Kitchen Exhaust Fans.

4-54

Provide Ideal Relative Humidity and Air Circulation to Prevent IAQ Problems
No specific resources listed.

4-55

Ensure Ceiling Plenums Contain No Hazardous/Unhealthy Materials


No specific resources listed.

4-56

No Stud or Joist Cavities Used as Plenums


No specific resources listed.

4-57

Do Not Install Electronic, Metal Mesh, Horse Hair, or Non-Pleated Fiberglass Filters
No specific resources listed.

4-58

Make Sure Air Intakes are Placed to Avoid Intake from Air Pollutant Sources that Go Beyond Code
No specific resources listed.

4-59

No Parking Within 40 Feet of Building Air Intakes


No specific resources listed.

4-60

Use Effective Air Filter:


Ask your local building materials or heating supplier for improved filters.

Airex Limited, Brampton, ON, Canada, 905-790-8667.

CWR Environmental Products, Inc., Glen Cove, NY, 800-444-3563.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-95

4-61

Eco-Air Products, Inc., San Diego, CA, 800-284-8111.

Farr Company, Los Angeles, CA, 800-333-7320, www.farrco.com.

General Filters, Inc., Novi, MI, 248-476-5100, www.generalfilters.com.

Healthy Home Center, Clearwater, FL, 727-447-4454, www.healthhome.com.

Honeywell, Inc., Golden Valley, MN, 800-328-5111 or 800-345-6770, www.honeywell.com.

Purolator Products Air Filtration Company, Henderson, NC, 252-492-1141.

Research Products Corporation, Madison, WI, 800-334-6011, www.resprod.com.

Shelter Supply, Lakeville, MN, 800-762-8399, www.shelter-mn.com.

Smith Filter Corporation, Moline, IL, 309-764-8324, www.smithfilter.com.

Trion, Inc., Sanford, NC, 919-775-2201, www.trioninc.com.

Install Operable Windows in All Occupied Spaces to Allow for Cross Ventilation and Daylighting
No specific resources listed.

4-62

Install CO Detector (Hardwired) for All Units with a Combustion Device


Carbon monoxide detectors are available at hardware stores and home supply centers.

4-63

Separately Ventilate All Janitorial Spaces, Copy Rooms, and Chemical Storage Areas
No specific resources listed.

4-64

Install CO2 Detectors in Community Rooms


There are numerous manufacturers of CO2 sensors. However, equipment selection must be carefully integrated into the ventilation system design. For this reason, the CO2 sensors feasibility of
use and equipment selection should be left to the ventilation system design engineer.

HVAC EQUIPMENT
For information about air exchangers or other ventilation systems:

The Building Science Corporation website www.buildingscience.com. This website site offers useful
information, emphasizing moisture control. (See General Resources, above.)

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse. EIC will provide customized responses to specific questions about
ventilation, 800-872-3568 or e-mail EnergyLine@energy.wsu.edu. Or you can browse for resources
yourself online at www.energyideas.org (listed under General Resources, above).

Healthy House Building: A Design and Construction Guide (listed in Resources, Technical Books
and Guides, above).

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-96

Understanding Ventilation: How to Design, Select, and Install Residential Ventilation Systems, by
John Bower. Available from the Journal of Light Construction Bookstore, 800-859-3669 or
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

4-65

Design to Ensure Accessibility of All System Components


No specific resources listed.

4-66

Design to Prevent Standing Water in HVAC System


No specific resources listed.

4-67

Flow Test All Spot Ventilation Fans in Units


For information on required performance criteria, see:

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, Chapter 8 (listed in General Resources,
above).

See resources for Action Item 3-24, Performance Test Duct for Air Leakage Meets
Third-Party Review and Certification.

Spot fans are available from electrical and building material suppliers. Look for quiet fans. They
are more likely to be used.

American Aldes makes the quiet, efficient CMV (ceiling mounted ventilator) and SV-160 for
large bathrooms. American Aldes Ventilation Corp., Sarasota, FL, 800-255-7749 or
www.americanaldes.com.

Broan makes a variety of quiet bath, kitchen, and utility room fans. Look for their Solitaire
Ultra Silent Series and Lo-Sone Ventilators. Broan Mfg. Co., Hartford, WI, 800-548-0790 or
www.broan.com.

NuTone, Cincinnati, OH, 800-543-8687, www.nutone.com.

Panasonic makes some very quiet fans, Sacaucus, NJ, 201-348-7000,


www.panasonic.com/commercial_building/home_building.

Also see GreenSpec, listed under Resources, Product Information, above.

4-68

Use Heating System Controls that are Free of Mercury


No specifics resources listed, ask your suppliers.

4-69

Limit Kitchen Exhaust Fan to 300 CFM Maximum


No specifics resources listed, ask your suppliers.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-97

4-70

Install a 60-Minute Timer or Humidistat for Bath Exhaust Fans


No specific resources listed.

4-71

Install Quiet (0.8 sone) Bath Fan with Smooth Ducting, Minimum 4 Inch
No specific resources listed.

4-72

Reduced or Zero Use of Ozone-Depleting Compounds in Refrigeration and Fire Suppression


Systems
Work with your equipment supplier(s) to provide alternative refrigerants. Make sure any alternate is on the EPA list of acceptable substitutes:

EPA lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes are updated several times each year.
Available for download at www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/lists/index.html or call 800-2961996 to ask for free copies. See also:

4-73

Ten Questions to Ask Before You Purchase An Alternative Refrigerant,


http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/buying.html

For more information on ozone depletion and its effects, visit EPA's Ozone Depletion web
site at www.epa.gov/ozone/science or call EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Hotline at 1-800-2961996.

See also the EPA Global Warming Site at http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/index.html.


Provides information on the broad issue of climate change and global warming.

No Sound Insulation or Other Fibrous Materials Installed Inside Ducting


No specific resources listed.

4-74

Install Sealed Combustion Heating and Hot Water Equipment


For more information contact the Washington State University Cooperative Extension Energy
Program, 360-956-2000, www.energy.wsu.edu/buildings. Ask your mechanical contractor about
sealed combustion furnaces and water heaters.
Sealed combustion hot water heaters:

Familian Northwest, Portland, OR, 503-283-4444, www.familiannw.com. Carries sealed


combustion hot water heaters.

A.O. Smith, Irving, TX, 972-719-5900, www.aosmith.com.

Controlled Energy Corporation, Waitsfield, VT, 800-642-3199, www.controlledenergy.com.

State Industries, Inc., Ashland City, TN, 800-365-0024.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-98

Sealed combustion gas furnaces:

Amana Refrigeration, Inc., Fayetteville, TN, 800-843-0304, www.amana.com.

Controlled Energy Corporation, Waitsfield, VT, 800-642-3199, www.controlledenergy.com.

Dornback Furnace Division, Garfield Heights, OH, 216-662-1600.

Lennox Industries, Dallas, TX, 800-9-LENNOX, www.davelennox.com.

NORDYNE, OFallon, MO, 636-561-7300, www.nordyne.com.

Rheem Manufacturing, Fort Smith, AR, 501-646-4311, www.rheem.com.

The Trane Company, Tyler, TX, 903-581-3200, www.trane.com.

Also see GreenSpec, listed under Resources, Product Information, above.

HEALTH AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY


4-75

Build a Lockable Storage Closet for Hazardous Cleaning and Maintenance Products, Separate
from Occupied Space
No specific resources listed.

4-76

Install Biodegradable Carbon Filter at Sink


Talk to your plumbing contractor or local suppliers for product recommendations.

4-77

Install Showerhead Filter in All Units, Include Information in the Tenant Handbook
Talk to your plumbing contractor or local suppliers for product recommendations.

4-78

Provide Permanently Installed Track-Off Mats and/or Shoe Grates at Common Entryways to
Building
Talk to your local suppliers for product recommendations.
Look for mats with recycled content:

Pacific Mat Company, 1-800-345-MATS (6287) or online at www.pacmat.com/recycle/.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-99

4-79

Provide Track-Off Mats at Exterior Unit Main Entrances to Each Unit and a Shoe Storage Area
Talk to your local suppliers for product recommendations.
Look for mats with recycled content:

4-80

Pacific Mat Company, 1-800-345-MATS (6287) or online at www.pacmat.com/recycle/.

Design a Shoe Removal Vestibule at Major Entrances to Units


No specific resources listed.

4-81

Do Not Install a Wood-Burning Fireplace Inside Unit or Building

4-82

What You Should Know About Combustion Appliances and Indoor Air Pollution What
are the health effects of combustion pollutants? Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor
Air Quality, publications, http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/combust.html.

Do Not Install Gas-Burning Appliances Inside Unit or Building


See above.

4-83

Install Floor Drain or Catch Basin with Drain Under Washing Machine
No specific resources.

Extra Credit /Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality


4-84

Extra Credit / Innovation for Health and Indoor Air Quality


See Resources for this section.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY Handbook Section Four Resources: Health and Indoor Air Quality
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-100

Section Five
Resources:
Materials Efficiency
Overall
Jobsite Operations
Reduce
Reuse

Recycle
Source Separation Recycling
Comingle Recycling

Design and Material Selection


Overall

Exterior Walls

Framing

Windows

Foundation

Trim

Sub-Floor

Cabinetry

Doors

Roof

Finish Floor

Insulation

Interior Walls

Other Exterior

Ceilings

Extra Credit / Innovation for Materials Efficiency

Section Five
Resources:
Materials Efficiency
General Resources

Seattle/King County Construction Recycling Directory lists area recyclers in King and Snohomish
Counties, reusable building materials, salvage services and materials exchanges, recycling, hauling
and disposal facilities, and more. Available on-line at
http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/greenbuilding/documents/CDLguide.pdf. Also available at the
BUILT GREEN Resource Library.

Seattle/King County Contractors Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling. This document is available at the BUILT GREEN Resource Library or online at
http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/construction-recycling/documents/ConGuide.pdf

Snohomish County Recycling Guide for Construction, Demolition and Landclearing Debris.
425-388-3425. Lists a directory of recyclers, salvage services and materials exchanges, and more. Also available at the BUILTGREEN Resource Library.

Resource Conservation Research House Information Guide (also Resource Conservation House Plans
and Resource Conservation House Video), NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD.
800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

Product Information

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle, carries a wide range of
environmentally friendly, resource-efficient building products. 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785, or
www.ecohaus.com.

GreenSpec The Environmental Building News Product Directory and Guidelines Specifications, E
Build, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, 1999. 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com. GreenSpec is organized in standard CSI divisions. Environmental Building News (EBN) also offers product reviews, information, and also lists some articles at the following website:
www.buildinggreen.com/products/productslist.html.

Guide to Resource-Efficient Building Elements, Center for Resourceful Building Technology, Missoula MT. 406-549-7678 or crbt@montana.com.

Green Building Resource Guide, The Architectural Machine, Redwood City, CA.
www.greenguide.com. Lists over 600 green building materials and products, available as CD-ROM
database or reference manual.

Innovative Housing Products Newsletter, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD.
800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-103

Oikos, Iris Communications, Eugene, OR. 800-346-0104 or www.oikos.com/catalog. Publications,


videos and software for green construction

REDI Guide (Resources for Environmental Design Index). Iris Communications, Eugene, OR.
800-346-0104. Also available free on the Oikos website: www.oikos.com. A database listing over
1,800 companies and 5,500 products as of 1998. Available in print or electronic form.

Technical Assistance Programs, Information and Services

In King County, call the Green Tools hotline at 206-296-4466 or go to their website:
http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/greenbuilding/ .

In Snohomish County, call the Department of Public Works, Solid Waste Division at 425-388-3425 .

Energy Ideas Clearinghouse, Washington State University Cooperative Extension Energy Program.
800-872-3568, www.energyideas.org, or e-mail at EnergyLine@energy.wsu.edu. Offers customized
responses on green building in addition to energy efficiency, ventilation, and moisture control.

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

Green Pages, an annual publication of the Northwest EcoBuilding Guild, Seattle, WA. E-mail at
greenpages@ecobuilding.org. Lists sustainable designers, contractors, suppliers, and professional
services. Also available online at www.ecobuilding.org/green-pages.

OVERALL
5-1

Practice Waste Prevention and Recycling and Buy Recycled Products


See General Resources and resources for particular items in this section.

5-2

Design and Build for Deconstruction Concept 50%, 75%, or 90%

Design for Disassembly Guide, King County Solid Waste Division, an introduction to the
principles, methods, and materials of Design for Disassembly in the built environment. It is
intended for owners, architects, designers and builders. Includes model specifications. Available on line at http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/construction-recycling/DfD.asp, or call
206-296-4466.

Design for Deconstruction, by Michael Pulaski, Christopher Hewitt, Michael Horman


Ph.D. and Bradley Guy, 2003 (original article created for 2003 Green Build conference).
www.aisc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Technical_Answers&template=/ContentManagement/
ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=26185

The Restore. 1440 N.W. 52nd Street Seattle, WA 98107. 206-297-9119. Deconstruction and
salvage services.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-104

5-3

Eliminate Materials and Systems That Require Finishes or Finish Materials on a Minimum of 100
Square Feet in Common Areas 1 point per 100 sf 5 points maximum
No specific resources listed.

JOBSITE OPERATIONS
5-4

Provide Weather Protection for Stored Materials


Refer to manufacturers recommendations.

5-5

Substitute Products that Require Solvent-Based Cleaning Methods with Solvent-Free or WaterBased Methods
Ask your supplier and choose finish products accordingly.

5-6

Purchase a One-Time Carbon Offset to Account for Construction Carbon Footprint

Sources for estimating your carbon footprint: www.terrapass.com, offers a carbon calculator
for your business;
www.carbonoffsetreview.com/index.php?file=productdetail&product_id=10032&cat_id=578
offers an option to review carbon offset options; others focus on household usage:
www.carbonfund.org, www.climatecrisis.net/takeaction/carboncalculator,
www.greentagsusa.org/GreenTags/calculator/,

Sources for buying carbon offsets: http://achievenetgreen.com, a Seattle based company sells
offsets, or www.terrapass.com, www.carbonfund.org. The Climate Trust,
http://www.climatetrust.org/programs.php offers a program for large businesses.

Reduce

Reducing Waste at the Source, EcoBuilding Times, Fall 1996, Volume 4, Number 1. 206-575-222
or e-mail at ecobuild@wolfenet.com.

Lumber and Plywood Saving Techniques for Residential Light Frame Construction, NAHB Research
Center, Upper Marlboro, MD. 800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

5-7

Create Detailed Take-Off and Provide as Cut List to Framer


No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-105

5-8

Use Central Cutting Area or Cut Packs


No specific resources listed.

5-9

Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in Waste Reduction Efforts


See Action Item 1-4, Prepare Jobsite Recycling Plan and Post On Site and 5-9, Require Subcontractors and Contractors Employees to Participate in Recycling Efforts.

Subcontractor Kit, Recycling Plus Program Manual, available at the BUILT GREEN Resource Library.

Seattle/King County Contractors Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling. (See General
Resources.)

WasteSpec: Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling.
Triangle J Council of Governments, Research Triangle Park, NC. 919-549-0551. A manual
and computer disk to use in tailoring to your own needs ($28.00).

Reuse

Seattle/King County Construction Recycling Directory lists reusable building materials, salvage services, and materials exchanges. (See General Resources.)

Snohomish County Recycling Guide for Construction, Demolition and Landclearing Debris, lists salvage services and materials exchanges. 425-388-3425.

The Sensible House Document, www.sensiblehouse.org.

5-10

Use Deconstruction to Dismantle and Reuse Existing Building(s) On Site


See also Action Item 5-13, Reuse Building Materials.

Deconstruction, Peaks to Prairies: Pollution Prevention Information Center.


http://peakstoprairies.org/p2bande/construction/c&dwaste/decontruction.cfm.

Construction and Demolition Debris, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/debris-new/pubs.htm. Deconstruction training manuals.

See Resources listed under Action Item 5-12, Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish
Items

Washington Organic Recycling Council. www.compostwashington.org/organics.asp. Resources for recycling landclearing debris.

Snohomish County Recycling Guide: For Construction, Demolition and Landclearing Debris.
www.co.snohomish.wa.us/documents/Departments/Public_Works/SolidWaste/information/br
ochures/CDLrecyclingguide10.03.pdf. Resource for recycling construction materials, demolition and landclearing debris.

Resource Recycling. www.resource-recycling.com. A national journal of recycling and composting professionals.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-106

5-11

5-12

Sell or Give Away Wood Scraps, Lumber, and Landclearing Debris

Washington Organic Recycling Council. www.compostwashington.org/organics.asp. Resources for recycling landclearing debris.

Snohomish County Recycling Guide: For Construction, Demolition and Landclearing Debris.
www.co.snohomish.wa.us/documents/Departments/Public_Works/SolidWaste/information/br
ochures/CDLrecyclingguide10.03.pdf. Resource for recycling construction materials, demolition and landclearing debris.

Resource Recycling. www.resource-recycling.com. A national journal of recycling and composting professionals.

Many contractors provide wood scraps free to the public at the jobsite.

Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish Items


In the Puget Sound region, there are several organizations specializing in reused building materials. Many are listed below. Also, look in the telephone book under Second Hand Stores.

Habitat for Humanity. See the website first, www.seattle-habitat.org for a list of acceptable
materials and referral list. Accepts salvaged building materials. They will either use the material in construction of a new home, or will refer donor to a local reuse facility to raise funds to
build new homes. Either way, if you donate reusable materials, they will provide a receipt for
tax credit. Call for an appointment.

RE Store, 1440 NW 52nd Street, Seattle, WA. 206-297-9119. Sells used building materials
and also accepts them for resale. In addition, the RE Store field crews can remove materials
from your site. Contact them prior to any demolition work.

Second Use Building Materials, 7953 2nd Avenue South, Seattle, WA. 206-763-6929 or
www.seconduse.com. Sells and accepts used building materials at the store location. They
will also pick up materials from your site. Contact them prior to any demolition work.

Earthwise, 707 South Lander Street, Seattle, WA. 206-624-4510. Residential salvage and
demolition contractor. Pick-up service for reusable building materials. Specialize in
pre-1940s reusable building supplies. Call first.

In Snohomish County Reusable Materials Exchange: 2good2toss webiste, online go to


http://www1.co.snohomish.wa.us/Departments/Public_Works/Divisions/SolidWaste/Recyclin
g/ for link. A convenient way to exchange small or large quantities of used or surplus building materials. You can post listings of items and materials you wish to get rid of or browse
for those currently available in your area. Listings are free.

In King County, contact the Green Tools program for an on-line materials exchange,
www.greentools.us or 206-296-4466

You may also want to sell salvaged goods directly to builders or the public by advertising in
professional newsletters or the local newspaper. Some builders have successfully posted signs
on site identifying items that are for sale.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-107

5-13

Reuse Materials:
See Action Item 5-12, Donate, Give Away or Sell Reusable Finish Items, for a list of vendors who
sell or accept used building materials.

5-14

Bonus Points for Reuse of Salvaged Materials


See Action Item 5-12, Donate, Give Away or Sell Reusable Finish Items, for a list of vendors who
sell or accept used building materials.

Recycle

King County/Seattle Construction Recycling Directory lists area recyclers in King and Snohomish
Counties. http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/greenbuilding/construction-recycling/index.asp, select
documents tab. A hotline is available for direct assistance, call 206-296-4434.

Seattle/King County Contractors Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling. (See above).

Snohomish County Recycling Guide for Construction, Demolition, and Landclearing Debris, lists a
directory of recyclers. (See General Resources.) Or call 425-388-3425.

Residential Construction Waste: A Builders Field Guide, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro,
MD. 800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

www.oikos.com/library/waste/index Useful information about types and quantities of construction


waste and disposal costs in the construction industry. Also available are helpful publications and brochures for builders developing jobsite waste management plans.

Source Separation Recycling


5-15

Recycle Cardboard by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


See resources listed under Recycle above.

5-16

Recycle Metal Scraps by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


See resources listed under Recycle above.

5-17

Recycle Clean Scrap Wood and Broken Pallets by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling
Rate
See resources listed under Recycle above.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-108

5-18

Recycle Package Wrap and Pallet Wrap by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate
See resources listed under Recycle above.

5-19

Recycle Drywall by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate

New West Gypsum, 1321 54th Ave. East, Fife (604-534-9925). Accepts gypsum drywall
scraps and drywall related waste (mud boxes, tape, cornerboard). NO drywall with lead-based
paints or asbestos laden material. Rents containers.

Resource Recovery Services, Inc., 8624 219th St., SE, Woodinville. 425-486-2761. Accepts
new construction drywall waste.

See also resources listed under Recycle above.

5-20

Recycle Concrete/Asphalt Rubble, Masonry Materials, or Porcelain by Source Separation, 90%


Minimum Recycling Rate
See resources listed under Recycle above.

5-21

Recycle Paint by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Options for recycling paint exist in both King County and Snohomish Counties. There may be a
fee based on the type of paint. Optimally, paint for recycling should be usable, clean of debris,
and stored above freezing.

In King or Snohomish Counties, Philip Services. 800-228-7872. In conjunction with the


Washington State Department of Ecology, sponsors a paint recycling program for Small
Quantity Generators (SQGs). They accept latex and oil-based paints (okay to have solvents
and thinners mixed in). Call the SQG Program to schedule an appointment. They offer three
different collection sites, Seattle (Georgetown), Kent, or Tacoma. Delivery to these sites varies so call for an appointment. Collected materials are either recycled or blended for fuel.
Cost for services.

In Snohomish County the Hazardous Waste Drop-Off Station, 3434 McDougall, Everett,
425-388-6050, collects hazardous waste from SQGs and offers a special program to reuse
good-quality latex paint. The County offers the reformulated paint free of charge to county
residents. They will also accept oil-based paint for use as cement kiln fuel. Call for an appointment. There may be a fee based on the composition of the materials. See Section Two:
Site and Water, Action Item 2-31, Reduce Hazardous Waste through Good Jobsite Housekeeping, for tips on reducing hazardous waste on the jobsite.

RE Store, 1440 NW 52nd Street, Seattle, WA. 206-297-9119. Accepts non-oil based reusable
paint.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-109

5-22

5-23

Recycle Asphalt Roofing by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate

American Roofing Recyclers, Inc., 1400 Bonneville Ave., Snohomish. 360-563-6114. Accepts composition and built-up roofing materials.

Woodworth and Company, 2800-104th St., S, Tacoma. 253-383-3585. In Seattle, call


206-941-3389, x135. Accepts asbestos-free asphalt roofing materials; composition roofing,
including nails and felt; built-up roofing including nails and perlite insulation; torchdown
roofing including nails and base sheet; and masonry tile roofing.

Recycle Carpet Padding by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Several companies in King County offer programs to recycle carpet and carpet padding.
The Seattle/King County Construction Recycling Directory has several listings for this waste category (see General Resources).

5-24

Recycle Carpet by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate


Several companies in King County offer programs to recycle carpet. Recycled carpet is remanufactured back into new feedstock and also used for parking stops.
The King County/Seattle Construction Recycling Directory has several listings for this waste category (see General Resources).

5-25

5-26

Recycle Glass by Source Separation, 90% Minimum Recycling Rate

To recycle your business-generated lamps in King County, please call the Business Waste
Line at 206-296-3976. In Snohomish County please call: 425-388-6050.

Eco Lights NW, 4400 Fourth Avenue South, Seattle. 206-343-1247. Accepts fluorescent
bulbs and PCB ballasts. Certificates of recycling are available, on-line at
http://www.ecolights.com/.

Residential glass collection alternatives, contact your local solid waste division.

Recycle Landclearing and Yard Waste, Soil, and Sod by Source Separation, 90% Minimum
Recycling Rate
See resources listed under Recycle above.

5-27

Recycle Batteries

King County Local Hazardous Waste Program, Hazardous Waste Directory on line at
http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/business/wastedirectory/wasteindex.cfm#B.

Snohomish County, accepts qualified businesses by appointment, call 425-388-6050.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-110

5-28

Comingle Recycle at Least 50% of Remaining Jobsite Debris and Take to a Facility with a
Minimum Recycling Rate of 50%
See Comingle Recycling, below.

Comingle Recycling
5-29

Send Less Than 1 lb Per Square Foot of Gross Construction Waste to Land Fill, or Less Than
lb Per Square Foot to Land Fill (Does Not Include Deconstruction)

5-30

5-31

Construction Waste Management Guide for Architects, Designers, Developers, Facility Managers, Owners, Property Managers & Specification Writers, Resource Venture, Third Edition,
September 2005, available on line www.resourceventure.org/free-resources/get-started/greenbuilding-publications/CWM%20Guide.pdf.

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 50% Recycling Rate

In King County, see http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/construction-recycling/rates.asp for


an updated table that lists comingle recycling facilities and their recycling rates or call King
County C&D Recycling Program at 206-296-4434. Use the Appropriate for Processing Recycling Rate column, column two. http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/constructionrecycling/comingled.asp.

In Snohomish County, for general information there is a Snohomish County Recycling Guide
for construction, demolition and landclearing debris available on-line at www.snoco.org, also
you can call 425-388-3425 for more information. Services available include:

Waste Management, 800 592-9995 or on-line at


http://www.wmnorthwest.com/ssnohomishcounty/comcdlservices.html.

Construction Waste Management Inc., 425-402-1972 or on-line at http://www.cwm1.com/.

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 75% Recycling Rate
See above.

5-32

Send At Least 85% of Jobsite Waste (By Weight, Excluding Concrete) to a Comingled Recycling
Facility with a 90% Recycling Rate
See above.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-111

DESIGN AND MATERIAL SELECTION

Material Selection: Tools, Resources, and Techniques for Choosing Green. Environmental Building
News, January 1997, Volume 6, Number 1, Brattleboro, VT. 802-257-7300 or
www.buildinggreen.com/products/productslist.html.

Design for Disassembly Guide, King County Solid Waste Division, an introduction to the principles,
methods, and materials of Design for Disassembly in the built environment. It is intended for owners,
architects, designers and builders. Includes model specifications. Available on line at
http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/swd/construction-recycling/DfD.asp, or call 206-296-4466.

Designing for Disassembly, Solplan Review, July 1999. North Vancouver, BC. 604-689-1841 or
e-mail at solplan@direct.ca.

Also see the General Recourses at the beginning of this section and refer to Action Item 1-13, Conform to the House Size Matrix.

For wood certification guidelines, see Part 1, Section Five, Design and Material Selection, Table 5.1
for the list of requirements.

Overall
5-33

Use Standard Dimensions in Design of Structure


No specific resources listed.

5-34

Design and Install Recycling Stations on Each Floor Including a Maintenance Service Plan

In-wall recycling system, LHRS (Leland Home Recycling Systems), 528 N. Bozeman, Bozeman, MT 59715. 406-587-0011.

Under-counter recycling system, Feeney (by Feeney Manufacturing Co.) or Rev-a-Shelf; both
are available from E.B. Bradley Co., 3314 S. 116th St, Seattle, WA 98168. 206-248-5250.

Some other currently available options include:

Blanco Box System, Blanco America, Inc., Cinnaminson, NJ, 800-451-5782, fax:
800-213-1963 or www.blanco-america.com. The Blanco Box System uses plastic boxes on
metal tracks below the kitchen sink to store and aid in sorting of household recyclables.

Recycling Receptacles, Doty and Sons Concrete Products, Inc., Sycamore, IL, 800-233-3907,
www.dotyconcrete.com, Doty and Sons Concrete Products uses recycled plastic lumber in its
precast concrete recycling and waste receptacles.

The Fibrex Group, Inc., Chesapeake, VA, 800-346-4458 or www.fibrexgroup.com, Supplies


recycling and trash receptacles in many style and sizes including used motor oil collection
containers and curbside recycling collection bins. Many of these products are made of recycled-content plastics.

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5-35

Install Materials with Longer Life Cycles


Warranties are some indication, though not a perfect indication, as to how long a product will
last, check with the manufacturer. Also try:

5-36

NAHB Research Centers Tool Base Hotline is available to answer builder questions,
800-898-2842, www.nahbcrc.org/ToolBase.

Install Locally/Regionally Produced Materials


See your local supplier and ask for information on the origin of the materials.

5-37

Install Locally/Regionally Produced Materials, Minimum 5 Materials Used in All Units


See your local supplier and ask for information on the origin of the materials.

5-38

Use Salvaged Lumber, Minimum 1,000 Board Feet


Check with the following places for current supply:

Cascadia Forest Goods. www.cascadiaforestgoods.com. Provide forest products that are certified by either SmartWood or FSC.

Crosscut Hardwoods. 4100 1st Ave. S, Seattle, WA 98134. 206-623-0334. Offers plantation
salvaged Durapalm (trees grown for coconuts and removed when no longer producing nuts).
Sold as a prefinished sheet good.

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com.

Endura Hardwoods, 1303 SE 6th Ave., Portland, OR. 503-233-7090 or


www.endurawood.com.

GreenSpec (See Resources, Product Information).

Healthy Forests Healthy Communities (HFHC). 620 SW Main, Suite 112, Portland. 503-2216911 ext. 112. http://www.hfhcp.org/products.php. Resource for urban and forest salvaged
materials.

Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX) website: www.metroke.gov/hazwaste/imex. Sponsored by Seattle/King County Public Health: 206-296-4899.

R.W. Rhine Inc., Tacoma, WA. 253-531-7223.

Re-Tech Laminated Wood Products, Forks, WA: 360-374-4141. They provide re-milled, salvaged hardwood flooring as well as laminated and solid beams.

Resource Woodworks, Tacoma, WA. 253-474-3757. Offers reclaimed Douglas fir, cedar,
and, when available, redwood custom-milled beams, flooring, paneling, and trim.

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5-39

Reusable Building Materials Exchange website: http://www.recycle.net/exch/aa023746.html,


(see the Participating Jurisdictions). Features item descriptions, contacts, and cost information.

Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials and Products Made From Plants
Harvested Within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter
{{Delete the below and make a general paragraph about how virtually every flooring supplier is
now carrying rapidly renewable alternatives. }}

5-40

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center. 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 800-281-9785.
www.ecohaus.com. Offers EcoTimber bamboo flooring, several varieties of cork, and several options for plant-based finishes.

Crosscut Hardwoods. 4100 1st Ave. S, Seattle, WA 98134. 206-623-0334. Offers Plyboo, a
bamboo-based plywood product.

Bamboo Hardwoods. 4616 Ohio Ave. S, Seattle, WA 98134. 206-264-2414.


www.bamboohardwoods.com. Offers many bamboo-based building materials.

In Three Applications, Use Rapidly Renewable Building Materials and Products Made From Plants
Harvested Within a Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter
See above for Resources.

5-41

5-42

Use No Endangered Wood Species

CITES, Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species, lists endangered wood


species, www.cites.org.

Woods of the World. Tree Talk Inc. 431 Pine St., VT. 802-863-6789.
http://www.cybozone.com/fg/woodcd.html. Software that provides an endangered species
wood list.

Forest Ethics. www.forestethics.org. One Haight Street, Suite B, San Francisco.


415-863-4563. Definitions of endangered, old growth, etc.

Use Environmentally Preferable Products with Third-Party Certifications (Not Applicable to


Carpet)

Forest Certification Test Project, USDA Forest Service.


www.fs.fed.us/news/2005/releases/08/factsheets.pdf. Discusses four major forest certification
programs.

Forest Stewardship Council. www.fsc-info.org. Manufacturer and product search engine for
chain of custody certificate holders.

Green Seal. 1001 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite 827, Washington, DC. 202-872-6400.
www.greenseal.org/. Discusses standards of Green Seal product certification.

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5-43

Scientific Certification Systems. 510-452-8007.


www.scscertified.com/forestry/forest_indie.html. Discusses SCS forest certification standards.

Greenguard Environmental Institute. 1341 Capital Circle, Suite A, Atlanta. 800-427-9681


www.greenguard.org/. Discusses Greenguards mission and certification programs.

McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry, Cradle to Cradle certification,


http://www.c2ccertified.com

Pharos Project, http://www.pharoslens.net

Use No PVC or CPVC Piping for Plumbing or Sprinkler Within the Building Envelope

Healthy Building Network list alternatives to PVC pipe, see 15100 & 15400 building services piping & plumbing (pipes), http://www.healthybuilding.net/pvc/alternatives.html.

National Geographic hosts the Green Guide website, Is My PVC Pipe Dangerous?, Samuel
Frank, lists sources for alternatives to PVC pipe, http://www.thegreenguide.com/doc/98/pipe

AQUAPEX polyethylene tubing, WIRSBO, Apple Valley, MN, 800-321-4739 or


www.wirsbo.com.

Framing
5-44

Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum

Collins Wood, Portland OR. 800-329-1219. Offers plywood, particleboard, and dimensional
lumber.

Edensaw Woods, 211 Seton Rd., Port Townsend, WA. 800-745-3336 or 360-385-7878. Website: www.edensaw.com. Offers selections of certified wood including ash, beech, birch,
cherry, Honduras mahogany, fir, maple, poplar, red oak, and white oak. Some certified veneers available.

Endura Hardwoods, 1303 SE 6th Ave., Portland, OR. 503-233-7090 or


www.endurawood.com. Offers certified hardwood and softwood lumber and a range of wood
products (including flooring and butcher block counter tops) in the following species: red alder, ash, birch, cherry, Douglas fir, maple, red oak, white oak, redwood, and mahogany. Also
antique and vintage (rediscovered) woods.

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. Offers framing lumber, flooring, custom order for trim,
panel goods, shingles, and raw lumber.

Dunn Lumber, multiple locations offer FSC-certified products, 206-632-2129,


www.dunnlum.com

Compton Lumber & Hardware, 3847 1st Avenue, Seattle, 206-623-5010,


http://www.comptonlbr.com/

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Forest Stewardship Council. www.fscus.org/news/archive.php?article=433&. Provides statistics about FSC certified land.

Forest Stewardship Council. www.fsccanada.org/chainofcustody2.htm. Explains chain of


custody related to forest certification standards.

Forest Stewardship Council. www.fsc-info.org. Manufacturer and product search engine for
chain of custody certificate holders.

For general information on certified lumber, contact:

5-45

Certified Forest Service Council, Jeff Wartelle, 503-590-6600. Industry group provides information on distribution and other assistance.

Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 2 Requirements, 50% Minimum
A few programs may meet this criterion soon; information is included for future reference:

5-46

Sustainable Forestry Initiative. 1655 North Fort Myer Drive, Suite 1300, Arlington, VA.
www.aboutsfi.org/sfilabel.asp. Describes SFIs standards as a comprehensive forestry management program.

Canadian Wood Council. 99 Bank Street, Suite 400, Ottawa, Ontario. 800-463-5091.
www.cwc.ca/. Comprehensive listing and description of North Americas forest certification
standards and programs.

The American Tree Farm System. 1111 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 780, Washington, D.C.
202-463-2462. www.treefarmsystem.org/. Describes the American Tree Farm Systems sustainable forest management standards and guidelines.

Use Sheathing that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-47

Use Sheathing that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-48

Use Beams that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

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5-49

Use Beams that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-50

5-51

Use Factory Framed Wall Panels (Panelized Wall Construction)

Armstrong Lumber Company, 2709 Auburn Way N, Auburn, WA. 253-833-6666,


www.armstrong-homes.com, manufactures wood framed wall panels.

Wall Panelization Grows Up, Ryan Reed, Builder News Magazine, June 2004,
http://www.buildernewsmag.com/viewnews.pl?id=13

Tool Base Services.


www.toolbase.org/Techinventory/TechDetails.aspx?ContentDetailID=977&BucketID=6&Ca
tegoryID=13. Provides technical information on structural insulated panels (SIPs).

Use Engineered Structural Products and Use No 2xs Larger than 2x8, and No 4xs Larger
than 4x8

GreenSpec, see Resources, Product Information.

Trus Joist MacMillan, Beaverton, OR. 800-391-2611. Distributes a variety of engineered


structural products (including Parallam PSL and TimberStrand LSL) to local lumberyards.
See your local supplier for other engineered structural materials as well.

Willamette Industries in Oregon, 800-887-0748. Distributes engineered structural products


(including StrucJoist, StrucLam LVL, and E--Z Frame System). For product information,
contact the local distributor, CMI Northwest in Woodinville at 425-485-2320.

For more information see:

Building with Alternatives to Lumber and Plywood, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD. 800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

Engineered Lumber Update, Journal of Light Construction, March 1998. Williston, VT.
802-859-3669 or www.jlconline.com/bookstore. (Last page lists related articles as well as a
number of manufacturers of engineered lumber.)

Setting Trusses: Tips from the Tracts, Journal of Light Construction, April 1995. Williston,
VT. 802-859-3669 or www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Truss-Framed Construction, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD. 800-638-8556


or www.nahbrc.org.

Whats The Difference? Structural Composite Lumber: LVL, PSL or LSL?


Fine Homebuilding, April/May 1998. Taunton Press, Newtown, CT. 800-888-8286

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5-52

For Interior Walls, Use Steel Studs with Minimum 50% Recycled Content
Ask your supplier to provide documentation.

5-53

Use Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)


See Section Three: Energy Efficiency Action Item 3-10, Use Airtight Building Method, such as
SIP or ICF, ask your local supplier, or consult Resources, Product Information listings.
For information about foam-core type structural insulated panels:

Alternative Framing Materials in Residential Construction: Three Case Studies (July 1994),
NAHB Research Center, 800-638-8556, eshop.nahbrc.org/cgi-bin/nahbc.storefront. Also
available through the HUD Office of Policy Development and Research, 800-245-2691 or
www.huduser.org/publications/destech.html.

Building With Alternatives to Lumber and Plywood, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD, 800-638-8556 or eshop.nahbrc.org/cgi-bin/nahbc.storefront Also available
through the HUD Office of Policy Development and Research, 800-245-2691 or
www.huduser.org/publications/destech.html.

Structural Insulated Panel Association (SIPA), Washington, DC, (local office in Gig Harbor,
WA, 253-858-7472). SIPA offers Building with SIPS, a video introduction to this construction material. To order, call 202-347-7800 or order online at www.sips.org, ($12).

Foam-Core Panels and Building Systems: Principles and Practice (+ Product Directory), by
Steve Andrews. Cutter Information Corporation, 800-964-5118 or
www.cutter.com/energy/reports/. Also available through the Structural Insulated Panel Association, 253-858-7472 or www.sips.org, or Iris Communications, Eugene, OR, 800-346-0104
or shop.oikos.com/catalog.

Structural Insulated Panels: An Efficient Way to Build, Environmental Building News, May
1998, 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com.

For ICF and SIP manufacturers/suppliers, see the web site of the Structural Insulated Panel
Association for a current list of SIP manufacturers, www.sips.org and the REDI Guide and
GreenSpec (listed in Resources, Production Information, above).

There are other types of panels becoming available, such as panels constructed with compressed
straw cores. For information about these products, see:

Guide to Resource-Efficient Building Elements, pp. 22-30, Center for Resourceful Building
Technology, Missoula MT, 406-549-7678 or crbt@montana.com.

Also, ask your local supplier or consult Resources, Product Information listings and:

Green Pages, an annual publication of the Northwest EcoBuilding Guild, Seattle, WA.
206-575-2222 or e-mail greenpages@ecobuilding.org. Lists sustainable designers, contractors, suppliers, and professional services. Also available online at
www.ecobuilding.org/green_pages The Guild also offers educational membership meetings
and other publications.

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5-54

Use Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs)


See Section Three: Energy Efficiency Action Item 3-10, Use Airtight Building Method, such as
SIP or ICF, for resources. For information on using flyash in concrete, see Action Item 5-59, Use
Regionally Produced Fly Ash.

For ICF manufacturers/suppliers, see the REDI Guide and GreenSpec (listed in Resources,
above.)

Also see:

5-55

Green Pages, an annual publication of the Northwest EcoBuilding Guild, Seattle, WA.
206-575-2222 or e-mail greenpages@ecobuilding.org. Lists sustainable designers, contractors, suppliers, and professional services. Also available online at
www.ecobuilding.org/green_pages. The Guild also offers educational membership meetings
and other publications.

Use Finger-Jointed Framing Material (e.g. Studs)


Ask your local supplier for these materials or consult Resources, Product Information listings.

5-56

Use Advanced System Framing with Double Top Plate

Advanced Framing, Techniques, Troubleshooting, and Structural Design. Published by the


Journal of Light Construction (JLC). Covers a broach range of topics on tools, building layout, floor, wall, and roof framing, engineered lumber, energy details, and more. Available
from the JLC Bookstore: 800-859-3669, fax 802-434-4467, or online at
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

Washington State Energy Code Builders Field Guide, 6th edition. 800-723-1763. Available
through WSU Cooperative Extension, Educational Materials. Cost is $10.00. To order, call.
This guide is available in PDF for free on the Internet. http://www.energy.wsu.edu/pubs/ .
See Framing Chapter.

Super Good Cents Builders Guide to Energy-Efficient Construction. 800-622-4520. Available from Bonneville Power Administration. See Framing Chapter for information. ($10).

Foundation
5-57

Use At Least 90% Regionally or Locally Produced Block


Ask your local supplier and ask about the origin of the material.

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5-58

Use Regionally Produced Flyash or Blast Furnace Slag for 25% by Weight of Cementitious
Materials for All Concrete (20% for Flat Work), If Available
Ask your supplier. Other resources include:

Concrete Thinking for a Sustainable World website, includes case studies, technical briefs,
application overviews, and resources, www.concretethinker.com.

A major distributor of flyash is ISG Resources in Centralia: 888-333-5546. Check with your local
ready-mix company for suppliers. Also contact, local supplier:
For more information about using flyash in concrete and its performance consult the following:

5-59

Fly Ash Improves Concrete, Reduces Pollution, Journal of Light Construction, July 1999.
Available from the JLC Bookstore: 800-859-3669, fax 802-434-4467, or online at
www.jlconline.com/bookstore.

The Fly Ash Revolution: Making Better Concrete with Less Cement, Environmental Building News, June 1999. Brattleboro, VT, 1999. 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com.

Use Recycled Concrete, Asphalt, or Glass Cullet For Base or Fill

Ball Glass (post-industrial) 5801 East Marginal Way S., Seattle, WA. 206-762-0660. Most is
-inch minus some as large as 2 to 2 -inch.

Cadman, Inc. (post-industrial) 18816 NE 80th St. Redmond, WA. 425-868-1234. 1-1/4-inch
minus. Varies from 10 to several hundred tons. Delivery available for 10 yards or more.

Fibres International (post-consumer) 9208 4th Ave. S., Seattle, WA. 425-455-9811. 5/8-inch
minus. Must be collected at their yard: you load.

Spectrum Glass (post-industrial) 24105 Woodinville-Snohomish Rd., Woodinville, WA.


425-483-6699. -inch minus. Sells by 2,000-3,000 lb. bags, 5 gallon bucket, and loose for
fill.

Waste Management (post-consumer) 7901 First Ave. S., Seattle, WA. 206-762-1152. -inch
minus. Availability depends on timing, call first. Pick up at their yard to collect the material:
they can load.

Sub-Floor
5-60

Use Recycled Content Sub-Floor


Ask your local flooring supplier. Some manufacturers to consider are:

Medite Corporation, Medford, OR. 800-676-3339. Sierra Pine Medex and Medite II MDF are
formaldehyde-free alternatives for underlayment as well as cabinet frames, countertops, interior door and window casings, and trim. New, Encore is 100% recycled wood fiber particleboard. Available through your local supplier.

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Homasote, West Trenton, NJ. 800-257-9491. 440 Sound Barrier, 440 Carpetboard and Comfort Base. The 440 materials are high-density fiberboard panels made from 100% recycled
wastepaper and a formaldehyde-free paraffin binder. Comfort Base is specifically designed
for use over a concrete slab. Available at most wholesale lumberyards, including Ecohaus,
formerly, Environmental Home Center (see Resources, Product Information).

Other brands offer further environmental benefits, consider:

U.S. Gypsum Co., 800-874-4968. Fiberock brand gypsum fiber underlayment is a fiber-reinforced gypsum panel specially designed for use in residential construction as an underlayment for vinyl, carpeting, hardwood flooring and ceramic tile (dry areas only).

Doors
5-61

Use Domestically-Grown Wood Interior Doors


Ask your supplier for information on the origin of materials.

Finish Floor
5-62

If Using Vinyl Flooring, Use Product with Recycled Content


Ask your flooring supplier for vinyl flooring with recycled content. Some manufacturers to consider are:

5-63

Amtico. 800-268-4260. Stratica, a low VOC and chlorine-free, durable alternative to vinyl.
For local information call 425-453-6190.

Tarkett. 610-266-5509. Vinyl flooring includes up to 33% post-industrial content, and no


chlorine.

Mannington. 800-241-2262. Flooring contains 33% post-industrial from plant plus up to 5%


post-consumer and post-industrial from other plants.

No Vinyl Flooring
The most often used environmentally preferable substitute for vinyl is true linoleum. Both Forbo
(Marmoleum) and Armstrong make versions of this linseed oil and wood fiber based product.
Ask your supplier.

5-64

Use Any Amount of Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from Plants Harvested within a
Ten-Year Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet)
Ask your supplier for cork or bamboo flooring and/or plant-based finishes.

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5-65

On More Than 250 Square Feet per Unit, Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Products Made from
Plants Harvested within a Ten-Year Harvest Cycle or Shorter (Excluding Carpet)
Ask your supplier.

5-66

Use Recycled Content Carpet Pad


Some manufacturers to consider are:

Mohawk Right Step pad is made from 100% post-industrial waste fiber from carpet manufacturing, available at Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center.

Permafirm Pad Co, Los Angeles, CA. 800-344-6977. Company manufactures several lines
with recycled content: Pinnacle carpet pad, 3/8 thick and made with 100% recycled plastic; Nouveau is made of 100% post-consumer recycled nylon fiber from carpet manufacturing; Dura is made from 85% recycled-tire rubber mixed with 15% latex; and Ultimate is
made from 98% post-consumer jute fiber from recycled burlap bags. Manufactured by Carpet
Cushion Associates in Los Angeles.

Rebond carpet pad, made from 100% recycled upholstery foam. Manufactured by GFI in
Los Angeles. 800-631-0845.

Shaw Contract Group, Dalton, GA. 800-342-7429. Endurance II pad is made from 100%
post-industrial waste fiber from carpet manufacturing.

Also, see resources for Action Item 4-27, Install Low Pile or Less Allergen-Attracting Carpet and
Pad.

5-67

Use Recycled Content or Renewed Carpet


Ask your supplier, or consider these manufacturers:

InterfaceFLOR, you can purchase product online at http://www.interfaceflor.com/index.htm

Aladdin Carpet by Mohawk Industries, Armuchee, GA. 800-241-7597. Carpets contain 100%
recycled plastic fibers from used pop bottles (PET). Available through local carpet distributors including: Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle:
206-682-7332 or 800-281-9785; Contract Furnishings Mart: 800-275-8760; Commercial
Floor Distributors: 206-623-1355; and Carpet Resource Center: 206-623-5417 or
800-448-3939.

Patcraft recyclable carpet tiles, also contain recycled content in the backing, available through
Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com.

Shaw Industries, 800-833-9665. Manufactures Philadelphia Carpets and E & B Carpets, made
from 50-70% post-consumer PET. Various distributors.

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5-68

5-69

Use Replaceable Carpet Tile for 50% of Carpeted Area or 100% of Carpeted Area

Patcraft recyclable carpet tiles, various local distributors and online purchasing.

Interface Flooring System. 800-281-FLOR. www.interfaceflor.com. Offers recyclable nylon,


hemp and wool carpet tiles.

If Using Tile, Use 75% of Tile that is 40% Recycled Content


Your local supplier may carry a recycled-content ceramic tile that meets your needs. Listed below
are several manufacturers who make ceramic tile with recycled content:

Syndecrete, cement-based composite tile, Santa Monica, CA. 310-829-9932,


www.syndesisinc.com

Trinity Glass Products, Tiger Mountain Innovations, Woodinville, WA, concrete glass composite tile, www.trinityglassproducts.com, available at Ecohaus, formerly Environmental
Home Center, 206-682-7332 or www.ecohaus.com or One Earth One Design, 14300 Greenwood Ave. N, Suite A, Seattle, WA. 206-418-8120 or www.1earth1design.com.

Ambiente European Tile Design, Seattle and Bellevue locations, 206-524-2113,


www.ambientetile.com. Sell a variety of tile options.

Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center, 206-682-7332 or www.ecohaus.com. Sell a


variety of tile options.

One Earth One Design, 14300 Greenwood Ave. N, Suite A, Seattle, WA. 206-418-8120 or
www.1earth1design.com. Sell a variety of tile options.

AMDEC, Portland, OR. 503-297-5933 or e-mail mfarrier@teleport.com. Manufactures Silica


Select tiles from 100% recycled post consumer/post industrial glass. Indoor/outdoor applications.

Summitville Tiles, Summitville, OH. 330-223-1511. Makes Cobblestones, Imperva, Imperva Granite, and MorganMates from a by-product of feldspar mining. Indoor/outdoor
use. The company also reuses 100% of its solid wastes. Distributed by United Tile in Renton.
800-444-5290.

Terra Green Technologies, Richmond, IN. Manufactures Traffic Tile, made with 58% recycled auto windshield glass with some mirror and bottle glass. Pricey but very high quality;
indoor/outdoor uses. Company also makes Terra Classic from recycled glass and ceramic
tile, for residential floors, walls, and countertops. Both are available through E-Spec in Oakland, CA. 510-536-2600.

Tile Cera, Clarksville, TN. Makes tiles for floor and wall applications that include a small
amount of in-house scrap and cull tile. Company is notable for its closed-loop manufacturing
system, which eliminates tile solid waste and recycles water used in the manufacturing process within the plant. Tiles can be sourced from the distributor, Santa Catalina Inc. California:
510-351-7095.

Versatile and Master Tile Products, Canton, OH. Sells Enviroquarry tiles made with recycled
content. 330-493-1272.

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5-70

Use Natural Linoleum


Check with your local flooring supplier.

5-71

5-72

If Using Wood Flooring, Use Locally Salvaged Wood Flooring on 25%, 50%, or 90%+
of Total Flooring

RE Store, 1440 NW 52nd Street, Seattle, WA. 206-297-9119. Sells used building materials
and also accepts them for resale. In addition, the RE Store field crews can remove materials
from your site. Contact them prior to any demolition work.

Second Use Building Materials, 7953 2nd Avenue South, Seattle, WA. 206-763-6929 or
www.seconduse.com. Sells and accepts used building materials at the store location. They
will also pick up materials from your site. Contact them prior to any demolition work.

Earthwise, 707 South Lander Street, Seattle, WA. 206-624-4510. Residential salvage and
demolition contractor. Pick-up service for reusable building materials. Specialize in
pre-1940s reusable building supplies. Call first.

Use Flooring that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-73

Use Flooring that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements Outlined in the Handbook, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

5-74

Use Spot Repairable Floor Finish

There are a few repairable oil floor finishes on the market, talk to your supplier, or consider:

OSMO Polyx Oil, Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle.
206-682-7332, 800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com.

New Age, One-On-One Water-Based Urethane Wood Finish, http://www.parishsupply.com/floor.htm

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Interior Walls
5-75

Use Drywall with a Minimum of 90% Recycled Content Gypsum or Flue Gas Substitute for
Recycled Gypsum
As of this writing, no products meet this standard. Some local options are available that may
meet the intent of the Action Item. Consult the Program Director for clarification.

DensGuard and ToughRock, manufactured and distributed by GP Gypsum, Tacoma.


800-366-8276 or 253-627-2100. SCS certified product uses flue-gas desulpherization synthetic gypsum and has recycled content in the paper backing., see Georgia Pacific website,
http://www.gp.com/build/productgroup.aspx?pid=1490 ..

The Walls and Ceilings Association in Portland should also be able to help you locate a supplier
of recycled-content gypsum drywall, 503-295-0333. Ask for Fiberrock brand Aqua Tough Interior Panels, by USG Corporation. They contain up to 95% recycled materials.

5-76

Use Recycled or Reworked Paint and Finishes on Main Surfaces or All Surfaces
Your local paint supplier may carry recycled or reworked paints. Also see:

Snohomish County Hazardous Waste Drop-Off Station, 3434 McDougall, Everett,


425-388-6050. The County offers reformulated paint free of charge to county residents.

ICI Paints, 2925 4th Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-8070. Tacoma store, 2719 S. Tacoma Way.
253-474-5165. Distributes reworked mis-tints and store rejects at a reduced cost.

Metro Paints, Portland, OR, 503-234-3000, www.metropaint.info. First Green Seal certified
recycled latex paint.

IMEX. A King County web-based hazardous waste management program. This is a free service designed to help businesses find markets for industrial by-products and surplus materials. www.govlink.org/hazwaste/business/imex/about.html.

RE Store, 1440 NW 52nd Street, Seattle, WA. 206-297-9119. Accepts non-oil based paints
and stains in exchange for used building materials or tax credit.

Paint Solutions, Inc. 20245 77th Ave. S., Kent, WA, 253-872-0114. Distributes re-processed
interior and exterior paints recycled from post-consumer paint collection events. Wide range
of colors.

Rasmussen Paints. 425-454-5821. Offers latex interior/exterior paint with recycled content in
a variety of finishes and resin qualities.

Other resource information includes:

Builders Guide to Paints and Coatings, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD.
800-638-8556 or www.nahbrc.org.

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5-77

5-78

Use Recycled Newspaper or Cork Expansion Joint Filler

Homex 300 Expansion Joint Fillers, Homasote Company. 100% recycled newsprint joint
filler. www.sweets.construction.com/mfg/1558/P9720.htm.

Cork Expansion Joint Filler, available from several suppliers on the web, or ask your local
supplier.

Use Natural Wall Finishes, Like Lime Paint and Clay

5-79

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. Offers low-toxic and natural Olivetti Lime Paint, Bioshield Milk Paint and American Clay plaster.

Reduce Interior Walls Through Open Plan for Kitchen, Dining, and Living Areas
The Center for Universal Design, resources, publications, and education and training information,
see http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/index.htm

5-80

Install Toilet/Shower Partitions with Recycled Content


See General Resources, Product Information, above, and:

Santana, 800-368-5002.

Comtec Industries. 717-348-0997.

Ceilings
5-81

If Installing Acoustical Ceiling, Select a Recycled Content Product


See General Resources, Product Information, above, and:

Armstrong World Industries has a program for recycling old ceiling tiles, which it collects
from building owners and uses as raw materials in the manufacture of new acoustical ceilings. For more information: Phone 888-CEILINGS, the Armstrong ceilings web site,
http://www.ceilings.com, Environmental Building News, Oct 00, p 6.

Tectum Panels. Tectum Inc. 888-977-9691. Natural fiber acoustic ceiling panels. A new
product, two to four times more expensive than conventional panels, but price may drop as
demand increases.

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Exterior Walls
5-82

Use Recycled Content Sheathing (OSB Does Not Apply)


Ask your supplier and consider these other resources.

Homosote, Inc., West Trenton, NJ. 800-257-9491 or www.homasote.com. 4-Way Floor


Decking, N.C.F.R., and Firestall Roof Decking are structural high-density fiberboard panels
made of 100% recycled newspaper, paraffin binders, and additives for pest and fire resistance. Available at the Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S.,
Seattle: 206-682-7332 or 800-281-9785.

Simplex Products Division, Adrian, MI. 800-345-8881, 517-263-8881, or


www.simplex-products.com. Thermo-ply is a structural sheathing panel that is manufactured from 100% recycled fiber and aluminum foil facings. Three different grades are available: non-structural, structural, and super-strength. Available at the Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle: 206-682-7332 or 800-281-9785.

Another resource-efficient alternative to consider:

5-83

Collins Company, Portland, OR. 800-329-1219 or 503-417-7755. Collinswood plywood is


made of certified hem-fir, ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, and lodgepole pine. Manufactured
with a phenol-formaldehyde binder.

Use Exterior Cladding with Reclaimed or Recycled Material On At Least 20% of Solid Wall
Surface
Ask your local supplier, consult Product Information resources under General Resources, above,
or try:

CertainTeed, Valley Forge, PA, recycled content fiber siding, contains 30-50% flyash and/or
slag. Available from local suppliers.

James Hardie Building Products, Fontana, CA. 800-426-4051. Hardiplank Lap Siding and
Hardipanel Vertical Siding are manufactured with Portland cement, ground sand, and cellulose fiber. Available from local suppliers.

TruWood Siding, Collins Products, The Collins Companies, Recycled Content and available
with FSC certified (Tier 1) wood fiber,
http://www.collinswood.com/WoodProducts/TruWood.html

FCP, Inc, Blandon, PA, 877-CEMPLANK (236-7526). Cemplank fiber-cement plank siding
is low maintenance and comes with a limited lifetime warranty.

Cladwood, Oregon City, OR. 800-547-6633. Cladwood siding panels have a phenol-formaldehyde-bonded particleboard core with resin-impregnated recycled paper overlays
. Recycled content ranges from 16-26% by weight with roughly 10% post-consumer content.
20 year warranty.

AmeriMark, Inc., Olive Branch, MS. 800-345-3390 or www.Amerimark.com. Alsco Siding


has a recycled plastic substrate and a virgin vinyl exterior finish layer.

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5-84

No Vinyl Siding or Exterior Trim


No specific resources listed.

5-85

Use Salvaged Masonry Brick or Block, 50% Minimum


See your local supplier of brick masonry or block and ask for reclaimed materials. Also look at
jobsites for discards. Salvage yards may also stock these materials, including:

5-86

R.W. Rhine Inc., Tacoma, WA. 253-531-7223.

Reusable Building Materials Exchange: www.recycle.net/exch/aa023746.html, (see the Participating Jurisdictions). An online, user-driven website. Features descriptions of items, contact name, telephone number, e-mail address, and any costs or delivery information. Listings
are free.

2Good2Toss, click on Snohomish County for an on line building materials exchange,


http://www.2good2toss.com/.

In King County, www.metro.gov/dnrp/swd/exchange.

Use Regionally Produced Stone or Brick


Ask your local supplier and ask about the origin of the material.

5-87

Use 50-Year Siding Product

CertainTeed, Valley Forge, PA, recycled content fiber siding, contains 30-50% flyash and/or
slag. Available from local suppliers.

James Hardie Building Products, Fontana, CA. 800-426-4051. Hardiplank Lap Siding and
Hardipanel Vertical Siding are manufactured with Portland cement, ground sand, and cellulose fiber. Available from local suppliers, including Dunn Lumber.

FCP, Inc, Blandon, PA, 877-CEMPLANK (236-7526). Cemplank fiber-cement plank siding
is low maintenance and comes with a limited lifetime warranty.

For metal and vinyl siding, talk to your local supplier/installer to make sure you get the highest
amount of recycled-content available.

5-88

Use Wood Siding that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1
Requirements On At Least 20% of Solid Wall Surface
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

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5-89

Use Wood Siding that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2
Requirements On At Least 20 % of Solid Wall Surface
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

Windows
5-90

Use Wood, Composite, or Fiberglass Windows

Window & Door. www.windowanddoor.net/pastarticles.php?id=372. Materials sourcing and


information website of Window & Door Magazine. Lists green fenestration products made
with certified wood.

Ask your local supplier and consider the following manufacturers:

5-91

Andersen Windows

Pella Corporation

Millgard

Jeld-Wen

Atrium

No Vinyl Windows

5-92

Build It Green. 1434 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94702. 510-845-0472.


www.builditgreen.org/resource/index.cfm?fuseacton=factsheet_detail&rowid=20. Downloadable green resource guide including alternatives to vinyl windows.

Use Finger-Jointed Wood Windows


Ask your supplier.

5-93

Use Regionally Produced Windows

Energy Star maintains a list of partner resources where you can find window manufacturers
in Washington State, www.energystar/gov/indes.

Milgard produces windows in Tacoma and Marysville, Certainteed in Auburn, CDI in Seattle,

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Trim
5-94

If Using Wood Trim:


See local suppliers and ask about origin of materials.
See Resources listed for 5-44/45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1/Tier 2Requirements.

5-95

5-96

The Collins Company, TruWood, exterior trim available with FSC certified materials. 800417-3674, www.collinswood.com.

East Teak Fine Hardwoods, Sultan, WA. 800-537-3369, www.eastteak.com

Use Finger-Jointed or MDF Trim with No Added Urea Formaldehyde, 90% Minimum

Builder News. 2105 C Street, Vancouver, WA 98663. 360-906-0793.


www.buildernewsmag.com/viewnews.pl?id=123. Website for building trade magazine.
Technical information on high quality molding and millwork.

Toolbase Services. 400 Prince Georges Blvd., Upper Marlboro, MD 20774.


www.toolbase.org/Best-Practices/Failure-Prevention/fiberboard-trim-shrinkage. Technical information website for building materials. Technical information on fiberboard trim.

See your local supplier, ask about.

Sierra Pine, Arreis line of fiberboard and moldings made with recycled content and recovered
wood fiber with no added urea-formaldehyde.

Use Wood Veneers that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-44, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements.

5-97

Edensaw Woods, 8032 South 194th Street, Kent, WA 98032 253-216-1150 Fax: 253-2161151 or Toll-Free: 877-333-6729 Email: edensaw@edensaw.com, www.edensaw.com.

Use Wood Veneers that are Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 2 Requirements Outlined, 50% Minimum
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements.

Edensaw Woods, 8032 South 194th Street, Kent, WA 98032 253-216-1150 Fax: 253-2161151 or Toll-Free: 877-333-6729 Email: edensaw@edensaw.com, www.edensaw.com

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Cabinetry
5-98

For Cabinets:
Ask your cabinet manufacturer to use certified wood, low toxic finish, and rapidly renewable
board for cabinet boxes such as:

Roseburg Skyblend, http://www.rfpco.com/particleboard/skyblend.htm

Collins Pine FreeForm , http://www.collinswood.com/

Sierra Pine Encore, http://www.sierrapine.com/index.php?pid=620

See Resources listed for 5-44/45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Tier 2 Requirements.

5-99

Neil Kelly Cabinets, offers FSC-certified cabinet doors upon request, see their website for a
list of authorized dealers, http://www.neilkellycabinets.com/coverpage.htm or contact 503335-9207. Portland. OR.

Environ Biocomposites Mfg., Microstrand. Lightweight, high-strength, agricultural fiber,


no-added urea-formaldehyde. Mankato, MN. 507-388-3434.

Use Resource Efficient Countertop Material in Lobby/Reception Areas

Paperstone, Trinity Glass Products, and Squak Mountain Stone, available from Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Avenue South, 206-682-7332, 800-281-9785,
or www.ecohaus.com.

IceStone, high recycled content recycled glass and concrete composite, available in multiple
colors. Locally available through Ambiente European Tile Design, Seattle WA. 206-5242113, http://www.ambientetile.com, or One Earth One Design, Seattle WA. 14300 Greenwood Ave. N, Suite A, Seattle, WA. 206-418-8120 or www.1earth1design.com.

Timbergrass Bamboo, LLC 800-929-6333. Bamboo is highly renewable and harder than most
commonly used wood products.

Veterazzo, http://www.pentalonline.com/ecoline.html,

5-100 Use Countertops that are Salvaged, Recycled, or Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested
Wood with a Chain of Custody in All Units
For salvaged countertops, see 5-12, Donate, Give Away, or Sell Reusable Finish Items.
For recycled-content countertops:

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. Offers salvaged wood butcherblock countertops, Squak
Mountain Stone recycled content countertops, Eleek Countertops made from recycled aluminum, Paperstone countertops made of 50-100% recycled FSC paper, and Ocean Side Glass
recycled tiles that can be used for countertops.

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EnviroGlass, 3941 Legacy Drive, Suite 204, 211B, Plano, TX, 888-523-7894, 972-272-8084,
100% recycled glass terrazzo, http://enviroglasproducts.com/index.html

Ambiente Tile IceStone and Slatescape, available from. 227 NE 65TH Street, Seattle, WA
98115. 206-524-2113. www.ambientetile.com. Ambiente Tile also carries Ocean Side Glass
Tiles.

For third-party certified countertops:

Ecohaus, formerly, Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. Paperstone countertops made of 50-100% recycled
FSC paper.

Roof
5-102 Use Recycled Content Roofing Material
Ask your local supplier and consider the following manufacturers:

Ondura Corporation, Fredericksburg, VA. 800-777-7663 or www.ondura.com. Their corrugated asphalt roofing is composed of 50% asphalt and 50% cellulose fiber (by weight). The
cellulose fiber is 100% post-consumer mixed paper wastes.

Crowe Building Products, Ltd., Hamilton, ON, Canada. 905-529-6818 or


www.authentic-roof.com. Authentic Roof is a slate lookalike with recycled polymers and
rubber.

EcoStar, Chicago, IL. 800-572-7672 or www.ecostarinc.com. Majestic Slate is a 100% recycled and recyclable lightweight slate tile made of industrial rubber and plastics.

Re-New Wood, Inc., Wagoner, OK. 800-420-7576. Eco-shake is a 100% recycled PVC
(vinyl) and reclaimed wood roofing product. It has the look of a wood shake in four colors.

Zappone Manufacturing, Spokane, WA. 800-285-2677 or www.zappone.com. Recycled Metal Shingles are made from either 85% recycled copper (75% post-consumer) or 100%
post-consumer recycled aluminum.

5-102 Upgrade Material Quality and Durability (Metal is Better than Torch Down)

Cool Metal Roofing Coalition website, www.coolmetalroofing.com, lists benefits, resources,


technical papers, incentives and rebates, and provide a calendar of events.

Ask your roofing supplier about self-adhered modified bitumen systems.

Low Slope Metal Roofs Provide Years of Low Cost, Low Maintenance Performance, The
Metal Initiative,
http://www.themetalinitiative.com/content/building_with_metal/building_products/roofs/low_slo
pe.cfm

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5-103 Use 30-Year Warranted Roofing Material

For more information on warranties, see A Sourcebook for Green and Sustainable Building/Roofing, www.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook/roofing.html.

5-104 Use 40-Year Warranted Roofing Material


See your local supplier.

5-105 Use 50-Year Warranted Roofing Material


See your local supplier.

5-106 Use Solar Shingles

OkSolar. 347-624-5693. www.oksolar.com/roof/. Online solar materials information and


product website.

U.S. Department of Energy Building Toolbox.


www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/info/components/envelope/roofing/solar.html. Energy efficiency and renewable energy website. Includes specifics on solar shingles.

Solar Components Corporation. 121 Valley Street, Manchester, NH 03103. 603-668-8186.


www.solar-components.com/pvshingl.htm. Sells solar roofing components.

5-107 Install a Metal Roof

Low Slope Metal Roofs Provide Years of Low Cost, Low Maintenance Performance
http://www.themetalinitiative.com/content/building_with_metal/building_products/roofs/low_slo
pe.cfm

Expert Village. http://homegarden.expertvillage.com/experts/metal-roofing-advantages.htm.


Article discussing the advantages of metal roofing.

Englert. 1200 Amboy Ave., Perth Amboy, New Jersey 08861. 732-826-8614.
www.englertinc.com/roofing-whymetal.aspx?Page=1. Website discusses advantages of
commercial and residential metal roofing.

Mueller, Inc. 1915 Hutchins Ave., Ballinger, TX 76821. 877-268-3553.


www.muellerinc.com/roofing/benefits.php. Offers metal roofing products and technical information.

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Insulation
5-108 All Insulation to have a Minimum of 40% Recycled Content
Ask your supplier or installer about locally available options. The Cellulose Manufacturers Association in Dayton, Ohio is an additional resource for product information: 888-881-2462 or
www.cellulose.org.
Regional manufacturers of recycled-content cellulose insulation include:

Thermaguard, Spokane, WA. 509-535-4600.

Hamilton Manufacturing, Twin Falls, ID. 208-733-9689.

Greenstone, Portland, OR. 503-286-9987.

Insulation products with recycled-content fiberglass or mineral wool include:

GoldLine fiberglass insulation manufactured and distributed by Johns Mansville International, Denver, CO. 800-644-4013. Contains 25% recycled glass, including 18%
post-consumer remelted bottle glass. (They also make formaldehyde free insulation see Action Item 4-18, Use Formaldehyde-Free Fiberglass Insulation.

Thermafiber loose-fill mineral fiber made with rock wool, manufactured by USG Interiors,
Tacoma: 253-627-0379.

Regional retailer of recycled cotton insulation:

Ecohaus, formerly Environmental Home Center, 4121 1st Ave. S., Seattle. 206-682-7332,
800-281-9785, or www.ecohaus.com. Offers Ultra Touch recycled cotton insulation in R13,
R19 and R21.

5-109 Use Environmentally Friendly Foam Building Products (Formaldehyde-Free, CFC-Free, HCFC-Free)

Bio Based Foam Insulation , Forrest Sound Products, http://www.forrestsound.com, 425-6469703.

The Icynene Insulation System. A plastic, formaldehyde-free, foam insulation material similar in chemical composition to the material used in pillows and mattresses. It is created on the
jobsite by mixing two liquid components that can be either sprayed or injected into the cavity.
It contains no ozone-destroying gas. Locally provided and installed by Progressive Insulation
Company, Doug Utt, V.P., 2161 N Northlake Wy, Seattle, WA 98103. 206-547-8706, e-mail:
progsyst@aol.com, or website: www.asg1.com/progressive

Insealation, Icynene, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, 800-758-7325. A modified urethane spray-in-place insulation that uses MDI but is water-blown rather than CFC-blown.
Foamed into wall cavities like polyurethane.

Atlas Roofing, Atlanta, GA. 800-388-6134 or www.atlasroofing.com. AC Ultra


(ozone-safe polyisocyanurate foam)

Palmer Industries, Inc., Frederick, MD, 301-898-7848. Air Krete, inorganic, cementitious
foam produced from magnesium oxide. Its nontoxic, inert, and non-combustible, and can be

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the insulation of choice for people with high sensitivity to common household pollutants.
Foamed in place in closed wall or masonry block cavities, or behind mesh in open cavities.
Lightweight and rigid, but friable foam. Available through BioIntegra Building and Insulation, Ltd., Tacoma WA. 253-651-3525, aaron@biointegra.us,
http://web.mac.com/airkrete/iWeb/Site/home.html.

AFM Corporation, Excelsior, MN, 800-255-0176. Perform Guard EPS, pentane is generally
used in the manufacture of this rigid foam insulation. A low-pentane formulation is used by
AFM, the largest expanded polystyrene (EPS or beadboard) producer, and several EPS manufacturers recover 95% of the pentane used in production. Multiple suppliers.

Foam Tech Inc., North Thetford, VT, 802-333-4333. Polyurethane SuperGreen uses a less
ozone-depleting HFC in its insulation, which is foamed into wall cavities. (The product costs
slightly more than conventional polyurethane.)

C.P. Chemical Company, White Plains, NY. 914-428-2517. Tri-Polymer Foam, Phenolic
foam with good fire resistance foamed into primarily masonry block walls. Shrinkage over
time reduces thermal performance.

Beadboard or EPS (expanded polystyrene) rigid foam insulation can be used for interior or
below grade uses. However, it doesnt insulate as well (R-3.6 to R-4.4 per inch), but it is less
damaging to the environment because pentane is used in its production rather than HCFC.

Polyurethane insulation (e.g. polyisocyanurate) made with pentane instead of HCFCs as the
blowing agent is now available. Unlike, EPS, however, there are few outlets for polyurethane
foam as a recycled product.

For more information about insulation products, see:

Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Molders Association, Glenview IL. 800-607-3772 or


www.epsmolders.org.

Insulation Materials: Environmental Comparisons, Environmental Building News, Jan/Feb


1995. Brattleboro, VT, 1999. 802-257-7300 or www.buildinggreen.com.

5-110 Use Backer Rod Around Windows for Infiltration Sealing


Ask your supplier.

Other Exterior
5-111 Use Reclaimed or Salvaged Material for Landscaping Walls
Also, see Action Item 5-11, Sell or Give Away Wood Scraps, Lumber, and Landclearing Debris,
especially:

See Resources above for information on Green Tools, www.greentools.us.

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5-112 Use 100% Recycled Content HDPE, Salvaged Lumber, or Lumber that is Third-Party Certified
Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 1 Requirements for Decking and Porches
For information on Third-Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood, see Action Item 5-44, Use
Dimensional Lumber that is Third--Party Certified Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the
Tier 1 Requirements.
Recycled plastic/wood composite lumber does NOT qualify for credit. These composites cannot
be recycled or reclaimed at the end of its life span. In addition, many of these products contain
virgin materials.
Ask your local supplier or see Section Two: Site and Water, Action Item 2-38, Use Non-Toxic or
Low-Toxic Outdoor Lumber for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least Toxic Treated Wood).

5-113 Use 100% Recycled Content HDPE, Salvaged Lumber, or Lumber that is Third-Party Certified
Sustainably Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements for Decking and Porches
See Resources listed for 5-45, Use Dimensional Lumber that is Third-Party Certified Sustainably
Harvested Wood that Meets the Tier 2 Requirements Outlined in the Handbook, 50% Minimum

5-114 Use Recycled Content Lumber for Decking (i.e., Trex)

California Integrated Waste Management Board maintains a recycled content products directory, which lists many manufacturers of recycled plastic lumber. http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov.

The American Chemistry Council, a trade association for plastics manufacturers, maintains a
web site containing information on recycled-content plastic products such as lumber and
decking. The council's national vendor database lists over 30 manufacturers of plastic lumber,
and specifies the level of post-consumer content in their products.
http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_plastics/sec_rppd.asp?CID=1592&DID=6054.

Ask your local supplier or see Section Two: Site and Water, Action Item 2-38, Use Non-Toxic or
Low-Toxic Outdoor Lumber for Landscaping (e.g. Plastic, Least Toxic Treated Wood).

5-115 If Lumber is Used, Use No Pressure Treated Lumber

Fine Homebuilding Magazine. www.taunton.com/finehomebuilding/pages/h00127.asp. Article on alternatives to pressure-treated lumber.

5-116 If Using Pressure Treated Lumber, Use CAB


See your local supplier and Resources, Product Information.

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Extra Credit/Innovation fot Materials Efficiency


5-118 Extra Credit / Innovation for Materials Efficiency
No specific resources listed.

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-137

Built Green
Jobsite Recycling Plan
Recyclable Materials
What material will
you target?

Wood

Cardboard

Ferrous metal

Non-ferrous
metal

Drywall

Asphalt Roofing

Concrete /
Asphalt Rubble

Other

Condition of
material*

How will it be handled on site?

Who will haul it?

Where will it be
taken?

*Check with your recycler or hauler to see if any specifications or conditions exist regarding the material
being recycled. Examples include size restrictions and non-acceptable materials (for example, treatments,
finishes, or fasteners).

Action Items

Complete this Jobsite Recycling Plan and post on site.


Commit subcontractors to recycle in Subcontractor Agreement.
Keep subcontractors and workers aware and informed of Recycling Program.
Require individuals to properly sort recyclables and hold them responsible for mis-sorted loads.
Track and promote recycling results.
BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency
May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-139

What You Can Do to Maximize Recycling


Follow these procedures to maximize recycling at your jobsite:

Separate and recycle wood, cardboard, metal, drywall and other recyclable materials.

Make sure both interior containers and exterior recycling dumpsters are convenient and clearly labeled.

Train new personnel where the recycling containers are located and which materials are recyclable.

Move trash and recycling containers close to each other, making it convenient to recycle.

Store materials to prevent loss from damage.

Check recycling and garbage bins daily for mis-sorted materials.

Provide training to people who are mis-sorting recyclable materials or ask your superintendent or
safety manager to inform them.

Identify large quantities of waste that are not being recycled, and ask your superintendent if they can
be recycled.

How Well Did You Do?

The formula below helps you determine roughly how much material you saved from the landfill by comparing your actual disposal costs to your disposal costs if you were generating waste at the rate of
5 pounds per square foot, an industry average for conventionally built single-family homes. The cost to
dump waste in King County is $84.00 per ton. In Snohomish County the cost is $89.00 per ton.

_______________
Your project square footage

_____________ Tons

Multiplied by 5/2000
(avg. weight of waste, in
tons, generated per sq.ft.)
Multiplied by $X

Avg. waste typically generated


(from row above)

(X = cost per ton to dump


waste
in your county)

$ _____________

Minus ___________

avg. disposal cost (from row


above)
$ ______________
your savings (from row
above)

Your actual disposal costs

Divided by $X _______

= ___________ tons
avg. waste typically generated
for projects this size
= $_____________
avg. disposal cost for projects
this size
= $_____________
your savings

= __________ tons
tons of material you saved
through recycling and waste
reduction

BUILT GREEN MULTI-FAMILY HandbookSection Five Resources: Materials Efficiency


May 2001/Revised June 2008
Part II-140