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Current Status of Life Assessment

Technologies & Life Management


Methodologies for Key Components of
Fossil Power Plants in China
Shu Guogang1 Chen Guoliang2 Ren Ai1 Wang Yanli2
1.Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute
2. University of Science and Technology Beijing

1.The History and Current Status of Fossil Power Plants in


China
2.The History and Current Status of Steels Used in Fossil Power
Plants in China
3.The Typical Life Assessment Technologies for Key
Components of Fossil Power Plants
4.Life Assessment Techniques Developed in China
5. The Current Statues of Life Management for Fossil Power
Plants in China

Introduction

The total fossil power capacity has reached 384,500 MW by


the end of 2003 in China;

There are more than 300 fossil power units with the capacity
of 300 MW per unit or above;

The capacity of fossil power plants with more than 30 years


operation has reached approximate 1500 MW;

The capacity of nuclear powerunits has reached about


7000MW.

1. The History and Current Status of


Fossil Power Plants in China

The equipment manufacturing industry for power generation in China was


initially set up in 1955 for 6 MW fossil power plants with the introduction
of manufacturing technologies from Czech Republic

In 1960s and 1970s, China self designed and manufactured fossil power
units with capacity of 125 MW, 200 MW and 300 MW

In early 1980s, China introduced manufacturing technologies for subcritical 300 MW and 600 MW generation units

In 2003, Chinas first largest super-critical unit with a capacity of 900 MW


began commercial operation

At present, the power units under construction are mainly super-critical and
ultra-super-critical units

The three series of fossil power plants in China


9

East European series with the representative of former Soviet


Union;

Western series with representatives of US, Germany and


Japan;

The series with Chinese self-developed technologies.


The characteristics of above-mentioned three series
determine the diversities and complex of materials used in
high-temperature components of fossil power plants in China.
It also determines the diversities and difficulties of life
assessment for those components in China.

2.The History and Current Status of Steels


Used in Fossil Power Plants in China

In 1950s: The steels used in fossil power plants were mainly


carbon steel and low-alloy steel;

In 1960s and 1970s : China developed some heat-resistant


steels, e.g. 13SiMnMoVB (Chromium-free 7#),
12MoVWBSiRe (Chromium-free 8#), 15MnPNbRe and
2Mn19A15sIMoTi, etc. Some are still using, e.g. boiler steels,
12Cr2MoWVB (steel-102); bolt steels, 20Cr1Mo1VnbTiB (1#
steel) and 2Cr1Mo1VtiB (2# steel); welded rotor steels,
25Cr2NiMoV.

continued

During the period, China also introduced some German steels ,


St45. 8 , 13CrMo44 , 10CrMo910 (thin wall)F11 F12
19Mn5 BHW38 etc.

In late 1980s, China introduced German and Japan steels


TP304H and TP347H, and also former Soviet Union stain-less
steels.

In 1980, steel T91 was first used in high-temperature superheaters of fossil power plants; In 1983, T91 and P91 were
certified by ASME as Grades SA213-T91 and SA335-P91.

In early 1990s,China introduced steel T/P91.

The properties of T/P91 produced in China all meet GB53101995 and ASME SA-213 requirements; But P91 is still not
used as commercial products until now.

The characteristic of steels used in China determines the


feature of life assessment for high temperature components .

3.The Typical Life Assessment Technologies for Key


Components of Fossil Power Plants

The main aging mechanisms of high-temperature component


materials are creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction etc.
The life assessment methods are decided by the different aging
mechanisms
(A) Piping or tube life assessment
9
9

Involves removing samples from component and testing


Two main types
(1) Rupture tests (2) Creep tests
9 Tests are accelerated by increasing temperature or stress or both
9 Hence the methods involve extrapolation techniques
e.g
(1)Isothermal extrapolation method;
(2)Iso-stress extrapolation method;
(3)Time-temperature parameters method (Larsen-Miller approach);mostly used for
life estimates of boiler tubes.
(4)The projection concept.

(B) Turbine life assessment

Based on thermal fatigue damage model

Thick components experience damage during starting and stopping unit due
to thermal stress gradients

Magnitude of stress depends on rate of temperature change and


components size.

(C) Header life assessment


Damage mechanisms ---creep and thermal fatigue from cyclic operation
DC+ DFD
where Dc obtained from Robinson s Linear Life Fractions Rule
DF obtained from Minerss Linear Damage Rule
D : allowable damage

(D) Non-destructive and microstructural methods


9

Replication techniques
9Cavitation damage
9Microstructural

change e.g carbide particle


Pearlite spheroidization ;
Sub-grain size and dislocation density changes.

9Hardness

(E) Component integrity assessment

4 Life Assessment Techniques Developed in China

Micro-area plasticity condition equation life assessment


techniques for component materials

Modified projection concept

Life assessment method of creep-fatigue interaction

The material life and component life---the creep curve


extrapolation method step by step

Micro-area plasticity condition equation life


assessment techniques for component materials
9

The research results for steel 12Cr1MoV show

the fine carbides smaller than 50-100nm are still remaining inside
the grain after operation for 300,000 hours.

Carbides have apparently grown up at grain boundaries. Even in


some areas the linked carbides have been formed, which causes
weakness area adjacent to grain boundaries. Therefore, the
structural deterioration in grain boundaries area are key factors
affecting the service life of components.

-3

strain sensitivity ratio m 10 )

9China has developed a nanometer detection pin insertion method to


measure the micro-plasticity ,try to establish the empirical relationship
between service life and strain coefficient.

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

12Cr1MoV

10

20

30
4

operating time 10 hr

40

Modified projection concept


9According

to the Evans and Wilshire theory, the


relationship between i values and creep strain can
be expressed by:

= 1 (1 e

2t

4t

) + 3 ( 4 e

1)

9The

creep strain at any time can be calculated when


the values of i were defined by the constant stress
creep test , the 105 hour creep life can be extrapolated
by short time creep test.
continued

China has started the research of life assessment of high


temperature components by usingprojection concept in early
1990s, and put forward a modifiedprojection concept to
assess the life of components under low stress creep condition
and established modifiedconcept equation for steels
12Cr1MoV and 10CrMo910,

etc. commonly used in China

= 1t + 2 ( e

3t

1)

Modified projection concept considers more about the


creep curve features of low alloy steels under a constant
load.
The primary creep could be ignored compare to the long
term secondary creep and tertiary creep under the low
stress condition. So the creep curve can be calculated by
above-mentioned equation.
t

a
a classic creep curve

b low-alloy steel long term creep curve

9For thei is the function of temperature and stress, The


123 values can be obtained from high stress
creep test. Therefore, the practical low stress creep curve
can be extrapolated in the power plants.
9Now, the application has been extended to 8 power plants.

12Cr1MoV

calculated value

tested value

Comparison of the calculation value and the test value for 123

=68.6MPa

strain

(%)

12Cr1MoV
T=540
T=540

time (hrs)

Calculated low stress creep curve

Life assessment method of creep-fatigue interaction

In 1980s and early 1990s, Chinese scholars carried out


a systematic research on creep-fatigue interaction for
high temperature steels used in power plants,
especially for those steels used to peaking units, and
established fracture characteristic diagram under creepfatigue interaction with hold time.

max

Hold

Time (t)

-hold 100s
-hold 10s

- hold 0s

rupture life Nf (tr)

min

mean stress m (10 MPa)

12Cr1MoV
max=274.4MPa
T=588
T=588

Stress

The fracture characteristic diagram with different


hold time

alternative stress a (10 MPa)

First it is necessary to distinguish different fracture modes. There is a


different prediction equation for creep rupture and fatigue rupture .

As to the power plant components operated for a long time, creep rupture is
the dominating factor. We can predict life with low part of figure below,
within which exists a saturated value of hold time that has a weak relation
to stress condition, it is to said that it isnt necessary to consider the
influence of unit start up and shut down;

We can use the different hold time under a given maximum stress to
experimentally determine the saturated value, which is the basis of life
prediction for materials for which creep rupture is the dominant failure
mode.

The material life and the component life---- the


creep curve extrapolation method step by step

The material life is different with component life:


There are differences between test conditions and actual
operation environment;
The samples may not be representative of the whole
component due to the dispersion of material properties.

To solve the problem, China developed the


creep curve extrapolation method step by step

Measured
Short time
1

Long time

The measurement values before point 1 in Figure are approximated to obtain


curve 1, from which extrapolation can be made to point 2, then the measurement
values before point 2 are approximated to obtain curve 2, from which extrapolation
can be made to point 3, then the measurement values before point 3 are
approximated to obtain curve 3. From here the prediction becomes fairly consistent
with the measurement curve (real line), the residual life can be accurately obtained.
This is what is called extrapolation method).

The advantages of the creep curve extrapolation


method step by step

The advantages of creep curves extrapolation can be fully


utilized, which evaluates the evolution of creep deformations
rather than life estimation only;
The prediction and extrapolation can be made gradually, since
every prediction is made only with extrapolation of one
operating cycle instead of the whole life, therefore the accuracy
of prediction and extrapolation can be greatly enhanced;
The application of method is not limited for pure creep
condition; it is still valid provided that creep deformation is still
a dominant one regardless of the presence of mechanical or
thermal fatigue. The effects caused by creep temperature and
stress fluctuation can also be estimated according to the creep
curves calculated based on typical creep temperature and stress
continued
calculation;

The prediction and extrapolation can be made under


the conditions consistent with practical operating
conditions;
The prediction and extrapolation can be made for
every specific individual component rather than the
statistic average extrapolation;
This method can easily realize on-line prediction and
monitoring.

5. The Current Statues of Life Management for


Fossil Power Plants in China

The life management of power plants has emphases on key


components that can be divided into three categories:
9 super-heater and reheater;
9 main steam pipe, reheater steam pipe and high-temperature
header;
9 turbine rotor, cylinder and high-temperature bolt

The life management for components of nuclear power plants


is undergoing now.

The administrative levels of life management for


components of fossil power plants in China
The three-level structure of life management system for power plants in China

Power plant

Information
exchange &
experience feedback

Provincial
electric power
institute

National electric
power institute

Level 1
(1) Gather historical operation data
(2) Design code calculations

Level 2
(1)Operating temperatures and pressure,
compared to design
(2)Some preliminary inspection
Level 3
(1)Detailed inspection
(2)Sample removal and testing
(3)Detailed calculations
(4)Formulation and revision of industry
standard

The implementation of life management for key


components of fossil power plants in China

Like other countries, China also mainly adopt a whole life cycle
management strategy for key components of fossil power plants,
which combines offline and online condition assessment;

After decades of researches, China has gradually had some


advantages in online assessment for key components(e.g: pipe
headersuperheater reheaterrotor etc).

(A) Life management of high-temperature boiler tubes

The Main interface of life management system for boiler tubes

(B)Life management of turbine rotor

History record of rotor in process of startup

(C)Life management of header

Temperature history record of header

The on-line assessment technology has developed and started


its use in China. With combination of predictive maintenance
and optimized operation, China has effectively realized the
life management and acquired remarkable achievements:
Reduced costly unscheduled service outages caused by
unexpected failures.
Extended the service life safely and economically
Eliminated the unnecessary or premature replacement of
components and equipment

THANKS !