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197 vues85 pagesEngineering of curved beams for monorail applications or structural members with curved requirements

Apr 06, 2016

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Engineering of curved beams for monorail applications or structural members with curved requirements

© All Rights Reserved

197 vues

Engineering of curved beams for monorail applications or structural members with curved requirements

© All Rights Reserved

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CONTENT:

WHATS A CURVED BEAM

BEAM?

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A STRAIGHT BEAM AND A

CURVED BEAM

WHY STRESS CONCENTRA

CONCENTRATION

TION OCCUR AT INNER SIDE OR

CONCAVE SIDE OF CURV

CURVED BEAM?

DERIVATION FOR STRES

STRESSES IN CURVED BEAM

PROBLEMS.

Due to bending moment, tensile stress develops in one portion of section

and compressive stress in the other portion across the depth. In between

these two portions, there is a layer where stresses are zero. Such a layer

is called neutral layer. Its trace on the cross section is called neutral axis.

Assumption

The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous and isotropic.

The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the

length of the beam.

The material of the beam obeys Hookes law.

The transverse sections which are plane before bending remain

plane after bending also.

Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract, independent of

the layer above or below it.

Youngs modulus is same in tension & compression.

Consider a portion of beam between sections AB and CD as shown in

the figure.

Let e1f1 be the neutral axis and g1h1 an

element at a distance y from neutral

axis. Figure shows the same portion

after bending. Let r be the

radius of curvature and is the angle

subtended by a1b1 and c1d1at centre of

radius of curvature. Since it is a neutral

axis, there is no change in its length (at

neutral axis stresses are zero.)

EF = E1F1 = R

G1H1 = (R+Y)

GH = R

R

Also Stress

OR

dF = 0

there is no direct force acting on the element considered.

is the

distance of centroid from neutral axis. Thus neutral axis coincides with

centroid of the cross section. Cross sec

sectional

tional area coincides with neutral

axis.

CURVED BEAM

Curved beams are the parts of machine members found in C clamps, crane hooks, frames of presses, riveters, punches, shears, boring

machines, planers etc. In straight beams the neutral axis of the section

coincides with its centroidal axis and the stress distribution in the beam

is linear. But in the case of curved beams the neutral axis of the section

is shifted towards the centre of curvature of the beam causing a nonnon

linear [hyperbolic] distribution of stress. The neutral axis lies between

the centroidal axis and the centre of curvature and will always be present

within the curved beams.

Consider a curved beam subjected to bending moment Mb as shown

in the figure. The distribution of stress in curved flexural member is

determined by using the following assumptions:

i) The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous [i.e., same

material throughout] and isotropic [i.e., equal elastic properties in all

directions]

ii) The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the length

of the beam.

iii) The material of the beam obeys Hooke's law.

iv) The transverse sections which are plane before bending remain plane

after bending also.

v) Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract, independent of

the layer above or below it.

vi) The Young's modulus is same both in tension and compression.

Derivation for stresses in curved beam

Nomenclature used in curved beam

Ci =Distance from neutral axis to inner radius of curved beam

Co=Distance from neutral axis to outer radius of curved beam

C1=Distance from centroidal axis to inner radius of curved beam

C2= Distance from centroidal axis to outer radius of curved beam

F = Applied load or Force

A = Area of cross section

L = Distance from force to centroidal axis at critical section

d= Direct stress

bi = Bending stress at the inner fiber

bo = Bending stress at the outer fiber

ri = Combined stress at the inner fiber

ro = Combined stress at the outer fiber

co

c2

ci

c1

CA

NA

F

F

Mb

Mb

ri

C

L

rn

rc

ro

Mb = Applied Bending Moment

ri = Inner radius of curved beam

ro = Outer radius of curved beam

rc = Radius of centroidal axis

rn = Radius of neutral axis

CL = Center of curvature

In the above figure the lines 'ab' and 'cd' represent two such planes

before bending. i.e., when there are no stresses induced. When a bending

moment 'Mb' is applied to the beam the plane cd rotates with respect to

'ab' through an angle 'd

'd'' to the position 'fg' and the outer fibers are

shortened while the inner fiberss are elongated. The original length of a

strip at a distance 'y' from the neutral axis is (y + rn). It is shortened by

the amount yd and the stress in this fiber is,

= E.e

Where = stress, e = strain and E = Young's Modulus

We know, stress e

i.e.,

=E

..... (i)

compressive stress and hence negative sign.

The load on the strip having thickness dy and cross sectional area dA is

'dF'

i.e., dF = dA =

dA

whole cross-section is zero and the summation of the moments due to

these forces is equal to the applied bending moment.

Let

Mb = Applied Bending Moment

ri = Inner radius of curved beam

ro = Outer radius of curved beam

rn = Radius of neutral axis

CL= Centre line of curvature

Summation of forces over the whole cross section

dF 0

i.e.

As

=0

=0

..... (ii)

The neutral axis radius 'rn' can be determined from the above equation.

If the moments are taken about the neutral axis,

Mb = ydF

Substituting the value of dF, we get

Mb =

dA

y ! " dA

ydA

#$

0%

by A.e., the product of total area A and the distance 'e' from the

centroidal axis to the neutral axis.

Mb =

A.e

Mb =

..... (iii)

. A. e.

&'

..... (iv)

This is the general equation for the stress in a fiber at a distance 'y' from

neutral axis.

At the outer fiber, y = co

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo

i.e.,

bo= !

&' ()

)

($ rn + co = ro)

..... (v)

stress and hence negative sign. At the inner fiber, y = ci

Bending stress at the inner fiber

bi=

i.e.,

bi =

&' ( *

+(*

&' ( *

*

($ rn ci = ri)

..... (vi)

and hence positive sign.

Sl.no

1

straight beam

In Straight beams the neutral

axis of the section coincides

with its centroidal axis and the

stress distribution in the beam

is linear.

curved beam

In case of curved beams the

neutral axis of the section is

shifted towards the center of

curvature of the beam causing

a

non-linear

stress

distribution.

axis coincides

towards the least centre of

curvature

section

curved beam

Consider the elements of the curved beam lying between two axial

planes ab and cd separated by angle .. Let fg is the final position of

the plane cd having rotated through an angle dd about neutral axis.

Consider two fibers symmetrically located on either side of the neutral

axis. Deformation in both the fibers is same and equal to yd

yd.

Since length of inner element is smaller than outer element, the strain

induced and stress developed are higher for inner element than outer

element as shown.

Thus stress concentration occur at inner side or concave side of curved

beam

The actual magnitude of stress in the curved beam would be influenced

by magnitude of curvature However, for a general comparison the stress

distribution for the same section and same bending moment for the

straight beam and the curved beam are shown in figure.

It is observed that the neutral axis shifts inwards for the curved beam.

This results in stress to be zero at this position, rather than at the centre

of gravity.

In cases where holes and discontinuities are provided in the beam, they

should be preferably placed at the neutral axis, rather than that at the

centroidal axis. This results in a better stress distribution.

Example:

For numerical analysis, consider the depth of the section ass twice

the inner radius.

Inner most fiber:

Outer most fiber:

h=2ri

e = rc - rn = h 0.910h = 0.0898h

co = ro - rn= h 0.910h = 0590h

ci = rn - ri = 0.910h -

= 0.410h

Comparing the stresses at the inner most fiber based on (1) and (3), we

observe that the stress at the inner most fiber in this case is:

bci = 1.522BSi

Thus the stress at the inner most fiber for this case is 1.522 times greater

than that for a straight beam.

From the stress distribution it is observed that the maximum stress in a

curved beam is higher than the straight beam.

Comparing the stresses at the outer most fiber based on (2) and (4), we

observe that the stress at the outer most fiber in this case is:

bco = 1.522BSi

Thus the stress at the inner most fiber for this case is 0.730 times that for

a straight beam.

The curvatures thus introduce a non linear stress distribution.

This is due to the change in force flow lines, resulting in stress

concentration on the inner side.

To achieve a better stress distribution, section where the centroidal axis

is the shifted towards the insides must be chosen, this tends to equalize

the stress variation on the inside and outside fibers for a curved beam.

Such sections are trapeziums, non symmetrical I section, and T sections.

It should be noted that these sections should always be placed in a

manner such that the centroidal axis is inwards.

Problem no.1

Plot the stress distribution about section A-B of the hook as shown in

figure.

Given data:

ri = 50mm

ro = 150mm

F = 22X103N

b = 20mm

h = 150-50 = 100mm

A = bh = 20X100 = 2000mm2

Section A-B

B will be subjected to a combination of direct load and

bending, due to the eccentricity of the force.

Stress due to direct load will be,

y = rn r = 91.024 r

Mb = 22X103X100 = 2.2X106 N-mm

Problem no.2

Determine the value of t in the cross section of a curved beam as

shown in fig such that the normal stress due to bending at the extreme

fibers are numerically equal.

Given data;

Inner radius ri=150mm

Outer radius ro=150+40+100

=290mm

Solution;

From Figure Ci + CO = 40 + 100

= 140mm (1)

Since the normal stresses due to bending at

the extreme fiber are numerically equal we

have,

i.e

Ci=

= 0.51724Co (2)

rn=

rn =197.727 mm

ai = 40mm; bi = 100mm; b2 =t;

ao = 0; bo = 0; ri = 150mm; ro = 290mm;

i.e.,

+83.61t = 4000+100t;

4674.069+83.61t

t = 41.126mm

Problem no.3

Determine the stresses at point A and B of the split ring shown in the

figure.

Solution:

The figure shows the critical section of the split

ring.

Radius of centroidal axis

rc = 80mm

Inner radius of curved beam

ri = 80

= 50mm

ro = 80 +

= 110mm

rn =

=

Applied force

= 77.081mm

F = 20kN = 20,000N (compressive)

A = d2 =

x602 = 2827.433mm2

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = Fl = 20,000x80

=16x105N-mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis

e = rc ! rn

= 80! 77.081=2.919mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius

ci = rn ! ri

= 77.081! 50=27.081mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius

co = ro ! rn

= 110 ! 77.081=32.919mm

Direct stress

d = !

/0000

/1/2.,44

=! 7.0736N/mm2 (comp.)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi = !

=

&' *

*

+ 567508 7/2.015

/1/2.,447/.9597:0

= ! 105N/mm2 (compressive)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )

)

567508 74/.959

/1/2.,447/.9597550

= 58.016N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the inner fiber

ri = d + bi

= ! 7.0736! 105.00

= - 112.0736N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the outer fiber

ro = d + bo

= ! 7.0736+58.016

= 50.9424N/mm2 (tensile)

Maximum shear stress

max = 0.5x max

= 0.5x112.0736

= 56.0368N/mm2, at B

The figure.

Problem No. 4

Curved bar of rectangular section 40x60mm and a mean radius of

100mm is subjected to a bending moment of 2KN

2KN-m

m tending to

straighten the bar. Find the position of the Neutral axis and draw a

diagram to show the variation of stress across the section.

Solution

Given data:

b= 40mm

h= 60mm

rc=100mm

Mb= 2x106 N-mm

C1=C2= 30mm

rn=

=130 =(ri+c1+c2)

ro= rc+h/2=100+30=130

ri= rc- h/2 = 100 - 30= 70mm (rc-c1)

rn= 96.924mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis

e = rc - rn= 100-96.924

=3.075mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius

ci= rn- ri = (c1-e)

e) = 26.925mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius

co=c2+e= (ro-rn) = 33.075mm

Area

A= bxh = 40x60 = 2400 mm2

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' )

)

+/;50< ;44.02:

/,00;4.02:;540

Bending stress at the centroidal axis =

=

+&'

=

+/;50<

/,00;500

The stress distribution at the inner and outer fiber is as shown in the

figure.

Problem No. 5

The section of a crane hook is a trapezium; the inner face is b and is at a

distance of 120mm from the centre line of curvature. The outer face is

25mm and depth of trapezium =120mm.Find the proper value of b, if the

extreme fiber stresses due to pure bending are numerically equal, if the

section is subjected to a couple which develop a maximum fiber stress of

60Mpa.Determine the magnitude of the couple.

Solution

ri = 120mm; bi = b; bo= 25mm; h = 120mm

bi = bo = 60MPa

Since the extreme fibers stresses due to pure bending are numerically

equal we have,

& ' * & ' )

=

*

)

We have,

Ci/ri =co/ro =ci/co =120/240

2ci=co

But

h= ci + co

120 = ci+2ci

Ci=40mm;

co=80mm

rn= ri + ci = 120+40 =160 mm

b=150.34mm

To find the centroidal axis, (C2)

bo= 125.84mm; b=25mm; h=120mm

= 74.313mm.

But C1=C2

rc= ro-c2 =240 - 74.313 =165.687mm

e=rc- rn = 165.687 - 160 = 5.6869 mm

Bending stress in the outer fiber,

>?

M> c

Aer

5:0.1,/:5/0

A=

/

= 1050.4mm

60 =

&' ;10

50::0.,;:.612;/,0

Mb=10.8x106 N-mm

Problem no.6

Determine the stresses at point A and B of the split ring shown in

fig.1.9a

Solution:

Redraw the critical section as shown in the figure.

Radius of centroidal axis rc = 80mm

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 80!

60

/

= 50mm

60

/

= 110mm

=

Applied force

CD) D* E

C550:0E

,

=77.081mm

,

x602 = 2827.433mm2

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 20,000x80

=16x105N-mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc ! rn

= 80! 77.081

=2.919mm

ci = rn ! ri = 77.081! 50 = 27.081mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius

co = ro ! rn = 110! 77.081 = 32.919mm

Direct stress

d =!

/0000

/1/2.,44

=! 7.0736N/mm2 (comp.)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi = !

&' *

*

+ 567508 7/2.015

/1/2.,447/.9597:0

= ! 105N/mm2 (compressive)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )

)

567508 74/.959

/1/2.,447/.9597550

= 58.016N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the inner fiber

ri = d + bi =! 7.0736! 105.00

=! 112.0736N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the outer fiber

ro = d + b = ! 7.0736+58.016

= 50.9424N/mm2 (tensile)

Maximum shear stress

Gmax = 0.5x max = 0.5x112.0736

= 56.0368N/mm2, at B

Problem no.7

Determine the maximum tensile, compressive and shear stress induced

in a c frame of a hydraulic portable riveter shown in fig.1.6a

Solution:

50

the figure.

R1

00

9000N

in

80

100mm

175 mm

= 180mm

10

/

c2

= ln

I)

# I* %

10

JK?

#J?%

= 136.1038mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis

e = rc - rn = 140-136.1038 = 3.8962mm

Critical

Section

co

ri = 100mm

ci

175mm

ro

CA

NA

= 140mm

c1

b = 50 mm

F

h = 80mm

e

rn

rc

CL

ci = rn - ri = 136.1038-100 = 36.1038mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius

co = ro - rn = 180-136.1038 = 43.8962mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force

l = 175+ rc = 175+140 = 315mm

Applied force

F = 9000N

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 9000x315

= 2835000 N-mm

Direct stress

d =

9000

,000

= 2.25N/mm2 (tensile)

&' *

*

/14:000746.5041

,00074.196/7500

= 65.676N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo = !

&' )

)

=!

/14:0007,4.196/

,00074.196/7510

= ! 44.326N/mm2 (compressive)

= 67.926N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 2.25! 44.362

= !42.112 N/mm2 (compressive)

The stress distribution on the critical section is as shown in the figure.

ri=67.926 N/mm2

2

bi=65.676 N/mm2

Bending stress bo=-44.362 N/mm2

d=2.25 N/mm

NA

CA

b = 50 mm

h =80 mm

Problem no.8

The frame punch press is shown in fig. 1.7s. Find the stress in inner and

outer surface at section A-B the frame if F = 5000N

Solution:

bi = 18 mm

figure.

c1

bo = 6 mm

c2

h = 40mm

e

co

ci

ri = 25mm

100mm

rc

ro

rn

CA

NA

C

L

= 65mm

Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber c1 =

=

,0 51/76

4

516

>* />)

4

>* >)

" = 16.667mm

"

= 25+16.667 = 41.667 mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =

J

>* >)

'* I) L ') I* I)

+ >* +>)

M

I*

J

7,0516

= JKN<8L<N8

<8

+ 51+6

O?

8

=38.8175mm

= 1.667!38.8175

=2.8495mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn! ri

= 38.8175!25=13.8175mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro! rn

= 65-38.8175=26.1825mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = 100+ rc = 100+41.667

= 141.667mm

Applied force

F = 5000N

5

/

= 708335 N-mm

Direct stress

d =

:000

,10

= 10.417N/mm2 (tensile)

&' *

*

20144:754.152:

,107/.1,9:7/:

= 286.232N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )

)

20144:7/6.51/:

,107/.1,9:76:

= !208.606N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 10.417+286.232

= 296.649N/mm2 (tensile)

= ! 198.189N/mm2 (compressive)

ri=296.649 N/mm2

2

bi=286.232 N/mm2

Bending stress bo =-208.606 N/mm2

d=10.417 N/mm2

NA

CA

bo = 6 mm

bi = 18 mm

h =40 mm

Problem no.9

Figure shows a frame of a punching machine and its various dimensions.

Determine the maximum stress in the frame, if it has to resist a force of

85kN

75

300

250

75

750 mm

85 kN

550

figure.

225 mm

F

B

a1

b2 =75mm

b=

300mm

i

ai =75mm

Solution:

a2

co

ci

X

e

A

ri = 250 mm

rn

rn =

I Y

I Y

>* W *X * Z > [ )L ) \>)

I)XY

*

I)

"

I) LY)

A=a1+a2=75x300+75x225 =39375mm2

rn

400

4942:

8?X]8

88?L?

"2:

"0

8?

8?X]8

750

C

L

I*

NA

CA

rc

ro=550 mm

= 333.217mm

x^

J 7J 7

J

]8

4942:

8

"

= 101.785mm

= 250+101.785=351.785 mm

= 351.785-333.217=18.568mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn! ri

= 333.217! 250=83.217mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro! rn

= 550! 333.217=216.783mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = 750+ rc

= 750+351.785 = 1101.785mm

Applied force

F = 85kN

= 85000x1101.785

= 93651725N-mm

Direct stress

d =

1:000

4942:

= 2.16N/mm2 (tensile)

&' *

*

946:52/:714./52

4942:751.:617/:0

= 42.64N/mm2 (tensile)

&' )

)

=!

946:52/:7/56.214

4942:751.:617::0

= ! 50.49N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 2.16+42.64

= 44.8N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 2.16! 50.49

= ! 48.33N/mm2 (compressive)

The below figure shows the stress distribution.

2

ri=44.8 N/mm

Combined stress ro=-48.33 N/mm2

bi=42.64 N/mm2

Bending stress bo=-50.49 N/mm2

d=2.16 N/mm2

NA

CA

Direct stress ( d)

ai=75mm

b2 = 75 mm

a2

225

bi =300mm

a1

Problem no.10

0

10

Compute the combined stress at the inner and outer fibers in the critical

cross section of a crane hook is required to lift loads up to 25kN. The

hook has trapezoidal cross section with parallel sides 60mm and 30mm,

the distance between them being 90mm .The inner radius of the hook is

100mm. The load line is nearer to the surface of the hook by 25 mm the

centre of curvature at the critical

section. What will be the stress at inner

and outer fiber, if the beam is treated as

straight beam for the given load?

90mm

m

m

30mm

60mm 25mm

Solution:

NA

CA

F = 25 kN

h = 90 mm

c2

c1

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 100mm

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 100+90 =

190mm

Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber

c1 =

>* />)

4

>* >)

= 40mm

" =

90

4

60/740

6040

ci

co

"

ri

rn

rc

ro

l

F

C

L

= 140 mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =

J

>* >)

'* I)L ') I* I)

+ >* +>)

M

I*

J

79076040

<?NJ_? L `?NJ?? J_?

J?? + 60+40

_?

= 135.42mm

= 140! 135.42=4.58mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn ! ri = 135.42! 100

=35.42mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro ! rn = 190! 135.42

= 54.58mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc ! 25= 140! 25

= 115mm

Applied force

F = 25,000N = 25kN

5

/

= 2875000 N-mm

Direct stress

d =

/:000

,0:0

= 6.173N/mm2 (tensile)

&' *

*

/12:00074:.,/

,0:07,.:17500

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =!

&' )

)

=!

/12:0007:,.:1

,0:07,.:17590

= ! 44.524N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 6.173+54.9

= 61.073N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 6.173! 44.524

= ! 38.351N/mm2 (compressive)

Maximum shear stress

= 30.5365 N/mm2, at the inner fiber

From DDHB refer table,

b = 30mm

bo = 60-30 = 30mm

h = 90

c1 = 40mm

c2 = 90-50 = 40mm

A = 4050 mm2

Mb = 28750000 N/mm2

Also

C2 =

4>/>) 7

47/>>)

C2 =

4740/740790

47/74040

= 50mm

c1 = 90-50= 40mm

Moment of inertia I =

=

46c/>>) d

46c/74040d

= 2632500mm4

Direct stress

b =

/:000

,0:0

= 6.173N/mm2 (tensile)

&' J

e

/12:0007,0

2632500

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo = -

&'

e

2875000x50

/64/:00

= -54.606N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 6.173+43.685

= 49.858N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 6.173-54.606

= -48.433N/mm2 (compressive)

The stress distribution on the straight beam is as shown in the figure.

ro=-48.433 N/mm2

2

bo =-54.606 N/mm

d= 6.173 N/mm2

d

c1=40mm

c2 =50mm

60 mm

b = 30 mm

NA, CA

bo/2 = 15

bo/2 = 15

h =90 mm

Problem no.11

The section of a crane hook is rectangular in shape whose width is

30mm and depth is 60mm. The centre of curvature of the section is at

distance of 125mm from the inside section and the load line is 100mm

from the same point. Find the capacity of hook if the allowable stress in

tension is 75N/mm2

5

12

m

m

h=60mm

100

b=30mm

Solution:

F=?

figure.

= 185mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc =100+

= 153.045mm

I)

#I* %

Load line

100

co

60

rn

rc

= ln

ri = 125mm

ci

ro

l

CA

NA

= 130mm

c1

b = 30 mm

c2

h = 60mm

e

60

JK8

#J8%

= 155-153.045 = 1.955mm

CL

= 153.045-125 = 28.045mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn

= 185-153.045 = 31.955mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc -25 = 155-25 = 130mm

Area of cross section A = bh = 30x60 = 1800mm2

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = Fl = Fx130

= 130F

Direct stress

d =

5100

&' *

*

5100

i.e., 75 =

5407.7/1.0,:

510075.9::75/:

5100

Problem no.12

Design of steel crane hook to have a capacity of 100kN. Assume factor

of safety (FS) = 2 and trapezoidal section.

M =bi

bo

Z

Trapezoidal section; FS = 2

Solution: Approximately 1kgf = 10N

105 = 10,000 kgf =10t

Selection the standard crane hook dimensions from table 25.3 when safe

load =10t and steel (MS)

CA

NA

h = 111mm

h = 111 mm

c2

c1

bi= M = 7133

bo = 2xZ = 2x14 = 28 mm

r1 = =

/

559

/

h = 111mm

= 59.5mm

bo=28

bi=71

ci

co

e

CL

ri=59.5 mm

rn

rc= l

ro

F

Assume the load line passes through the centre of hook. Draw the

critical section as shown in the figure.

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 59.5mm

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 59.5+111 = 170.5mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =

J

>* >)

'* I)L ') I* I)

+ >* >)

I*

M

J

7555725/1

]JNJ]?.8LKN8_.8 J]?.8

+ 25/1

O?

8_.8

= 98.095mm

Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber c1 =

=

>* />)

4

>* >)

"

555 25/7/1

4

25/1

" = 47.465mm

= 47.465+59.5= 106.965 mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn

=106.965-98.095 =8.87mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri

= 98.095-59.5=38.595mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn

= 170.5-98.095=72.0405mm

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc -106.965

Applied force

F = 105N

5

/

/

= 106.965x105N-mm

Direct stress

d =

500000

:,9,.:

= 18.2N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *

*

506.96:7508 741.:9:

:,9,.:71.127:9.:

= 142.365/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )

)

506.96:7508 72/.,0:

:,9,.5x8.127520.:

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 18.2+142.365

= 160.565N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 18.2-93.2

= -75N/mm2 (compressive)

Maximum shear stress

= 80.2825 N/mm2, at the inner fiber

ri=160.565 N/mm

ro =-75 N/mm2

bi=142,365 N/mm2

bo=-93.2 N/mm2

d =18.2 N/mm2

bo = 28 mm

NA

CA

h = 111 mm

bi = 71 mm

Problem no.13

The figure shows a loaded offset bar. What is the maximum offset

distance x if the allowable stress in tension is limited to 50N/mm2

Solution:

Draw the critical section as shown in the figure.

Radius of centroidal axis

rc = 100mm

Inner radius

Outer radius

=

93.3mm

Dr r

W o iZ

4

2

15050

"=

4

ci = rn ri = 93.3 50 = 43.3

mm

co = ro - rn = 150 - 93.3 =

56.7mm

i

A = x d2 = x 1002 = 7853.98mm2

,

Mb = Fx = 5000 x

Combined maximum stress at the inner fiber

(i.e., at B)

.

= Q

50

:000

21:4.91

&' *

*

:0007,4.4

21:4.91j6.2j:0

Problem no.14

An Open S made from 25mm diameter

rod as shown in the figure determine the

maximum tensile, compressive and shear

stress

Solution:

(I)

P-Q as shown in the figure.

Radius of centroidal axis

rc =100mm

= 87.5mm

Outer radius ro

= 112.5mm

= 100+

rn =

= 99.6mm

Distance of neutral axis from centroidal axis e =rc - rn

=100 - 99.6 = 0.4mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner fiber ci = rn ri

= 99.6 87.5 =12.1 mm

=112.5 99.6 = 12.9 mm

Area of cross-section

A=

4

I = rc = 100mm

= 100000Nmm

stress

ro=

F

A

M b Co

Aeo

1000

490.87

100000 X12.9

490.87 X 0.4 X 112.5

Combined stress at inner fibre (i.e., at p)

=

F

A

M b ci

Aeri

1000

490.87

100000 X 12.1

(ii) Consider the section R -S

Redraw the critical section at R S as shown in fig.

rc = 75mm

ri = 75 -

25

2

=62.5 mm

ro = 75 +

A=

25

2

d2 =

rn =

=

= 87.5 mm

2

Dro ri

W

Z

4

2

87.5 62.5

"

4

=74.4755 mm

e = rc - rn = 75 -74.4755 =0.5254 mm

ci = rn - ri =74.4755 62.5 =11.9755 mm

co = ro - rn = 87.5 74.4755 = 13.0245 mm

l = rc = 75 mm

Mb = Fl = 1000 X 75 = 75000 Nmm

Combined stress at the outer fibre (at R) = Direct stress + Bending stress

F

M b co

Aero

ro =

1000

490.87

75000 X13.0245

490.87 X 0.5245 X 62.5

Combined stress at the inner fiber (at S) = Direct stress + Bending stress

ri =

F

A

M b co

Aero

1000

490.87

75000 X 11.9755

490.87 X 0.5245 X 62.5

Maximum tensile stress = 72.466 N/mm2 at P

2

Maximum shear stress max=0.5 max= 0.5 X 72.466

= 36.233 N/mm2 at P

Consider a thin circular ring subjected to symmetrical load F as shown

in the figure.

horizontal and vertical directions.

Consider the horizontal section as shown in the figure. At the two ends

A and B, the vertical forces would be F/2.

No horizontal forces would be there at A and B. this argument can be

proved by understanding that since the ring and the external forces are

symmetrical, the reactions too must be symmetri

symmetrical.

Assume that two horizontal inward forces H, act at A and B in the upper

half, as shown in the figure. In this case, the lower

half must have forces H acting outwards as shown.

This however, results in violation of symmetry and

hence H must be zero. B

Besides the forces, moments

of equal magnitude M0 act at A and B. It should be

noted that these moments do not violate the

condition of symmetry. Thus loads on the section can

be treated as that shown in the figure. The unknown

quantity is M0. Again Consi

Considering symmetry, We

conclude that the tangents at A and B must be

vertical and must remain so after deflection or M0

does not rotate. By Castiglianos theorem

theorem, the partial

derivative of the strain energy with respect to the load gives the

displacement of the

he load. In this case, this would be zero.

.(1)

figure.

Will be

..(2)

And,

ds = Rd

produces tension in the inner fibers and compression on the outer.

It should be noted that these equations are valid in the region,

= 0 to = 900.

The bending moment Mb at any angle from equation (2)

2) will be:

The stress at any angle can be found by considering the

forces as shown in the figure.

Put = 0 in Bending moment equation (4) then we will

get,

At A-A Mbi = 0.181FR

Mbo = - 0.181FR

And = 90,

At B-B

Mbi = - 0.318FR

Mbo = 0.318FR

The vertical force F/22 can be resolved in two

components (creates normal direct stresses) and S

(creates shear stresses).

A will be (at = 0)

i

and

0

outer points will be (at = 90 )

that the radius is large compared to the depth, or the beam is almost a

straight beam.

the figure. At the two ends C and D, the vertical forces would be F/2.

ring.

The unknown quantity is M0. Again considering symmetry, we

conclude that the tangents at C and D must be vertical and must remain

so after deflection or M0 does not rotate.

There are two regions to be considered in this case:

The straight portion, (0 < y < L) where

Mb = MO

The curved portion, where

\

As per Castiglianos theorem

as obtained for a circular ring. Mo produces tension in the inner fibers

and Compression on the outer.

The bending moment Mb at any angle will be

p/2

At = 0

B bending moment at inner and outer side of the fiber is

At section B-B

At section A-A

A the load point, i.e., at = p/2, the maximum value of

bending moment occurs (numerically), as it is observed that the second

part of the equation is much greater than the first part.

expression as obtained for a circular ring.

It is seen that numerically, Mb-max is greater than Mo.

shown in the figure.

The vertical force F/22 can be resolved in two components (creates

normal direct stresses) and S (creates shear stresses).

The stress at inner fiber 1Bi and outer fiber 1Bo and at section B-B

B will

be (at = 0):

The stress at inner fiber 1Ai and outer fiber 1Ao and at section A-A

A

0

will be (at the loading point = 90 ):

Problem 15

Determine the stress induced in a circular ring of circular cross section

of 25 mm diameter subjected to a tensile load 6500N. The inner

diameter of the ring is 60 mm.

Solution: the circular ring and its critical section are as shown in fig.

1.29a and 1.29b respectively.

Inner radius ri =

= 30mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc = 30 +

= 42.5mm

=

=42.5mm

= 42.5 41.56 = 0.94mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri

= 41.56 30 = 11.56mm

= 55 - 41.56 = 13.44mm

Direct stress at any cross section at an angle with horizontal

d =

. k

/

At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal

Direct stress

d =

. k 90

/

=0

Where r = rc, negative sign refers to tensile load

M>l = - 0.318x6500x42.5 = -87847.5 N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber l =Direct stress + Bending stress

=0-

&' *

*

=!

121,2.:755.:6

,90.12,70.9,740

= - 73.36N/mm2 (compressive)

Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress

=0+

&' )

)

121,2.:754.,,

,90.12,70.9,7::

= 46.52N/mm2 (tensile)

Consider the cross section B B

Direct stress

d =

. k 0

2A

6:007 cos 0

/7,90.12,

= 6.621 N/mm2

Where r = rc, positive sign refers to tensile load

M>o = 0.182x6500x42.5 = 50277.5 N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber o =Direct stress + Bending stress

= d -

&' *

*

= 6.621 +

:0/22.:755.:6

,90.874x0.9,740

Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress

= d +

&' )

)

=6.621+

:0/22.:754.,,

,90.12,70.9,7::

Problem 16

Determine the stress induced in a circular ring of circular cross section

of 50 mm diameter rod subjected to a compressive load of 20kNN. The

mean diameter of the ring is 100 mm.

Solution: the circular ring and its critical section are as shown in fig.

1.30a and 1.30b respectively.

Inner radius ri =

Outer radius =

= 25mm

= 75mm

= 50mm

=

= 46.65mm

= 50 - 46.65 = 3.35mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri

= 46.65

46.65-25 = 21.65 mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn

= 75 - 46.65 = 28.35mm

Area of cross section A = x552 = 1963.5mm2

d =

p qrs t

/u

At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal

Direct stress

d =

p qrs 90

/u

=0

Where r = rc, positive sign refers to tensile load

vwx = + 0.318x20000x50 = 318000 N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber yz{x =Direct stress + Bending stress

=0+

|} q ~

uz~

31800021.6:

5964.:4.4:/:

Maximum stress at outer fiber yzrx = Direct stress + Bending stress

=0 -

|} q

uz

=-

451000/1.35

5964.:4.4:2:

At section B B, = 00 with respect to horizontal

Direct stress

d =

. k 0

/

/00007 k 0

/75964.:

Bending moment Mb = -0.1828Fr

Where r = rc, negative sign refers to tensile load

M>o = - 0.182x20000x50 = -182000 N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber o =Direct stress + Bending stress

= d -

&' *

Aer*

= -5.093 +

51/0007/5.6:

5964.5x3.4:7/:

Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress

= d +

&' )

)

= -5.093 +

51/0007/1.4:

5964.:74.4:72:

Problem 17

A chain link is made of 40 mm diameter rod is circular at each end the

mean diameter of which is 80mm. The straight sides of the link are also

80mm. The straight sides of the link are also 80mm.If the link carries a

load of 90kN; estimate the tensile and compress

compressive

ive stress in the link

along the section of load line. Also find the stress at a section 900 away

from the load line

Solution: refer figure

= 80mm; dc = 80mm;

rc = 40mm;

F = 90kN = 90000N

Draw the critical cross section as shown in fig.1.32

Inner radius ri = 40 Outer radius =

= 20mm

= 60mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =

=

= 37.32mm

=40-37.32 = 2.68mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri

= 37.32-20 = 17.32 mm

= 60 37.32 = 22.68mm

Direct stress at any cross section at an angle with horizontal

d =

. k

/

At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal

Direct stress

d =

. k 90

/

900007,07/7,010

/7,010

=0

.I /

/

where r = rc,

= 1.4x106N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber l =Direct stress + Bending stress

=0+

&' *

*

5.,750< 752.4/

7,0 7/.617/0

Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress

=0-

&' )

)

5.,750< 7//.61

=-

7,0 7/.61760

Consider the cross section B B [i.e., 900 away from the load line]

At section B B, = 00 with respect to horizontal

Direct stress

d =

. k /

/

5.,750< 7 k 0

(compressive)

Bending moment M>l = M>l =

.I /+

/

900007,07/7,0+710

/7,010

/7 7,0

O

= 35.81 N/mm2

where r = rc,

= - 399655.7N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile

stress at the at outer fiber

Maximum stress at the inner fiber o =Direct stress + Bending stress

= d -

&' *

*

= 35.81 +

4996::.2752.4/

/7O7,0 7/.617/0

Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress

= d +

&' )

)

= 35.81 -

4996::.27//.61

/7O7,0 7/.61760

Maximum tensile stress occurs at outer fiber of section A A and

maximum compressive stress occurs at the inner fiber of section A A.

curved beam of initial radius R1 when bent to a radius R2 by

uniform bending moment is

M = EAeR1

Consider a curved beam of uniform cross section as shown in Figure

below. Its transverse section is symmetric with respect to the y axis and

in its unstressed state; its upper and lower surfaces intersect the vertical

xy plane along the arcs of circle A

AB

B and EF centered at O [Fig. 1(a)].

1(

Now apply two equal and opposite couples M and

d M' as shown in Fig. 1.

(c). The length of neutral surface remains the same. and ' are the

central angles before and after applying the moment M. Since the length

of neutral surface remains the same

R1 =R2''

..... (i)

Figure

Consider the arc of circle JK located at a distance y above the neutral

surface. Let r1 and r2 be the radius of this arc before and after bending

couples have been applied. Now, the deformation of JK,

.... (ii)

From Fig. 1.2 a and c, r1 = R1 y; r2 = R2 y

..... (iii)

=R2'' 'y R1 + y

= y ((' ) [ R1 = R2'' from equ (i)]

= y

[ ' = + = ]

..... (iv)

The normal strain x in the element of JK is obtained by dividing

the deformation by the original length r1 of arc JK.

x =

..... (v)

The normal stress x may be obtained from Hooke's law x = Ex

x =E

i.e. x

..... (vi)

= E

( r1 = R1 y) .(vii)

Equation (vi) shows that the normal stress x does not vary linearly

with the distance y from the neutral surface. Plotting x versus y, we

obtain an arc of hyperbola as shown in Fig. 1.3.

entire area is zero and the summation of the moments due to these forces

is equal to the applied bending moment.

F =0

i.e., xdA =0

..... (viii)

and ( yxdA)=M

..... (ix)

(viii)

t

+z

J J "dA=0

t

Since

t

t

i.e.

zJ

R1

R1

i.e., .

! =0

z1

u

z1

J +zJ

zJ

"dA = 0

! =0

R1 = x

1

u

..... (x)

neutral surface is obtained by the relation R1 = x

of the cross-section, since 1 is obtained by the relation,

5

1 = 1

..... (xi)

u

Hence it is proved that in a curved member the neutral axis of a

transverse section does not pass through the centroid of that section.

Now substitute the value of x from equation (vii) into equations (ix)

t J +zJ

t

zJ

"y dA =M

i.e.,

i.e.,

i.e.,

i.e.,

#5 /

t

t

t

t

t

t

u

#5 /

zJ

u

J +zJ /

zJ

" dA = M

/

CJ +/J zJ zJ E

zJ

($ r1 = R1 - y from iii)

dA = M

! 25 Q 1%= M

i.e.,

t

t

5 ! 25 Q 5 v

t

i.e.,

i.e.,

5 ! 5 =M

i.e.,

t

t

..... (xii)

^^^+

uz

1

1

u

Substituting

($e =

1 R1 from Fig. 1.2a)

xiii)

x =

u1 +

x=

Mz1 +1

uz1

..... (xiv)

($ r1 = R1 y

..... (xv)

curved beam.

To determine the change in curvature of the neutral surface caused by

the bending moment M

From equation (i),

5

5 t

J t

5 tt

J

"

u

"=

#1 Q

1Q

5

i.e.

References:

u

1

v

Q

5 5

M

EAeR1

M =EAe R1

Hence proved

"

ASSIGNMENT

1. What are the assumptions made in finding stress distribution for a curved flexural member? Also

give two differences between a straight and curved beam

2. Discuss the stress distribution pattern in curved beams when compared to straight beam with

sketches

3. Derive an expression for stress distribution due to bending moment in a curved beam

EXERCISES

1. Determine the force F that will produce a maximum tensile stress of 60N/mm2 in section

A - B and the corresponding stress at the section C - D

2. A crane hook has a section of trapezoidal. The area at the critical section is 115 mm2. The hook

carries a load of 10kN and the inner radius of curvature is 60 mm. calculate the maximum tensile,

compressive and shear stress.

Hint: bi = 75 mm; bo = 25 mm; h = 115 mm

3. A closed ring is made of 40 mm diameter rod bent to a mean radius of 85 mm. If the pull along

the diameter is 10,000 N, determine the stresses induced in the section of the ring along which it is

divided into two parts by the direction of pull.

4. Determine of value of t in the cross section of a curved beam shown in Figure such that the normal

stresses due to bending at the extreme fibers are numerically equal.

VTU,Jan/Feb.2005

Fig.1.35

5. Determine a safe value for load P for a machine element loaded as shown in Figure limiting the

maximum normal stress induced on the cross section XX to 120 MPa.

6. The section of a crane hook is trapezoidal, whose inner and outer sides are 90 mm and

25 mm respectively and has a depth of 116 mm. The center of curvature of the section is at a

distance of 65 mm from the inner side of the section and load line passes through the center of

curvature. Find the maximum load the hook can carry, if the maximum stress is not to exceed 70

MPa.

7. a) Differentiate between a straight beam and a curved beam with stress distribution in each of the

beam.

b) Figure shows a 100 kN crane hook with a trapezoidal section. Determine stress in the outer,

inner, Cg and also at the neutral fiber and draw the stress distribution across the section AB.

87.5

25

B

62

.5

m

m

112.5

F = 100kN

8.

A closed ring is made up of 50 mm diameter steel bar having allowable tensile stress of 200

MPa. The inner diameter of the ring is 100 mm. For load of 30 kN find the maximum stress in

the bar and specify the location. If the ring is cut as shown in part -B of

Fig. 1.40, check whether it is safe to support the applied load.

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