Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 85

CURVED BEAMS

CONTENT:
 WHATS A CURVED BEAM
BEAM?
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A STRAIGHT BEAM AND A
CURVED BEAM
 WHY STRESS CONCENTRA
CONCENTRATION
TION OCCUR AT INNER SIDE OR
CONCAVE SIDE OF CURV
CURVED BEAM?
 DERIVATION FOR STRES
STRESSES IN CURVED BEAM
 PROBLEMS.

Theory of Simple Bending


Due to bending moment, tensile stress develops in one portion of section
and compressive stress in the other portion across the depth. In between
these two portions, there is a layer where stresses are zero. Such a layer
is called neutral layer. Its trace on the cross section is called neutral axis.








Assumption
The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous and isotropic.
The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the
length of the beam.
The material of the beam obeys Hookes law.
The transverse sections which are plane before bending remain
plane after bending also.
Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract, independent of
the layer above or below it.
Youngs modulus is same in tension & compression.
Consider a portion of beam between sections AB and CD as shown in
the figure.
Let e1f1 be the neutral axis and g1h1 an
element at a distance y from neutral
axis. Figure shows the same portion
after bending. Let r be the
radius of curvature and is the angle
subtended by a1b1 and c1d1at centre of
radius of curvature. Since it is a neutral
axis, there is no change in its length (at
neutral axis stresses are zero.)
EF = E1F1 = R

G1H1 = (R+Y)
GH = R
R

Also Stress

OR
dF = 0
there is no direct force acting on the element considered.

Since yaa is first moment of area about neutral axis, ya/a

is the
distance of centroid from neutral axis. Thus neutral axis coincides with
centroid of the cross section. Cross sec
sectional
tional area coincides with neutral
axis.

From (1) and (2)

CURVED BEAM
Curved beams are the parts of machine members found in C clamps, crane hooks, frames of presses, riveters, punches, shears, boring
machines, planers etc. In straight beams the neutral axis of the section
coincides with its centroidal axis and the stress distribution in the beam
is linear. But in the case of curved beams the neutral axis of the section
is shifted towards the centre of curvature of the beam causing a nonnon
linear [hyperbolic] distribution of stress. The neutral axis lies between
the centroidal axis and the centre of curvature and will always be present
within the curved beams.

Stresses in Curved Beam


Consider a curved beam subjected to bending moment Mb as shown
in the figure. The distribution of stress in curved flexural member is
determined by using the following assumptions:
i) The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous [i.e., same
material throughout] and isotropic [i.e., equal elastic properties in all
directions]
ii) The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the length
of the beam.
iii) The material of the beam obeys Hooke's law.
iv) The transverse sections which are plane before bending remain plane
after bending also.
v) Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract, independent of
the layer above or below it.
vi) The Young's modulus is same both in tension and compression.
Derivation for stresses in curved beam
Nomenclature used in curved beam
Ci =Distance from neutral axis to inner radius of curved beam
Co=Distance from neutral axis to outer radius of curved beam
C1=Distance from centroidal axis to inner radius of curved beam
C2= Distance from centroidal axis to outer radius of curved beam
F = Applied load or Force
A = Area of cross section
L = Distance from force to centroidal axis at critical section
d= Direct stress
bi = Bending stress at the inner fiber
bo = Bending stress at the outer fiber
ri = Combined stress at the inner fiber
ro = Combined stress at the outer fiber

co

c2

ci

c1

CA
NA

F
F

Mb

Mb
ri

C
L

rn
rc
ro

Stresses in curved beam


Mb = Applied Bending Moment
ri = Inner radius of curved beam
ro = Outer radius of curved beam
rc = Radius of centroidal axis
rn = Radius of neutral axis
CL = Center of curvature

In the above figure the lines 'ab' and 'cd' represent two such planes
before bending. i.e., when there are no stresses induced. When a bending
moment 'Mb' is applied to the beam the plane cd rotates with respect to
'ab' through an angle 'd
'd'' to the position 'fg' and the outer fibers are
shortened while the inner fiberss are elongated. The original length of a
strip at a distance 'y' from the neutral axis is (y + rn). It is shortened by
the amount yd and the stress in this fiber is,
= E.e
Where = stress, e = strain and E = Young's Modulus

We know, stress = E.e


   

We know, stress e 
  
    

i.e.,

=E



 

..... (i)

Since the fiber is shortened, the stress induced in this fiber is


compressive stress and hence negative sign.
The load on the strip having thickness dy and cross sectional area dA is
'dF'

i.e., dF = dA =
dA
 

From the condition of equilibrium, the summation of forces over the


whole cross-section is zero and the summation of the moments due to
these forces is equal to the applied bending moment.
Let
Mb = Applied Bending Moment
ri = Inner radius of curved beam
ro = Outer radius of curved beam

rc = Radius of centroidal axis


rn = Radius of neutral axis
CL= Centre line of curvature
Summation of forces over the whole cross section
 dF  0

i.e.



As





  =0


is not equal to zero,




 



=0

..... (ii)

The neutral axis radius 'rn' can be determined from the above equation.
If the moments are taken about the neutral axis,
Mb =  ydF
Substituting the value of dF, we get
Mb =





   dA




 y !  " dA



 ydA



#$ 





 0%

Since  ydA represents the statical moment of area, it may be replaced


by A.e., the product of total area A and the distance 'e' from the
centroidal axis to the neutral axis.



Mb =

From equation (i)



A.e

 

Substituting in equation (iii)


Mb =

..... (iii)


 


. A. e.

&' 

 

..... (iv)

This is the general equation for the stress in a fiber at a distance 'y' from
neutral axis.
At the outer fiber, y = co
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo
i.e.,

bo= !

&' ()
 )

($ rn + co = ro)

..... (v)

Where co = Distance from neutral axis to outer fiber. It is compressive


stress and hence negative sign. At the inner fiber, y = ci
Bending stress at the inner fiber
bi=
i.e.,

bi =

&' ( *

  +(* 
&' ( *
 *

($ rn ci = ri)

..... (vi)

Where ci = Distance from neutral axis to inner fiber. It is tensile stress


and hence positive sign.

Difference between a straight beam and a curved beam


Sl.no
1

straight beam
In Straight beams the neutral
axis of the section coincides
with its centroidal axis and the
stress distribution in the beam
is linear.

curved beam
In case of curved beams the
neutral axis of the section is
shifted towards the center of
curvature of the beam causing
a
non-linear
stress
distribution.

Neutral axis and centroidal Neutral axis is shifted


axis coincides
towards the least centre of
curvature

Location of the neutral axis By considering a rectangular cross


section

Centroidal and Neutral Axis of Typical Section of Curved Beams

Why stress concentration occur at inner side or concave side of


curved beam
Consider the elements of the curved beam lying between two axial
planes ab and cd separated by angle .. Let fg is the final position of
the plane cd having rotated through an angle dd about neutral axis.
Consider two fibers symmetrically located on either side of the neutral
axis. Deformation in both the fibers is same and equal to yd
yd.

Since length of inner element is smaller than outer element, the strain
induced and stress developed are higher for inner element than outer
element as shown.
Thus stress concentration occur at inner side or concave side of curved
beam
The actual magnitude of stress in the curved beam would be influenced
by magnitude of curvature However, for a general comparison the stress
distribution for the same section and same bending moment for the
straight beam and the curved beam are shown in figure.

It is observed that the neutral axis shifts inwards for the curved beam.
This results in stress to be zero at this position, rather than at the centre
of gravity.
In cases where holes and discontinuities are provided in the beam, they
should be preferably placed at the neutral axis, rather than that at the
centroidal axis. This results in a better stress distribution.
Example:
For numerical analysis, consider the depth of the section ass twice
the inner radius.

For a straight beam:


Inner most fiber:
Outer most fiber:

For curved beam:

h=2ri

e = rc - rn = h 0.910h = 0.0898h
co = ro - rn= h 0.910h = 0590h
ci = rn - ri = 0.910h -

= 0.410h

Comparing the stresses at the inner most fiber based on (1) and (3), we
observe that the stress at the inner most fiber in this case is:
bci = 1.522BSi
Thus the stress at the inner most fiber for this case is 1.522 times greater
than that for a straight beam.
From the stress distribution it is observed that the maximum stress in a
curved beam is higher than the straight beam.
Comparing the stresses at the outer most fiber based on (2) and (4), we
observe that the stress at the outer most fiber in this case is:
bco = 1.522BSi
Thus the stress at the inner most fiber for this case is 0.730 times that for
a straight beam.
The curvatures thus introduce a non linear stress distribution.
This is due to the change in force flow lines, resulting in stress
concentration on the inner side.
To achieve a better stress distribution, section where the centroidal axis
is the shifted towards the insides must be chosen, this tends to equalize
the stress variation on the inside and outside fibers for a curved beam.
Such sections are trapeziums, non symmetrical I section, and T sections.
It should be noted that these sections should always be placed in a
manner such that the centroidal axis is inwards.
Problem no.1
Plot the stress distribution about section A-B of the hook as shown in
figure.
Given data:
ri = 50mm
ro = 150mm
F = 22X103N
b = 20mm
h = 150-50 = 100mm
A = bh = 20X100 = 2000mm2

e = rc - rn = 100 - 91.024 = 8.976mm


Section A-B
B will be subjected to a combination of direct load and
bending, due to the eccentricity of the force.
Stress due to direct load will be,

y = rn r = 91.024 r
Mb = 22X103X100 = 2.2X106 N-mm

Problem no.2
Determine the value of t in the cross section of a curved beam as
shown in fig such that the normal stress due to bending at the extreme
fibers are numerically equal.
Given data;
Inner radius ri=150mm
Outer radius ro=150+40+100
=290mm
Solution;
From Figure Ci + CO = 40 + 100
= 140mm (1)
Since the normal stresses due to bending at
the extreme fiber are numerically equal we
have,

i.e

Ci=
= 0.51724Co (2)

Radius of neutral axis


rn=

rn =197.727 mm
ai = 40mm; bi = 100mm; b2 =t;
ao = 0; bo = 0; ri = 150mm; ro = 290mm;

i.e.,

+83.61t = 4000+100t;
4674.069+83.61t

t = 41.126mm
Problem no.3
Determine the stresses at point A and B of the split ring shown in the
figure.
Solution:
The figure shows the critical section of the split
ring.
Radius of centroidal axis
rc = 80mm
Inner radius of curved beam

ri = 80
= 50mm

Outer radius of curved beam

ro = 80 +
= 110mm

Radius of neutral axis

rn =
=

Applied force

= 77.081mm
F = 20kN = 20,000N (compressive)

A = d2 =

Area of cross section

x602 = 2827.433mm2

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc = 80mm


Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = Fl = 20,000x80
=16x105N-mm
Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis
e = rc ! rn
= 80! 77.081=2.919mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius
ci = rn ! ri
= 77.081! 50=27.081mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius
co = ro ! rn
= 110 ! 77.081=32.919mm
Direct stress

d = !

/0000

/1/2.,44

=! 7.0736N/mm2 (comp.)
Bending stress at the inner fiber bi = !
=

&' *
 *

+ 567508 7/2.015

/1/2.,447/.9597:0

= ! 105N/mm2 (compressive)
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )
 )

567508 74/.959

/1/2.,447/.9597550

= 58.016N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the inner fiber

ri = d + bi
= ! 7.0736! 105.00
= - 112.0736N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the outer fiber
ro = d + bo
= ! 7.0736+58.016
= 50.9424N/mm2 (tensile)
Maximum shear stress
max = 0.5x max
= 0.5x112.0736
= 56.0368N/mm2, at B
The figure.

Problem No. 4
Curved bar of rectangular section 40x60mm and a mean radius of
100mm is subjected to a bending moment of 2KN
2KN-m
m tending to
straighten the bar. Find the position of the Neutral axis and draw a
diagram to show the variation of stress across the section.
Solution
Given data:
b= 40mm
h= 60mm
rc=100mm
Mb= 2x106 N-mm
C1=C2= 30mm
rn=
=130 =(ri+c1+c2)
ro= rc+h/2=100+30=130
ri= rc- h/2 = 100 - 30= 70mm (rc-c1)
rn= 96.924mm
Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis
e = rc - rn= 100-96.924
=3.075mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius
ci= rn- ri = (c1-e)
e) = 26.925mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius
co=c2+e= (ro-rn) = 33.075mm
Area
A= bxh = 40x60 = 2400 mm2
Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

= 104.239 N/mm2 (compressive)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )
 )

+/;50< ;44.02:

/,00;4.02:;540

= -68.94 N/mm2 (tensile)


Bending stress at the centroidal axis =
=

+&'
=

+/;50<

/,00;500

= -8.33 N/mm2 (Compressive)


The stress distribution at the inner and outer fiber is as shown in the
figure.

Problem No. 5
The section of a crane hook is a trapezium; the inner face is b and is at a
distance of 120mm from the centre line of curvature. The outer face is
25mm and depth of trapezium =120mm.Find the proper value of b, if the
extreme fiber stresses due to pure bending are numerically equal, if the
section is subjected to a couple which develop a maximum fiber stress of
60Mpa.Determine the magnitude of the couple.
Solution
ri = 120mm; bi = b; bo= 25mm; h = 120mm
bi = bo = 60MPa
Since the extreme fibers stresses due to pure bending are numerically
equal we have,
& ' * & ' )
=
 *
 )
We have,
Ci/ri =co/ro =ci/co =120/240
2ci=co
But

h= ci + co
120 = ci+2ci

Ci=40mm;
co=80mm
rn= ri + ci = 120+40 =160 mm

b=150.34mm
To find the centroidal axis, (C2)
bo= 125.84mm; b=25mm; h=120mm

= 74.313mm.
But C1=C2
rc= ro-c2 =240 - 74.313 =165.687mm
e=rc- rn = 165.687 - 160 = 5.6869 mm
Bending stress in the outer fiber,

>? 

M> c
Aer
5:0.1,/:5/0

A=
/
= 1050.4mm
60 =

&' ;10

50::0.,;:.612;/,0

Mb=10.8x106 N-mm

Problem no.6
Determine the stresses at point A and B of the split ring shown in
fig.1.9a
Solution:
Redraw the critical section as shown in the figure.
Radius of centroidal axis rc = 80mm
Inner radius of curved beam ri = 80!

60
/

= 50mm

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 80 +

60
/

= 110mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =

=
Applied force

CD) D* E

C550:0E
,

=77.081mm

F = 20kN = 20,000N (compressive)

Area of cross section A = d2 =


,

x602 = 2827.433mm2

Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc = 80mm


Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 20,000x80
=16x105N-mm
Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc ! rn
= 80! 77.081
=2.919mm

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius


ci = rn ! ri = 77.081! 50 = 27.081mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius
co = ro ! rn = 110! 77.081 = 32.919mm
Direct stress

d =!

/0000

/1/2.,44

=! 7.0736N/mm2 (comp.)
Bending stress at the inner fiber bi = !

&' *
 *

+ 567508 7/2.015

/1/2.,447/.9597:0

= ! 105N/mm2 (compressive)
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )
 )

567508 74/.959

/1/2.,447/.9597550

= 58.016N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the inner fiber
ri = d + bi =! 7.0736! 105.00
=! 112.0736N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the outer fiber
ro = d + b = ! 7.0736+58.016
= 50.9424N/mm2 (tensile)
Maximum shear stress
Gmax = 0.5x max = 0.5x112.0736

= 56.0368N/mm2, at B

The figure shows the stress distribution in the critical section.

Problem no.7
Determine the maximum tensile, compressive and shear stress induced
in a c frame of a hydraulic portable riveter shown in fig.1.6a

Solution:

50

Draw the critical section as shown


the figure.

R1
00

9000N

in

80

Inner radius of curved beam ri =


100mm

175 mm

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 100+80


= 180mm
10
/

c2

Radius of neutral axis rn = ln


= ln

I)
# I* %

10

JK?
#J?%

= 136.1038mm
Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis
e = rc - rn = 140-136.1038 = 3.8962mm

Critical
Section

co

ri = 100mm

ci

175mm

ro
CA
NA

= 140mm

c1

b = 50 mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc = 100+

F
h = 80mm
e

rn
rc
CL

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius


ci = rn - ri = 136.1038-100 = 36.1038mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius
co = ro - rn = 180-136.1038 = 43.8962mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force
l = 175+ rc = 175+140 = 315mm
Applied force

F = 9000N

Area of cross section A = 50x80 = 4000mm2


Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 9000x315
= 2835000 N-mm
Direct stress

d =

9000

,000

= 2.25N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

/14:000746.5041
,00074.196/7500

= 65.676N/mm2 (tensile)
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo = !

&' )
 )

=!

/14:0007,4.196/
,00074.196/7510

= ! 44.326N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 2.25+65.676


= 67.926N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 2.25! 44.362
= !42.112 N/mm2 (compressive)

Gmax = 0.5x max = 0.5x67.926

Maximum shear stress

= 33.963 N/mm2, at the inner fiber


The stress distribution on the critical section is as shown in the figure.

ri=67.926 N/mm2
2

Combined stress ro=-42.112 N/mm

bi=65.676 N/mm2
Bending stress bo=-44.362 N/mm2

d=2.25 N/mm
NA

CA

Direct stress (d)

b = 50 mm
h =80 mm

Problem no.8
The frame punch press is shown in fig. 1.7s. Find the stress in inner and
outer surface at section A-B the frame if F = 5000N

Solution:

bi = 18 mm

Draw the critical section as shown in the


figure.

c1

bo = 6 mm

c2

h = 40mm
e

co

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 25mm

ci

ri = 25mm

100mm

rc
ro
rn

CA
NA

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 25+40

C
L

= 65mm
Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber c1 =
=

,0 51/76
4

516

 >* />)
4

>* >)

" = 16.667mm

"

Radius of centroidal axis rc = ri ! c1


= 25+16.667 = 41.667 mm
Radius of neutral axis rn =

J
>* >) 

'* I) L ') I* I)
 + >* +>) 
M
I*

J
7,0516

= JKN<8L<N8
<8
 + 51+6
O?
8

=38.8175mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc! rn

= 1.667!38.8175
=2.8495mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn! ri
= 38.8175!25=13.8175mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro! rn
= 65-38.8175=26.1825mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force l = 100+ rc = 100+41.667
= 141.667mm
Applied force

F = 5000N
5

Area of cross section A = b Q b  = x4018 Q 6 = 480mm2


/

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 5000x141.667


= 708335 N-mm

Direct stress

d =

:000
,10

= 10.417N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

20144:754.152:
,107/.1,9:7/:

= 286.232N/mm2 (tensile)
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )
 )

20144:7/6.51/:
,107/.1,9:76:

= !208.606N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 10.417+286.232
= 296.649N/mm2 (tensile)

Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 10.417!286.232


= ! 198.189N/mm2 (compressive)

Maximum shear stress

Gmax = 0.5x max = 0.5x296.649

= 148.3245 N/mm2, at the inner fiber

The figure shows the stress distribution in the critical section.

ri=296.649 N/mm2
2

Combined stress ro=-198.189 N/mm

bi=286.232 N/mm2
Bending stress bo =-208.606 N/mm2

d=10.417 N/mm2
NA

CA

Direct stress (d)

bo = 6 mm

bi = 18 mm

h =40 mm

Problem no.9
Figure shows a frame of a punching machine and its various dimensions.
Determine the maximum stress in the frame, if it has to resist a force of
85kN

75
300
250

75

750 mm
85 kN

550

Draw the critical section as shown in the


figure.

225 mm

F
B

a1

b2 =75mm

b=
300mm
i

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 250mm

ai =75mm

Solution:

a2

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 550mm


co

ci
X
e

A
ri = 250 mm
rn

Radius of neutral axis


rn =

I Y
I Y
>* W *X * Z > [ )L ) \>) 
I)XY
*

I)
"
I) LY)

ai = 75mm; bi = 300mm; b2 = 75mm; ao = 0; bo = 0


A=a1+a2=75x300+75x225 =39375mm2
rn

400 

4942:

8?X]8
88?L?
"2: 
"0
8?
8?X]8

Let AB be the ref. line

750

C
L

I*

NA

CA

rc
ro=550 mm

= 333.217mm

x^ 

J 7J  7
J 

]8


2:7400 2:7//: 2:


4942:

8
"


= 101.785mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc = ri +x^


= 250+101.785=351.785 mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc! rn


= 351.785-333.217=18.568mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn! ri
= 333.217! 250=83.217mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro! rn
= 550! 333.217=216.783mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force l = 750+ rc
= 750+351.785 = 1101.785mm
Applied force

F = 85kN

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI


= 85000x1101.785
= 93651725N-mm
Direct stress

d =

1:000
4942:

= 2.16N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

946:52/:714./52

4942:751.:617/:0

= 42.64N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =!

&' )
 )

=!

946:52/:7/56.214
4942:751.:617::0

= ! 50.49N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 2.16+42.64
= 44.8N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 2.16! 50.49

= ! 48.33N/mm2 (compressive)

Maximum shear stress

Gmax = 0.5x max = 0.5x48.33

= 24.165N/mm2, at the outer fiber


The below figure shows the stress distribution.
2

ri=44.8 N/mm
Combined stress ro=-48.33 N/mm2

bi=42.64 N/mm2
Bending stress bo=-50.49 N/mm2

d=2.16 N/mm2

NA

CA

Direct stress ( d)

ai=75mm

b2 = 75 mm

a2

225

bi =300mm

a1

Problem no.10

0
10

Compute the combined stress at the inner and outer fibers in the critical
cross section of a crane hook is required to lift loads up to 25kN. The
hook has trapezoidal cross section with parallel sides 60mm and 30mm,
the distance between them being 90mm .The inner radius of the hook is
100mm. The load line is nearer to the surface of the hook by 25 mm the
centre of curvature at the critical
section. What will be the stress at inner
and outer fiber, if the beam is treated as
straight beam for the given load?
90mm
m
m

30mm

60mm 25mm

Solution:

NA

CA

F = 25 kN

h = 90 mm
c2
c1

Draw the critical section as shown in the figure.


Inner radius of curved beam ri = 100mm
Outer radius of curved beam ro = 100+90 =
190mm
Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber
c1 =

 >* />)
4

>* >)

= 40mm

" =

90
4

60/740
6040

ci

co

"

ri
rn
rc
ro

l
F

C
L

Radius of centroidal axis rc = ri + c1 = 100+40


= 140 mm
Radius of neutral axis rn =

J
>* >) 

'* I)L ') I* I)
 + >* +>) 
M
I*

J
79076040

<?NJ_? L `?NJ?? J_?
J?? + 60+40
_?

= 135.42mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc! rn

= 140! 135.42=4.58mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn ! ri = 135.42! 100
=35.42mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro ! rn = 190! 135.42
= 54.58mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc ! 25= 140! 25
= 115mm
Applied force

F = 25,000N = 25kN
5

Area of cross section A = b Q b  = x90x60 Q 30 = 4050mm2


/

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = FI = 25,000x115


= 2875000 N-mm
Direct stress

d =

/:000
,0:0

= 6.173N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

/12:00074:.,/
,0:07,.:17500

= 54.9 N/mm2 (tensile)


Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =!

&' )
 )

=!

/12:0007:,.:1

,0:07,.:17590

= ! 44.524N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 6.173+54.9
= 61.073N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 6.173! 44.524
= ! 38.351N/mm2 (compressive)
Maximum shear stress

max = 0.5x max = 0.5x61.072


= 30.5365 N/mm2, at the inner fiber

The figure shows the stress distribution in the critical section.

b) Beam is treated as straight beam


From DDHB refer table,
b = 30mm
bo = 60-30 = 30mm
h = 90
c1 = 40mm
c2 = 90-50 = 40mm
A = 4050 mm2
Mb = 28750000 N/mm2
Also
C2 =

4>/>) 7
47/>>) 

---------------------- From DDHB

C2 =

4740/740790
47/74040

= 50mm

c1 = 90-50= 40mm

Moment of inertia I =
=

C67> 67>7>) >) E`


46c/>>) d

C6740 674074040 E90`


46c/74040d

= 2632500mm4

Direct stress

b =

/:000
,0:0

= 6.173N/mm2 (tensile)

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' J
e

/12:0007,0

2632500

= 43.685 N/mm2 (tensile)


Bending stress at the outer fiber bo = -

&' 
e

2875000x50
/64/:00

= -54.606N/mm2 (compressive)
Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 6.173+43.685
= 49.858N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 6.173-54.606
= -48.433N/mm2 (compressive)
The stress distribution on the straight beam is as shown in the figure.

ri= 49.858 N/mm


ro=-48.433 N/mm2

bi= 43.685 N/mm


2

bo =-54.606 N/mm

d= 6.173 N/mm2

d
c1=40mm

c2 =50mm

60 mm

b = 30 mm

NA, CA

bo/2 = 15

bo/2 = 15
h =90 mm

Problem no.11
The section of a crane hook is rectangular in shape whose width is
30mm and depth is 60mm. The centre of curvature of the section is at
distance of 125mm from the inside section and the load line is 100mm
from the same point. Find the capacity of hook if the allowable stress in
tension is 75N/mm2
5
12
m
m

h=60mm
100
b=30mm

Solution:
F=?

Draw the critical section as shown in the


figure.

Outer radius of curved beam ro = 125+60


= 185mm
Radius of centroidal axis rc =100+

Radius of neutral axis rn = ln


= 153.045mm

I)

#I* %

Load line
100
co

60

rn
rc

= ln

ri = 125mm

ci
ro

l
CA
NA

= 130mm


c1

b = 30 mm

Inner radius of curved beam ri = 125mm

c2

h = 60mm
e

60

JK8

#J8%

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn


= 155-153.045 = 1.955mm

CL

Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri


= 153.045-125 = 28.045mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn
= 185-153.045 = 31.955mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc -25 = 155-25 = 130mm
Area of cross section A = bh = 30x60 = 1800mm2
Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = Fl = Fx130
= 130F
Direct stress

d =

5100

Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

5100

Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi


i.e., 75 =

5407.7/1.0,:

510075.9::75/:

5100

F = 8480.4N =Capacity of the hook.

Problem no.12
Design of steel crane hook to have a capacity of 100kN. Assume factor
of safety (FS) = 2 and trapezoidal section.

M =bi

bo
Z

Data: Load capacity F = 100kN = 105N;


Trapezoidal section; FS = 2
Solution: Approximately 1kgf = 10N
105 = 10,000 kgf =10t
Selection the standard crane hook dimensions from table 25.3 when safe
load =10t and steel (MS)
CA
NA

c =11933; Z = 14mm; M = 71mm and


h = 111mm

h = 111 mm
c2
c1

bi= M = 7133
bo = 2xZ = 2x14 = 28 mm


r1 = =
/

559
/

h = 111mm

= 59.5mm

bo=28

bi=71
ci

co
e

CL

ri=59.5 mm
rn
rc= l
ro
F

Assume the load line passes through the centre of hook. Draw the
critical section as shown in the figure.
Inner radius of curved beam ri = 59.5mm
Outer radius of curved beam ro = 59.5+111 = 170.5mm
Radius of neutral axis rn =

J
>* >) 

'* I)L ') I* I)
 + >* >) 
I*
M

J
7555725/1

]JNJ]?.8LKN8_.8 J]?.8

+ 25/1
O?
8_.8

= 98.095mm
Distance of centroidal axis from inner fiber c1 =
=

 >* />)
4

>* >)

"

555 25/7/1
4

25/1

" = 47.465mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc = ri + c1


= 47.465+59.5= 106.965 mm
Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn
=106.965-98.095 =8.87mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri
= 98.095-59.5=38.595mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn
= 170.5-98.095=72.0405mm
Distance from centroidal axis to force l = rc -106.965

Applied force

F = 105N
5

Area of cross section A = b Q b 


/

= x111x71 Q 28 = 5494.5mm2


/

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = Fl = 105x141.667


= 106.965x105N-mm
Direct stress

d =

500000
:,9,.:

= 18.2N/mm2 (tensile)
Bending stress at the inner fiber bi =

&' *
 *

506.96:7508 741.:9:
:,9,.:71.127:9.:

= 142.365/mm2 (tensile)
Bending stress at the outer fiber bo =

&' )
 )

506.96:7508 72/.,0:
:,9,.5x8.127520.:

= -93.2 N/mm2 (compressive)


Combined stress at the inner fiber ri = d + bi = 18.2+142.365
= 160.565N/mm2 (tensile)
Combined stress at the outer fiber ro = d + bo = 18.2-93.2
= -75N/mm2 (compressive)
Maximum shear stress

max = 0.5x max = 0. 160.565


= 80.2825 N/mm2, at the inner fiber

The figure shows the stress distribution in the critical section.

ri=160.565 N/mm
ro =-75 N/mm2

bi=142,365 N/mm2
bo=-93.2 N/mm2
d =18.2 N/mm2

bo = 28 mm

NA

CA

h = 111 mm

bi = 71 mm

Problem no.13
The figure shows a loaded offset bar. What is the maximum offset
distance x if the allowable stress in tension is limited to 50N/mm2

Solution:
Draw the critical section as shown in the figure.
Radius of centroidal axis

rc = 100mm

Inner radius

ri = 100 100/2 = 50mm

Outer radius

ro = 100 + 100/2 = 150mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =


=
93.3mm

Dr r
W o iZ
4

2
15050
"=
4

e = rc - rn = 100 - 93.3 = 6.7mm


ci = rn ri = 93.3 50 = 43.3
mm
co = ro - rn = 150 - 93.3 =
56.7mm
i

A = x d2 = x 1002 = 7853.98mm2
,

Mb = Fx = 5000 x
Combined maximum stress at the inner fiber
(i.e., at B)

ri= Direct stress + bending stress


.

= Q

50 

:000

21:4.91

&' *
 *

:0007,4.4

21:4.91j6.2j:0

x= 599.9 = Maximum offset distance.


Problem no.14
An Open S made from 25mm diameter
rod as shown in the figure determine the
maximum tensile, compressive and shear
stress

Solution:
(I)

Consider the section P-Q

Draw the critical section at P


P-Q as shown in the figure.
Radius of centroidal axis

rc =100mm

Inner radius ri =100

= 87.5mm

Outer radius ro

= 112.5mm

= 100+

Radius of neutral axis

rn =

= 99.6mm
Distance of neutral axis from centroidal axis e =rc - rn
=100 - 99.6 = 0.4mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner fiber ci = rn ri
= 99.6 87.5 =12.1 mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer fiber co = ro -rn


=112.5 99.6 = 12.9 mm
Area of cross-section

A=

Distance from centroidal axis

d2 = x252 = 490.87 mm2


4

I = rc = 100mm

Bending moment about centroidal axis Mb = F.l = 100 x 100


= 100000Nmm

Combined stress at the outer fiber (i.e., at Q) =Direct stress +bending


stress
ro=

F
A

M b Co
Aeo

1000
490.87

100000 X12.9
490.87 X 0.4 X 112.5

= - 56.36 N/mm2 (compressive)


Combined stress at inner fibre (i.e., at p)

ri= Direct stress + bending stress


=

F
A

M b ci

Aeri

1000

490.87

100000 X 12.1

490.87 X 0.4 X 87.5

= 72.466 N/MM2 (tensile)


(ii) Consider the section R -S
Redraw the critical section at R S as shown in fig.

rc = 75mm
ri = 75 -

25
2

=62.5 mm

ro = 75 +

A=

25
2

d2 =

rn =
=

= 87.5 mm

X 252 = 490.87 mm2

2
Dro  ri
W
Z
4
2
87.5 62.5
"
4

=74.4755 mm

e = rc - rn = 75 -74.4755 =0.5254 mm
ci = rn - ri =74.4755 62.5 =11.9755 mm
co = ro - rn = 87.5 74.4755 = 13.0245 mm
l = rc = 75 mm
Mb = Fl = 1000 X 75 = 75000 Nmm
Combined stress at the outer fibre (at R) = Direct stress + Bending stress
F

M b co

Aero

ro =

1000
490.87

75000 X13.0245
490.87 X 0.5245 X 62.5

= - 41.324 N/mm2 (compressive)

Combined stress at the inner fiber (at S) = Direct stress + Bending stress

ri =

F
A

M b co
Aero

1000
490.87

75000 X 11.9755
490.87 X 0.5245 X 62.5

= 55.816 N/mm2 (tensile)


Maximum tensile stress = 72.466 N/mm2 at P
2

Maximum compressive stress = 56.36 N/mm at Q


Maximum shear stress max=0.5 max= 0.5 X 72.466

= 36.233 N/mm2 at P

Stresses in Closed Ring


Consider a thin circular ring subjected to symmetrical load F as shown
in the figure.

The ring is symmetrical and is loaded symmetrically in both the


horizontal and vertical directions.
Consider the horizontal section as shown in the figure. At the two ends
A and B, the vertical forces would be F/2.
No horizontal forces would be there at A and B. this argument can be
proved by understanding that since the ring and the external forces are
symmetrical, the reactions too must be symmetri
symmetrical.
Assume that two horizontal inward forces H, act at A and B in the upper
half, as shown in the figure. In this case, the lower
half must have forces H acting outwards as shown.
This however, results in violation of symmetry and
hence H must be zero. B
Besides the forces, moments
of equal magnitude M0 act at A and B. It should be
noted that these moments do not violate the
condition of symmetry. Thus loads on the section can
be treated as that shown in the figure. The unknown
quantity is M0. Again Consi
Considering symmetry, We
conclude that the tangents at A and B must be
vertical and must remain so after deflection or M0
does not rotate. By Castiglianos theorem
theorem, the partial
derivative of the strain energy with respect to the load gives the
displacement of the
he load. In this case, this would be zero.

.(1)

The bending moment at any point C, located at angle ,, as shown in the


figure.
Will be

..(2)

As per Castiglianos theorem,

From equation (2)

And,

ds = Rd

As this quantity is positive the direction assumed for Mo is correct and it


produces tension in the inner fibers and compression on the outer.
It should be noted that these equations are valid in the region,
= 0 to = 900.
The bending moment Mb at any angle from equation (2)
2) will be:

It is seen that numerically, Mb-max is greater than Mo.


The stress at any angle can be found by considering the
forces as shown in the figure.
Put = 0 in Bending moment equation (4) then we will
get,
At A-A Mbi = 0.181FR
Mbo = - 0.181FR
And = 90,
At B-B
Mbi = - 0.318FR
Mbo = 0.318FR
The vertical force F/22 can be resolved in two
components (creates normal direct stresses) and S
(creates shear stresses).

The combined normal stress across any section will be:

The stress at inner (1Ai) and outer points ((1Ao) at A-A


A will be (at = 0)

On similar lines, the stress at the point of application of load at inner


i
and
0
outer points will be (at = 90 )

It should be noted that in calculating the bending stresses, it is assumed


that the radius is large compared to the depth, or the beam is almost a
straight beam.

A Thin Extended Closed Link

Consider a thin closed ring subjected to symmetrical load F as shown in


the figure. At the two ends C and D, the vertical forces would be F/2.

No horizontal forces would be there at C and D, as discussed earlier


ring.
The unknown quantity is M0. Again considering symmetry, we
conclude that the tangents at C and D must be vertical and must remain
so after deflection or M0 does not rotate.
There are two regions to be considered in this case:
 The straight portion, (0 < y < L) where
Mb = MO
 The curved portion, where

\
As per Castiglianos theorem

It can be observed that at L = 0 equation reduces to the same expression


as obtained for a circular ring. Mo produces tension in the inner fibers
and Compression on the outer.
The bending moment Mb at any angle will be

Noting that the equation are valid in the region, = 0 to = p/2,


p/2

At = 0
B bending moment at inner and outer side of the fiber is
At section B-B

At section A-A
A the load point, i.e., at = p/2, the maximum value of
bending moment occurs (numerically), as it is observed that the second
part of the equation is much greater than the first part.

It can be observed that at L = 0, equation (v) reduces to the same


expression as obtained for a circular ring.
It is seen that numerically, Mb-max is greater than Mo.

The stress at any angle can be found by considering the force as


shown in the figure.
The vertical force F/22 can be resolved in two components (creates
normal direct stresses) and S (creates shear stresses).

The combined normal stress across any section will be

The stress at inner fiber 1Bi and outer fiber 1Bo and at section B-B
B will
be (at = 0):

The stress at inner fiber 1Ai and outer fiber 1Ao and at section A-A
A
0
will be (at the loading point = 90 ):

Problem 15
Determine the stress induced in a circular ring of circular cross section
of 25 mm diameter subjected to a tensile load 6500N. The inner
diameter of the ring is 60 mm.
Solution: the circular ring and its critical section are as shown in fig.
1.29a and 1.29b respectively.
Inner radius ri =

= 30mm

Outer radius = 30+25 = 55mm


Radius of centroidal axis rc = 30 +

= 42.5mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =


=

=42.5mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn


= 42.5 41.56 = 0.94mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri
= 41.56 30 = 11.56mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn


= 55 - 41.56 = 13.44mm
Direct stress at any cross section at an angle with horizontal
d =

. k
/

Consider the cross section A A


At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal
Direct stress

d =

. k 90
/

=0

Bending moment Mb = - 0.318Fr


Where r = rc, negative sign refers to tensile load
M>l = - 0.318x6500x42.5 = -87847.5 N-mm
This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber  l =Direct stress + Bending stress
=0-

&' *
 *

=!

121,2.:755.:6

,90.12,70.9,740

= - 73.36N/mm2 (compressive)
Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress
=0+

&' )
 )

121,2.:754.,,

,90.12,70.9,7::

= 46.52N/mm2 (tensile)
Consider the cross section B B

At section B B, = 00 with respect to horizontal


Direct stress

d =

. k 0

2A

6:007 cos 0
/7,90.12,

= 6.621 N/mm2

Bending moment Mb = 0.182Fr


Where r = rc, positive sign refers to tensile load
M>o = 0.182x6500x42.5 = 50277.5 N-mm
This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber  o =Direct stress + Bending stress
= d -

&' *
 *

= 6.621 +

:0/22.:755.:6

,90.874x0.9,740

= 48.6 N/mm2 (tensile)


Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress
= d +

&' )
 )

=6.621+

:0/22.:754.,,

,90.12,70.9,7::

= -20 N/mm2 (compressive)

Problem 16
Determine the stress induced in a circular ring of circular cross section
of 50 mm diameter rod subjected to a compressive load of 20kNN. The
mean diameter of the ring is 100 mm.
Solution: the circular ring and its critical section are as shown in fig.
1.30a and 1.30b respectively.
Inner radius ri =
Outer radius =

= 25mm

= 75mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc =

= 50mm

Radius of neutral axis rn =


=

= 46.65mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn


= 50 - 46.65 = 3.35mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri
= 46.65
46.65-25 = 21.65 mm
Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn
= 75 - 46.65 = 28.35mm
Area of cross section A = x552 = 1963.5mm2

Direct stress at any cross section at an angle with horizontal


d =

p qrs t
/u

Consider the cross section A A


At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal
Direct stress

d =

p qrs 90
/u

=0

Bending moment Mb = + 0.318Fr


Where r = rc, positive sign refers to tensile load
vwx = + 0.318x20000x50 = 318000 N-mm
This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber yz{x =Direct stress + Bending stress
=0+

|} q ~
uz~

31800021.6:
5964.:4.4:/:

= 41.86 N/mm2 (tensile)


Maximum stress at outer fiber yzrx = Direct stress + Bending stress
=0 -

|} q
uz

=-

451000/1.35

5964.:4.4:2:

= - 18.27 N/mm2 (compressive)

Consider the cross section B B


At section B B, = 00 with respect to horizontal
Direct stress

d =

. k 0
/

/00007 k 0
/75964.:

= 5.093 N/mm2 (compressive)


Bending moment Mb = -0.1828Fr
Where r = rc, negative sign refers to tensile load
M>o = - 0.182x20000x50 = -182000 N-mm
This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber  o =Direct stress + Bending stress
= d -

&' *

Aer*

= -5.093 +

51/0007/5.6:

5964.5x3.4:7/:

= - 29.05 N/mm2 (compressive)


Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress
= d +

&' )
 )

= -5.093 +

51/0007/1.4:

5964.:74.4:72:

= 5.366 N/mm2 (tensile)

Problem 17
A chain link is made of 40 mm diameter rod is circular at each end the
mean diameter of which is 80mm. The straight sides of the link are also
80mm. The straight sides of the link are also 80mm.If the link carries a
load of 90kN; estimate the tensile and compress
compressive
ive stress in the link
along the section of load line. Also find the stress at a section 900 away
from the load line
Solution: refer figure
= 80mm; dc = 80mm;

rc = 40mm;

F = 90kN = 90000N
Draw the critical cross section as shown in fig.1.32
Inner radius ri = 40 Outer radius =

= 20mm
= 60mm

Radius of centroidal axis rc = 40mm


Radius of neutral axis rn =
=

= 37.32mm

Distance of neutral axis to centroidal axis e = rc - rn


=40-37.32 = 2.68mm
Distance of neutral axis to inner radius ci = rn - ri
= 37.32-20 = 17.32 mm

Distance of neutral axis to outer radius co = ro - rn


= 60 37.32 = 22.68mm
Direct stress at any cross section at an angle with horizontal
d =

. k
/

Consider the cross section A A [i.e., Along the load line]


At section A A, = 900 with respect to horizontal
Direct stress

d =

. k 90
/

Bending moment M>l = M>l =

900007,07/7,010
/7,010

=0

.I / 
/ 

where r = rc,

= 1.4x106N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber  l =Direct stress + Bending stress
=0+

&' *
 *

5.,750< 752.4/

7,0 7/.617/0

= - 360 N/mm2 (tensile)


Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress
=0-

&' )
 )

5.,750< 7//.61

=-

7,0 7/.61760

= 157.14 N/mm2 (compressive)

Consider the cross section B B [i.e., 900 away from the load line]
At section B B, = 00 with respect to horizontal
Direct stress

d =

. k /
/

5.,750< 7 k 0

(compressive)
Bending moment M>l = M>l =

.I /+
/ 

900007,07/7,0+710
/7,010

/7 7,0
O

= 35.81 N/mm2

where r = rc,

= - 399655.7N-mm

This couple produces compressive stress at the inner fiber and tensile
stress at the at outer fiber
Maximum stress at the inner fiber  o =Direct stress + Bending stress
= d -

&' *
 *

= 35.81 +

4996::.2752.4/

/7O7,0 7/.617/0

= 138.578 N/mm2 (tensile)


Maximum stress at outer fiber l = Direct stress + Bending stress
= d +

&' )
 )

= 35.81 -

4996::.27//.61

/7O7,0 7/.61760

= - 9.047 N/mm2 (compressive)


Maximum tensile stress occurs at outer fiber of section A A and
maximum compressive stress occurs at the inner fiber of section A A.

Using usual notations prove that the moment of resistance M of a


curved beam of initial radius R1 when bent to a radius R2 by
uniform bending moment is
M = EAeR1
Consider a curved beam of uniform cross section as shown in Figure
below. Its transverse section is symmetric with respect to the y axis and
in its unstressed state; its upper and lower surfaces intersect the vertical
xy plane along the arcs of circle A
AB
B and EF centered at O [Fig. 1(a)].
1(
Now apply two equal and opposite couples M and
d M' as shown in Fig. 1.
(c). The length of neutral surface remains the same. and ' are the
central angles before and after applying the moment M. Since the length
of neutral surface remains the same
R1 =R2''
..... (i)

Figure
Consider the arc of circle JK located at a distance y above the neutral
surface. Let r1 and r2 be the radius of this arc before and after bending
couples have been applied. Now, the deformation of JK,
.... (ii)
From Fig. 1.2 a and c, r1 = R1 y; r2 = R2 y

..... (iii)

= (R2 y) ' (R1 y)


=R2'' 'y R1 + y
= y ((' ) [ R1 = R2'' from equ (i)]
= y

[ ' = + = ]
..... (iv)
The normal strain x in the element of JK is obtained by dividing
the deformation by the original length r1 of arc JK.
x =
..... (v)
The normal stress x may be obtained from Hooke's law x = Ex
x =E
i.e. x

..... (vi)

= E

( r1 = R1 y) .(vii)
Equation (vi) shows that the normal stress x does not vary linearly
with the distance y from the neutral surface. Plotting x versus y, we
obtain an arc of hyperbola as shown in Fig. 1.3.

From the condition of equilibrium the summation of forces over the


entire area is zero and the summation of the moments due to these forces
is equal to the applied bending moment.
F =0
i.e., xdA =0
..... (viii)
and ( yxdA)=M
..... (ix)

Substituting the value of the x from equation (vii) into equation


(viii)
t
+z

 J J "dA=0
t

Since

t
t

i.e.

zJ

is not equal to zero 

R1 

R1 

i.e., .

!  =0

z1
u
z1

J +zJ
zJ

"dA = 0

! =0

R1 = x

1

It follows the distance R1 from the centre of curvature O to the


u
..... (x)
neutral surface is obtained by the relation R1 = x


The value of R1 is not equal to the 1 distance from O to the centroid


of the cross-section, since 1 is obtained by the relation,
5
1 =  1
..... (xi)
u
Hence it is proved that in a curved member the neutral axis of a
transverse section does not pass through the centroid of that section.
Now substitute the value of x from equation (vii) into equations (ix)


t J +zJ
t

zJ

"y dA =M

i.e.,

i.e.,
i.e.,

i.e.,
#5 / 

t
t
t

t
t

t
u

#5 / 

zJ
u

J +zJ /
zJ

" dA = M

/
CJ  +/J zJ zJ  E
zJ

($ r1 = R1 - y from iii)

dA = M

! 25  Q  1%= M

! 25 Q 5 % = M [using equations (x) and (xi)]

i.e.,

t
t

5 ! 25 Q 5  v
t

i.e.,

i.e.,

5 ! 5 =M

i.e.,

t
t

..... (xii)

^^^+
uz
1
1

u

Substituting

($e =
1 R1 from Fig. 1.2a)
xiii)

into equation (VI)

x =
u1 +
x=

Mz1 +1 
uz1

..... (xiv)
($ r1 = R1 y

..... (xv)

An equation (xiv) is the general expression for the normal stress x in a


curved beam.
To determine the change in curvature of the neutral surface caused by
the bending moment M
From equation (i),
5

5 t


J t
5 tt
J

"

u

{$From equation (xiii)

"=

#1 Q

1Q


5

i.e.

References:

u

1
v
Q
5 5

M
EAeR1

M =EAe R1
Hence proved

"

ASSIGNMENT

1. What are the assumptions made in finding stress distribution for a curved flexural member? Also
give two differences between a straight and curved beam
2. Discuss the stress distribution pattern in curved beams when compared to straight beam with
sketches
3. Derive an expression for stress distribution due to bending moment in a curved beam

EXERCISES
1. Determine the force F that will produce a maximum tensile stress of 60N/mm2 in section
A - B and the corresponding stress at the section C - D

2. A crane hook has a section of trapezoidal. The area at the critical section is 115 mm2. The hook
carries a load of 10kN and the inner radius of curvature is 60 mm. calculate the maximum tensile,
compressive and shear stress.
Hint: bi = 75 mm; bo = 25 mm; h = 115 mm
3. A closed ring is made of 40 mm diameter rod bent to a mean radius of 85 mm. If the pull along
the diameter is 10,000 N, determine the stresses induced in the section of the ring along which it is
divided into two parts by the direction of pull.
4. Determine of value of t in the cross section of a curved beam shown in Figure such that the normal
stresses due to bending at the extreme fibers are numerically equal.

VTU,Jan/Feb.2005

Fig.1.35
5. Determine a safe value for load P for a machine element loaded as shown in Figure limiting the
maximum normal stress induced on the cross section XX to 120 MPa.

6. The section of a crane hook is trapezoidal, whose inner and outer sides are 90 mm and
25 mm respectively and has a depth of 116 mm. The center of curvature of the section is at a
distance of 65 mm from the inner side of the section and load line passes through the center of
curvature. Find the maximum load the hook can carry, if the maximum stress is not to exceed 70
MPa.
7. a) Differentiate between a straight beam and a curved beam with stress distribution in each of the
beam.
b) Figure shows a 100 kN crane hook with a trapezoidal section. Determine stress in the outer,
inner, Cg and also at the neutral fiber and draw the stress distribution across the section AB.

87.5

25

B
62
.5

m
m

112.5

F = 100kN

8.

A closed ring is made up of 50 mm diameter steel bar having allowable tensile stress of 200
MPa. The inner diameter of the ring is 100 mm. For load of 30 kN find the maximum stress in
the bar and specify the location. If the ring is cut as shown in part -B of
Fig. 1.40, check whether it is safe to support the applied load.

REFERENCE BOOKS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN by Farazdak Haideri

MACHINE DESIGN by Maleev and Hartman

MACHINE DESIGN by Schaums out lines

DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS by V.B.Bhandari

DESING OF MACHINE ELEMENTS-2 by J.B.K Das and P.L. Srinivasa murthy

DESIGN OF SPRINGS Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur, IITM