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Methods of Seismic Data Processing

Gary F. Margrave
Geophysics 557/657
Course Lecture Notes, Winter 2006

The Department of Geology and Geophysics


The University of Calgary

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Geophysics 557/657
Course Lecture Notes
420 Pages
Winter 2005

by
G.F. Margrave, Associate Professor, P.Geoph.
The CREWES Project
Department of Geology and Geophysics
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta, T2N-1N4
403-220-4604
gary@geo.ucalgary.ca

Table of Contents
Section Title
Chapter 1: Synthetic Seismograms
The Big Picture
Elastic Waves
Well Logs
Gardner's Rule
The Wave Equation
Traveling Waveforms
Normal Incidence Reflection Coefficients
Synthetic Seismogram Algorithms
Synthetic Seismogram Examples
P-S Synthetic Seismogram Construction

Page Number
30 pages
1-2
1-7
1-9
1-11
1-14
1-17
1-19
1-23
1-28
1-30

Chapter 2: Signal Processing Concepts


Convolution
Convolution by Replacement
Convolution as a Weighted Sum
Matrix Multiplication by Rows
Matrix Multiplication by Columns
Convolution as a Matrix Operation
Fourier Transforms and Convolution
Fourier Analysis and Synthesis
Fourier Analysis Example
Fourier Transform Pairs
The Dirac Delta Function
The Convolution Theorem
Sampling
The Discrete Fourier Transform
The Fast Fourier Transform
Filtering
The Z Transform
Crosscorrelation
Autocorrelations
Spectral Estimation
Wavelength Components
Apparent Velocity (or phase velocity)
The 2-D F-K Transform
F-K Transform Pairs
-p Transforms
Properties and uses of the -p Transform
Inverse -p Transforms
Least Squares -p and f-k Transforms

76 pages
2-2
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-13
2-19
2-21
2-23
2-25
2-27
2-29
2-33
2-37
2-38
2-39
2-44
2-46
2-48
2-53
2-56
2-58
2-62
2-63
2-68
2-71
2-74

Chapter 3: Amplitude Effects


Seismic Wave Attenuation
True Amplitude Processing
Automatic Gain Correction (AGC)
Trace Equalization (TE) or Trace Balancing
Constant Q Effects
Minimum Phase Intuitively
Minimum Phase and the Hilbert Transform

32 pages
3-2
3-8
3-9
3-13
3-14
3-18
3-21

Minimum Phase and Velocity Dispersion


Array Theory

3-25
3-27

Chapter 4: The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution


Bandlimited Reflectivity
The Convolutional Model
Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution
Finding a Wavelet's Inverse
Wiener Spiking Deconvolution
Prediction and Prediction Error Filters
Gapped Predictive Deconvolution
Burg (Maximum Entropy) Deconvolution
The Minimum Phase Equivalent Wavelet
Vibroseis Deconvolution
Deconvolution Pitfalls
Reflectivity Color
Q Example

61 pages
4-2
4-4
4-12
4-20
4-23
4-28
4-32
4-36
4-39
4-41
4-47
4-55
4-58

Chapter 5: Surface Consistent Methods


Seismic Line Coordinates
A Surface Consistent Convolutional Model
Surface Consistent Methods
Statics and Datums
Statics with Uphole Times
Surface Consistent Residual Statics
Refraction Statics

29 pages
5-2
5-5
5-9
5-12
5-17
5-19
5-25

Chapter 6: Velocity Definitions and Simple Raytracing


Velocity in Theory and Practice
Instantaneous Velocity
Vertical Traveltime
Vins as a Function of Vertical Traveltime
Average Velocity
Mean Velocity
RMS Velocity
Interval Velocity
Snell's Law
Raytracing in a v(z) Medium
Measurement of the Ray Parameter
Raypaths when v = vo + cz

26 pages
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-8
6-10
6-11
6-13
6-18
6-20
6-24
6-25

Chapter 7: Normal Moveout and Stack


Normal Moveout
Stacking Velocity
Normal Moveout and Reflector Dip
NMO for a V(z) Medium
Dix Equation Moveout
Normal Moveout Removal
Extension of NMO and Dip to V(z)
NMO for Multiple Reflections
CMP Stacking
Post Stack Considerations
ZOS: A Model for the CMP Stack
Fresnel Zones

38 pages
7-2
7-5
7-6
7-10
7-13
7-15
7-17
7-22
7-27
7-30
7-34
7-36

Chapter 8: Migration Concepts


Raytrace Migration of Normal Incidence Seismograms
Time and Depth Migrations, A First Look
Elementary Constant Velocity Migration
Huygen's Principle and Point Diffractors
The Exploding Reflector Model
F-K Migration, Geometric Approach
F-K Migration, Mathematics
F-K Wavefield Extrapolation
Recursive F-K Wavefield Extrapolation for v = v(z)
The Extrapolation Operator
Vertical Time-Depth Conversions
Time and Depth Migration in Depth
Kirchhoff Migration
Finite Difference Concepts
Finite Difference Migration

52 pages
8-2
8-5
8-6
8-9
8-14
8-20
8-25
8-27
8-31
8-33
8-36
8-37
8-40
8-43
8-46

Chapter 9: The Third Dimension


Impulse Responses
Wave Propagation
Fresnel Zones
Wavelength Components
Apparent Velocity (or phase velocity)
The F-K Transform
F-K Transform Pairs
F-L transform Computation
3-D Migration by Double 2-D
Exploitable Symmetries
Mapping Strategies
Time migration of traveltime maps

32 pages
9-2
9-6
9-7
9-10
9-13
9-15
9-19
9-20
9-24
9-27
9-29
9-31

Chapter 10: Seismic Resolution Limits


Resolution Concepts
Linear v(z) resolution theoru for zero offset seismic data

35 pages
10-2
10-18

Chapter 11: Study Guide


Geophysics 557 Final Exam Study Guide
Exam Sampler

9 pages
11-2
11-7

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Lecture Notes
Geophysics 557

Chapter 1
Synthetic Sei sm ogram s

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -1

The Big Picture


T h e s i m p l es t m o d e l o f s ei s m i c d at a i s t h at o f a w av e le t
c on v o lv e d wi t h re f l ec t i v it y . T h e p i c tu re i s s i m p l e a n d
a p pea li n g . A c om p a c t p uls e o f so u n d i s s e n t d ow n in t o
t h e e ar t h a n d s ca l ed c op i e s o f i t a re re f l ec t e d f r om t h e
m a j or f or m a ti o n b ou n da ri e s .

T he s e e c ho e s ar e r e c o r de d o ve r t he e xt en t o f t he
s e i s m i c ex pe r i m e nt an d a na l yz e d . S i nc e e a c h e c ho i s a
s c a l e d c o py of t h e s o ur c e w av e f o rm , s i mp l e c o m pa r i s o n
m ak e s i t i s e a s y t o de d uc e t he re l a t i v e s t r e ng th o f t he
di f f e r e nt r e f l e c t i n g ho r i z on s . T he e s t i m at e d s e t o f
r e f l e c t i o n c oe ff i c i e nt s i s c a l l e d t h e r ef l e c t i vi ty f unc t i o n
o f t he e a r t h b e ne a t h t he s ur ve y .
I t s a n i c e c o n c ep t bu t is i t v a li d ? H o w c a n i t b e
d e f en ded
f ro m
ba si c
p h ys i c al
p r i n c i p le s ?
W h at
a s s u m p t i on s ( t h er e a r e a l w ay s a s su mp t io n s i n p h ys i cs )
a r e re q u i r ed ? W h e n a r e t h ey j u s t i fi e d a n d w h en a re t h e y
n ot ?

1-2

Synthetic Seismograms

The Big Picture


O n c e w e s ta r t t o t hi n k ab o u t th e i de a , w e c a n i mm e d i at e l y
c o m e up w i th a l o t o f q ue sti o ns suc h as:
How can we procede if we don't know the source waveform?
What if several echos are very closely spaced?
How can we tell where the echo came from?
I s n't th e r e at te n ua ti o n o f se i s m i c e ne r g y a nd do e s n ' t t hi s
c h an g e th e s o ur c e w a vef o r m?
What is convolution anyway? (And why should I care?)
What about multiple bounce echos? Don't they confuse things?
If things are so simple, how come seismic processing is so
complicated? Maybe those processors are just fooling us ...
How can I decide how much source energy I need?
What are the limits of the detail that can be resolved?
What are the tradeoffs with Vibroseis and dynamite?
What is reflectivity anyway? (And why should I care?)
What's this band-limited stuff?
W h y c a n' t I j u st t ru st t h e s eis m ic p ro c es so r t o take c a re
o f t he se m es sy d e ta i ls ?
I 'm su r e th a t y o u ca n th in k o f m o r e q u e st io n s a s w e ll . A l l
o f t he se q ue s ti on s h a ve t h e ir r e l e va n ce a n d I h o p e to
a d dr ess m an y of t h e m in th is co u r se . A t t he e n d , y o u
sh o u ld h av e a g o o d u nd e r s ta n di ng o f t h e st r e n g th s a nd
w e a k n e ss e s o f th e c o nv o lu ti on a l m o de l a n d t hi s s ho u ld
h e lp y ou fo r m a h e a lt h y , sce p t ica l v ie w o f f in al s e is mi c
im a g e s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -3

The Big Picture


S e is m i c d at a p r oc e ss i n g i s t y p ic a ll y d i v i d e d i n t o m a n y
st e p s t h ou g h t h e r ea li t y i s t h at t h e s e is m i c re f l ec t i on
p ro c es s d oe s n ot c le an ly se p ar at e i n t o d i s cr e t e
p ac ka ge s . W e h a v e a so u rc e w h i c h s e n d s o u t a
co m p l i c at ed , l ar ge l y u n k n ow n wa v ef or m w h i ch e x p an d s,
a t t en ua t es , r ef l ec t s , t ra n s m it s , c h an g e s m od e s , a n d
ge n e ra l l y s c at t er s a bo u t w h i l e a s et o f re c ei v e rs
p la c id ly r e c or d s w h at e v er co m e s t h e ir wa y. A n d
ge n e ra l l y w h at
h i t s t h e re c or d er s is
f ar
mor e
co m p l i c at ed t h an t h e s i m p l e d i re c t e c h os t h at w e w an t :
Receivers

Surface wave

All kinds of waves


sweep across the
receivers

P-wave
reflection

S-wave
reflection

G o d wo u l d n ot p r oc e ss s ei s m i c d at a t h e wa y we d o . ( I' v e
r ec e iv e d a r ev e l at i on o n t h at p oi n t . ; - } ) I n s t ea d , H e
w ou l d b ac k t h e wa v e s d ow n i n t o t h e e ar t h u n d o in g a l l
p h y si c al e f f ec t s a t t h e p oi n t w h e re t h e y o c c u rr e d . W e
a r e p r ev e n t ed f ro m d o in g t h i s l ar ge l y b e c au s e o f
i gn o ra n c e o f t h e s u b s u rf ac e st r u c t u re . T h at i s, i n o rd er
t o u nd o t h e p h ys i c al e ff e c t s o f wa v e p r op a ga t io n , we
r eq u i r e k n ow l ed g e o f t h e s u b s u rf a ce p r op e r ti e s th a t
c on t r ol t h o se e f f ec t s . U n fo rt u na t el y , th o s e a re t h e v e ry
p r op e r ti e s w h ic h we h o p e t o d i sc o v er w i t h t h e s ei s m i c
e x p er i m e n t in th e f i rs t p l ac e . P ro bl e m s o f t h i s so rt a re
c om mo n in g eo p h ys i c s a n d a r e c al l ed " i n v e rs e p r ob l em s" .
1-4

Synthetic Seismograms

The Big Picture


S o , f ac e d w i t h t h e n e e d t o f i n d a s ol u t i on i n s p i t e o f
a l m o st
t o t al
ig n or an c e ,
we
su b d i v i d e,
c om p ar t m en t a li z e, a s s u m e , a n d a p p r ox i m at e u n t i l w e
r ea ch a r es t at e m e n t o f t h e p r ob l em wh i c h i s s o v as t l y
s i m p l if i e d t h a t w e c an a c t u al l y so l v e it . A n ex a m p l e o f
such
a
t r e m en do u s
o v e r si m p l i f i ca t io n
is
th e
" c o n v ol u t i on al m o d el " o f th e s e is m i c t ra c e w h i ch is o f
c e n t ra l im p or t an c e t o d e c on v o lu t i on t h e or y.
C on ti n u i n g w it h sw e ep i n g g en er al i ti e s , we c an gr ou p
m o st p h y si c al l y ba se d s ei s m i c p r oc e s se s i n t o o n e o f t wo
g ro u p s : im a gi n g p r oc e ss e s a n d d ec o n v ol u t i on p r oc e s se s .
I m a gi n g p ro c es s e s a tt e m p t t o d et e rm in e t h e co rr e c t
s p at i al p os i t io n o f t h e e c h os a n d a r e t yp i f i ed b y n m o
r em o v al , c m p s t ac ki n g , a n d m i gr at i on . D e c on v ol u t i on
p r oc e ss e s a t t e m p t t o r e m ov e t h e i l l u m i n at i n g w av ef o rm
a n d m ax i m i ze t h e r e so lu ti o n o f t h e s e i sm ic i m ag e .
E x am p l e s a r e g ai n r ec ov e r y, s t at i s t i ca l d e c on v o lu ti o n ,
i n v er s e Q f i l t er i n g, a n d wa v e l et p r oc e ss i n g .

Deconvolution
techniques

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -5

The Big Picture


I n o r d e r t o u n der s t an d t h e i m p l i c at i on s o f o u r si m pli f i ed
t h e or ie s , it is i m po rt a n t t o u n d e rs t an d a s m u c h a s
p o ss i bl e a bo u t t h e m or e r ea li s t ic p h ys i c s t h at w e a r e
a p pro x im a t i n g.
T h e r ef or e , i n a d d it i on
t o st u dy i n g
m a th em a t ic a l s i m p l i fi c at i on s s u c h a s t h e c on v ol u t i on a l
m o d el , w e wi l l n ot h es i t at e t o ex a m i n e o f t h e m o s t
i m p o rt an t p h ys i c al m e c h an i s m s i n v ol v ed i n s ei s m i c w av e
p r op a ga t io n .

deconvolution methods
the convolutional model

imaging methods
one-way scalar waves

primaries, multiples, etc


elastic wave theory
anelastic wave theory
physics of continuous media

1-6

Synthetic Seismograms

Elastic Waves
T h e si m ple s t e la st i c m a t er i al r eq u ir e s 2 f u n d a m en t a l
c on st a n t s t o d e s c ri b e t h e re la t io n be t we e n st r e ss a n d
s t ra in k n ow n a s H oo ke ' s l aw :
ii = + 2ii, i=x,y,z

= xx +yy+zz
(Sherrif and Geldart,
Exploration Seismology, 1981)

ij = ij , i=x,y,z, ij

H e re i j d e n ot e s t h e c om p o n e n t s o f t h e s t r es s t e n so r
a n d e i j t h e c o m p on e n t s o f t h e s tr ai n t en so r. a n d a r e
c al l ed t h e L a m e co n s t an t s a n d is a ls o o f t en kn o wn a s
t h e s h ea r m o d u l u s. i s z er o f or a f lu id . O t h er c o n st a n t s
a r e o f t e n a l s o re f er e n c ed s u c h a s Yo u n g' s m o d u l u s , E ,
P oi s s on ' s r at io , , a n d t h e bu l k m od u lu s, k . T h e s e
c on s t an t s a r e a l l r e la t ed i n v ari o u s w ay s a n d a n y t wo
s u ff i c e t o d e sc r i be t h e el as t i c m a t er ia l .
E =

3+2

2 +

k =

3+2
3

The description of elastic wave in such a medium, requires the


application of Newton's second law (f=ma). This leads to the
incorporation of the density, , as a necessary constant in the role
of "mass" in Newton's second law. Thus, analysis of elastic waves
in the most simple elastic solid (homogeneous and isotropic),
requires three parameters: any two of: , , E, , and k, plus the
density, .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -7

Elastic Waves
It is well established in theory1,2,3 that a homogeneous, isotropic
elastic solid supports two distinct types of body waves:
compressional and shear. Compressional or P waves are
characterized by particle motion parallel to the direction of wave
propagation. Shear or S waves have particle motion transverse to
the direction of wave propagation. P and S waves have velocities
of propagation given by:
=

+2

We may choose to regard and as fundamental constants


(together with ). Some relationships are:
= 22 2

222
2
2

21
1 2

3.5

2.5

1.5
0.2

0.25

0.3
0.35
Poisson's ratio

0.4

0.45

1: Waters, Reflection Seismology, 1987


2: Sherrif and Geldart, Exploration Seismology, 1982
3: Aki and Richards, Quantitave Seismology Theory and Methods,
1980,

1-8

Synthetic Seismograms

Well Logs
Well logging is a technology designed to make geophysical
measurements in a bore hole. Well logs are the most common way
to get information about the elastic parameters of rocks which are
needed for making synthetic seismograms. Three very common
logs, which are of interest to us, are
SON ... P-wave interval transit time
SSON ... S-wave interval transit time
RHOB ... density
The interval transit time logs are usually provided in units of
microseconds/lu (lu= meters or feet). Thus, the P and S wave
velocities are found as:

10

son

10

sson

Units for density logs can vary. Be careful to work with consistent
units.
Digital well logs are usually packaged in ascii flat files in either GMA
or LAS format. The LAS format is more modern and flexible and is
to be preferred.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -9

Well Logs
Here are some example logs from 8-8, an oil well in the Blackfoot
field
1400

100/08-08023-23 W4

1400

mannville

mannville

1450

1500

1450

1500

coal_1
coal_2

coal_1
coal_2
coal_3

coal_3

1550

100/08-08023-23 W4

glauc_ch_top

1550

glauc_ch_top
glauc_1
glauc_ss_top

glauc_1
glauc_ss_top

glauc_base

glauc_base

1600

1600
miss

miss
base

base

1650
3
5
0

3
2
2
0
5
0
0
0
0
Units of log SON
Faster

1
5
0

1650
3
0
0

2 2 2 2 2 1
8 6 4 2 0 8
0 0 0 0 0 0
Units of log RHOB
More dense

Why do these logs appear to have a negative correlation?

1-10

Synthetic Seismograms

Gardner's Rule
W e l l l og s a re o f t en i n ad e q u at e , i n c om p l et e , o r m i s si n g .
O n e c om mo n e x am p le o f t h i s c om e s f ro m t h e f ac t t h a t
s on i c lo gs ( SO N ) a re ru n m u c h m or e f r eq u en t l y t h an
d e n s it y l og s. T h u s we a re o f t e n f ac e d w it h t h e n ee d t o
c re at e a s e is m o gr am w it h o u t d e n s i t y i n f or m a ti o n .
G a rd ner et a l. ( 1 ) , f ol l ow ed th e r ea so n ab l e a p p r oa c h o f
s ee ki n g a n
em pir i c al r el at i o n sh i p b et w ee n P - w av e
v e lo c it y a n d d en si t y. B e lo w i s a c r os sp lo t o f a a n d r fo r
B l ac k fo ot 8 - 8 w h i ch i n d i c at es a re as on a bl e c or r el at i on
e x is t s :
3000
2800

2600
2400
2200

2000
1800
2000

3000

4000
5000
P-wave velocity

6000

7000

1 Ga rd ner , G .H. F ., G a rd ne r , L . W . , an d G re gor y, A . R. , 19 74, Fo rm a tio n


v e lo cit y an d d en s it y - t h e d iag n o st i c b a si s f or s tra tig r ap hic t r a ps ,
G eo p hy s ics , 39 , 77 0-7 80

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -11

Gardner's Rule
Gardner et al. sought and found a relationship of the form:

= a m
T h e c on s t an t s a a n d m c an be d et e rm in e d f ro m fi t t i n g a
s t ra ig h t l in e t o a n p l ot o f lo g( ) v e rs u s l og ( ) . B e l ow
a r e t h e r es u l t s o f s ev e ra l s u c h f i t s t o B l ac kf o ot 8- 8 .
3200
m=.46

3000

m=.30
2800
m=.25
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
2000

3000

4000
5000
P-wave velocity

6000

7000

G a rd ner et a l . d et e rm in e d a n d r e co m m e n d e d m = . 2 5 a s a
r ea so n ab le v al u e . H ow e v er , a s we c an s e e, t h e d at a
s u p p o rt q u i t e a ra n ge o f a lt e rn a t i v es . ( Th e v al u e o f i s
l ar ge l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e u n it s u s e d a n d i s n ot q u o t ed
h e re . ) T h u s , th e c ar ef u l a p pli c at i on o f G ar d n er ' s r u l e
r eq u i r es a bi t o f a n a l ys is .
1-12

Synthetic Seismograms

Gardner's Rule
Here are the three pseudo density logs from the three fits on the
previous page.
1650

1650

1650

1600

1600

1600

1550

1550

1550

1500

1500

1500

1450

1450

1450

m=.46
1400

2000

2500
Density

m=.30
3000

1400

2000

2500
Density

m=.25
3000

1400

2000

2500
Density

3000

Actual density log from Blackfoot 8-8


Result from a Gardner type regression against P-wave
velocity

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -13

The Wave Equation


T h e g re at s u c c es s o f p h y si c s in e x p l ai n i n g o u r w or l d a n d
f u e li n g t h e gr ow t h o f t ec h n o lo gy i s ba se d f u n d am en t a ll y
u p o n d i f f er en t i al e q u a t io n s a n d m or e sp ec i f ic a ll y p ar t ia l
d i f f er en t i al e q u a t io n s . P D E ' s a r e t h e m a t h em a t i ca l
s t at e m en t o f t h e a p p l ic at i o n o f b as i c p h y si c al l a ws t o
c om ple x s ys t e m s . F or e x am p l e , a c on s i d e ra ti o n o f a
c on s t an t d e n s i t y f lu id l e ad s t o t h e 's c al ar w av e
e q u at i on ' wh i c h i s c en tr al t o m os t ge op hy s ic a l i m ag i n g
a l g or it h ms. T h e S W E i s a d i r ec t c o n s eq uen c e o f
N e w to n ' s s e co n d l aw a n d H oo ke 's l aw a s a p p l ie d t o t h e
f l u id .
2
2
2
2
1
+
+
2
= f x,y,z,t
2
2
2
2
x
y
z
v x,y,z t
H e re Y i s t h e p r e ss u r e , v
p r op a ga t io n , a n d f ( x ,y ,z , t)
s ou r c es .

i s t h e v el o ci t y o f w av e
r e p re s en t s a n y p os s ib l e

T h o u g h i t is h ar d l y o b v i ou s , t h e s o lu t i o n s t o t h i s
e q u at i on a re t ra v el i n g w av e s . A gr e at d e al o f in te r es t i n g
p h y si c al ef f e ct s ca n b e s t u d i ed w it h t h e S W E i n c lu din g :

1-14

propagation of primaries and multiples


reflection and transmission at interfaces
head waves and surface waves
ray theory, Snell's law
characterization of sources
arrays of sources and receivers

Synthetic Seismograms

The Wave Equation


T h e r e is a p ow e rf u l m e t h od o f s ol u t i on o f P D E 's t h a t i s
o f c o n s id e r ab le r el e v an c e e x p lo ra t io n s e is m o lo gy . T h i s i s
t h e m e th o d o f s o lu t i o n by G r ee n ' s fu n ct i o n s. W e w il l n o t
d e v el o p i t h e re b u t s i m p l y st a t e th e im p or t an t r es u l t s .
T h e e ss e n c e o f t h e t h eo ry is t o d e v e lo p a s ol u t i on t o
t h e P D E o f i n t e re s t f or a " p o in t s ou rc e " a n d t h e n t o
s h ow
h ow
the
re s p on s e
to
a r b it r ar y
s ou r c e
c on f i g u ra ti o n s ca n be c on st r u c t ed fr om t h e e l em en t ar y
s ol u t i on . T h e S W E , w h en s p e ci al i ze d f o r t h e G r ee n ' s
f u n c t i on p ro bl e m l o oks li k e:
2 G
x

2G
y

2G
z

2G

v x,y,z t
2

= xxo,yyo ,zzo,tt o

T h e t e rm o n t h e ri g h t o f t h e eq u al s ig n i s a D i ra c d el t a
f u n c t i on a n d r ep re s en t s a m at h e m a ti c al i m p u l s e a t a
s i n gl e p o i n t i n s p ac e , ( xo ,y o , zo ) , a n d a t a n in st a n t o f
t i m e , t o . T h e s o lu t i on to t h e G re e n ' s f u n c t i on p ro bl e m ,
G ( x, y ,z ,t ) , i s k n ow n e x ac t l y f or c o n st a n t v e lo c it y a n d
a p pro x im a t el y fo r a n u m b e r o f m or e c o m p l i ca t ed
s i tu a t i on s . G c on t a in s a l l p h y si c al e f fe c t s d u e t o t h e
i m p u l s iv e s ou r c e a n d i s p r op e rl y c al le d a n " i m p u l s e
r es p o n se " .
T o o b t ai n t h e r es p o n s e t o g en e ra l s ou r ce c o n fi g u ra t io n s ,
w e im a g in e t h e so u r ce to b e c om p os e d o f a s et o f s c al e d
i m p u l s es . T h en co n s t ru c t t h e G re en ' s f u n c t i on s f or a ll o f
t h e se i m p uls e s a n d si m p l y s u p e ri m p o se t h e s e G r ee n ' s
f u n c t i on s . T h i s i s a n e x am p l e o f t h e m a t h em a t i ca l
p r oc e ss o f " co n v ol u t i on ". W e w il l l ea rn m o re a b ou t
c on v o lu ti o n l at e r i n t h i s c ou r s e. F o r n ow , it i s e n ou g h t o
v i su a l iz e i t a s a ge n e ra l s u p e r p os i t io n o f s c al e d " i m p u l s e
r es p o n se s " .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -15

The Wave Equation


T he r e s ul t w e ha ve j us t o b t a i ne d i s s o i m po r t a nt t h at w e
r e s t a t e i t i n d i f f e r e nt t er m s :
T h e w a v ef ie ld d u e to a so u r ce ha vi n g e xt en d e d sp a t ia l
a n d te m p o ra l
f o rm c a n b e co n s id e re d t o be t h e
c o n v o lu t io n o f t h e e a rt h 's i m p u ls e res p o n se w it h t h e
e xt en d e d so ur ce . T h is re su l t h o l d s fo r a n y l i ne a r w a v e
e qu a t i o n a n d e x te n d s t o el a st i c, a n is o t ro p i c a n d
a t t en u a t in g m ed ia .
T h e t wo c om p o n en ts o f t h i s r e su lt , t h e e ar t h ' s i m p u l s e
r es p o n se , I r ,
a n d t h e s ou r c e wa v ef or m , w s , a re b ot h
a b s t ra ct

e n t i t ie s th a t

a r e d i f f ic u l t t o q u a n t if y . I r i s
g en e r al ly ve r y c om p l i c at e d a n d c on t ai n s a l l p h ys i ca l
e ff e c t s. w s i s a c om p l e t e ch a ra c t er iz at i on o f t h e s ou r c e
w av e fi e ld a n d c an be co n s id er ed a s t h e sp ec i f ic a t io n o f
t h e wa v ef i e ld a t a ll p o i n t s o n a s u rf a ce s u r ro u n d i n g t h e
s ou r c e.

Impulse response
Response to 3 sources
1-16

Synthetic Seismograms

Traveling Waveforms
T he s im plest m a thematic al w a ve equat io n is th e scala r w a ve
e q ua t io n. I n a coustic m e di a o r s im p le e lastic media ,
compression a l w a ves a r e g o ve rne d b y it . In 1- D , th e s c al ar
w a ve equ a tio n is :
2
2

1 2
2

v t

(1)

Where represents the propagating wave. We now show that


= f tz/v

(f is an arbitrary function)

is a solution to (1).
2 f
1
f
1
= f ,
= 2f
2
z
v
z
v
f
f

= f ,
= f
2
t
t
2

Substitution of the second partials of f into (1) results in an


immediate identity. Thus f is a solution to (1) with the form of f
being arbitrary except that it must be twice differentiable.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -17

Traveling Waveforms
As an example of a waveform, consider the Ricker wavelet defined
by:

w = 12 fdom exp fdom

-0.05

0.05

->

Shown for fdom=30Hz


Note that the Ricker wavelet is centered where its argument equals
zero. Thus w(t+z/v) represents a wavelet centered at t+z/v = 0 or
z = -vt. So we conclude:
w t+z/v = Wavef o rm trave li ng
i n th e - z d ir ec ti o n

w tz/v =

z=-vt

Wa vef o r m tr a vel i ng
i n t he +z d i r e c ti o n

z=vt

Similarly, cos( (t-z/v)), cos(k(z - vt)), and cos( t-kz) all


represent cosine waves traveling in the +z direction.
1

1.01 sec
0.5

1.0 sec

0
-0.5
-1
400

450

500

550

600

z-> (meters)
cos 230 tz/1000
1-18

Plotted versus z for t=1.0 and 1.01 (sec)


Synthetic Seismograms

Normal Incidence Reflection Coefficients


(Adapted from E.S. Krebes, Course Notes in Theoretical Seismology)

Incident
displacement

Reflected
displacement

Consider a v e r ti c a l l y
g t+z/1
tr a ve li ng com pr es s i o na l Z f tz/1
w a ve incident o n a
h or i z o nt a l i nterface. I n
1, 1
o r de r t o d e s c r ib e the
r e f l e cti o n a n d
2,2
tr a n s mi ss i o n t ha t o c c u r ,
i t can b e s ho w n tha t t w o
h tz/2
c o n di t i o ns m us t b e
Transmitted
s a ti sf i e d :
displacement

continuity of displacement:

continuity of normal pressure:

f + g = h

(1)

???

(2)

To develop a form for the second equation, we use Hookes


law which says stress is proportional to strain.

stress = (applied force)/area


strain = (change in length)/length

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -19

Normal Incidence Reflection Coefficients


Consider an infinitesimal elastic element
whose ends undergo displacement u1 and u2:

u1

dz
Strain =

l
l

u2u1
dz

u
z

u2

Now, invoking Hooke's law:

stress = pressure =

Force
area

= k

Where k is a constant formed from the material constants. To


determine k, we can use dimensional analysis:

pressure =

force units
(length units)2

mass
l

sec2

mass
3

sec

2
So, k looks like: k = Thus the pressure continuity equation is:

121

f
g
h
+ 121
= 2 22
z
z
z

But since

f
z

(evaluated at the interface)

1 g
1 h
1
f,
=
g,
=
h
1
1
2
z
z

11f 11g = 22h


Which can be immediately integrated to give:
11f 11g = 22h
1-20

(2)
Synthetic Seismograms

Normal Incidence Reflection Coefficients


Assume that an interface occurs at z=0, then if the boundary
conditions are applied there, the two equations determining normal
incidence reflection and transmission are:

Where impedance =

f + g = h

(1)

I 1f I 1g = I 2h

(2)

Ik = kk , k= 1,2

and where f,g, and h are understood to be evaluated at z=0.


Multiplying (1) by I2, and subtracting it from (2) leads to:
g =

I1I 2
I1+I 2

f = Rf

Similarly, we can obtain:


h =

2I 1
I1 +I2

f = Tf

The quantities R and T are known as the normal incidence reflection


and transmission coefficients:
R =

Note that:

I2 I1
I1 +I2

R+T =

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

, T =

I 2I1+2I1
I1+I 2

2I 1
I1+I2
= 1

1 -21

Normal Incidence Reflection Coefficients

R =

I2I 1
I1+I 2

, T =

2I 1
I1+I 2

R and T are often written in terms of the contrast and average of


impedance across the layer:
I =

1
2

I1+I 2 , I = I 2I 1

I 1 = I.5I , I 2 = I+.5I
Straight forward algebra then gives:
1 d ln I

z
R =
2
2I
dz
I

T = 1R =

I.5I
I

R can be written in terms of and as:


R =

+
2

1
+
2

Note that the definition of R is such that an impedance increase


gives a positive RC but that the reflected pulse is flipped in
polarity.

1-22

Synthetic Seismograms

Simple "Primaries Only" Impulse Response.


Layered Earth, Normal Incidence, Acoustic
Model

Impulse
Response

k=0

V1,R 1

*R1
t=t
k=1

V2,R 2

1 R *
1

* 1R1 *R2

*R1
t=2t
2

k=2

V3,R 3
1 R * 1 R *
1
2

* 1 R1 1 R2 *R3
k=3

Vj,R j

j1

k = 1

*1 R1 *R2

t=3t

*1 R1 1 R2 *R3

j1

1 Rk *

*
k = 1

1Rk *Rj
k=j

j1

t=jt

k=1

1 Rk *Rj

Model layers have a


Zj
=2
t
constant traveltime
Vj
"thickness":

Vn,R n

k=n-1
n1

n1

k = 1

1 Rk *

*
k=1

1Rk *Rn
k=n

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

t=nt

n1

1 Rk *Rn
k=1

1 -23

Computation of a 1-D Synthetic Seismic Impulse Response


(Including All Multiples)
t=t

t=2t

t=3t

t=4t

t=5t

t=6t

t=7t

t=8t

R0

t
R1

z
R2

R3
E ar th model i s bui lt of
l ay er s of e qua l tr a ve lti me
" thic kness" t

R4

Completed node

R5

Current node
R6
Note: All Raypaths are
actually vertical. They are
shown slanted for illustrative
purposes.

R7

R8

R9
At the designated point, 6D4 and 6U5
are known and we wish to compute
6U4 and 6D5:
6U4 = R4*6D4 + (1+R4)*6U5

The c omp le te s e is mogr am i s


obta ined by r ecur s ive ca lcula tion
be ginning i n the up pe r le f t. All
nod es on a ny up war d tr ave ling r a y
ar e comp le tel y ca lc ul ate d bef ore
pr oc ed ing to the nex t d e pth.

6D5 = (1-R4)*6D4 -R4*6U5

Adapted from: Reflection Seismolgy, K.H. Waters, 1981


J.H. Wiley
1-24

Synthetic Seismograms

From Impulse Response to Source Waveform


Response
Source Waveform Response

Impulse Response

t=t

t=t

*R 1
2

t=2t

* 1R1 *R2

t=3t

* 1R1 1R2 *R3

t=jt

j1

1Rk *Rj

*R 1
2

t=2t

* 1R1 *R2

t=3t

* 1R1 1R2 *R3

j1

t=jt

k = 1

n1

t=nt

1Rk *Rj
k = 1

1Rk *Rn
k = 1

T h e " p r i m ar ie s o n l y"
impulse
re s p on s e
c on s i s ts
of
a
time
s er i es o f s c al ed a n d
d e la ye d im pu ls e s

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

n1

t=nt

1Rk *Rn
k = 1

T o o b t ai n t h e s o u rc e
wa v ef o rm
re s p on s e
f ro m
the
i m pu ls e
re s p on s e ,
s im ply
re p l ac e ea c h s p i ke o f
t h e i m pu ls e re s p on s e
by t h e p r od uct o f t h e
s p i ke
and
s o u rc e
wa v ef o rm . T h i s i s t h e
m at h e m a ti c al p ro c es s
o f co n v ol u t i on
1 -25

Impulse Responses and Seismograms


F o r a li n e ar ea rt h , i t c an be s h ow n t h at i f w e a re g i v en
t h e w av e fo rm s i gn a t u re o f a n on - im p u l si v e so u rc e a n d
t h e i m p u l se re s p on s e o f a n ea rt h m od el , t h e n :

s t = Ir t ws t

where:

Ir t

is the earth impulse response

ws t

is the source waveform

st

is the earth response to the source waveform

T h e g e n er al p ro of o f t h i s r es u l t c o m es f ro m " G re e n 's
fu n ct i o n a n a ly s is " a n d is t r u e f or a n y l i n e ar wa v e
eq ua t i on ( e l as t ic , s c al ar , et c ) G en er al l y I r c on t a in s a l l
p h ys i c al ef f ec t s t h e t h e or y i s c ap ab l e o f p r od u c in g , a n d
u su a l ly t h a t i s m o re t h a n w e w an t .
T he m o s t c o m m o n u s e o f 1 - D s ei s m o gr a m s i s i n t h e
i n te rp re t a t io n o f p ro c es s ed s e i sm i c s e c t io n s. I n t h is
ca s e
m o st
of
th e
p h y si ca l
e f f ec ts
( m u lt ip l es ,
t r a n s m is s io n l o ss es , a tt en u a ti o n ) h a v e b e e n r em o v ed i n
t h e p r o ce s si n g. T h e re f o re , c o m m o n p ra c ti ce r e p l a ce s
I r ( t ) w it h r ( t ) w h er e :

rt =

Thus:

n o rm a l i n c i d en ce re f le c t i on co ef f i c ie n t s
p o s it i o n ed i n 2 - w ay v e rt i c al t r av e l t im e

s t = r t ws t

s( t ) g i v en b y t h i s re s u lt i s th e m o st c om m on
se i s m og ra m c o m p u t e d i n ex p l o ra ti o n g eo p h y si c s .
1-26

1-D

Synthetic Seismograms

1 - D S y n th e ti c S ei s mog ram Su m ma r y

A c o m p l et e s ol u t i on , g en er at i n g a l l m u l t ip le s a n d
t ra n sm is s i on ef f e c t s, c an b e c on s t r u c te d . S o m e
m et h o d s a ls o i n c l u d e a t t e n u at i on .
A ss u m pti o n s: ra y th eo ry , 1 - D , n o rm a l i n c id en c e
G e o p h ys i c al w el l l og s , p r ov i d i n g P - w av e v e l oc i t ie s
a n d d e n si t i es , a re u se d . T h e y a re u su a ll y r es am p l ed t o
a v a ri ab l e d e p t h l a ye ri n g w it h e q u al D t s te p s .
M e t h od i s i n h er e n t ly a lg or i t h m i c . N o a n a l yt i c c l os ed
fo rm s ol u t i on a v ai l ab l e.
I n p r ac t ic e , m ult i p l es a n d t ra n s m is s i on lo s se s a re n o t
u s u al ly in cl u d e d . R e f le c t i on c oe f fi c i en ts i n t im e a r e
si m ply c on v ol v ed w it h a so u rc e r e sp o n s e.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1 -27

Example of Synthetic Seismogram Creation by


Convolution of Reflectivity and Wavelet.

Time Domain View

Wavelet
Synthetic Seismogram

Reflection Coeficients

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Time (secs)

1-28

Synthetic Seismograms

Example of Synthetic Seismogram Creation by


Convolution of Reflectivity and Wavelet.

Frequency Domain View

0
-10
-20

Reflectivity

-30

Wavelet

-40
-50
-60
-70
-80

Synthetic Seismogram

-90
-100

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

200

250

1 -29

P-S Synthetic Seismogram Construction


The SYNTH Algorithm

Define Layered Model

Vp, Vs, and


density logs

R e sa m pl e d
l o gs

Loop over layers: k=1 to nlayers


Iterative Snell's law raytracing

1 ) Ra yt r ac e
I nc i de nc e
A n gles

OR

PP

2) Zoeppritz
RCs

S
Free
surface

AND

PS

Primary reflections

3) Map RCs to to,


apply wavelet.

Input
wavelet
Re s pons e of
l ay e r k

Next layer

+
Accumulated
gather after k-1
layers

1-30

Accumulated
gather aft er k
la yer s

Synthetic Seismograms

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Lecture Notes
Geophysics 557

Chapter 2
Sign al P rocessi ng

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -1

Convolution
C on v o lu ti o n i s t h e m a t h e m at i c al p r oc e s s o f " s h i ft i n g ,
s ca li n g , a n d su mm i n g" a w av e fo rm t o p r od u c e a n o u t pu t
by s u p er p o si t i on . G e n e ra ll y, t w o i n p u t s i gn a ls a r e
re q u i r ed , sa y r a n d w , w it h w b ei n g t h e wa v ef or m a n d r
a s e ri e s o f s c al in g c oe f f ic i e n t s. F or ex a m p l e , l e t r= [1 0
0
- .5 .5 0 - 1 ] a n d le t w = [ - . 5 1 - . 5 ] , t h en t h e
c on v ol u t i on o f r a n d w i s:
j
k

0
r0w0

-.5

-.5

.25

r4w0

r4w1 r4w2 = r4*w

-.25

r5w0

-.25

-.5

.5

.25

+
6

r3w1 r3w2 = r3*w

+
5

r2w1 r2w2 = r2*w

r3w0

r1w1 r1w2 = r1*w

r2w0

r0w1 r0w2 = r0*w

r1w0

O u t p u t sa m p l e n u m b e r
2
3
4
5
6

r5w1 r5w2 = r5*w

0
r6w0

r6w1 r6w2 = r6*w

.5

-1

-.5

.25

-.75

.75

.25

-1

.5

s = rw
-.5
2-2

.5

Signal Processing Concepts

Convolution
I n t h e p r ev i ou s s l id e, we d e s cr i be d a t a bl u l ar m e th o d
f or c om p u t i n g t h e c on v o lu t i on o f r a n d w t o y i el d s.
T h i s c a n b e w ri t t en m a th em a t ic a ll y a s fo ll o ws :

s = r w
sj = rk wjk
k

T o s ee t h a t t h i s s u m m a t io n e x p r es s i on is eq u iv a le n t t o
t h e t ab u la r m e t h od , co n s id er t h e e x am p l e o f j =4 :

s4 = r0 w40+r 1w41+r2w42+r3w43+r4 w44+r 5w45+r6w46


s4 = r0 w4+r1w3 +r 2w2+r3 w1+r4w0 +r5w1+r6w2

N ot e t h at t h e le n g t h o f s i s t h e c om b i n ed l en g t h s o f
r a n d w le s s 1 :

length s = length r +length w 1


T h u s , m a t h em a t i ca ll y , e v er yt i m e a c o n v ol u t i on i s
p er f or m ed t h e r es u l t i n c re as e s i n l e n gt h . T h i s c re at e s a
b i t o f a h e ad e r ( bo okk e ep i n g ) p r ob l em in se i s m i c d at a
p ro c es s in g a n d i s n ot u s u al l y a l lo we d . T h a t i s, i f a
s e i sm ic t r ac e is c on v ol v ed wi t h a f i l t er o p e r at or , t h e
r e su lt i s t r u n c at e d a t t h e s a m e l e n gt h a s t h e se i sm ic
t r ac e .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -3

Convolution
We have seen that the convolution of discretely sampled
vectors is written:

r w

sj =

jk

The analagous result for continuous functions is:

st =

r w t d

We now show that the order of convolution is immaterial.


Let:

=t, d=d, =t

Then:

st =

And:

So:

st =

r t w d

r t w d

s = rw = wr

We also note that convolution is linear in the sense that:

a+b c = ac + bc

2-4

Signal Processing Concepts

Convolution by Replacement
( e m p ha s is o n in pu t s am ple s )

Consider the discrete convolution of a three point boxcar, b, with


an eleven point time series, r.
0.1

0.05

0.5

0
-0.05
-0.10

0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
0

0
0
2

10

12

E ac h i n p u t sa m p l e i s c on s i d e re d se p a ra te l y. T h e
b ox c a r i s m u lt i p l i ed by t h e i n p u t sa m p l e re s u lt i n g i n a
s c al e d b ox c ar . T h e s c al e d b ox c a r c o n t ri b u t es t o
o u t p u t sa m p l e lo c at i on s b eg i n n i n g a t
the
p os i t io n o f t h e i n p u t sa m p l e . T h us t h e
b ox c ar i s sc a le d b y ea c h sa m p l e o f r
a n d re p l ic a t ed a t t h e lo c at i on o f
th e
r
s am ple . E ac h o u t p u t
sa m p l e
r ec e iv e s
m u lt i p l e
co n t ri b u t i on s w h i c h a r e s u m m e d .
I n p u t s am ple s 1 ,2 a n d 6 a r e
sh o wn e x p l ic i t l y c o n t ri b u t in g.
2

10

12

0.1

0.1

=0
-0.1

-0.1
0

10

12

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

14

10

12

14

2 -5

Convolution as a Weighted Sum


( e m p h as i s o n o u t p u t s am p l es )
Consider the discrete convolution of a three point boxcar, b, with
an eleven point time series, r.
0.1

0.05

0.5

0
-0.05
-0.10

0
0
2

10

T o co m p u t e a n o u t pu t
0.
1
s am p l e , p o si t i on t h e
b ox c ar o v e r s om e r
s am p l e s , m u l t ip ly t h e r
0
s am p l e s b y t h e bo x c ar
w ei g h t s, a n d s u m . T h e -0.05
c om pu t at i on o f o u t pu t
-0.1
0
s am p l e s 1 a n d 7 i s
i ll u s t r at ed . T h i s i s a
p r oc e ss o f s m o ot h i n g
0.1
o r a v er ag i n g t h e i n p u t .

12

10

12

10

12

14

0
-0.1
0

2-6

Signal Processing Concepts

Matrix Multiplication
by Rows
Consider the a 4x4 matrix equation such as:

a 11 a12 a13 a 14

b1

c1

a 21 a22 a23 a 24

b2

c2

a 31 a32 a33 a 34

b3

a 41 a42 a43 a 44

b4

eqn 1

c3
c4

This is equivalent to the following system of equations:

c1 = a11b 1 + a12b 2 + a 13b 3 + a14b 4


c2 = a21b 1 + a22b 2 + a 23b 3 + a24b 4

eqns 2a-2d

c3 = a31b 1 + a32b 2 + a 33b 3 + a34b 4


c4 = a41b 1 + a42b 2 + a 43b 3 + a44b 4
T h us t h e el e m en t s o f t h e v ec t o r C a r e c om p u t e d b y
t ak in g e ac h ro w o f A , m u l t i p l yi n g i t by t h e v e ct o r B , a n d
s u m m i n g t h e r e su l t s . T h is p ro c es s i s f am il i ar t o m o s t
s t u d e n t s o f li n e ar a l ge br a a s " m at r i x m u l t i p l i ca t io n b y
r ow s" . I t c a n be wr i t t en s ym bo li c al l y a s t w o n e s t ed
c om pu t at i on lo op s :
c=zeros(1,4);
for irow=1:4
for jcol=1:4
c(irow)=c(irow) + a(irow,jcol)*b(jcol);
end
end
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -7

Matrix Multiplication
by Columns
M at r i x m u l t i p li c at i on " b y c ol u mn s" i s l e s s we l l k n ow n
t h an th e c o rr es p o n d i n g p ro c es s " b y r ow s" bu t i t
p r ov i d e s a u s ef u l in tu it i v e i n s i gh t t o co n v ol u t i on .
E x am i n at i on o f e q u at i on s 2 a - 2 d s h ow s t h at t h e c ol u m n s
o f A h a v e b ee n m u l t ip li e d by a si n g l e c or re s p on din g
e le m e n t o f B . T h u s w e ca n e x p r es s t h e m a t ri x
m u l t i p l ic a t io n a s a su m o f c o lu m n v ec t or s , e ac h o n e
b ei n g a s c al ed v e rs i on o f a c o lu m n o f A .

a 11

a 12

a 13

a 14

a 21

a 22

a 23

a 24

a 31
a 41

b1 +

a 32
a 42

b2 +

a 33
a 43

b3 +

a 34

c1
b4 =

a 44

c2
c3
c4

W ri t t en a s c om p u t at i on l o op s , t h i s a m o u n t s t o r e v er s in g
t h e o rd er o f t h e l oo p s i n t h e m u l t ip l i c at i on s " by r ow s "
c=zeros(1,4);
for jcol=1:4
for irow=1:4
c(irow)=c(irow) + a(irow,jcol)*b(jcol);
end
end

2-8

Signal Processing Concepts

Convolution as a Matrix Operation


C on si d e r t h e c on v o lu t i on o f a re f l ec t i v it y se q u e n c e , r ,
w it h a w av e le t , w , to y i e l d a se i s m i c t ra c e , s . T h i s i s
u s u al l y wr i tt e n a s t h e c o n v ol u t i on in t e g ra l:

s(t) =

w(t )r()d

W h e n we h a v e d i s c re t e, fi n i t e l en gt h a p p r ox i m a t io n s t o
t h e se q u a n t i ti e s , th e c o n v ol u t i on i s u s u al l y w ri t t e n a s a
s u m m a ti o n . I f r j i s t h e re f le c t i vi t y se r ie s wi t h j = 0 , 1 ,. . . n ,
an d

wk

is

t h e p o ss i b ly

n o n - c au s al

wa v el e t w it h

k =-

m . . .0 . . . m , t h e n :
km

s k = t

j = k+m

wkjr j

U s u al l y, in t h e se e xp re s si o n s, t h e t t e rm i s d ro p p e d o r
s et t o u n i t y. I t i s u se f u l t o w r it e o u t a fe w t e rm s o f t h i s
s u m m a ti o n :

s0 =

+ w0r0 + w1r1 + w2r 2 +

s1 =

+ w1r0 + w0 r1 + w1r 2 +

T h e s am e o p er at i on c an b e a c h i e v ed b y m at r ix
m u l t i p l ic a ti o n wh er e th e w av e l et , w , is l oa d ed i n t o a
s p e ci a l m at r i x c al l ed a T o ep l i t z o r c on v ol u t io n m a t ri x .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -9

Convolution as a Matrix Operation


I t i s a s i m p l e ex e rc i s e o f m at r ix m u l ti p l i c at i on b y r ow s t o
c h e c k th a t t h e f o ll ow i n g m at r i x e q u at i on c om pu t es t h e
c on v ol u t io n o f w w i th r

w0 w1 w2 w3

r0

s0

w1 w0 w1 w2

r1

s1

w2 w1 w0 w1

r2

s2

w3 w2 w1
w0

rm

sn

N ot e t h e s ym m e t ry o f t h e W m a t ri x w h i c h h as t h e
w av e le t s am ple s c on s t an t a l on g t h e d i ag on al s . A n o t h er
w ay t o v i e w W i s t h at e ac h c o lu mn c on t a in s t h e w av e le t
w i th t h e z er o t i m e s am ple a l ig n e d o n t h e m ai n d i ag on a l.
N ow , im a gi n e d o i n g th e m a t r ix m u l ti p l i c at i on by c ol u m n s
i n s t ea d o f r ow s a n d we ge t t h e m o s t i n t u i t iv e v i e w o f
c on v ol u t io n " by r ep la c em e n t " .

w0

w1

s0

w1

w0

s1

w2
w3

r0 +

w1

r1 +

s2

w2
sn

2-10

Signal Processing Concepts

Convolution as a Matrix Operation


A s a n e x am p l e o f c o n v ol u t i on by m at r ix m u l t i p l ic a ti o n ,
h e re i s a n i l l u st r at i on o f t h e c on v ol u t i on o f a r e fl e c t iv i t y
s er i es a n d a m i n i m u m p h as e wa v le t t o y i e ld a 1 -D
s ei s m o gr am .

A s a s ec o n d ex am p l e, h er e i s th e c on v o lu t i on o f a
r ef l ec t i v i t y s er i es a n d a z er o p h as e wa vl e t t o y ie l d a
z e r o p h as e s ei s m og r am .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -11

Convolution as a Matrix Operation


T h es e e x am p l es o f co n v ol u t i on b y m ar t i x m ult i p l i c at i on
s h ow e x p l ic i t l y w h at i s m e an t w h e n we s ay t h at
c on v ol u t io n i s a s t at i on a ry p r oc e ss . I n t u i t i v el y , th is
p h r as e m e an s t h at t h e o p e ra t io n d o es n ot ch a n g e wi t h
t i m e i n s om e se n s e . P re c i se l y, i t m ea n s t h at t h e
w av e f or m s i n t h e co l u m n s o f t h e c o n v ol u t io n m at r i x a re
a ll id en t i c al . T h at is , th e wa v el e t w h i ch i s s c al e d a n d
u s e d t o re p l ac e e ac h r ef l e ct i v i t y s p i k e d o e s n ot c h a n ge
w i th t i m e . A s w e s h al l s e e, m a n y p h y si c al p ro ce s s es
v i ol at e th is a s su m p t i on a n d i t i s q u i t e p o s si b l e t o
g en er al i ze
the
co n v ol u t i on
o p er at i on
to
m od el
n o n s ta t io n ar y p r oc es s e s.
W h en t h e a ss u m p t i o n o f s t at i on a ri t y i s m a d e i n t h e
c on te x t o f s t at is t i c al d ec o n v ol u t i on t h e or y, it m e an s
p r e ci s e ly t h e s a m e t h i n g. W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e t i m e s e ri e s
w e m ea su re d ( t h e s ei s m i c t ra c e ) i s re l at e d t o t h a t wh i c h
w e w an t ( th e r ef l e ct i v i t y) b y a s ta t io n ar y c o n v ol u t i on
o p er at i on . G i v en t h at , we e x p e c t t h at a st a ti o n ar y
i n v e rs e o p er at o r wi l l s u f fi c e t o r ec o ve r t h e r e fl e c t iv i t y.

2-12

Signal Processing Concepts

F ou rie r T ran s fo r ms a n d C o n v ol u t io n
C on si d e r t h e
f u n c t i on s :

co n v ol u t i on

i n t eg r al

for

iu

gu = e

Now, let g be a complex sinusoidal function:

Then:

where

ht =

fe

F =

i t

it

d = e F

fe

c on t i n u o u s

(1)

(2)

T h i s r em a rk ab l e r es u l t s h ow s t h at i f we c on v o lv e A N Y
f u n c t i on , f , wi t h a co m p l e x s in u s o id , t h e r es u l t i s t h e
s am e c om p l e x si n u s o id
m u lt i p l i ed
by a
c o m p l ex
c oe f f ic i e n t . T h i s c o m p l ex c o ef f i ci e n t , F ( w ) , i s c om pu t ed
f ro m f( t ) a n d i s k n ow n a s t h e F o u ri e r T r an s f or m o f f ( t ) .
T h o s e w h o h av e st u die d m a t h em a t i c al p h ys i c s wi l l
r ec og n i ze t h at t h i s m e an s t h at t h e c om ple x s in u so i d s
a r e e ig e n f u n c t io n s o f t h e c on v o lu ti o n o p er at o r a n d t h e
F o u ri e r T r an s f or m p ro v id es t h e ei g en v a lu e s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -13

Fourier Transforms and Convolution


H e re we s e e t h e r e su l t o f c o n v ol v i n g 1 0 , 3 0 , a n d 7 0 H z
c om ple x s in uso id s w it h a 3 0 Hz R i c ke r w av e le t . I n ea ch
c as e , o n l y t h e r ea l p ar t s o f t h e c om ple x s i n u s oi d s a r e
p l ot t e d . W e se e t h a tt h e 1 0 H z s i n u s oi d i s d im in i s h e d b y
7 3 % , t h e 7 0 H z by 9 3 % , a n d t h e 30 Hz is u n at t e n u at e d .
( T h e d i st o rt i on s i n t h e s i n u s oi d s a re a rt i f ac t s o f t h e
d i s p l ay n ot t h e c on v o lu t i o n a l g or i th m . )
10 Hz.

0
-1

30 Hz.
1
30Hz

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

70 Hz

Ricker

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Maximum amplitude = 1.0

0
-1

Convolve

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Maximum amplitude =.064

-1

-1

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

-1

Maximum amplitude = .27

-1
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

IN
2-14

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

OUT
Signal Processing Concepts

Fourier Transforms and Convolution


H e r e i s t h e a c t u al F o u ri e r a m p l it u de s p e ct r u m o f t h e
3 0 H z R ic k er w av e l et .
10
0

-10

-20
-30

-40

-50
-60
0

20

40

60
Frequency (Hz)

80

100

Since "decibels down" are computed by


dbdown = 20*log10(F()/Fmax)
we can use the results from the previous figure to compute:
dbdown(10Hz) = 20*log10(.27) = -11.4 decibels
dbdown(30Hz) = 20*log10(1.0) = 0 decibels
dbdown(70Hz) = 20*log10(.064) = -23.9 decibels
S o F ( w ) , t h e F ou r ie r T ra n s fo rm o f a fu n ct i o n f ( t ) , i s a
q u ic k wa y o f c om pu t in g t h e re l at i v e a t t e n u at i on o f
d if f e re n t s i n u s oi d s w h e n t h e y a r e c on v o lv e d wi t h f ( t ) .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -15

Fourier Transforms and Convolution


A co n v ol u t i on ca n a f f e ct n o t o n ly t h e a m p l i t u d e o f a
s i n u so i d bu t i t s p h as e a s we l l . T h e R i ck e r w av e le t i s
kn o wn a s a z er o p h a se f u n c t i on w h ic h m e an s t h a t i t d o es
n ot h av e a p h as e ef f ec t . L e t u s r ep ea t t h e a n al ys i s bu t
t h i s t im e w i t h a f u n c t i on w h i c h h as a kn o wn p h as e
e ff e c t . F or t h i s p u r p os e , w e c o n s id e r a R i c ke r w av l e t
w it h a 9 0o p h as e s h i ft .
0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1
0.05

0.05
0
0
-0.05
-0.05

-0.1

-0.1
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

30 Hz. Ricker zero phase

0.1

-0.15
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

30 Hz Ricker 90o phase

N o t e t h at z e ro p h a se wa ve f or m s a re a l wa y s s ym m et r i c
w h il e 9 0o p h as e r e su lt s i n a n a n t i s ym m e t ri c w av e f or m .
W e m i gh t e x p ec t t h e 9 0o R i ck e r t o h av e t h e s am e ef f e c t
o n th e a m p l it u de o f s i n u s oi d s b u t so m e a n d d i t i on a l
e ff e c t a s we l l. T o s ee , w e re p e at th e a n al y si s o f p as s i n g
c om ple x si n u s oi d s th ro u gh i t .

2-16

Signal Processing Concepts

Fourier Transforms and Convolution


H e r e we re p e at t h e r e su lt o f c o n v ol v i n g 1 0 , 3 0 , a n d 7 0
H z c o m p l ex s in uso id s wi t h a 30 Hz R i c ke r wa v el e t b u t t h i s
t i m e t h e R i c ke r h a s 9 0o
p h as e . T h e a m p li t u d e
a tt e n u a ti o n o f t h e s i n u s oi d s i s t h e s am e a s be f or e b u t
(When
n o w t h e re i s a n a d d i t i on al 9 0o p h as e l ag .
c om p ar i n g t h i s f i gu r e w i t h - 2- o f t h i s s e ri e s , n o te t h at
t h e re h as b e en a n x - ax i s s c al e c h an g e o n a l l p lo t s. )
R esult with 90o Ricker
Result with 0o Ricker

10 Hz.
1

-1
0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

-1
0.45

0.65

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.6

0.65

Maximum amplitude = 1.0

30 Hz.

Maximum amplitude = .27

1
30Hz

Ricker

90 o
-1
0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

Convolve

-1
0.45

0.5

0.55

Maximum amplitude =.064

70 Hz

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

IN

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

-1
0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

OUT

2 -17

Fourier Transforms and Convolution


H e r e i s a c om p le t e d e s c ri p t i on o f t h e 9 0o , 30 H z . R i c ke r
i n t h e t i m e d o m ai n a n d a m p l it u de a n d p ha s e s p ec t r u m i n
t h e F o u ri e r d om a in . W e h av e s ee n t h at th e F ou r ie r
d o m ai n p r ov i d e s a c on v e n i en t d e s cr i p t i on o f t h e e ff e c t
o f c on v o lv i n g t h e wa v e l et wi t h c om p l e x s i n u s oi d s .
0.1
0.05

Time Domain

0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0
Time

0.05

0.1

0.15

Fourier Domain
Amplitude
Spectrum

-20
-40
-60
0

20

40
60
Frequency

80

100

100

Fourier Domain
Phase Spectrum

0
-100

2-18

20

40
60
Frequency

80

100

Signal Processing Concepts

&OURIE R ! NALYS IS AND 3 Y NT HES IS


4 H E G R EA T U T IL I T Y O F T H E & OU R I ER T RA N S FO RM C O M E S F R OM
I T S A B I LI T Y T O D E CO M P O SE A N Y F U N C T IO N I N T O A S E T O F
C AS E
T HE
C OM P L EX
S I N U S OI D S  ) N T H E C O N T IN U O U S
F R EQ U E N C I ES O F T H E S I N U S OI D S R A N GE F R OM d T O d A N D
H A V E A M P L IT U DE S A N D P H AS ES W H I C H A R E C OM P U T ED F R OM
T H E F OR W AR D & OU R IE R T R AN S F OR M 
d

(W 

HT E

nI WT

DT

nd

4 H IS E Q U AT I ON C OM P UT ES T H E C OM P L E X C O EF I C I EN T S (  W
OF
T HE
C OM PLE X
S I N U SO I D S
WHIC H
WH E N
S UMMED
 I N T E GR AT E D W IL L Y IE L D H  T  5 S U AL L Y (  W I S D EC O M P OS E D
I N T O T WO S E P AR AT E R EA L F U N C T IO N S 
AMPLIT UDE S PEC TRUM

!W  (W

F W  TAN

PHAS E S PE CT RUM

4 HE
I N V ER S E
& O U RI E R
C ON S T R U C T IO N O F H  T A S
S I N U S OI D S 

HT

2E ( W )M ( W

)M ( W

n

2E ( W

T RA N S FO RM
E X P R ES S ES
T HE
A S U P E R P OS I T IO N O F C O M P L EX



P

(W E

I WT

nd

DW

) F W E W I S H T O U S E C YC L IC A L F RE Q U E N C Y F I N S T E AD O F A N GU L A R
F R EQ U E N C Y W  W   P F T H E & O U RI E R T RA N SF O RM P AI R I S 
d

(F

HT E

n PIFT

DT

nd
d

HT

(F E

 PIFT

DF

nd

-ETHODS OF 3EISMIC $ATA 0ROCESSING

  

Fourier Analysis and Synthesis


A s a n e x am p l e c on s i d er t h e G a u s s i an fu nct i on :

ht = e

2
2 t

U s in g s t an d a rd t e c h n i q u es o f i n t e gr al c al c u lu s , t h e
F o u ri e r t ra n s fo rm o f t h e G a u ss i an c an be s h o wn t o be :

H =

half width = 1/

/4
e
2

half width = 2

h(t)

H()

N o t e t h at t h e h a l f wi d t h s , a s re p re s e n t ed by t h e i r 1 / e
p o in t s a re in v e r se l y p ro p or t i on a l. I n f ac t :
1
t = 2 = 2

T h i s i s a n e x am p l e o f a g en e r al p r op e rt y wh i c h s ay s t h a t
t h e " wi d t h " o f a ti m e d om a i n fu n c ti o n is i n v er s el y
p r op o rt i on a l t o it s wi d t h i n f re q u e n c y. I t ca n be s h ow n ,
g iv e n a s u i t ab l e m e as u re o f w i d t h , t h at :
( w id th i n t i m e ) ( w id th i n f r eq u en c y ) > = a co n s t an t
B r ac e we l l ( 1 9 7 8 , T h e F o u ri e r T ra n sf o rm
and its
A p p l ic a ti o n s) s h ow s t h e c o n s ta n t t o b e 1 /2 a n d t h at t h e
e q u al i t y h ol d s f or th e G a u s s i an .
2-20

Signal Processing Concepts

Fourier Analysis Example


0.08
0.06
0.04

H er e i s a m i n i m u m p h as e
w av e l et c on s t ru ct e d wi t h
a . 0 0 1 s e c s am ple r at e
a n d a 3 0 H z d om in a n t
f r e q u en cy .

0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

time (sec)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

100

200
300
frequency (Hz)

400

500

T h e i s t h e " a m p l it u de
s p e ct r u m o f t h e w av e l et
d i s p l ay e d wi t h a l i n ea r
v e rt i c al s c al e . N o t e t h at
t h e f r e q u en c y a x i s s t op s
at
500
Hz
wh i c h
is
1 /( 2 * . 0 0 1 se c ) .

0
-20
-40
-60
-80

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

100

200
300
frequency (Hz)

400

500

H e re
the
amplitude
sp ec t r u m i s d i s p l ay e d w i t h
a d ec i b el v e r t ic al sc a le :
db =
2 0 *l o g1 0 ( A ( f ) /A m ax )
T h i s i s t he ph as e s p e c t r um .
N o t e t ha t t h e ve r t i c a l s c a l e
i s i n r ad i an s .

100

200
300
frequency (Hz)

400

500

A t t h i s po i nt , F o ur i e r an a l ys i s m a y l o o k l i k e an e xe r c i s e i n
g r a ph m a ki n g ; ho w e ve r , i t s ut il i t y w i l l b e c o m e c l e ar o n t h e
n e xt pa g e .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -21

Fourier Analysis Example

Sum of components

Sum of components

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

Individual Fourier components


0 0

0.05

0.1
time (sec)

0.15

0.
2

0 0

Cumulative sum of Fourier


components
0.05
0.1
0.15

0.2

time (sec)

H e re we s ee t wo e q u i v al e n t wa y s o f v i e wi n g t h e F o u r ie r
t ra n s fo rm in fo rm a t i on o n t h e p r e v io u s p ag e. I n A , t h e
i n d i v id u al F ou r ie r c om po n e n t s a r e s h ow n f r om 1 0 t o 7 0
H z , p ro p er l y s c al e d f or t h ei r a m p l i t u d e a n d p h as e . T h e
s u m o f a l l 1 3 c om p on e n t s y i e ld s th e w av e l et a t t h e t op
w h ic h i s q u i t e si m i l ar t o t h e t r u e w av e l et s h o wn o n t h e
p r ev i o u s p a g e. A d d i n g i n t h e r em a i n in g f r eq u e n c y
c om po n e n t s ( 0 - > 1 0 H z a n d 7 0 - > 5 0 0 H z ) wi l l re c on s t r u c t
t h e wa ve l e t e x ac t l y. T h e f i gu r e o n t h e ri g h t c on t ai n s t h e
s am e in fo rm a t i on ex c e p t t h at ea c h tr ac e is t h e s u m o f
t h e f re q u e n c y c om p o n en ts be t we e n i t s f re q u e n c y a n d 1 0
H z . T h i s g i v es a g oo d i ll u s t ra t io n o f h o w t h e wa v el e t
t ak es fo rm a s it s sp ec t r u m i s s u m med .
2-22

Signal Processing Concepts

Fourier Transform Pairs


The table below is reproduced from:
Brigham, E.O., 1974, The Fast Fourier Transform, Prentice Hall

N o t e : I t i s a r em a rk ab le f ac t t h at n o s i gn a l c a n h a v e
fi n i t e l en g t h ( i . e . c om p a c t s u p p or t ) i n bo t h t h e t i m e
a n d fr e q u e n c y d o m a in s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -23

Fourier Transform Pairs


The table below is reproduced from:
Brigham, E.O., 1974, The Fast Fourier Transform, Prentice Hall

2-24

Signal Processing Concepts

The Dirac Delta Function


T h e D ir ac d el t a fu nct i on wa s i n v en t e d b y P . A. M . D i ra c t o
h a n d l e p ro bl e m s i n t h e d e v el op m en t o f q u a n t u m
m e c h an i c s . S i n c e t h e n , i ts u n i q u e a b il i t y t o r e p re s en t a
" un it s p ik e " i n t h e c on t i n u ou s f u n c ti o n d om a i n . I t ca n b e
d e f i n ed a s t h e l im it i n g fo rm o f a s h ar p ly p e ake d f u n c t i on
w h os m a x i m u m p ro c ee d s t o i n f i n it y a s it s wi d t h sh r i n ks
t o z e r o i n s u c h a w ay t h at it s a re a re m a in s u n i t y.
8

A se ri e s o f b ox c ar s w i t h
u nit a r ea c on v e rg e s i n
t h e l im it t o t h e d e lt a
f u n c t i on :

b4

7
6
5
4
3

b2

It can be thought of as:


b1

1
0
-0.5

b = t

b3

t =
-0.25

0.25

0.5

0, t0
, t=0

T h e m os t i m p o rt a n t p r op e rt y o f t h e d e l t a f u n c t i on i s i t s
be h av i or u nd er i n t e gr at i on . I f f ( t ) is a n y f u n c t i on , t h e n :
b
a

f t tt0 dt =

f t0 , if a<t0<b
0, otherwise

This is known as the sifting property of the delta function.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -25

The Dirac Delta Function


Consider the Fourier transform of the delta function:

tt 0 e

i t

dt = e

it0

T h us i t h a s a c on s t an t , u n i t a m p l i t u d e s p ec t r u m ( a ls o
kn o wn a s a " wh i t e " s p e c t ru m) a n d l i n e ar p h a se .
Consider the action of the delta function under convolution:

tt 0 f t dt = f t0

T h u s t h e d e lt a f u n c t i on sh i f t s f ( t ) to p l a ce i t s o ri g in a t
t h e l o ca t io n wh e r e t h e a rg u m e n t o f t h e d el t a f u n c t i on
v an i s h e s. T h i s i s c a ll e d a " st a ti c sh if t " i n s e is m i c d a t a
p r oc e ss i n g . S i n c e c on v ol u t io n c an b e d o n e in th e
F o u ri e r d o m ai n b y m u l t i p l ic a t io n o f t ra n sf o rm s , we c an
c on c l u d e t h a t a s t at i c s h i ft c an be d o n e b y:
f
FFT
F
Mult
IFFT
f t
o

it o

T h at i s , a s t at i c
sh i f t . F i n a ll y, if
eq u a t io n a t t h e
d ef i n i t io n o f t h e
co m p o n en t s :

e
sh i f t i s e q u i v al en t t o a l i n e ar p h as e
we i n v e rs e F o u ri e r t ra n sf o rm t h e
to p o f t h e p ag e, w e en d u p w i t h a
d e lt a f u n c t io n i n t e rm s o f i t s F o u ri e r

1
( t 0 ) =
2

i ( t0 )

2 i f ( t0 )

T h us t h e d e l ta f u n c t i on h as u n i t a m p li t u d e sp e c t ru m
a n d a p h as e s p e c t ru m t h at is li n e ar i n f r eq u en c y a n d
w it h s lo p e p r op o rt i on a l t o t h e t i m e s h i ft .
2-26

Signal Processing Concepts

The Convolution Theorem


C o n s id er t h e c o n t in u ou s c o n v ol u t i on o f f a n d g:

ht =

f g t d

(1)

W e c an r e p re s en t f a n d g i n t er m s o f t h e i r sp ec t r a
a s:

f =

1
2

F e d

1
2

g t =

an d

Ge

i t

S u bs t i t u t in g t h es e i n t o ( 1 ) :

ht =

Interchanging
the order of
integration

1
2

1
F e d

2
i

i t

Ge

d d

1
ht =
2

The term in [ ] is the


Dirac delta function.

The d el ta functi on
col lap ses one of the
f r eq uency inte gra ls

1
FG
2

1
ht =
2

it

d e dd
i t

1
ht =
2

F G e dd

it

F G e d

H er e w e h a ve h ( t ) re p r es e n t ed a s t h e i n v e r se F o u r i er
t r an s f or m o f " s om e t h i n g " . B y i n fe r en c e , t h a t so m e th in g
m u st be t h e F o u ri e r t ra n sf or m o f h . T h u s :

H = FG

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -27

The Convolution Theorem


T h e r es u l t we h av e j u s t d e ri v e d is o n e o f t h e m o st
f u n d am en t a l a n d i m p or t an t in a l l o f si g n al p ro ce s s in g . I t
t e ll s u s t h a t we c an c on v ol v e t w o s i gn a ls b y m u l t i p ly i n g
t h e ir s p ec t r a a n d i n v e rs e F o u r i er t ra n sf o rm i n g t h e
r es u l t . T h e re as on t h at t h is is i m p or t an t is t h at t h e r e i s
a n e x t r em e l y f as t a l g or it h m fo r p er f or m i n g t h e d i g it a l
F o u ri e r t r an s f or m c al l ed t h e f a st F ou r ie r t ra n sf o rm
( FF T) . Us i n g t h e F FT a c on v ol u t i on c an be d o n e b y:
g(t)
f(t)

FFT

FFT

F()

G()
Multiply

H()
IFFT
h(t)
N o t e t h at m u l t ip l y in g co m p l e x s p e c tr a i s:

H = F G = AF e
= AF AG e

iF

iG

AG e

i F + G

T h a t i s w e c an v i ew i t a s m u l t i p l yi n g t h e a m p l it u de
s p e ct r a a n d a d din g t h e p h as e s p e c tr a.
2-28

Signal Processing Concepts

Sampling
T h e a n a ly t ic a n al y si s o f c on t i n u ou s s ig n al s i s m o s t u s ef u l
f or g ai n in g a c o n c ep t u a l u nd er s t an d i n g o f si g n al
p r oc e s si n g . I n a c t u al p ra ct i c e ; h ow e v er , t h e v as t
m a j or i t y o f w or k is d o n e wi t h d i s c re t ly s am p l e d
f u n c t i on s . T h e p r oc e ss o f s a m p l in g a co n t i n u ou s f u n c t i on
i n t i m e ca n be v i ew e d a s a m ult i p l i c at io n b y a s am p l in g
c om b.
Fr e q u e nc y D o ma in
T im e Do m a in

Continuous
Gaussian
spectrum

Continuous
Gaussian

Convolved with

Times

1/t

Sampling
Comb
Comb spacing = t

Equals

Sampled
Gaussian

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

F o ur i er
t r a ns fo r m
of
s am pl i ng
c om b

Equals

Gaussian
Spectrum
and aliases

1/t

2 -29

Sampling
S o w e h av e s e en th a t s am p l i n g i n t h e t i m e d om a i n
c a u se s t h e re p l i ca t io n o f th e c on t i n u ou s s p ec t r u m i n
t h e f r eq uen c y d om a i n . T h e s p a ci n g b et w e en t h es e
s p e c t ra l a l i as es i s 1 / t a n d i t i s c u s t om a ry t o re s t ri c t
o u r a t t en t i on t o t h e p ri m ar y fr e q u en cy ba n d l i ei n g
b e t we en - 1 /( 2 t) a n d 1 /( 2 t) . T h e f r eq uen c y F n =
1 / ( 2 t ) i s c al l e d t h e N yq u i s t fr e q u e n c y a n d i s t h e
l i m i t in g f re q u e n c y o f t h e s am p l ed d at a .
Fnyquist = 1/(2t)

-2Fn

Spectrum of
sampled
data
showing
aliasing.

-Fn

Fn

2Fn

S p e ct r u m o f
s am p l ed
d a t a wi t h
m in i m a l
a li as i n g .

-2Fn

-Fn

Fn

2Fn

Primary
frequency band

2-30

Signal Processing Concepts

Sampling
T h e u n a li a se d s am p l i n g o f a n y c on t i n u ou s s i gn a l r eq uir e s
t h a t t h e s i gn a l h av e i t s p o we r r es t r ic t e d t o a f re q u e n c y
b an d: - f m ax < f < fm a x . S u c h s i g n al s a r e s ai d t o b e
b an d li m i t e d . A ba n d l im it e d s i gn a l c a n be d i gi t al l y
s am p l ed , wi t h ou t a l i as in g , w i t h a s am p l e s i ze o f
t = 1 / ( 2 f m ax ) . I t i s a f u n d a m en ta l th eo re m ( T h e
S am p l i n g T h eo re m , P ap o u l i s, S i gn a l A n a ly s is , p 1 4 1 ,
1 9 8 4 ) t h at s u c h a b an dli m i t e d , c on t i n u o u s , s i gn a l c an
b e e x ac t l y re c ov e r ed f ro m i ts d i gi t al s am p l e s b y a
p ro c e s s kn o w n a s " s in c f u n c t io n i n t e rp o l at i on " .
Ti me D o ma in
S ampled band limited
function

F r e q ue n cy Do m a in
Spectrum
of sampled,
unaliased,
continuous
function

Interpolation
site
C on volve d
w i t h a si n c
f un c ti on

Mu l t ip l ie d
by a
b oxca r

Recovers the original


continuous function
Re cove rs the
s p ectr um of
the conti nuous
fu nction

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -31

Sampling
I n o r d er t o m i n i m i ze a l i as i n g, r aw a n a l og s ei s m i c d at a i s
p as s e d t h r ou g h a n a n al og a n t i al i as f i l t er p r i or t o
d i g it i za t io n . A t y p ic a l a n t i al i as fi l t er h as a n a m p l i t u d e
s p e ct r u m w h i c h be g i n s t o r ol l o f f a t 5 0 % t o 6 0 % o f
f n yq uis t a n d re ac h e s v er y la rg e a t t en u at i on ( > 6 0 d b ) a t
f n yq uis t .
H e re is t he
s p ec tr u m o f a n
ant ia l ia s f il te r
f o r us e pr io r to
sampli n g a t
. 0 04 s ec .

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
0

2
0

4
0

6
8
10
0
0
0
Frequency (Hz)

120

140

R u l e o f t h u m b : S a m p le y o u r d at a s u c h t h at t h e
e x p e c t ed s ig n a l f re q u e n c ie s a re l e ss t h an h al f f n yqu ist .

C om mo n
s a m p l in g
ra t es
and
their
N y q u i st f re q u e n c ie s

s am ple
r at e

N y q u i st

.008 s

6 2 .5 H z

.004 s

125 H z

.002 s

250 H z

.001 s

500 H z

A l i as i n g i s a l s o a p o s s ib i li t y w h e n re s am p l i n g se i s m i c
d at a . I f t h e n e w sa m p l e i n t er v al i s m o re c oa rs e t h an t h e
o l d , th en a n a n t i al i as f i lt e r s h ou l d be a p p l i ed .
2-32

Signal Processing Concepts

The Discrete Fourier Transform


T h e gr ea t u t il it y o f th e co nt i nu ous F o u ri er tr a n sf o rm t o
de c o m p o se f un c t io n s in t o f u n d a m en t a l co m p l ex s in u s o id s
ca n be a p p li ed d ir ec tl y to d i sc re t ely s a m p l ed ti m e
do m a in fu n c ti o n s. Co n si d er a fu n c ti o n h( t ) w h ic h i s z e ro
ev ery w h er e ex c ep t a t N t im e s d ef in e d b y t= k t , k = 0 ,1 , 2
.. . N - 1 , w h e re i t t a k e s t he va lu es h k . T h is fu n c ti o n ca n
be w ri tt e n w i th t h e d ira c d e lt a f u n ct i o n a s :
N1

ht =

h k tkt

k = 0

If we now take the Fourier transform of h(t) we have:

N1

H =

h k tkt e

N1

dt = h k

i t

k = 0

k = 0
N1

H =

h ke

tkt e

i t

dt

i kt

k = 0

He r e w e ha v e a n a na l y tic e x pr e ssi o n fo r t he F o ur i e r
tr a n sfo r m o f th e h k sa m p le s w h ic h is d e f in e d f o r a l l .
We ha v e a lr e a d y se e n th at t he p h e n o me no n o f a li a sin g
lim it s th e us a b le fr e qu e n cy b a n d t o - / t - > + / t .
Fu r t he rmo r e, l in e a r al g e b r a te lls u s th a t N f r e q ue nc ie s in
th is b a n d sh o ul d s uf fic e to d e t e r m in e th e N h k . S o w e a r e
le a d t o c o ns id e r sa m pl in g th e fr e q u e nc y d o m a in a t =
2/(N t) , = 0 ,1, 2 .. . N - 1.
N1

H =

h ke

i2k/N

k = 0

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -33

The Discrete Fourier Transform

D i sc r e te e x p on e n t i al s h av e a w e ll k n ow n o r t h og on a li t y
p r op e r ty s u c h t h at :

U s in g t h i s , i t i s n o t d if f i c u l t t o sh o w t h a t t h e h k s am p l e s
c an be re c ov e re d fr om t h e H by :

hk =

1
N

N1

= 1

H e

i2k/N

Inverse DFT

T h i s r e su lt t og et h e r w it h :
N1

H =

k = 0

h ke

i2k/N

Forward DFT

f or m t h e d i sc r et e F o u ri e r t r an s f or m p a ir . T h e y a re t h e
d i r ec t a n al og t o th e c o n t in u ou s F o u r ie r t ra n sf o rm
r el at i on s . L i ke t h e F T, t h e DF T i s c om p l e t e i n t h at t h e h k
a r e e x ac t l y r e c ov e ra b l e f ro m t h e i r s p ec t r u m , t h e H .

2-34

Signal Processing Concepts

The Discrete Fourier Transform


H e r e i s a p i ct o ri al r e p re s en t a t io n o f t h e d e v el o p m e n t o f
t h e D F T fr om t h e c on ti n u o u s c as e :
F r e q ue n cy Do m ai n

T im e Do m ai n
Sampled band limited
function N samples long

Spectrum
of sampled,
unaliased,
continuous
function.

Spectrum is
periodic
with
period
2N/t

-fnyq
Co nv o l ve d wi th th e
tr a nsf or m o f t h e
samp li ng c o mb

1/t
Times a
sampling
comb

1/f

DFT

Principle
band

The
s am pl ed
s pe ct ru m

Principle
band

T
The sampled time series
becomes periodic
with period T=Nt

fnyq

ID FT
fnyq = 1/(2t)

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

-fnyq
T = 1/f

fnyq
ft = 1/N
2 -35

The Discrete Fourier Transform


T h e s am p l i n g o f t h e s p ec t r u m o f a d i s cr e t e t i m e s e ri e s
c au s e s t h at s e ri e s to b ec o m e p e ri od i c w i t h p e ri od T =
N t. T h is h as s i gn a l p r oc e s si n g c on s e q u e n ce s t h at a r e
a p pa r en t wh en w e c on s i d er a p p l y in g a f il t e r wi t h t h e
D FT a n d t h e c o rr es p o n d i n g c on v o lu ti o n .
Time series
showing time
domain aliases

Principle Period

Filter operator:

T h e c on v o l u t io n o p e r at i on t h at d up li c at e s m u l t ip li c at i on
w it h t h e D FT i s c al l ed c i rc u l ar c o n v ol u t i on . N ot e t h at t h e
f i lt e r o p er at or p la c ed o n t h e l as t s am p l e o f t h e p r in ci p l e
p e ri o d a p p e ar s t o " wr ap a r ou nd " a n d a f f e c t t h e fi r s t
s am p l e . T o a v o id t h i s p ro bl e m , i t i s c om m o n t o p ad t h e
t i m e s er i es wi t h a l e n gt h o f z e ro s c h os e n w it h t h e l e n gt h
o f t h e f il t e r o p e r at or i n m i n d .
Principle Period

Zero
Pad

2-36

Signal Processing Concepts

The Fast Fourier Transform


T h e f as t F o u ri e r t r an s f orm ( FF T ) is n ot h i n g m or e t h a n a
c l ev e r w ay o f c al c u l at i n g t h e D FT wh i c h ge t s i m p r es s iv e
p e r fo rm a n c e r es u l t s . T h e c on v ol u t i on o f a n N l en g t h
o p er at o r i n t h e t im e d o m ai n r e q u i re s o n t h e o r d er o f N 2
f l oa ti n g p oi n t o p e r at i on s . T h e s am e c om pu t at i on i n t h e
f r eq uen c y d o m ai n wi t h t h e F F T r e q u i re s r ou g h l y N * lo g( N )
o p er at i on s . H o w ev e r, we m ust be c ar e f u l wi t h th is
s t at e m e n t b ec au s e , ge n e ra ll y , t h e tw o N ' s a r e n ot t h e
s am e. T h i s i s be c au s e t h e F F T a l go ri t h m re q u i r es t h at
t h e ti m e s er i es le n g t h b e a " m ag i c n u mbe r" w h i c h is
u s u al l y a p ow e r o f 2. ( Al s o t h e t w o ti m e se r ie s b e in g
c on v ol v ed m u s t be t h e s am e l e n gt h . ) T h i s is a c h ie v e d b y
a tt a c h in g a z e r o p ad t o t h e t im e s er i es . T h u s if N i s t h e
l e n gt h o f t h e t im e d o m ai n o p e ra t or a n d i f N 2 i s t h e f i rs t
p o we r o f 2 g re at e r t h a n N , t h e n we m u s t co m p a re N 2 t o
N 2 lo g( N 2 ) . ( O f t e n e v en t h i s i s n o t e n ou gh be c au s e t h e
z er o p ad m u s t b e l o n g e n ou g h t o a v o i d o p e ra t or w r ap
a ro u n d . ) T h e b ot t om l in e is t h at s h o rt o p e ra t or s ( l e ss
t h a t ~ 6 4 p oi n t s ) a re
o f t e n a p p l ie d f a st e r wi t h
c on v ol u t io n w h i l e lo n g o p er at o rs a re M U C H f as t e r wi t h
F FT ' s . T h e d ia gr am b el ow i s a d ap t e d f r om H at t o n e t a l.
a n d s h o ws t h e ba s i c t r ad e of f .
Time domain
Convolution
compute time

FFT
Operator Length

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -37

Filtering
W e h av e se e n t h at c on v o lu t i on w it h a wa v e f or m
su r p r es s e s a n d p o s s ib l y p ha s e sh i f t s s om e f re q u e n c i es
re l at i v e t o o t h e rs . T h is f i l t er i n g a c t io n i s o f t en ex p l o it e d
t o e n h an c e s i gn a l a n d su r p r es s n o is e . H e re w e se e a
co m p a ri s on o f f i v e d i ff e re n t z er o p h as e f i l te r s i n b ot h
t h e t im e a n d f re q u e n c y d om a i n s. T h e i n v e rs e r el at i o n sh i p
be t we e n t e m p or al w i d t h a n d f re q u e n c y ba n d wi d t h is
re ad i l y a p p a re n t .
Wavelet 1

Five
Generic
Wavelets

Wavelet 2
Wavelet3
Wavelet 4
Wavelet 5
-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0
-20
-40

Their
-60
Fourier
-80
Am pl itu de
-100
Spec tra

Wavelet 2 Wavelet3 Wavelet 4 Wavelet 5


Wavelet 1

-120
0

2-38

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

200

Signal Processing Concepts

The Z Transform
T h e p er i od i c i ty o r c i rc u l ar i ty i n h e re n t i n bo t h t i m e a n d
f r eq uen c y is n i c el y c ap t u r ed b y a p o we rf u l m e t h od o l og y
k n ow n a s t h e Z tr an s f or m . C on si d e r th e t i m e s er i es , [ 1 . 5 - .3 0 . 1 0 ] , w h er e i t is a s su m ed t o s t ar t a t t = 0 a n d
i n c r em e n t by t . W e re p r es e n t th is s er ie s in t h e Z
d o m ai n by a p o ly n om i a l i n z :
0

H z = 1z .5z .3z +0z +.1z


1

= 1.5z .3z +.1z

S o w e s e e t hat t h e e x p onent o f z gi v e s t h e s am p l e n um b e r
a n d he n c e determines t h e s a m pl e t i me ( nt ). N ot e a l s o
t he f o l lowing:
Negative times correspond to negative exponents of z
M u l t i pl i c a t i on b y z n d e l ay s t h e t i m e s e r i e s by n
s a mp l es i f n i s p os i t i ve a nd a dv a n c es i t b y n s am pl e s
f o r n e g at i v e n .
T h e g re at u t il i t y o f t h e Z t r an s f or m li e s i n it s a b il i t y t o
r ep re s en t d i sc r et e co n v ol u t i on a n d t h e D FT a s o p e r at i on s
w i th p ol y n om i al s . I t i s n o t d i f fi c u l t t o sh o w t h at t h e
c on v ol u t io n o f t wo t i m e s e ri e s , f a n d g, c an b e re al i ze d
b y s i m p l y m u l t i p l yi n g t h e i r Z t r an s f or m s a n d r ea d in g o f f
t h e r e su l t . ( S ee W at e rs ( p 1 3 3 ) f or a p r oo f. )
1

F z = f0 +f1z +f2z + ... G z = g0 +g 1z +g 2z + ...


Hz = FzGz =
1

f0 g0+ f0 g1+g0f1 z + f0g 2+f1g 1+g0f2 z + ...


h = f g
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -39

The Z Transform
T he f a ct t ha t c o nv o lu t io n i s d o ne b y m u lt i p li c at io n o f Z
t r a n s fo r m s i s r e m in is c e nt o f t he F o u r ie r t r a n s fo r m . I n
f a ct , i f w e l e t z = e - i t t h e n t he Z t r a ns f or m b e c om e s :
N1

N1

Gz =

gkz

G =

gke

ik t

k = 0

k = 0

A s wi t h t h e D FT , i f w e n o w c on s i d e r o n l y d i s c re t e
f re q u e n c i es = 2 /( N t ) , = 0 , 1, 2 . .. N - 1 , t h en w e
s ee n t h at t h e Z t r an s f or m , w i t h z = e - i t , is p r ec i s el y
t h e D FT .
N1

G =

i2k/N

g ke

k = 0

T he Z transfo r m is more general t ha n th e DF T s in ce z c an b e


a ny c o mp le x number. I n f a ct t he D F T amount s to evalua t ing
th e Z tranfo r m a t N d iscrete l o ca tio n s around th e un it cir c le
in th e comple x z p lane.
imag(z)
2

Complex z plane

real(z)

N-1
+1

2-40

Signal Processing Concepts

The Z Transform
C o n s i d e r t h e el e m e n t al c ou pl et F( z) = 1 -a z. N ow i f w e
c o n v ol v e F( z ) wi t h an o t h e r ar b i t ra ry t im e s e ri e s g ( z ) ,
t h e n w e r ep re s e n t t his as : H ( z) = F( z ) G ( z) . Su pp os e t h at
o n l y F( z) an d H ( z) ar e k n o wn t o u s an d w e w i sh t o
r e c ov e r G ( z) . In t h e z t r a n s fo r m d om ai n we c an s im p l y:

Hz = FzGz

Gz =

Hz
Fz

So we define the inverse of any time series as:


1

F z =

1
Fz

For F(z) = 1 -az, this gives:


1

F z =

1
1az

= 1+az+ az + az +

T h i s s er i e s , c a l le d t he g e om et r i c s er i e s , i s k n ow n t o
c o n v e r ge a b so l u t e ly p ro v i d e d t hat | az | < 1 . S i n c e w e ar e
e s p e c i al l y i n t e re s t e d in t h i s re s u l t ev a l u at e d on t h e u n i t
c i r c l e ( | z| = 1 ) t h e n w e n e e d | a| < 1 . It i s c ust o m a ry t o
t a l k a b ou t t he lo c at i o n of t he "ze r o" of t h i s c o u p l e t
d ef i n e d b y:

1az 0 = 0 z0 =

1
a

I f |a | < 1 , t h e n w e se e t h at z o m u st li e o u t s i d e t h e u n i t
c i r c le in o r d e r f or th e i n v er s e t o c on v e rg e . S u ch a n
i n v e r se is sa i d t o b e s t ab l e ( p h y ic a ll y r ea li za bl e ) . N ot e
a l so t h a t F ( z ) i t s el f i s t r i v ia l ly s t ab l e.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -41

The Z Transform
A n y c a u s a l, st a b le t i m e se ri es wi th a ca u sa l , s t a bl e in v e rs e
i s s a i d t o b e m i n im um p h ase . T h u s o u r e le m en t a l c o u p le t ,
1 - a z , is m i n im u m p h a s e wh en e v er |a |< 1 . A n y m o r e c o m p l ex
t im e se ri es c a n a lw a y s be fa ct o r ed i n to a se t o f
el e m en t a r y c o u p l et s .
N1

Gz =

g kz = zz 0 zz1

zzN1

k = 0

W e s a y t h a t G ( z ) i s m i ni m u m p h a s e i f a ll i t s e le m e n ta l
c o u pl e ts a r e m i ni m u m p ha s e . T h a t i s e q ui v a le n t t o
s a y in g t h a t a l l o f t h e r o o ts o f t he p o ly n o mi al G (z ) m us t
l i e o u ts i d e t h e u n it c i r cl e i n t h e c o m pl e x z p la ne . I f a ll
r o o ts l i e i n s i d e t he u ni t c i r c le , G (z ) i s s a id t o b e
m ax im um p ha s e a nd o th e r w is e i t i s m ix e d p h as e .
imag(z)

z=z0
Complex z plane

real(z)

z=zN-1

z=z1

A minimum ph as e t ime series ha s al l i ts zeros outside the


unit circle.
2-42

Signal Processing Concepts

The Z Transform
T h e z er o s o f F ( z ) c o r re sp on d t o p o l es f o r F -1 ( z ) . T h u s, fo r
t h e c a se o f a t i m e se ri es w h o s e Z tr a n s fo rm h as a
d e n om i n a t or, we s ee th at t h e s t a bi li t y c o n d it i o n re q u ir es
t h a t a l l p o l es a l s o l i e o u ts i d e t h e u n it ci rc l e. T h e m o s t
g en e ra l t im e s er ie s c a n b e w ri t te n a s a Z tr a n s fo rm w it h
b o t h n u m e ra t o r a n d d en o m i n a t o r s uc h a s:

Hz =

Az
Bz

z 0 z 1
z 0 z 1

W e s a y t h e c o r r e s p o nd in g t im e s e r ie s i s m i n im um p h as e
i f a ll i a n d a ll i l i e o ut s i d e t h e u n it c i r c le . T h e
f ol lo w in g t he o r e m f o ll ow s i m me d ia te l y:
T h e r es ul t an t o f t he s e quent i al c onv ol ut i on o f a n y
nu m ber o f m i n i mu m phas e time series i s al s o
min im um ph a s e.
Conversely:

I f a ny ti m e s e r i e s i n a se qu e nce of co nvo l u ti o n s i s
n ot mi n i m um ph a s e , th e n th e r e s ulta nt is no t
m i nimu m p ha s e .

T h o ug h th e se s ta te me nt s se e m ir o n c la d , k e e p in m in d
t he u n sta t e d a s su mp t io n t ha t al l th e se tim e se r ie s h a ve
t he s am e sa m p le r a te . T hu s th e r e s a mp li ng o f a ti me
s e r ie s is a n o p e r a ti o n w h ic h l ie s o ut sid e t he sco p e o f
t he s e th e o r ems .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -43

Crosscorrelation
G i v e n t w o si g n al s , r a n d s , t h e c r os s c or re l at i on p ro v id es
a n u m e ri c al ch a ra c t er i za t i on o f th ei r s i m i la ri t y.
Z e ro l ag :
s0

T h e c a lc u l at i on o f
s1

s2

s3

s r
s4

s5

r5

s4

s5

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


r0

r1

r2

r3

r4

c0 = s0 r0+s1 r1+s2 r2+


F i r s t p o si t i v e l ag :
s0

s1

s2

s3

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


r0

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

s5

r4

r5

c1 = s0 r1+s1 r2+s2 r3+


F i r st n e ga ti v e l ag :
s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


r0

r1

r2

r3

c1= s 1r0 +s 2r1+s 3r2+


2-44

Signal Processing Concepts

C r o ss c o r r el a ti o n
T h e ge n e ra l f or m f o r t h e c ro s sc o rr el at i on o f s a n d r c an
b e w ri t t en :

cj =

s r
k

k+j

O r, fo r c on t i n u o u s s ig n al s :

c =

s t r t+ dt

P r op e rt i e s o f cr os s c or re l at i on s :
I f ei t h e r s o r r is a n i n f i n it e l en g t h ra n d om s i gn a l ,
t h e n c j = 0 f or a l l j .
T h e m ax i m u m o f c d e fi n e s t h e " l ag " a t wh ic h s a n d
r a r e m o st s im il ar wh e n a l ig n e d .
A c r os s c or re l at i on c an be c om p u t e d by
re v e rs i n g s a n d c o n v ol v in g. C a n y ou p r ov e t h i s ?

Th e
a u t o co rr e la t io n
c ro ss c o rr el at i on w h en r =s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

is

sp ec i al

c as e

ti m e
of

2 -45

Autocorrelations
T h e a u to c o r r e la t io n,
,
of
a
sig n a l,
s,
is
a
ch a r a ct e r iz a t io n o f i ts se l f sim i la r it y . It c a n b e c o mp u te d
a s f o llo w s:
Z e ro l ag :
The signal s

s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

s5

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


s0

A copy of s

s1

s2

s3

s4

0 = so +s 1+s2+s3 +
2

F i r st p os i t i v e la g:
s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

1 = so s1+s1 s2+ s2s 3+


S e c on d p o si t i v e l ag :
s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

Multiply aligned samples and sum:


s0

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

2 = so s2+s1 s3+ s2s 4+


2-46

Signal Processing Concepts

Autocorrelations
The general form for the autocorrelation of s can be written:
length (s)

j =

k = 0

sk sk+j

Properties of the autocorrelation:


o >= j for all j. The zero lag is always largest.
I f s is a n in f i n it e le n gt h r a n d o m se q u en c e , th e n
o g iv e s th e s u m o f sq u a r es o f th e s eq u e n ce
a n d a l l o t h er j a r e z er o .
The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation gives
the power spectrum (squared amplitude spectrum)
of the signal, s.
The autocorrelation has no phase information.
The autocorrelation is often normalized such that o=1:
length (s)

j =

k = 0

sks k+j

length (s)

k = 0

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

sk

2 -47

Spectral Estimation
T h e ge n e ra l p r ob l em o f e st i m a t in g a m p l i t u d e o r p o we r
s p e ct r a o f a n u n k n ow n s i gn a l em be d d e d i n n oi s e o r o t h e r
u n w an t e d s i gn a ls i s c al l ed sp ec t r al es t i m at i on . I t a r is e s
i n m a n y c on te x t s i n s ei s m i c d a t a p ro c es s i n g b u t m o s t
n ot a bl y i n d ec on v ol u t io n t h e or y. T w o sa m p l e p r ob le m s :
G iv e n a sm a l l n u m b er o f l ag s o f a p os s i bl y i n f in i t e
a u t o c orr e la t io n , e s ti m a t e t h e p o we r s p ec t r u m o f t h e
u n d e rl y in g p h ys i c al p r oc e s s.
G i v e n a s m al l p o rt i on o f a p os s ib l y in f i n i t e t i m e
s e ri e s , es t i m at e t h e a m p l it u de sp ec t r u m o f t h e
u n d er l yi n g p h y s ic al p r oc es s .
T h e s e t wo p ro bl e m s a r i se re p e at ed ly , a n d i n a v ar i et y o f
c on t e x t s , i n s ei s m i c d at a p ro ce s s in g t h e or y. H ow e v er ,
t h e y a re e s se n t i al l y s i m i l ar d i f f er in g o n l y in t h e n at u r e
o f t h e i n p u t : e. g a n a u t o c or re l at i on o r a g e n er al t i m e
s er i es .
W e s h al l c on s i d e r t w o a p p r oa c h e s : t h e wi n d o we d D FT ,
a n d t h e m a x im um e n t ro p y s p ec t r u m ( B u rg s p e c t ru m) .
C on si d e r t h e co n s t ru c t i on o f a n el e m e n t ar y s e is m o gr am
b y co n v ol u t i on :

Wavelet
Seismogram
Reflectivity

0
2-48

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Signal Processing Concepts

Spectral Estimation
I f we c om p u t e t h e
f u n c t i on s , w e o b t ai n :

a u t o c or re la t io n s

of

t h es e

t h r ee

Autocorrelation of wavelet

Autocorrelation of seismogram

Autocorrelation of reflectivity

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

W e s ee fr om t h i s re s u l t t h a t t h e a u t oc o rr el at i o n o f t h e
s e is m o gr am i s q u i t e s i m i la r t o t h a t o f t h e w av e l et . T h u s
i t i s re as on a bl e t o a sk i f we c a n e s t im a t e t h e w av e le t
p o we r
s p e ct r u m
fr om
the
c e n t ra l
l ag s
of
the
a u t oc or re l at i on o f th e se i s m og ra m . F u rt h e rm o r e, w e w i ll
d o t h i s wi t h ou t u s in g a n y d i r ec t kn o wl e d ge o f t h e
w av e le t . S o, w e wi l l t ak e th e sa m p l es fr om - . 1 t o . 1 o f
t h e s e is m o gr am a u t oc o rr el a ti o n a n d c om p ute t h e i r p ow er
s p e c t ru m . I f w e s im p ly t r u n c at e t h e a u t oc or re l at i on we
o bt ai n t h e r es u l t s h ow n be l ow :
Estimate with boxcar window

Exact result

Frequency (Hz)
0
20
40
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

60

80

100
2 -49

Spectral Estimation
T h e p r e c ed i n g s p e c t ra l es t i m at e i s n o t b ad b u t c an b e
im p ro v ed by t ap e ri n g t h e s am p l es n e ar t h e e d g e o f t h e
ch o s en wi n d o w i n st e ad o f s i m p l y t ru n ca t in g. T h e m e t h od
o f t ap e r in g i s re f er r ed t o a s " w i n d ow i n g " a n d a n u m b e r
o f s p e c i al w in d ow s h av e b e en d e v is e d .
boxcar
hanning

mwindow

bartlett

boxcar
mwindow
Hanning
Bartlett
Exact result
H er e a re t h e
r e su l ta n t e st im at e s
f ro m a p p ly in g t he
v a ri o u s w in d ow
p ri or t o e s t i ma t in g
t h e p ow er w it h t h e
D F T. A l l w in d ow s
d o a r ea s on ab l e
j ob t ho ug h t h e
e d ge s e em s t o b e
w i t h B a rt le t t a nd
H an n in g.
0
2-50

F requency (Hz)
20
40

60

80

100

Signal Processing Concepts

Spectral Estimation
The DFT is a polynomial in z containing no denominator terms.
N1

Gz =

g kz

z = e

i2k/N

k = 0

C on s e q u e n t l y, t h e D FT s p e ct r al es t i m at e c o n t ai n s o n l y
z e ro s ( n o p o l es ) in t h e z p l an e a n d is so m e t im es c a ll e d
a n a l l- z e ro s es t i m at e . A n a l t er n at i v e es t i m at e w as
d e v el o p ed
by
J .P .
Burg
( s ee
C l aer b ou t ,
1976,
F u n da m e n t al s o f G e op hy s ic a l D a t a P r oc es s i n g) wh i c h
s ee ks t o p r od u c e a s p ec t r al m od e l u si n g a Z t r an s f or m
w it h o n ly
d en o m i n at o r t e rm s . T h i s m at h e m at i c al
d e v el o p m e n t o f t h e B u r g sp ec t r u m , a l so c a ll e d t h e
m ax i m um
en t r op y
sp ec t r al
e s t im a t e
or
a ll - p o l es
e st i m a te , i s be yo n d t h e sc o p e o f t h i s p r es e n t at i on .
N e v e rt h e l es s , t h i s i n t u i ti v e c on c e p t o f t h e B u rg
t e ch niq ue h e l p s u s u n d er s t an d i t s ba si c b eh a v i or . A s a n
a l l - p o le s e s ti m a t e, it i s v er y e ff e c t iv e a t m o d e li n g
s p e ct r a wh ic h h av e is o la t ed s p i ke s b u t le s s s o f or
s m oo t h s p ec t r a. F u r t h e rm o re , B u r g d ev e l op e d t h e
m e t h od u s i n g p r ed ic t i on o p er at or s t o p re d i c t t h e t i m e
s er i es o u t s id e o f t h e t r u n c at i on ra n ge s o t h at t h e
c on c e p t o f a wi n d o w d o es n o t a p p l y t o t h e B u rg
s p e ct r u m .
T h e F o ur ie r s p ec t r u m p la c e s
z e r os c l o se t o t h e u ni t c i rc l e
a n d s o c a n m o de l a p hy si c a l
p r oc e s s w i t h a s m oo th
s p ec t r u m h a vi n g n ot c h es .

Frequency
T h e B u rg s p ec t ru m p la c e s p o le s c l o se t o t he
u ni t c i rc l e a nd s o c a n m od el s pi k es i n a n
u nd er l yi n g p hy s ic a l p ro ce s s

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -51

Spectral Estimation
A s m ig h t b e ex p e c t ed f ro m t h e p r ec e d i n g d is c u s s io n , t h e
B u r g s p e ct r u m d oe s n o t d o a g oo d j o b i n t h i s c as e :

E xact result

Burg (maximum entropy) spectrum (l=30)

20

40

60

80

100

120

H o we v er , th is d oe s n o t m ea n th a t t h e B u r g s p e ct r u m i s
w it h o u t m e ri t . H a t t on e t a l. ( p ag es 3 6 - 3 8 ) gi v e a n
e x ce l l en t a n a l ys is s h ow i n g t h e su per i or it y o f th e B u r g
t e ch n iq u e o v e r t h e D F T i n t h e c a se o f t h e re s ol u t io n o f
t wo c l os e ly s p a ce sp e c t ra l p e ak s. F u r th er m or e , a s w e
s h al l s e e, t h e B u r g t e c h n iq u e l ea d s t o a v e ry e f f ec t i v e
d e c on v o lu t i on m e t h od .

2-52

Signal Processing Concepts

Wavelength Components
C o n sid er a se rie s o f p la n a r w a v e fro nt s p r op a g a ti ng a s
s ho wn be lo w.

Wave propagation direction

Z
T he
di st an c e
between
w a ve f r o nt s ,
m e a s ur e d
pe r p e nd i c ul a r t o t h e m, i s de fi ne d as t he w a ve l e n g t h, .
We c an a l s o s pe a k o f t h e w av e l e ng t h "c om po ne n t s " i n
t h e va r i ou s c o o r di n at e di r e c t ion s . F or ex am pl e , t he
ho r i z on t a l w a ve l e ng th,
, i s t he d i s t a nc e b e t w e e n
x

w av e f r on t s me a s u re d i n t h e x c oo r d i na t e di r e c t ion . Th us :

x =

sin

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

and

z =

cos
2 -53

Wavelength Components
W e s e e t h at t h e c o mp o ne n ts o f w a ve l e ng t h a r e n e v e r
l e ss t h an t h e w a ve le n g th i t s e lf . I n f a ct , f o r a v e r ti ca ll y
t r a v e li n g w a v e , x i s i nf i ni t e . T h e c o mp o ne n t s a d d a s
i n ve r se s qu a r e s :

1
1
1
=
+
2
2x
2z
I t is o f t e n c o nv en i e nt t o d e a l wi t h v e c t o r q ua nt i t i e s s o
w e d e f i ne t he wa v e nu mb e r , k , a n d i t s c om po ne nt s a s t h e
i nv er s e o f t h e w a v e l en g t h a n d i t s c om po ne nt s .
1
k =

1
k x = x
2

1
k z = z
2

k = kx + kz
k is th e m a g ni tu de o f a ve c to r , k, w h ic h p o in ts in th e
d ir e c tio n o f w a v e p r o pa g a t io n an d w h os e co m p o ne n t s a r e
th e i nv e r se w a ve l e ng th s.

I n 3- D , w e ha v e p la na r w a v e fr o n ts i ns te a d o f lin e a r b u t a
sim p le e xt e ns io n o f th is r e su lt st ill h o ld s:
2

kx + ky + kz = k

The dispersion relation


for scalar waves.

Where:
1

k y = y

2-54

Signal Processing Concepts

Wavelength Components
This geometric relation between components of the wavenumber
vector is fundamental to the study of wave propagation. It can be
considered as the Fourier domain equivalent of the scalar wave
equation. A fundamental result from theory is that the extrapolation of surface recorded data into the subsurface (z direction)
requires knowledge of kz. On the surface, we can measure kx, ky,
and f, and since f=v, this allows kz to be calculated form the dispersion relation:

Since kz must be a real number (in order to be interpreted as an


inverse wavelength) we see from this equation another fundamental result. Not all values of (kx,ky,f) can be considered as wavelike.
In fact, we must have

in order for a triplet of (kx,ky,f) to be a propagating wave.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -55

Apparent Velocity
T h e w a ve le n gt h c o m p o n en t s a n d t h e co r re sp o n d i ng
w a ve n u m ber s a re cl o se ly r ela te d t o t he w a v e v el o ci t y
a n d it s co m p o n en t s w h ic h a r e ca l le d a p p a r en t v el o c it ie s.
R e ca ll in g th e ba s ic r el a ti o n , f = v , w e se e t h a t t he
a d d i ti o n f o rm u l a f o r w a v el en gt h c o m p o n en t s:

1
1
1
=
+
2x
2z
2
leads directly to:

1
v

1
2

vx

vx = fx

where

1
2

vz

and

vz = fz

If we use wavenumber components, we have:

v =

f
k

vx =

f
kx

vz =

f
kz

N oth i ng p h y si ca l a c tu a l ly p r o p a ga t es a t a n y o f t he
a p p a r en t v e lo c it i es . R a t h er, th e y a re s im p l y rel a t ed t o
t h e a rbi t ra r y c h o ic e o f c o o rd i n a t e d i re ct i o n s a n d c a n be
v is u a l iz e d a s t h e w a ve le n gt h a lo n g a co o rd i na te d ir ec ti o n
d i vi d ed by t h e ti m e b et w e en w ave cr es ts ( i .e. t h e p e ri o d
o f t h e w a v es .)

2-56

Signal Processing Concepts

Apparent Velocity
x

Receivers on surface

A se ri es o f p la n e
w a v ec res t s a p p r o a c h a
h o r iz ont a l a n d a ve rt ic a l
r ec o rd i n g a r ra y . E a ch a rra y
s ee s th e a p p a re nt
w a v ele n gt h a l o n g t h e
s u rf a ce o n w h ic h it i s
d e p lo yed a n d c a n m e a su re
t h e a p p a ren t v el o c it y o f
t h e w a v ef ro n t s a lo n g t h a t
s u rf a ce . T h e a n gle i s
c a l le d th e em er gen c e
a n g le . T h e w a v el en gt h
c o m p o n e nt s a re :

x =

sin

and

z =

cos

And the apparent velocities are:

similarly
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -57

Th e 2 - D F - K Tra nsf o rm
The f-k transform is a fundamental tool which essentially allows the
direct computation of wavenumber components and frequency for
a multidimensional wavefield. In 2-D, it can be written:

and in 3-D

The inverse transforms are mathematically similar:

2-D

3-D

Th e s e
i n v e rs e
t r an s f or m s
have
the
p h y si c al
i n t er p r et a t io n
of
p re s en t i n g
a
wa v e f i el d
as
a
s u p e rp o s it i on o f in div i d u a l F ou r ie r co m p o n en t s o r " p l an e
w av e s" .

2-58

Signal Processing Concepts

Th e 2 - D F - K T ransform
A f ew f - k t r an s f or m s a re k n ow n a n al yt i c al l y. P er h ap s
t h e m o s t i n p o rt a n t i s t h e t r an s f or m o f a si n g l e l in ea r
e v en t . U s i n g th e m a t h e m at i c s o f D i ra c d el t a fu nct i o n s,
a se i sm ic wa v e f i el d c o n s is t i n g o f a n i so l at e d l in ea r
e v en t c an be w ri t t e n :
x

kx

Horizontal events in (x,t) are vertical in (kx,f) and vice-versa.


All events in (x,t) with then same apparent velocity, vx, are collected into a single linear event in (kx,f). The different events are
distinguished by their phase spectra but have differing phase spectra.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -59

T h e 2 -D F - K T ransfor m
If w e conside r al l possibl e linear events characterized b y
vx=v/sin() , then we have:
x

kx

=0o
=15o

vt

=30o

f/v

=50o
=90o

=0o

=90o
=50o
=30o
=15o

The previously encountered fact that f/v > kx is reexpressed in this


analysis though the fact that a portion of (kx,f) space is not populated. As a general rule of thumb, we see that large kx values are
only wavelike at high frequencies. This fact will turn out to be fundamental in describing the ability of seismic images to resolve
small features. Small features require large kx values which, in turn,
require a large temporal frequency bandwidth.
In proceding from analytic to discrete f-k transforms, it turns out
that the implementations of the Fourier transform integrals are
approximate but the forward and backward DFKT are exact inverses of each other. This fact is a great convenience in data processing and is not generally true of other transforms such as the Radon
transform.

2-60

Signal Processing Concepts

Th e 2- D F - K Tr ansf o rm
Wh e n w e pr o c e d e fr om the c o n ti n uo us F - K t r an s f o r m t o th e
di s cr e te , a s i t ua ti o n di r e ctl y a na l o g o us t o t he 1 -D c a s e
occ ur s. T ha t i s , the a c t of s p at i a l s a m pl ing ind uc es a
periodicity i n th e ( , k ) do ma i n . Un l i k e te m po r a l aliasing,
s pa tial aliasing i s a l w a ys pr e s e n t.
knyq

-knyq

= max

Principle
Band
He r e w e s ee o n e ev e n t s h o wi n g s p a t i al al i as i n g an d
an o t h e r wh ic h d o es n ot . G i v e n a s p at i a l s am pl e ra t e of x
an d an ap p ar e n t v e l oc i t y v a t h e n a l l t e m p o ra l f re q uen c i e s
h i g h er t h an :

crit

= 2 crit = va k nyquist =

va
2 x

wi l l b e s p a t i al l y al i as e d . Fo r e x c el l e n t i l l u s t r at i on s o f
sp at i al a l ia s i n g se e Ha t t on et al . p p 4 3 - 4 5 an d Y i lm az
p p 6 2 -6 9
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -61

FK Transform Pairs
Space-time domain

FK amplitude spectra

A si n gl e fl at
ev ent.
Wa vel et i s
30 Hz
( domi nan t)
and m in i mum
phas e
S ix even ts with
e me rgen ce
a ngle s: 0, 10,
30, 50, 70, &
90 degr ees .
V elo city i s 20 00
m /se c.
S ix e v en ts w it h
e m e r g en c e
a n gl es : 0 , - 10 ,
- 30 , - 50 , - 7 0 , &
- 90 d e g re e s .
V el oc i ty i s
2 0 0 0 m / se c .

A single
diffraction
hyperbola.
Veolocity is
2000 m/sec

Many
diffraction
hyperbolae.
Veolocity is
2000 m/sec

2-62

Signal Processing Concepts

-p Transforms
T h e - p t r an s f or m, a l s o kn ow n a s t he R ad on t r a ns f or m
o r s l an t s t a c k , i s a v e r y u s ef u l d at a p r oc es s i n g t o o l d ue
t o i t s a bi l i ty t o d e c om po s e a s e is m i c m a t r i x i nt o e v e n t s
o f c o ns t a nt h o r i zo nt a l s l o w ne s s , p . I t ' s c l o se r e l at i o n t o
t he f -k t ra ns f o r m i s c a pt u r e d i n t he " pr o je c t i o n s l i c e
t he o re m " w hi c h s ho w s t ha t t h e - p t r a ns f o r m m a y b e
c om pu t e d f ro m a n f - k t r a ns f o rm w hi ch h as b e en
i nt e r po l at ed t o " p ol a r " c o o rd i na t e s . ( S ee D e an s , S . R . , 198 3,
Th e R ad on Tr an s fo r m a nd S om e o f I ts A p pl ica ti on s , J o hn W ile y an d S o n s ) .
C o ns i de r t he e x pr e s s i on f or a f o rw a r d f -k t r an s f o r m:

(k x,f ) =

(x,t)e

2 i (k xx f t)

(1)

dx dt

W e h a v e se en h ow t h is e xp r es si o n t ra n s fo r m s li ne a r
ev en t s in ( x ,t ) i n to li n ea r ev en t s in ( kx ,f ) :

sin
x
t =
v

kx
=0o

sin
v
kx

=15o
=30o

vt

=50o
=90o

(x,t) space
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

/v
=90o
=50o
o
o =30

=15
o
=0

(,kx) space
2 -63

-p Transforms
N ote t h a t s in() /v ( ho ri z o n t a l s lo wn es s ) c a n a l s o b e
wr it t e n a s d t /d x o r t h e ra y p a ra m et er p . T h u s , ra d i a l l in e s
i n t h e f- k t ra n s f o rm a re l i n es o f c o n s t a n t p . T h i s c a n b e
ex am in e d f u rt h er b y a s u bs t it u t io n o f va ri a bl es in th e f - k
i n te gr a l ( 1 ) :

(p,f ) =

(x,t)e

2 i f (p x t)

dx dt

where

p=

kx
f

(2)

H e re p h a s b e en ex pli c i t ly i n t r od u c e d a s t h e ra ti o o f k x
a n d f a n d h e n c e i s c on st a n t a l on g ra d i al l i n es in ( kx , f)
s p ac e . S o ( p , f) c an b e re g ard ed a s a " p ol ar c oo rd in a t e"
r ep r e se n t at i on o f ( kx , f ) . N o w, co n s id er t h e m e an i n g o f
e q u at i on 2 f o r c on s t an t p b y p e rf o rm i n g t h e t
i n t eg r at i on fi r st :

(p,f ) =

(x,f)e

2 i f p x

dx

(3)

dt

(4)

where

(x,f) =

(x,t) e

2 i f t

Then, compute the inverse Fourier transform (f->t) of (3)

(p,) =

2 i f

(p, f ) e

df

(5)

Now, substitute (3) into (5):

(p,) =

2-64

(x,f )e

2 i f p x

dx e

2 i f

df

Signal Processing Concepts

-p Transforms
Interchange the order of integration:

(p,) =

2 i f (p x + )

(x, f )e

df dx

The inner integral gives (x, px+ ), so:

(p,) =

(x, px + ) dx

(6)

Equat io n (6 ) i s th e c o nv e nt io na l e qu a tio n fo r t he - p
transform (c o mpare w i th Y il ma z (Seis m ic Da t a Processing ,
1 987 ) equat io n 7 .5) . S e veral th in g s ca n b e learned from th is
d e velo pment:
T h e - p t ra ns f o rm c a n b e c o m p u t e d f ro m t h e f - k
( F o u ri e r) t ra ns f o rm by a c o o r d in a t e ch an ge fr o m ( f ,k x )
to ( f, p ) f o l lo w ed b y a n i n v er se F o u r ie r t r a n sf o r m f ro m
f- > . T h i s a m o u n t s to c h a n gi n g t o p o la r c o ord i n a te s in
th e F ou ri er d o m ain .
T h e - p t r an s f or m m ay e q u i v al e n t ly b e c o m p u t e d b y
e q u at i on ( 6 ) wh i c h is a p ro c es s k n ow n a s " sl an t
x
s t ac ki n g "
F o r f ix e d ( p , ) , eq u a t io n 6
r ep r ese n ts a su m m a t io n
t h ro ug h
the
f un c t io n t
( x ,t )
along
a
l in e a r
t ra j ec to r y . H en c e it i s
c a l le d sl a n t st a c k i ng .

(x,t)
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -65

-p Transforms
S i n c e t h e a n al yt i c - p t r an s f or m i s c o m p u t ab l e f r om
the
2 - D F ou r ie r t r an s f or m ( a n d v ic e - v e rs a) t h e
i n f om a ti o n c o n t en t i s t h e s am e in e it h e r d o m ai n . T h e
f ac t t h a t t h e 2 - D F o u r i er t r an s f or m i s c o m p l et e m ea n s
t h at t h e a n a ly t i c - p t ra n s fo rm is a ls o. W e w i ll s e e t h a t
t h i s i s n o t t ru e fo r t h e d i g it a l - p t ra n sf o rm .
-kxnyquist

kx

kxnyquist

H e re w e s e e an illustration o f th e r ep r e sentation of ( f , kx )
space i n b ot h re ct an gu l a r an d p o lar co ordinates . T h e ra dial
l in e s a r e li n e s o f c onstant p an d a r e a ll s h ow n t o t er m ina t e
( w h er e p o ss i bl e ) a t t h e s a m e c onstant f . T o c ompute t h e
d i s cr et e - p t ransfor m transfo rm , spectra l v alu e s a r e
i n t er p olated f r om t h e r ectangular ( f ,k x ) g r id t o re g u larl y
sampled f l ocation s on e a c h ra dia l li n e :

2-66

Signal Processing Concepts

-p Transforms
0

F
A f t e r i nt er p ola t i on o n t o ra di a l li nes , ( f ,k x ) s p ac e b ec om es
( f, p ) s p ac e . A n inverse Fourier t ransform f r om f t o
complet e s t h e journey t o (, p) s pa c e .
C l o s e i ns pe c ti on o f t he f i g ur e o n t h e p r e v i ou s p a ge
s h ow s w hy t he d i s c r et e - p t ra ns f o r m h a s d i f f i c u l t y e v e n
t h ou gh t h e a na l yt i c - p t r a ns f o rm i s c o mp l et e. I t i s
i m po s s i bl e t o p i c k a s e t o f d i s c re t e p v a l ue s w hi c h c ov er
t h e ( f , kx ) g r i d u n i f o r ml y . E i t he r t h e y a r e t o o f a r a p ar t a t
t h e g r i d e d ge s o r t h e y a r e t o o c r o w de d n e ar t he c e nt er .
I n e i t he r c a s e, it c an b e s h ow n t ha t t he r e i s a l w a ys
" i nf o rm at i on l os s " i n g o i ng t o t h e d i s c r e t e ( , p ) s p ac e
a nd b a c k a g ai n . P u t a no t he r w ay , m e r e l y t ra ns f o r mi ng
d at a t o ( , p) s p ac e a n d b ac k ( w i t ho ut a ny - p
p ro c e s s i ng ) w i l l a l w a ys a l t e r t h e d at a i n s om e w a y. T hu s
t h e d i s c r e t e - p t ra ns f o r m i s n o t c o mp l e t e i n t h e s a me
s e ns e t ha t t he d i s c r e t e ( f , kx ) t ra ns f o r m i s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -67

Properties and uses of the -p Transform


T h e m o st o b v io u s p r o p e r t y o f a -p t r a ns fo r m i s t h at i t
m a ps a lin e a r e v e n t in ( x, t) to a p o in t in (- p ).

po

t
1
= vapp = p o
x
Less obviously, hyperbolae map to ellipses:
x

2-68

Signal Processing Concepts

Properties and uses of the -p Transform


T hu s w e c a n e xp e c t t ha t b an dl i m i t e d p r op a g at i n g b o d y
w a ve s i n a c on s t a nt v e l oc i t y e ar t h w i l l ma p t o a c om pa c t
r e g i o n of (f , p) s p ac e de f ine d b y p max = 1 / v. In t h e f - k
t r a ns for m , t hi s c o r r e s po n ds t o a t r i a ng u l ar r e g i o n.
kx

f=fmax
f

T hu s w e e x pe c t t ha t a p pa r e nt v e l o c i t y f i l t e r i ng c a n be
d on e
in
e i t h er
d o ma i n
by
e s s e nt i a l l y
m ut i ng
( s ur pr e s s i ng ) t h a t p o r t i on o f t he d o ma i n c o r r es p on di ng
t o t he u n d e s i ra b l e v el o c i t i e s .
A l ia si n g a f fe c t s t h e (,p ) t r a n sf o r m m u ch a s it d o e s t he
( f, k ) t r a n sfo rm . I f t h e (,p ) t r a n sf o r m i s co n st r u ct e d by
s la n t st a ck i ng i n ( x, t) o r ( x ,f ) th e n it i s no t di r e c tl y
a f fe c ted b y ho r iz o n ta l a l ia si ng. Bu t t he c ho i ce o f p a n d
t he n um be r o f p v a lu e s is a d iff ic ul t o ne a nd l e a d s di r e c tl y
t o p a li a sin g .
A rule of thumb for p is

p =

1
fmax (xmax xmin)

k x
fmax

T uner, G., 1 99 0, Al i asin g i n t he tau- p t ransform and the remov al of spati al al iased
c oherent noi se: Geophy sic s, 5 5 , 1 49 6- 1 50 3

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -69

Properties and uses of the -p Transform


Other uses of the -p Transform:
S in c e a s la n t s ta ck is l es s a ff ec t ed by s p a t ia l a l ia si ng
t h a n a n f - k t ra n s fo r m , i t ca n b e u s ed t o i n te rp o l a te t o
f i ne r t ra c e sp a c in g s a n d " u n a li a s " d a ta . U se d in t h is
f a s h io n it i s o f te n c a ll ed a " s m a rt i n te rp o l a t o r" . (Y ilmaz ,
O. , 1987, S eism ic Dat a P roces sing , p435. )

I t c an b e s ho w n th a t m u lt ip le s a r e n o t p e r i o di c o n a n
of fse t tr a c e i n th e (x ,t ) d o ma i n b u t a r e in t he (, p) .
(T rei tel et al. , 1982, Pl ane- wav e dec ompo si ti on of sei sm ogram s, Geophysi c s,

T h is m e a ns th a t p r e d ict iv e de c o nv o lu ti o n
fo r mu lt ip le su r p r e ss io n o f te n w o r k s b e t te r o n ( ,p )
g a th e r s.
47, 1375- 1401)

M i g r at i on c an a ls o b e d on e in t h e (, p ) d o m ai n .

(Die bol d,
J.B. , a nd Stoffa , P.L., 198 1, The tr av el time e qua ti ons, ta u-p ma ppi ng, a nd
inve r sion of common midpoi nt da ta , Geophysi cs, 46 , 23 8-2 54 )

2-70

Signal Processing Concepts

Inverse -p Transforms
T h e p r o c es s o f re co n st r uc t i o n o f t h e s ei sm i c d a t a i n ( x , t )
s p a c e gi v en it s - p t ra n s fo rm is ca l l ed a n in v er se - p
t ra n s f o rm . T h er e a r e a n u m be r o f wa ys t o d o th i s p r o c es s
t h o u gh we sh a l l d i s cu s s o n l y t wo : F o u ri er m et h o d s a nd
f il t er ed ba c k p ro j e c ti o n .
T he F o u ri er m et h o d i s o bv io u s f ro m t h e d is c u ss io n o f
t h e f o rw a rd - p t r a n s fo rm . T he m a jo r s t ep i s t h e
r e c o n st ru ct io n o f t h e 2 - D ( f, kx ) t ra n sf o rm w h i ch
r e q u ir e s a n i nt er po l a t io n o nt o a r ec t a n gu la r g ri d f r o m a
p o l a r o n e . T h is w i ll o bv io u s ly h a v e n u m er i ca l d if fi cu lt ie s
t h o u gh
t he y
a re
c o n t ro ll a bl e.
F o ll o w in g
the
i n te rp o la t io n ,
an
i n v er s e
2- D
F o ur ie r
t ra n sf o rm
c o m p le te s t h e p ro c es s.
F il t e r e d b a ck p r oj e ct io n a vo id s t h e ( f, k x ) d o ma in a n d
r e c o ns t r uc ts t h e i m a g e d ir e ct ly w it h a c o nv o lu ti o na l
f i lt e r f o ll o w e d b y a n i n ve r s e s la n t s ta ck . C o n s id e r t he
e x pr es s io n f o r t h e i n v e r s e 2 -D F o u r ie r t r a n s fo r m :

(x,t) =

(k x,f )e

2 i (k xx f t)

dk x df

(1)

N ow , letting k x = f p and converting t h e wavenumbe r integral


i n to a p integral g ives :

(x,t) =

f (p,f )e

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 i f p x

2 i f t

dp df

(2)

2 -71

Inverse -p Transforms
T h e t er m i n b ra c ke ts c a n be c o n si d e re d t o b e th e p r o d u c t
o f t w o f u n ct i o n s o f f . H e n ce , it m u st b e a c o n v o l u t io n in
t im e :

(x,t) =

(t)(p,x,t) dp

(3)

where denotes a convolution over time and

(t) =
(p,x,t) =

2 i f t

fe

df

(4)

(p,f )e

2 i f (t p x)

df = (p,t px)

(5)

N o te t ha t (p ,) i s th e fo r w a r d s la n t st ac k . S ub sti tu tio n
o f ( 5) in t o (3 ) r e su lts in :

(x,t) = (t)

(p,t px) dp

(6)

E q u at io n ( 6) e x pr e sse s fi lte r e d b a ck pr o j e c tio n f r o m th e


(, p) d o ma in t o th e (x ,t ) d o m a in . E a ch p o int in (x ,t ) i s
co n st r u cte d b y i nt e g r a ti ng a lo n g a lin e a r t r a j e ct o r y in
(, p) , j u st lik e t h e fo r w a r d s la nt st a ck . U nl ik e t he fo r w a r d
o p e r a ti o n, th e in te g r a ti on i s fo l lo w e d b y a c o nv o lu tio n
w h ich is a fo r m o f a f ilt e r .

2-72

Signal Processing Concepts

Inverse -p Transforms
A n ot her w ay t o d o t h e i n v e r s e t r an s fo r m i s s u g ge s t e d b y
e q u a t i on 2 . Ra t h e r t h an c on v o l v e i n t h e t i me d om ai n w i t h
a fi l t e r o p e r at or w e c a n d o t h e r e c on s t r u c t i on i n t he f
d o m a i n . Ta ki n g a fo r wa rd Fo u ri e r t r an s f or m ( t -> f ) o f ( 2 )
g i v e s:

F (x,t) = (x,f) = f

2 i f p x

(p,f )e

dp

(7)

T o us e (7 ) f o r t he i n ve r s i o n, w e f i r s t t r an s f o rm (p,) t o
( p, f ) . T he n, f o r e a c h x, w e m ul t i p l y (p , f ) b y a p
d e pe n de nt p ha s e s hi f t an d i nt e gr a t e o ve r p a nd t he r e s ul t
i s s c a l e d b y f . A f t e r c o ns t r u c t i n g (x, f ), an i n ve r s e
F o ur i e r t r an s f o r m f r o m f - > t c o mp l e t e s t h e p r oc e s s .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -73

Least Squares -p and f-k Transforms


W e h av e s e e n t hat a c o n v e n i e n t m et hod of i m p l e m e n t i n g
f or w ar d a n d i n v e r s e -p t ra n s f or m s i s i n t he f r e q u e n c y
d o m ai n :

(p,f ) =

(x,f) = f

(x,f)e

dx

(p,f )e

dp

2 i f p x

2 i f p x

(1)

(2)

H e r e (1 ) is th e fo r w a r d t r a ns fo r m f r o m ( x,f ) to (p ,f ) a nd
( 2) is t he in ve rse t r a ns fo r m . V ir tu a ll y a ny in te g rat io n c an
b e i mp le me n t e d a s a n e q ui va le nt ma t r ix op e r a t io n fo r
d isc r e te da t a . C or r e sp o n di ng t o (1 ) a nd ( 2) w e h a ve :

j (f) = Rj k k(f)

Rj k = exp(2 i f p j x k)

k (f) = f R k j j (f)

Rk j = exp( 2 i f p j x k)

(3)

(4)

These can be written:

= R

(5)

= fR

(6)

*T

1 (f)
2 (f)
=
3 (f)

2-74

1(f)
2(f)
=
3(f)

R1 1 R1 2 R1 3
R2 1 R2 2 R23
R=
R3 1 R3 2 R3 3

etc

Signal Processing Concepts

Least Squares -p and f-k Transforms


R at h e r t ha n c o mp ut e t h e f or w a rd t r an s f or m d i r e c t l y , t he
l e a s t s qu ar e s t e c hn i qu e u s e s e q ua t i on ( 6 ) t o p os e a n
i n v e rs e p r o b l e m f or t he - p s pe c t r um .

= fR
*T

(6)

R f = RR
1

= RR

*T

*T

Rf
1

(7)

E qu a ti o n (7 ) is t he st a nd a r d le a st sq u a r e s e sti m at e o f
th e - p s pe ctr um . I t is u su a lly su p e r io r in th e se n se t ha t
th e (x ,t ) d o ma in d at a ca n b e r eco n str u c te d fr o m it w it h
fe w e r a r t ifa c ts . T hi s fo r m ul a tio n a ssu m e s th a t t he
nu m b e r o f p t r a ce s e x ti ma t e d w il l b e n o la r ge r t ha n t he
nu m b e r o f x t r a ce s. E ve n w he n th e d a ta is p e r fe c tl y
r e g u la r in x a n d th e nu m b e r o f p a nd x tr a c e s ar e t he
sa me , th e le as t sq u a r e s m e t ho d is u su a lly s up e r io r
b e ca u se th e -p t r a n sfo r m i s i nc o mp le t e . T hi s m e a n s t ha t
th e fo r w a r d a n d r e v e r se - p pr o c e ss e s le a ve a r t ifa c ts in
th e d a ta . T he le a st sq u ar e s a p p r o a ch m in im iz e s su ch
ar tif a cts .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

2 -75

Least Squares -p and f-k Transforms


T h e m o re i n co m p le te a n d i n co n si st e n t a tr a n s fo rm p a i r
a r e, t h e m o r e t h e le a s t s q u a re a pp ro a c h be co m es u s ef u l .
T h i s m ea n s i t is e sp e ci a l ly p re f err ed fo r s la nt s t a c ks a l o n g
p a r a bo li c a n d h y p er bo li c t ra j ec t o ri es w h ic h a re i n c o m p l et e
ev e n i n t h e a n a l y t ic s en s e .
A n o t h e r e x a m pl e o f a n i n c om p l e t e t ra n s f or m i s t h e
d i s c r e t e F ou r i e r t r an s f or m f or i rr e g u l ar l y s am p l e d d a t a .
I t c a n a l s o b e p o s e d a s a n i n v e r s e p r o bl e m :

=F

*T

= FF

*T

where

F1 1 F1 2 F1 3
F F F
F = 2 1 2 2 23
F3 1 F3 2 F3 3

S e e M a r f ur t,

e t a l. ,

( 199 6,

Fm n = exp(2 i k x mxn )

P i tf al ls

of

u si ng

co n v e nt io n a l R a do n

t r a nsf o r ms on p o o rl y s a mpl ed d at a: G e oph y sic s, 6 1, 1 46 7- 148 2)

f or a

m o r e c o mp le t e d i s cu s s io n .

2-76

Signal Processing Concepts

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Lecture Notes
Geophysics 557
Chapter 3
Amplitude Effects

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -1

Seismic Wave Attenuation


As a seismic wave propagates through the earth, it suffers
attenuation (amplitude decay) for a number of reasons:
Attenuation Mechanism #1: Geometric Spreading (or Spherical
Divergence)
A s s ei s m ic e n er gy p ro p a ga t e s
a w a y f ro m a s o u r ce ( o r f o c a l
p o i n t ) th e co n se rv a t i o n o f to t a l
en e rg y re q u ir es t ha t t h e e n er gy
Surface A2
f o u n d o n t h e wa v e fr o n t s u rf a c e
A 1 a t s o m e t im e t 1 e q u a l th at
o n su r fa c e A 2 a t so m e ti m e t 2 .

E t 2 = t 2 A 2 = E t 1 = t1 A 1

Surface A1

w h e re i s t h e e n e rg y p e r u n i t
ar e a. Si n c e t h e d i s p l ac e m e n t
w av e
am p l i t u de,
u,
is
p r op or t i on a l t o t h e s q u a r e
r oo t o f , w e d e d uce :

u2
=
u1

A1
R1
t1
=
=
A2 R 2 t 2

or

ut =

u0
Rt

T h e p r o p er i n t erp r et a ti o n o f th i s r esu l t is t h a t th e w a v e
a m p l it u d e d ec a y s a s 1 / R w h er e R i s t h e r a d iu s o f
c u rv a tu r e o f t h e w a v e fr o n t. I n t h e c a se o f a co ns t a n t
v el o ci t y m e d iu m , R i s si m p ly th e d is t a n ce t ra v el le d ;
h o w e v er, i n a l a y er ed m e d iu m , R c a n b e s h o w n t o b e
p ro p ort io n a l to ( V2 r ms / V 1 ) t w h e re V 1 i s t h e v elo ci t y o f
t h e f irs t la yer. ( N ewm an, Geo phys ics, 1971, p 481-488, Hu br al, P ., and
Krey, T., In te rv al V elocit ies f rom Seism ic Refle ct ion Time Meas ure men ts , 1980,
So ciety o f Ex plor atio n G eoph ysicist s)

3-2

Amplitude Effects

Seismic Wave Attenuation


Th u s we deduce t h a t t h e e f fe c t s of spheri c a l diverg en c e c a n
b e a p prox i m ate l y c ompensated f or by applyi n g a " gain
c or re c ti o n " g iv e n b y:

G t spreading = G0Vrms t t

(Compare with Hatton et al., page 56)

Attenuation Mechanism #2: Absorption (or inelastic attenuation)


I n a p e rf e ct l y el as t i c m ed iu m, t h e t ot a l en e rg y o f t h e
p r op a ga t in g w av e fi e l d re m a in s a c on s t an t . H o we v er , t h e
e ar th is n o t p er f ec t l y e l as t ic a n d p r op ag at i n g s ei s m i c
w av e s g ra d u al l y d i e o u t o v e r t i m e . T h e p ri m ar y
m e c h an i s m f or t h i s i s th e c o n t in uo u s c on v e r si on o f a
s m al l p o r ti o n o f t h e s e is m i c en e r gy t o h e at d u e t o
i rr e v er s ib l e a n el as t i c b e h av i or o f ro c ks . I t is c u s t om ar y
t o t al k a b ou t t h e p a ra m et e r Q wh i c h c h ar ac t er i ze s t h i s
e n er g y l o ss :

Q =

energy
energy loss

per frequency cycle

V ar i o u s at t e nu at i on t h eo r i e s e x i s t w i t h t h e s i mp l e s t b e i n g
t h e "c o n s t an t Q " t h e or y o f K j ar t a ns son 1 a nd o t he r s . M os t
e mp i r i c a l e v i de n c e i s c o ns i s te nt w i t h t h e a s s um pt i on t ha t
Q i s i n de p e nd e nt of f r e qu e nc y at l e a s t o ve r t he s e i s m i c
b a ndw i d t h . T he c on s t a nt Q t h e o ri es a l l p re d i c t an
a mp l i t ud e l os s g i v e n b y :

1 Kjar tan ss o n, E, 1 979, C o ns tan t Q-Wave P ro pa ga tion an d A tten u atio n, JGR , V 84,
p4 737-474 8

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -3

Seismic Wave Attenuation


Thus, the constant Q theory refers to a Q which is independent
of frequency but predicts an attenuation which is a first order
exponential in both time and frequency.
f

Constant Q Exponential Decay Surface


N o t e t h a t Q = i s a p e rf e c t ly e la st i c m a te r ia l wh i l e Q =
0 i s p e rf e c t ly a b s or p t iv e . A h i gh l y a b so rp t iv e r oc k h as a
Q o f 2 0 - 5 0 w h i l e v e ry co m p e t en t l i m e st o n es a n d
d o lo m i t es c an h av e Q o f 2 0 0 o r m o re . T h e c om m on fi r s t
o r d e r c or re c t io n f o r Q e ff e c t s i s t o a p p l y a s i m p l e ,
f re q u e n c y i n d e p en d en t , e xp o n e n t i al g ai n c or re c t i on . I f
w e wr i t e:

ft/Q

; =fdom/Q

= the attenuation constant

Typica l ly , th e a t te n uation constant i s ex p res se d i n db/se c


which w oul d be

Assuming f do m of 2 0 a n d a
v a l u e o f 1 2 d b /s e c .
3-4

Q o f 1 0 0 l e ad s to a "t y pi c al "

Amplitude Effects

Seismic Wave Attenuation


Attenuation Mechanism #3: Transmission losses
I n o u r e x a m in a ti o n o f t he t h eo r y o f t h e 1 - D s y n th et ic
s ei sm o gr a m w e s a w t h a t t h er e i s a c o n t in u o us
a m p l it ud e d ec a y d u e t o t ra n sm i ss io n l o ss es . I f f a c t, w e
f o u nd t h a t t h e e a rt h ' s i m p ul se r e sp o n se r e su lt ed i n t h e
r ec o r d in g o f t h e n 't h r e f le c t io n c o e ff ic ie n t a t t h e
s u rf a c e m u lt i pl ie d b y a t ra n sm i ss io n l o ss t e rm :
nth reflection coefficient
recorded at surface

Rn (Transmission losses)
n1

where transmission losses

k = 1

1Rk

T hi s e f f e c t i s h i g h l y d ep e nd e n t u p o n l o c a l g eo l o gy a nd
i s d i f f i c ul t t o e s t i m at e w i t h a n y p r e c i s i on . I t i s
c u s t om ar y t o i g no re it a n d " ho pe " t ha t i t i s e i t h er s m al l
o r i nc l ud e d i n t he " db / s ec " c o r re c tio ns
a l r e ad y
d i s c us s e d.
Attenuation Mechanism #4: Mode Conversion
A s wa v es p ro p ag at e i n a n e la st i c m ed i u m, t h ey a re
c on s t an t l y be i n g c o n v er t e d f ro m P t o S a n d th e r ev e r se
a t ev e r y i m ped a n c e c on t r as t . T h e s e m od e c on v e rs i on s
o c c u r bo th u po n re f le c t i on a n d t r an s m i s si on a n d a re
d e s cr i be d b y t h e f am o u s Zo ep pri t z e q u at i on s ( s e e A ki
a n d R i c h ar d s , 1 98 0 , o r t h e C RE W E S Zo ep pri t z e x p l or er
a t w ww . cr e we s .o rg ) . I f , a s i n c on v e n t i on al s ei s m i c , o n l y
t h e v e r ti c al c om p o n e n t o f g ro u n d m ot i on i s r ec o rd e d ,
t h e n i t i s r ar el y p o ss i b le t o a d d re s s t h i s e ff e c t . T h e
s ol u t i on i s t o r e co rd a l l t h r ee c om p o n en ts o f g ro u n d
m o t io n a n d p r oc e ss t h e d at a a s e la st i c wa v es . T h i s i s
t h e s u b j ec t o f l e ad i n g e d g e re s e arc h a r ou n d t h e w or ld .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -5

Seismic Wave Attenuation


Attenuation Mechanism #5: Scattering
R a n do m s c a tt e r in g o ff s m a ll i r r e g ul ar i ti e s c au s e s t he
d is p e r s a l o f s e is m ic w a v e fi e l ds a n d a n a pp a r e nt l o s s o f
e n e r g y . I f a f u ll 3 -D w a ve fi e ld h a s b e e n r e co r d e d t h e n
s u c h s ca t te r e r s c an b e i m a g e d b y m ig r a ti o n b ut t h e l o s t
w a v e fi e ld e n e r g y i s n ot r e s t or ed .

Attenuation Mechanism #6: Refractions and critical angles


S n el l' s l a w go v er n 's t h e a n gl es o f ref le ct i o n a n d
re fr a ct i o n w h en a w a v e in t era c t s w it h a n i m p ed a n c e
c o n tr a st .

sin

v1

sin
v2

I n t h e n o r m al c as e wh er e v 2 > v 1 , t h e re ex is t s a "c r i t i c al
a n g le " o f i n c i d e n c e b e yo n d wh ic h n o t r a n s m i s si o n o c c u r s .

sin crit =

3-6

v1
v2

Amplitude Effects

Seismic Wave Attenuation


En e rgy in c id en t a t o r be y o n d t h e cr it i ca l a n gl e i s t h ro w n
ba c k to th e su rf a c e a s p o s t- c ri t ic a l r ef le ct i o n s a n d
re fr a ct i o n s. I t is n o t a v a i la b le t o i ll um i n a t e d ee pe r
re fl ec t o rs . T h i s i s e sp e ci a ll y n o t ic a b le in t h e n ea r su r fa c e
w h e re th e v el o c it y c o n t ra s t a t t h e b a se o f t h e
w e a t he ri n g ca n a p p ro a ch 1 / 2 o r l es s. S in c e t h e a rc si n o f
1 / 2 i s 3 0 d eg ree s, t h is m ea n s o n l y a n a rr o w co ne o f
en e rgy p en et r a te s to th e su b su rf a c e.

Surface source

Base of weathering

Transmitted cone

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -7

True Amplitude Processing


W e h a v e s ee n t h a t a s im p l e m o d el f o r a 1 - D s e is m o g ra m
p re d i ct s th at t h e se is m i c d a t a c o n s i st s o f b a n d - l im i t ed
re f le ct i o n c o e f ic i en t s:

s t = w t r t
W he r e w is a se is mi c w av e le t, r is th e e ar th 's r e fle cti vi ty
e x pr e sse d a s a fu n ct io n o f 2- w a y ve rtic a l t r a ve lti me , s i s
th e se i sm o g r a m , an d d e n ot e s c on v o lut io n . S in ce w
g e n e r a ll y co n ta in s sig n if ica n t e ne rg y o nl y o ve r so m e
ch a r a ct e r is tic fr equ e n cy b a n d w id th , i f w e vie w th e
co n v ol ut io n a s a m ul tip li ca ti o n in th e fr e q u e nc y do m a in ,
w e se e th a t s i s i nd e e d a b a n dl im ite d ve rsio n o f r . (I f w i s
n o t z e r o p h as e th e n th e r e is a p ha s e sh ift a s w e l l.)
T h er e a r e m a n y r ea l ea r th w a v e p ro pa ga t io n e ff ec t s
w h i ch ca us e t he r a w se is m ic d a t a t o d e vi a t e co n s id e ra b ly
f ro m t h is m o d el . T r u e a m p l it u d e p ro c e ss in g i s a " ho ly
gr a il " o f t he s ei sm i c d a t a p ro c es si n g w o r ld a n d re fe rs t o
a p ro ce ss in g seq u e n ce w h ic h , w h en c o m p le te , y i el d s d a t a
w h i ch
is
a cc u ra t el y
re p res en t a bl e
a s b a n d li m it ed
re fl ec t io n c o e ff ic ie n ts .
W h il e n o t y et s tr ic t l y p o ss ib l e, m a n y d a ta p ro ce ss in g
f l o w s c o m e q u it e c l o se t o b e i ng t ru e a m p li tu d e
p ro c es si n g. G e n er a l ly , t ho u g h n o t e x cl u si v el y , t hi s
m ea n s
the
a vo i d a n ce
of
s t a ti st ic a l
a m p li tu d e
c o rr e c t io n s
like
AGC
in
fa v o r
of
d et er mi n is ti c
c o rr e c t io n s l i k e s p h er i ca l d i ve rg e nc e a nd e x p o n en ti a l
ga i n .
I t i s n ot u n c om m on t o f i n d m od e rn p r oc e s se d s ei s m i c
d at a wh i c h i s r ou g h ly p r op o rt i on a l t o w el l l og d e ri v ed
r ef l ec t i on c oe f fi c i en ts o v e r l im it e d ti m e z o n e s .
3-8

Amplitude Effects

Automatic Gain Correction (AGC)


A u t om a t ic g ai n c or re c t io n m e t h od s a t t e m p t t o p e rf o rm
n e c e ss ar y a m pli t u d e a d j u s t m e n t s t o se i sm ic d at a
b as e d p u r el y o n s t at i st i c s o f t h e o b se r v ed a m p l i t u d e
d e c ay . T h e y s h ou l d be c o n t ra st e d wi t h d et e rm in i s t i c
m et h o d s w h ic h u s e a p h ys i c al m o d e l o f o n e o r m or e
d e c ay p ro c es s es t o d et e rm in e c or re c t i on f ac t or s .
G en e r al ly , A G C m e t h od s a r e si m ple a n d e f fi c i en t bu t
t e n d t o p ro d u c e u n p h y si c al a m p l i t u d e d i s t or t io n s . T h e y
a re u s ef u l i n s i t u at i on s w h er e p h ys i c al l y m e an i n g f u l
a m p l i tu d es a re l es s i m p o rt a n t t h an " we l l ba la n c ed
t r ac e s.
T h er e a r e m an y A G C a l g or it h ms in c om m o n u s e . A
s i m p l e , ef f e c ti v e m et h o d i n v ol v e s t h e d e f in it i on o f a
t e m p o ra l w in do w s i ze a n d t h e m e as u re m e n t o f t h e
t r ac e rm s a m p l it u de o v er t h at w i n d ow . T h e wi n d o w i s
t h e n i n c re m e n t e d a n d th e m ea su r m e n t re p e at e d . T h e
r e su l t i s a se t o f rm s a m p l i t u d e m ea s u re m e n t s a t
d i s c re t e t i m es wh i c h d ef i n es a n ' am p l it u d e m o d e l ' o f
t h e t ra c e. T h i s m od el i s t h e n l i n ea rl y i n t e rp o l at e d t o
t h e t r ac e sa m p l e r at e a n d t h e A GC ' d t r ac e i s c o m p u t e d
b y d i v i d in g t h e o r i gi n al tr ac e b y t h e a m p l it u d e m od e l .

r c s w it h t h eo r et i c a l
a mp l it u d e d e c ay

r e f l ec t i o n c o ef fi c i e nt s

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -9

Automatic Gain Correction (AGC)

i n t er p o l a t ed r m s a m p l i tu d e m o d e l

d i s c re t e r m s m e a s u r e s

A b ov e i s t h e co n s t ru c t i on o f a n r m s a m p l i t u d e m o d e l
f ro m m ea su r e s ev e r y . 1 s e c on d s a n d t h e n i n t e rp o l at e d .
B e l ow i s t h e a p p l ic a ti o n o f t h at m od e l t o t h e t r ac e .

A G C ' d r e s u l t. T r a c e d i vi de d a m p l i tu de m o de l .

r m s a m p l it ud e m o d e l

T r a c e s h ow i ng a m p l it ud e d e c ay

3-10

Amplitude Effects

Automatic Gain Correction (AGC)


B e l ow i s a c om p ar i so n o f a d e t er m i n i s t ic a m p l i t u d e
r es t or at i on a n d s ev e ra l d if f e re n t A G C p ro d u c t s. N ot e
t h at t h e re l at i v e e v e n t 's t an do u t ' ( t h e a m p l i t u d e r at i o
b et w ee n a n y t wo e v e n t s) i s be s t p re s er v ed b y
d e t er m i n i st i c m e t h od s a n d s ec o n d ar il y by lo n g A G C
o p er at or s .

AGC
.4
operator.

sec

AGC
.1
operator.

sec

AGC
.0 2 5
operator.

sec

D e t er m in i st ic g a i n
S y nt he t i c w it h t - 1
a m p l i tu d e d e c a y
S y nt h e t ic w i th n o
a m p l i t ud e l os s e s

T h e t wo m os t c om m o n m i st a ke s w i th A GC a r e t o u se i t
e x cl u s i v l y fo r a l l g ai n a d j u s t m e n t s o r t o a v oi d i t e n t ir e ly .
I n t h e f i r st c as e , A GC s h ou l d be u s ed w i th c au t io n if t h e
i n t en ded i n t e rp r e t at i on m e t h od p l ac e s e m p ha s is o n
r el i ab le a m p l it u d e i n f or m at i on . I n th e s e c on d c as e , A G C
o f t e n l e ad s t o su per i or r es i d u al st a t ic s a n d v el o ci t y
a n a ly s es si d e f l ow s e v en w h en n e v er u s e d i n a m ai n fl ow .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -11

Automatic Gain Correction (AGC)


A co m p a ri s on o f A G C o p e ra t or l e n gt h s o n a r ea l , r aw ,
s e is m i c tr ac e s h o ws h o w t h e c h o ic e o f o p er at or l e n g t h
c a n d r as t ic a ll y a f f ec t t h e e v en t c h ar ac t er . A l s o
a p p ar e n t is t h e e f fe c t kn o wn a s a n A G C sh a d ow z o n e .
T h i s o c c u r s wh en a p ac ka ge o f e n e rg y ( i n t h e c as e t h e
f r is t br ea ks ) h as m u ch h i g h er a m p l i tu d e t h an a d j a c en t
e v e n t s. T h e a d j a ce n t e n e rg y t e n d s t o h av e a
s u r p re s s ed a m p l i t u d e o v er r ou g h ly t h e l e n g th o f t h e
A GC o p e r at or .
A G C " s h a d ow " z on e s

2. 0 se c A GC
1 .0 se c A GC
.5 se c A GC
. 2 5 se c A GC
R a w t ra ce

A m aj o r c on ce r n wh e n u s in g a n A GC i s th a t se r io u s
d i s t or t i on s i n t h e e m be d d e d wa v e l et ca n o cc u r i f t h e
A GC o p e ra t or l e n gt h i s s h or t er t h a n t h e s ou rc e
w av e f or m . T h i s c a n re s u lt i n a s t ro n g d eg r ad at i on o f
t h e p er f or m an c e o f d e co n v ol u t i on a l go ri t h m s . T h i s wi l l
b e co m e m o r e c le ar a f t er t h e re ad e r h a s s t u d i ed
d e c on v o l u t io n i n t h e n e x t c h ap t e r .
3-12

Amplitude Effects

Trace Equalization (TE) or Trace Balancing


T r ac e s fr om r aw f i el d r ec o rd s c an o ft e n h av e w il d l y
v ar yi n g t o ta l ( r m s ) p o we r l ev e l s. T h e re a re m a n y
p o ss i bl e c au s es i n c l u d i n g: s h ot s t re n g t h v ari a ti o n ,
g eo p h on e c ou p li n g v ar i t io n , n ea r s u r f ac e ge ol og y
c h an g e s, so u rc e - r ec e i v er o ff s e t , a n d m o re . ..
E v en i n c a se s wh e r e d et e rm i n i s t i c g ai n i s p r ef e rr e d ,
s om e s or t o f t r ac e b al an c i n g sh o u l d s t il l b e p er f or m e d .
O t h e rw is e , h ig h r m s p ow er t ra c es ( w h i ch a re o f t e n t h e
n oi s i es t tr ac e s ) , w il l d o m i n at e i n st a c ki n g a n d c r os sc or re l at i on s .
A s im p l e m e th o d is ca l le d t ra c e e q u a li za t io n , o r T E , a n d
i s u s u a ll y s y n on o m ou s wi t h t r ac e b al an c i n g . T E i s a v er y
s i m p l e p r oc e s s i n w h i ch a l l t r ac e s a re a d ju st e d t o h a v e
t h e s am e rm s p ow er l e v el a c c or d i n g t o:
o u t pu t t r ac e = i n p u t t ra c e/ ( rm s p ow e r o f i n p u t t ra c e)
A c om mo n v ar ia n t o f T E i s t o c om p u t e t h e r m s p o we r
o v e r a p ar t i c u la r t im e z o n e i n st e ad o f t h e en t i r e t ra c e. I f
t h e t i m e z o n e v ar i es in w id t h , t h en c ar e m u s t b e t ak en
t o n or m al i ze t h e rm s p ow er m ea su r e s f or t h i s e f fe c t .
C au t i on sh o u l d a l w ay s b e ex e r ci s e d wh en i n t e rp re t in g
se i s m i c p l ot s wh e r e a t ra ce e q u al i za t io n o r A G C h as
be e n a p p l ie d a s a n o p t i on i n p l ot t i n g . W h i l e t h is m ay b e
a c on v en i e n c e i t m e an s t h a t t h e d a t a d i s p l ay m ay n ot
t ru l y re p r es e n t t h e d a ta a s s t o re d o n d i s k o r t ap e . F o r
ex a m p l e, d at a th a t i s w il d l y u n b al an c e d f ro m t r ac e - t ot ra ce m a y a p p e ar t o h a v e g oo d a m p l it u de v a ri at i on ,
le ad in g to e r ro n eo u s p r oc e ss i n g d e c i si o n s.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -13

Constant Q Effects
S t r i c tl y s p e ak i n g, c on s t an t Q t h e or y r ef e rs t o a Q w h i ch
i s i n d e p en den t o f f r eq uen c y b u t m a y s t i l l d e p en d o n
t i m e . F o r s i m p l i ci t l y,
we
wi l l a ls o a ss u me
time
i n d e p en d en c e . N ot e t h at t h e a t t en u a t io n c an be w ri t t en
as :

ft/Q

exp

= exp

= exp

fx/(vQ)

= exp

x/(Q)

n /Q

w h e r e w e h a ve us e d f= v a n d n = x/ i s t he n um b e r o f
w a v e le n g th s th a t fit i n th e di sta n ce tr av e le d. T h us , a s a
w a v e fo r m p r o p ag a te s, it is co n ta n tl y b e in g at te nu a te d
w it h th e hig he r fr equ e n cie s b e in g a tt e n ua t e d fa s te r . I f
W (f ) is t he sp e c tr u m o f o u r s o ur c e w av e f or m, w ( ), t he n
a ft e r p r o pa g a t in g a tim e t , t he a m p lit ud e sp e c tr u m o f
th e p r o p a g a tin g w a v e fo r m h a s b e c o m e :

Wp f

= W f exp ft/Q

If w e a ss um e Q=50, a n d a s pecific s h a pe f o r |W (f )| , t h e n w e
c a n c ompu te th e ampl it u de s p ec trum o f t h e pr o pagating
w aveform at any t im e:
0

Wf

-50
.5 sec
-100
1.0 sec
-150
1.5 sec
-200

-2500
3-14

2.0 sec
50

100
150
frequency (Hz)

200

250

Amplitude Effects

Constant Q Effects
T hu s w e se e t ha t s e i s mi c d at a m u s t a c t ua l l y c o nt a i n a
w av el e t w i t h c o nt i nu ou s l y d e c r e a s i ng b a nd wi d t h. T h i s
m e a ns t h e d a t a s i gn al s p e c t r um i s a c t ua ll y a f un c t i o n o f
t i m e a n d i s s a i d t o b e n on s t at i o na r y ( o r, e q ui v a l e nt l y ,
t i m e- v a ri a nt ) . D e pe nd i ng u p on t he v a l ue t a k en t o
c ha r ac ter i z e t h e b ac k g r ou n d n o i s e , we o b t ai n t he s e
s pe c i f i c m ax i m um s i g n al f r e qu e n c y e s t i m at e s ( b a s e d o n
t he p r e c e di n g g r a ph ) :
time

.5 sec

1.0 sec

1.5 sec

2.0 sec

100 db down

180 Hz

120 Hz

80 Hz

70 Hz

75 db down

130 Hz

80 Hz

70 Hz

55 Hz

50 db down

80Hz

60 Hz

45 Hz

40 Hz

25 db down

45 Hz

35 Hz

30 Hz

25 Hz

noise

Table showing
predicted signal
band for Q=50

Here is a repeat of the Q analysis for Q=100.


0

Wf

-50

.5 sec
1.0 sec

-100

1.5 sec
-150

2.0 sec

-200

50
time

100

150
frequency (Hz)

200

.5 sec

1.0 sec

1.5 sec

2.0 sec

100 db down

+200 Hz

185 Hz

140 Hz

120 Hz

75 db down

180 Hz

130 Hz

105 Hz

80 Hz

50 db down

110 Hz

80 Hz

70 Hz

60 Hz

25 db down

60 Hz

45 Hz

40 Hz

35 Hz

noise

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

250

Ta ble sh o wi ng
p re d ic t ed
sign al ban d
fo r Q= 1 0 0

3 -15

Constant Q Effects
Thus fa r we have di scu ssed th e e ffect s o f a ttenuatio n o n th e
ampl it ud e spectrum o f t he propagati ng waveform but th e
p hase effects are a ls o dramatic.
Consider a 1-d earth with constant Q properties:
x
in

A 1-d attenuating earth:


{output spectrum} =
{input spectrum}*exp(-pi*f*x/(v*Q))

out

An input impulse suffers attenuation at all non-zero frequencies


The amount of attenuation is proportional to x/v = t
T h e a t te nuation is n e ce ssaril y couple d w i th m in i mu m
phase d i sp er si o n ( Futte rman, W.I ., 19 62, Dispe rsi ve Body W av es, JGR, 67 ,
52 79 -5 29 1)
I f th e e a r t h b eha v e s lin e a r l y, th e n w e ca n s til l a r g u e th a t
su p e r p o sit io n h o ld s. T h us t h e i mp u lse r esp o ns e o f an
e a r t h w it h r e f le c tiv it y { r } is t he s up e r p o sit io n of a se t o f
d e la y e d a nd p r o g r e s siv ly m o r e a t te n ua t e d w a ve f o r m s:

in
A three reflector
earth

out

T hr e e s u pe r i mp o s e d w av e f or ms
a t t e nu a t i o n wi th i nc r e as i n g t i m e .
3-16

s h ow i ng

i nc r e a s i ng

Amplitude Effects

Constant Q Effects
Matrix Model of the Linear Attenuating Earth

N on-stationary Q impulse
response matrix

Stationary
Earth
Response

Impulse response of
a constant Q Earth

T he c on s t r uc ti on o f a n on s t a t i o na r y mu l t i p l e f r e e
s y nt h e t i c s e i smo g r am i s s h ow n f o r a c on s t a nt Q e ar t h
ha vi n g 3 r e f l e c t o r s . Th e ma t r i x m ul t i p l i c a t i o n s h ow n he r e
i s p e rf or m i ng a c o nvo l ut i on as d e s c r i b e d o n pa g e 2 -1 1.
T he c o nvo l ut i on ha s b e e n m ad e n on s t a t i o na r y b y
c h an g i ng t h e w a ve l e t i n e ac h c o l um n o f t h e c on vo l ut i on
m at r i x .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -17

Minimum Phase, Intuitively


I nfinitely m a n y w avelets c a n be c ons t ruc t e d whic h hav e th e
s ame a m pl i t ude s pectrum b y making different assumptions
a bo u t phas e .

-40

-80
0

100
200
Frequency (Hz)

-0.1

0.1

s ec o n d s

0.2

H o we v er , o n l y a f e w o f th es e h av e a n y p r ac t i ca l u s e. T h e
m i n i m u m p ha s e w av e l et i s d i st i n g u i sh e d f r om a ll o t h e r s
b y be i n g t h e m o st f ro n t- lo ad e d o f t h e " c au s al " wa v e l et s .

3-18

Amplitude Effects

Minimum Phase, Intuitively

in

Linear, causal,
attenuating
earth

out

t=0

M in i m u m p h a se w a v el et s a r is e n a t u ra l l y i n t h e ea rt h . O nl y
t h e a ss u m p t io n s o f ca u s a l it y a n d l in e a ri t y a r e n ee d ed t o
s h o w th a t a tt e n u a t io n in th e e a rt h i n a m in i m u m p h a s e
p ro ce s s. ( F utte r ma n, 1 962, JG R vol 73 , p 3 917- 393 5)
T h e a m p l i t u d e s p e ct r u m a l on e i s s u f f ic i e n t t o d e t er m i n e
u n i q u e l y t h e m i n i m u m p h as e w av e le t . T h e p h as e
s p e ct r u m , ( f ) , m ay b e c om pu t ed a s :
f = H ln A f
where H denotes the Hilbert Transform.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -19

Minimum Phase, Intuitively


I t is a co m m o n m ist a ke t o th in k t ha t " m in im um ph a se "
r e f e r s to a p ar tic ul ar p h a se sp e ct r u m w h ic h, i f pr e se r v e d ,
m a in ta in s a d a ta se t 's "m in im u m p h a se n e ss ". W e ha v e j us t
se en t h at t his is no t th e c a se . In st e a d , m in im um p h a se
r e f e r s t o a p a r ti cu la r m at h e ma t ica l r e la ti o ns hi p e x ist in g
b e t w e e n th e a mp li tu de a n d p h a se sp e ct r a so th a t
k n o w le d g e of e i th e r o n e i s s uf fic ie n t to c o mp u te th e
o th e r .
W h e n a s ei sm ic d a t a s et i s sa id t o be m in i m u m p h a s e , w e
ge n er a l ly m ea n th at th e e m be d d ed w a v el et h as t h i s
p ro p er ty a n d n o t t h e tr a c es th e m s el ve s . C er t a in l y t h e
ea rt h 's r ef l ec t iv i ty f u n ct i o n i s n o t m i n i m u m p h a s e.
T r u e o r F a l s e : If a da t as e t i s min i m um ph a s e a l re a dy , t hen a
z er o ph a s e filter w i l l preserve m in i mu m p h as e b e c aus e i t
do e s not change t he p h as e i n an y wa y.
T rue o r F a l se : I f t he a m p li tu d e s p e ct r u m o f a m i ni m um
p h as e d a ta set is c h a nge d , th e n th e p ha s e sp e c tr u m mu s t
a ls o ch a n g e t o p r e s e r v e t h e m in im u m p ha s e r ela t io n sh ip .
T ru e o r F a l s e : I t h a s b ee n p ro v en be yo n d d ou b t t h a t
s ei s m i c d a t a f r om i m p u l s iv e so u rc e s i s m i n i m u m p h a se .
T r u e o r F a l s e : Al l phys ic a l processes ar e m i n i mu m phas e .
True or False: A minimum phase process can have zero amplitude
over part of its spectrum.
T r u e o r F als e : A ba n d l i m it e d p r o c es s c a n n e ve r t ru l y b e
m i n im u m p h a se .

3-20

Amplitude Effects

Minimum Phase and the Hilbert Transform


T h e c o n c ep t o f m i n im u m i s i nt i m a te ly l in ked w i th t h a t o f
c a u sa l it y . F or o u r p u rp o s es , a ca u s a l t im e ser ie s i s o n e
w h i ch v a n i sh e s f o r t< 0 . T h e i n ve st ig a t io n o f c a u s a l
f un c t io n s is f a c il it a t ed b y t h e f o l lo win g F o u ri er tr a n sf o rm
p a i r:

1
1
ht =
+ sgn t
2
2

1.0

h(t)

Graph of the step function h(t)

Thus h(t) is the unit causal function also called the step function.
T he F o ur i e r tr a nsf o r m o f the s t e p f u nc t i o n i s : ( See
1984, Sig nal A na lysis, McG raw-Hill for a pr oo f. )

H =
If f(t) is any causal function, then:

P apo ulis , A. ,

ft = ftht
Taking the Fourier transform of both sides of this result gives:

Fr + iFi =

1
i
Fr + iFi

Equating real and imaginary parts gives:

Fr =

Fi =

2
2

Fr +

1
1
Fi

Fi

1
1
Fr
2

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -21

Minimum Phase and the Hilbert Transform


T hus , t he s pectrum of a c ausal f unction h as its real a nd
i maginary p arts linked b y t he relations :

1
1

Fr
= Fi

and

1
1

Fi
= Fr

If we write out the convolution integrals, we obtain:

1
Fr =

Fi

1
Fi =

Fr

T h e s e i n t e gr al s a r e c al l e d H i lb e rt t r an s f or m s a n d we s ay
t h at t h e re al a n d im a g in a ry p a rt s o f a c au s al si g n al f o rm
a H i l b er t t ra n sf o rm p a ir . I n o u r c as e, w e a c t u a ll y w an t t o
r el at e t h e a m p l it u d e a n d p ha s e o f a c au s al s i gn a l t o o n e
a n o t h er , n o t t h e r ea l a n d i m ag i n ar y p ar t s. H ow e v er ,
r ec al l i n g t h at :
i

F = Ae

ln F

= ln A

+ i

The answe r s eems immediate that the p has e an d lo g


amplitude spectrum ar e Hilber t t ransfor m p airs. How ever; w e
must as k:
- Under what circumstances c an w e t ak e the log
spectru m?
- Does the l og spectrum still correspon d t o a c ausa l time
domai n function?
T h e a n sw e r to th e f ir st q u e st io n is th a t w e c a n ta k e th e
lo g so l o ng a s A ( ) 0 . T his is e q u iva l e nt t o sa y in g th a t
th e t im e se r ie s f (t ) mu st ha v e a st a b le i nv e r se .

3-22

Amplitude Effects

Minimum Phase and the Hilbert Transform


For the second question, consider the z transform of f(t):

Fz =

fkz

k = 0

W e k n ow th a t, s i nce f i s causal, t he n F ( z) c o nta i n s no


neg at i ve po w e r s of z . N o w con s i d e r t he w e l l k n ow n s er i e s
e xp a ns ion f o r the log a r i t hm :

ln u = 1u

1u
2

1u

w h ich is v al id i n th e r e g i o n 0 < | u | < 2 . S in ce F (z )


co n ta i ns o nly p o si tiv e p o w e r s o f z a nd ln ( u) c on t ai ns o nl y
p o sit iv e p o w e r s o f u , th e n ln (F ( z )) c o nt a in s o n ly p o si tiv e
p o w e r s o f z a n d th e r efo r e i s t he tr an sf o r m o f a ca u sa l
ti m e se r i e s. T h e r efo r e w e c o nc lu d e :

1
=

ln A

ln A

1
=

For our purposes, we state the following important result:


F or a c au s a l , s t a b l e f unc t i o n w i th a c au s a l , s t a b l e
i nv e r s e , t h e p ha s e a nd l og am pl i t ud e s p e c t r um f or m a
H i l b e rt t ra ns f or m p a i r . I n pa r t i c u l ar , t h e p ha s e ma y b e
c o mp ut e d a s t he Hi lb er t t r a ns for m o f t he l og o f t he
a mp l i t ud e s p e c t r um . S uc h a f u nc t i o n i s s a i d t o b e
mi ni mu m p ha s e .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -23

Minimum Phase and the Hilbert Transform


W e h a ve d emonstrated th a t a ca u sal, st a bl e time s eri es w i th
a c a us a l, st a bl e in v er se i s comple te ly d et er mi n ed by e it h er
it s amp l itude o r phase sp ec t ru m . G i ve n one, t he o th e r ca n
be computed . I n p a rt ic u la r, t he p ha s e s p ect ru m i s compu t ed
as:

= H ln A
w h e r e H d e n o te s t he H il b e rt t r a n s fo r m . W e c a ll e d s uc h a
w a ve f or m m i ni m u m
p h a s e . T he r e a s o n f o r t h is n a m e
c o m e s f r o m a t h e o r e m ( R o b in s o n , E. A . a nd Tr ei te l, S. , 1 98 0,
G eo p h ys i ca l S ig n a l A na l ys is , P r en t i ce -H al l) w hi ch s h o w s t ha t, f o r a ll
c a u s a l w a ve le t s w it h t h e s a m e a mp li t ud e s p e ct r um , t h e
m in i mu m p ha s e w av e le t a r r iv e s t he s o o ne st w i th t h e
m o s t e n e r g y . M a th e m at ic a ll y, t hi s i s s t at e d b y p r o vi n g
t h a t t h e p ar t ia l e n e r g ie s : p

Ep =

fk

k = 0

a r e l a r g er f o r t h e m i ni m um p ha s e w a ve l e t t ha n f o r a ny
o t he r w a ve l e t f or al l p . T hi s pr o of i s e q ui va l e nt t o s a yi n g
t h at t he p ha s e de l a y o f t h e mi n i mu m p ha s e w av e l e t i s t h e
s m al l e s t po s s i b l e de l a y al l o w e d b y c a us a l i t y , f o r e ac h
f r e qu e nc y .
R e ca l li n g t h a t t h e H i l b er t t r an s f or m i s j u st a c on v ol u t i on
wi t h 1 / , i t f ol l ow s th a t t h e m i n i m u m p h as e sp e c t u m
fo r a n y p ar t ic u l ar f re q u e n c y is i n f l u en c e d b y th e
a m p l i t u d e sp ec t r u m a t a ll f re q u e n c i es . P u t a n o t h e r w ay ,
a ch a n g e t o t h e a m p l it u de s p e ct r u m a t a p ar t i cu la r
fr e q u en cy wi l l c h an g e th e m i n i m u m p h as e sp ec t r u m a t
a l l f re q u e n c i es .
3-24

Amplitude Effects

Minimum Phase and Velocity Dispersion


W e ha v e sh o w n h o w to c al cu la te t he ph a se o f a m in im um
p ha s e w a v e le t g ive n it s a m p lit ud e sp e c tr u m a n d ha v e
a lso in di ca te d th a t t he co n st an t Q at te n u a tio n m o d e l i s
m in im um
p h a se . T hu s,
if
w e r e p r e se n t a
si ng le
p r o p ag at in g co m p le x sin u so id a s:

w f,t,z = A f e

i2f(tz/v)

W e c an i n fe r t h e v e lo c it y o f t h i s wa v e b y f ol l ow in g t h e
m o t io n o f a p oi n t o f c on st a n t p h as e. W i t h c om ple t e
g en e r al it y , w e c an f ol l ow t h e p o in t o f z e r o p h as e b y
e q u at i n g t h e p h as e t o z er o a n d s o lv i n g fo r z / t . T h u s w e
d e d u c e i t s v el o ci t y t o be z /t = v . I f th e sa m e w av e
p r op a ga t es t h r ou g h a co n s t an t Q m e d i u m , t h e n w e h av e :

wQ f,t,z = w f,t,z e
or

wQ f,t,z = A f e

where

Q f

t
f
ln
Q
f0

ft/Q

ft/Q + iH(ft/Q)

i2f(tz/v+Q (f))

(Kjartansson, 1979)

Then solving for the velocity:


tz/v+

t
f
ln
Q
f0

= 0

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

= v f

v 1+

f
1
ln
Q
f0

3 -25

Minimum Phase and Velocity Dispersion


Thu s w e s e e t h a t , i n an at tenu at i ng m e di um , velocity
becomes f requency de p ende n t , a phenomenon know n as
di s per s i on. T h e v e l oc i t y d is p e r si o n p r ed ic t e d b y t h is
t h eo ry i s st r on g e st fo r lo w Q v al u es . T h e f i g u re b el o w
p l ot s v el oc i t y v e rs u s f re q u e n c y f or d i f fe r en t t h r e e
d i ff e re n t Q ' s. N ot e t h e n e ar ly c on s t an t b eh a v i or f o r Q
o f 2 0 0 a n d t h e s t ro n g v ar ia t io n f o r Q o f 1 0 .

T h e w or d "d i s pe r s io n " a ri s e s because a p u ls e w i l l t e n d t o


s pr e ad out (d i s pe rs e ) as i t s var i ous f requencies pr o pag a t e
a t different v e l ocities. It i s t h i s di s p er s ion w h ic h l e a ds t o
t h e c h a r acteristic p u l s e s hap e o f a m in imu m phas e wavelet.
T h e pu l s e s h a pe i s s t r on g l y influenced b y t h e n e a r s urf a c e
b e c au s e i t h as dr a m atic a lly l o we r Q valu es .
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1

3-26

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Amplitude Effects

Array Theory
T h e u se o f a rr a y s o f so ur c es a n d re ce i ve rs i s c o m m o n p l a c e
i n ex p l o r a t io n se is m o l o g y . T h e es s en t ia l d e t a i ls o f t h ei r
use
are
s tr a i gh t
fo rw a rd
c o n s eq u e n ce s
of
l in e a r
s u p er p o s it i o n a n d si gn al p ro c es s in g . C o n si d e r:
Thr ee single
f re q ue ncy
sour ce s a t hal f wa vle ngth
spa ci ngs
v = 2000 m/sec
f = 30 Hz
l = 2000/30 =
67 m

+
The sum ma tio n o f t he th ree sou rce
wav efields .
No te
t he
d ram atic
at te nu atio n o f sp ecific rayp at hs.
Tho ug h n ot v ery a ppar ent , t he
cent ra l por tio n o f t he wa vef ield
also ha s les s cu rv at ure.

/2

Tw o m o r e so u rc es
at
in t er med iat e
lo ca tio ns .
T he
s ou r ce
s pa cin g
d ecr ea se s
to
a
q ua rt e r- wav e len g t h

/2

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

Th e su mm at ion of all
wav ef ields
in creas es
r eje ctio n o f s te eper
r aypat h s.

f ive
t he

3 -27

Array Theory

He r e is the summati on of
fiv e wav efi e lds fr om the
pr ev ious page .

/2

We increase
the
array
length with
two
more
sources.

+
/2

No w t h e arr ay rej ect s


mor e ra ypat hs . Lo ng er
arra ys rej ect mo re, unt il
an in fin ite len g th pas ses
only v er tical ra ypat hs .

+
/2

3-28

We
in creas e
t he arra y
len gt h
ag ain with
t wo m ore
s ou rces.
Thi s is a ve r y l ong ar r a y
wi th 9 e le me nts. The
e ffe c ts
ar e
quite
dr ama tic . We note the
occ ura nc e
of
seve r a l
str ong r e je cti on
notche s.

Amplitude Effects

Array Theory
T he respo ns e of a n array c an b e a nalyze d b y considering the
i dealized r espons e of a seque nce o f uni t spikes.
1/dx

9
8
7

dx

notches a t n/L
wher e n=1, 2,.. .

6
5
4
3

2
1

L= 9*dx = 9*16.7 = 150.3

Array in space domain

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

-1

wavenumber (m )

Fourier transform
o f th e array.
S in ce th e a r r a y i s p u r e ly a f un ct io n o f x , its r e sp o n se i s
p ur ely a fu n cti o n o f k x . T ha t is, it w ill b e i nd e p e n de nt o f
k z o r f . H o w e ve r ; in o r d e r t o u se t he ar r a y r e sp o n se
ch a r t, w e n e e d a w a y to e st im a te k x fo r a n e ve nt o f
in te r e st . We c a n d o t hi s b y pi ck in g a h o r iz o n ta l su r f ac e
o f in t e r e st an d me as ur ing t h e ho r i zo n ta l a p p a r e n t
w a v e le n g th a lo n g it :
S i n c e w e u s u a l l y d on ' t h a v e a

m on o c h ro m at i c w a v e f ie ld , t h en
w e u s u a l ly m e a s u re a p p ar e n t
x
h or iz o n t a l
v e l oc it y
and
c om p u t e k x f r om :
kx
1 sin
=
=
f
v
va
Thu s, we must pick a f requency of interest t o perform the
analysis
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -29

Array Theory
He r e w e se e a n
a rra y s i mul a ti on
fo r a br oa dba nd
w a ve fro nt
w i th
the
wav el e t
sh ow n
at
the
ri g ht. T he sa me
a rra ys
as
s i m u l a t e d
pre vi ou sl y f or a
30
Hz
si ng le
f r e qu e nc y
so urce
a re
sh ow n.

Wavelet: 30 Hz,
Minimum phase

/2

/2

/2

/2

3-30

Amplitude Effects

Array Theory

H e re a re b r oa d -b a nd s n a ps h ot s o f t h e s im ul at io n o f a n i mp ul s i ve
s o ur c e a n d f o u r d i f fe re nt a r r ay s. T he s ma l l b o x a t t he t o p o f
e ac h c o l um n g i ve s t h e p h y si ca l s i ze o f t h e a rr ay . I m ag es a r e
p l ot t e d w i th a s li gh t v e r ti ca l e xa gg e ra t io n a nd e ac h w av e f ro n t i s
a ct u a ll y c i rc u l a r. E ac h s o u r ce s o n f i gu r at i on i s s ho w n f ul l- b an d
a nd b ro k e n i n to f i ve d i ff e re nt s ub - b an ds . T he a rr a y s a l w ay s
a ff ec t h ig h f r e qu e nc ie s m or e s t ro n g ly a n d t he l on g e r a r ra y s
p r o du c e a n u n d i s to r t e d w a ve f ro m o n l y f or n e a rl y v e rt i ca l
t r a ve l pa t hs . T he f u ll - ba nd i ma g es a r e t h e s am e a s t ho s e o n t he
p r e vi ou s p ag e.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing
3 -31

Array Theory

A m a j or ef f ec t o f a q u i si ti o n a rr a y s is th a t t h ey r es u lt in
a v a r ia b le ( n o n st a t io n a r y ) em b ed d ed w a v el et . F o r a gi v en
re fl ec t o r, t h e w a v el et w i ll v a r y w i t h o f fs et . F o r a g iv en
t ra c e, th e w a v el et w il l v a ry w it h ti m e. T h is h a s
s ign i fi c a n t im p li c a ti o n s fo r d e co n v o l u ti o n t h eo r y w h i ch
a s su m es a st a t io n a r y w a v e le t.

3-32

Amplitude Effects

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

3 -33

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Lecture Notes
Geophysics 557

Chapter 4
The C onvolutional Model and
Deconvolution

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -1

Bandlimited Reflectivity
T h e u l t im a t e g oa l o f s e is m i c d at a p ro ce s s in g i s t o
d e t er m i n e t h e ea rt h ' s re f le c t i v it y a t a f u n c t i on o f
p o si t i on b e n ea t h t h e su r v e y. S i n c e s ei s m i c so u rc e s d o
n ot ge n e ra te u s e f u l p ow e r a t a l l f re q u e n c i es , i t i s
g en e r al ly a c c ep t e d t h at a n y r ef l ec t i v i t y es t i m at e m u s t
b e " b an d l i m i te d ". T h i s m e an s th a t t h e b e st p os s ib l e
r es u l t f r om f u ll y p r oc e ss e d se i sm ic d at a i s t h at i t
r ep r e se n t s b an d l i m i t ed re f l ec t i v i ty . W e c an t h i n k o f t h i s
r es u l t a s be i n g t h e t ru e ( br oa d ba n d ) r e fl e c t iv i t y
c on v o lv e d wi t h a z er o p h as e w av e l et .
E v en
t h i s m od e s t g oa l i s ra re l y f u l ly
re al i ze d .
D e co n v ol u t i on i s o n e o f o u r m a j or t oo ls f o r a c h ie v i n g
t h i s e n d . S h o r tc o m i n gs i n o u r t h e or y a n d a l go ri t h m s a n d
l ac k o f k n ow le d g e t o g u i d e t h e m u s u al l y m e an s t h a t o u r
f i n al e s t im a t e wi l l h a v e so m e u n des i re d p h as e r ot at i on o r
a n i n co rr e c t a m pli t u d e s p e c t ru m . T h e f i gu r es be l ow a n d
o n t h e n e x t p a ge il l u s t ra t e th es e c on c e p t s .
Embedded wavelet

Nonwhite (20 Hz dominant) and


minimum phase reflection coefficients
Bandlimited (10-70Hz) and 60
phase rotated Reflection coefficients
Bandlimited (10-70Hz)
Reflection coefficients

Reflection coefficients

4-2

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Bandlimited Reflectivity
T h e c on s e q u e n c e o f a li m i t e d f re q u e n c y b an d i s lo s s o f
r es ol u t i on . T h a t is we c an n o t d is t i n g u is h c l os e ly sp a c ed
r ef l ec t i v i t y s p i ke s. A n u n kn o wn p ha s e r ot at i on m ake s i t
d i f f ic u l t t o d e t e rm i n e t h e p re c i se l o ca t io n o f a
r ef l ec t i v i t y sp ik e o r it s a m p l i t u d e . N o t e t h at t h e
p r es e n c e o f a p h as e r ot a te d w av e le t c an n o t b e d et e c t ed
w it h t h e p h a se s p e c t ru m o f t h e t r ac e a l on e .
Amplitude Spectra

Reflection coefficients

Bandlimited (10-70Hz)
Reflection coefficients
Bandlimited (10-70Hz) and 60
phase rotated Reflection coefficients
Nonwhite (20 Hz dominant) and
minimum phase reflection coefficients

Phase Spectra

Reflection coefficients
Bandlimited (10-70Hz)
Reflection coefficients
Bandlimited (10-70Hz) and 60
phase rotated Reflection coefficients
Nonwhite (20 Hz dominant) and
minimum phase reflection coefficients

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -3

The Convolutional Model


T h e m a j o ri ty o f th e th e o ry o f th e d ec o n v o lu t io n o f
s eis m ic d ata is ba s ed o n a ser ie s o f si m p li fy i n g
a s su m p t io n s c o n ce rn in g t he n a t u re o f th a t d a t a . T h es e
a s su m p t io n s a r e u su a l ly en c a p su l a te d a n d ref er en c ed a s
" T h e C o n v o lu t i o n a l M o d el " . W e h a v e a l rea d y s ee n t h a t , in
a l in e a r 1 - D ea rt h, w e c a n w r it e th e t he c o n st ru c t io n o f a
s y n th e ti c sei s m o gra m a s a co nv o l u ti o n o f a s o u rc e
w a v e fo r m a n d a n i m p u ls e r es p o n se :
where:

s t = Ir t ws t
Ir t is the earth impulse response
ws t is the source waveform
s t is the earth response to the source waveform

T h e a ss u m pti o n o f l i n ea ri t y s i m p l y m ea n s t h at a li n e ar
c om b i n at i on o f so lu ti o n s t o t h e g ov e r n in g 1 - D w av e
e q u at i on i s a l s o a s ol u t i on . W h i le th is i s a n i m p o rt a n t
r es u l t f ro m p h y s ic s , f or t h e p u r p os e o f p r ov i d i n g a b as e
f or d ec o n v ol u t i on t h e ory , i t i s p r ac t i c al ly u se l es s . T h e
p r ob l em i s t h at A L L o f t h e p h ys i c s a n d g eo lo gy o f t h e
p r ob l em is c o n t ai n ed i n t h e i m p u l s e re s p on s e . T h at is , i f
w e c o n si d e r a n a tt e n u a ti n g e ar th , w i t h m u l t i p l es a n d
t ra n s m i ss i on l o ss e s , t h e n a ll o f t h e s e ef f ec t s a r e
c on t a in e d in t h e im p u l se r e sp o n s e. I n f ac t , t h e
c on v o lu ti o n al r es u l t a b ov e , is v a li d in 2- D o r 3 - D a n d
t h e re f or e t h e i m p u l s e r es p o n se c an a ls o c o n t ai n s u c h
e ff e c t s a s e l as t ic m od e co n v e rs i on s
a n d sp h er i c al
d i v e rg en c e i n a d d i t i on t o th o s e a lr e ad y m en t i on ed . S o ,
a l t h ou gh t h i s re s u l t c an be p ro v en f ro m a v e ry g en e r al
t h e or y, it i s t o o ge n e ra l t o b e o f u s e t o u s. I n s t ea d , w e
m u s t m ak e a n u m b e r o f si m pli f yi n g a s su mp t io n s t o
f ra m e t h e c on te x t o f d e c on v o l u t io n t h e or y.
4-4

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

The Convolutional Model


S h er if f a nd G eldart (Exploration Seismology, 1995, Cambridge
University Press) p re se nt th e convolutional mod el by
d ecomposi n g t h e e a rt h' s impuls e r esponse a s :

Ir t = ns t p t e t
where

ns t

re presents n e a r surf a c e e f f ect s be nea t h b o t h


t h e source a n d receiver

pt

r epre se n t s a ll e ff e c ts n o t o th e r wise mo d ele d


su c h
as
m u lti p le s ,
a b s o r p ti o n ,
mode
c o nv e r s io n s, e t c.

et

i s t h e "i mp u l s e re s p o n s e" ( t h e i r t e rm ) o f t h e
t ar g et r ef l e c t or s . " t h i s i s t h e s ig n a l t h a t
s ei s m i c re f l e c t io n wo r k is i n t e n d e d t o f i n d ".

T hi s t e r m in o lo g y i l l u s tr a t e s s o m e o f t h e t y p ic a l
c o n fu s io n s u r r o un di ng t h e c o nv ol ut io na l m o d e l. C on s id e r
t h e ir d e fi n it i o n o f e ( t ) . I f i t i s t r u ly t h e i m p u ls e
r e s p o ns e o f t h e t ar g e t r e fl e ct o r s t h e n i t c o n ta in s a ll
m ul t ip le s , a b s o r pt io n, m o d e c on ve r s io ns a s w e l l a s
p r im ar i e s f r o m t ha t z o ne . T h is m e a ns i t i s N OT t h e
s ig n a l w e w i s h t o u n co ve r a n d t h us t he i r d e f in i ti o n i s
s e l f- c o nt r a d ic t o r y . A ls o , p ( t) i s s up p os e d t o b e a
c o n vo lu ti o n a l o pe r a t or w h ic h m o de l s a d i v e r s e r a n g e o f
e ff e ct s w i th o u t a ny j u s t if i c at io n t h a t t h is i s e ve n
p os s ib le . I n f a ct , m o s t o f t h e m e nt io ne d e f fe ct s a r e
n on s t at io na r y ( s e e 2 - 12 f o r a d e fi n it i on ) a n d t h e r e fo r e
c a n no t b e m o d e le d a s a c o nv o lu t io n. T hi s i s t h e
p r e s e n ta ti o n i n a n e x ce ll e n t, h ig h ly r eg ar d e d r e fe r e n ce
w o r k s o i t i s u nd e r s ta n da b le t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e at d e a l
o f c o nf u s io n s u r r o un di ng t he c o nv o lu t io na l m o d e l i n t h e
i n du s t r y.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -5

The Convolutional Model


W e n o w m o di f y t h e m o de l o f S he r i f f a nd G e l da r t w i t h
t he i n t e nt o f p re s e r v i ng it s s pi r i t b ut m a ki n g i t l o gi ca l l y
c o ns i s t e nt . F i rs t w e c o m bi n e t h e s o ur c e w a v e f o rm a nd
t he n e a r s u rf a c e e f f e c t s i n t o a n e qu i va l e nt w a v e l et :

we t = ws t ns t
N e x t we d is c ar d p ( t ) a s c on t ai n i n g n o n s t at i on ar y e ff e c t s
w h ic h a re b ey on d t h e s c op e o f t h e m o d el a n d a l l ow e( t )
t o be a n i m pu ls e r e sp o n s e i n a l i m i te d s en s e o f t h e
t ar ge t r e f le c t or s:

s t = we t e t + noise t
He r e we h a v e al s o in t ro d u c e d a d d i t i v e , s t at i on ar y, w h i t e
n o i se . T h e ea r t h ' s im p u l s e r es p o n s e i s f u rt her a s su m e d t o
b e:

e t = m t r t
where:

rt

= the earth's primary reflection series

mt

= the subset of the earth's multiple reflection


response which can be modeled as a stationary process.

Thus we can write:

s t = we t m t r t + noise t

4-6

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

The Convolutional Model


N ote t h a t t h e m u lt i p le t e rm c a n be e q ua ll y wel l a s so ci a t e d
wi t h t h e wa v e le t i ns t ea d o f t h e re fl e ct i vi t y so t ha t we c a n
wr it e :

s t = wm t r t + noise t
wm t = we t m t

T hi s r e s ul t i s a g o od s ta r t in g p o in t f o r d e c on vo lu ti on
t h e o r y s in ce i t p r e s e n ts t he s e is m i c t r a ce a s t h e
c o n vo lu ti o n o f a w a ve le t w it h t h e e a r th 's r e fl e c t i v it y . I t
i s e m ph a s iz e d t ha t o ur g o a l i s d e d uc in g t h e e a r th 's
r e fl e ct i vi t y a nd N OT i t s i m p ul s e r e sp o n s e . T he t w o a r e
v e r y d if f e r e n t.
W e r e ma r ke d t h a t t h e n o i s e i s m o de l e d a s b e i ng
" s ta t i o na r y" a nd " w hi t e " i n n a t ur e . S t a t i o na ry i n t h i s
c o nt e x t m e a ns t ha t t h e b a s i c f e a t ur e s o f t he s pe c t r um
d o n ot c ha ng e w i t h t i me . T ha t i s , i f we ex t r ac t e d
s pe c t r a f r om s ma l l w i nd ow s r a ng i ng u p a n d d ow n n ( t )
w e w o ul d f i nd e s s e nt i a l l y t he s am e s p ec t r al s ha p e .
G au s s i a n o r u n i f or m l y d i s tri b ut ed n o i s e c a n b e s ho w n t o
h a v e t h i s p r o pe r t y . T h e c on v o l ut i o n o f t w o s t a t i on ar y
s i g na l s i s a l s o s t at i o na r y. A n e x a mp l e o f a n o ns t a t i on ar y
s i g na l i s t h e i m pu l s e r e s p on s e f r om a c o ns t a nt Q e ar t h .
A s we h a v e s e e n, t he s p ec t ra l r e s po ns e c ha ng e s
s y s t e ma t i c al l y wi th t i me .
A w h i t e s p e c t ru m is o n e t h a t h as c on s t an t p o we r a t a l l
f re q u e n c i es ( e . g . " w h i t e n o is e " ) . A n i n fi n i t e l e n gt h
s i gn a l o f G a u ss i an o r u n if o rm l y d i st r i bu t e d n o is e c an b e
s h ow n t o h av e a w h it e s p e c t ru m . F i n it e l e n gt h n oi s e
s eq u en c e s h av e a p p r ox i m at e l y w h i t e sp e c t ra w h en
s m oo t h ed w it h a sh o r t o p er at or .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -7

The Convolutional Model


T ho u g h n o t s t r ic t l y p a r t o f t he c o n vo lu ti o n a l m o d e l, a
f u r th e r a s s u mt io n i s o ft e n m a d e ( i n t he c o nt e xt o f
d e co nv o lu t io n t h e o r y ) t h at t he r e fl e c t i v it y , r ( t) , i s a
w h it e a n d s ta ti o na r y t i me s e r ie s . I t c an b e e as i l y
d e mo n s tr a t e d
u s in g
s o n ic
lo g s
t ha t
real
e a r th
r e fl e ct i vi t y d oe s n ot h a ve a w hi te s p e c tr u m b ut i n s te a d
s h o w s c o n s id e r a b le s p e c tr a l c ol or e vi d e n ce d b y a
p r o no un ce d r o ll o ff i n p o w e r a t t h e l o w f r e q u e nc ie s .
H e re w e s ee a n e xa m p le o f a re a l r ef l ec t iv i t y ( in t im e ,
c o m p u t ed fr o m a s o n ic lo g a ss u m in g c o n s t a n t d en s it y) a n d
i ts F o u ri er s p ec t ru m :
0.4

0.2

-10
-20

0
-30

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
1
Time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

50

100

Re al r cs com pute d fro m a s oni c


lo g a t cons ta nt de ns it y

S pe ctr um o f the re a l rcs . Not e


the 20db rol l of f f rom 10 0 to 0
Hz .

C o nt r a s t t hi s w i t h a c o mp ut e r g e ne r at e d
r ef le c ti v i t y d e s ig n e d wi th a w hi t e s pe c t r um :
0.2

150

Frequency (Hz)

r a nd o m

0.1

-10

0
-20

-0.1
-30

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
1
Time (sec)

1.2

C omp u t e r ge n era t ed
r an d om rcs.

4-8

1.4

1.6

1.8

50

100

150

Frequency (Hz)

p se u d o

S pe c tr u m o f t h e p s eu d o
r a nd om
r cs .
N o te
t he
e s s en ti a ll y
f la t
( wh it e)
s pe ct ru m.

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

The Convolutional Model


I n o u r ba s ic c o n v o l ut i o n a l m o d e l, w e a ss u m ed th e e ff ec t s
o f m u lt i p les c o u ld be tr ea t ed a s a co nv o l u ti o n o f t h e
s o u rc e w a ve fo rm w it h a " m u l ti p le o p er a t o r" :

wm t = w t m t
I n o u r d e v e l op me nt o f t h e 1 - D s e i s mo g r am , w e e x a mi ne d
a n a l g o ri t h m w hi c h i s c ap ab l e o f g en e ra t i ng a l l p o s s i b l e
m u l t i pl e s . C o u ld t h i s o p e r at i o n h av e be e n p e r f or m e d a s
a c o nv o l ut i o n? T he ge n e ra l a ns w e r t o t hi s q u e s t i o n i s
" n o" b e c a us e t he m ul t i p l e t r a i n gr o w s i n l e ng t h a s t i m e
i nc r e a s es a n d i s t h us f u nd a me n t al l y n on -s t a t i on ar y .
H o w e v e r , c e r t a i n c l as s e s o f m u l ti pl e s c a n b e m od el e d b y
a c o nv o l ut i on i n c l ud i n g s u rf a c e gh os ts a nd w a t e r b o t t o m
m u l t i pl e s . I n g e ne r al , i f w e r es tri c t o u r a t t e nt i on t o t h e
p o r t i o n o f a n i m pu l s e r e s po ns e l a t e r i n t i me t ha n a
m a jo r m ul t i p l e g e ne r at o r , t he n t he m u l t i pl e c o n t ri b u t i on
f r om t h a t g e ne r at i ng i n t e rf a c e c a n b e m od e le d a s t h e
c o nv o l ut i o n o f a m u l t i pl e o pe r at o r w it h t he s o ur c e
w av ef o r m. H o w ev er , a s a no t he r c a v e a t , e v e n wa t e r
b ot t om m u l ti pl e s o n f a r o f f s e t t r a c e s s h ow n o n- pe r i od i c
s pa c i ng a n d s o v i o l a t e o ur m o de l .
Summary of assumptions:
Ea rt h's i m p u l s e r e s p on se c on s i s t s o f a r e f le c t i v i t y s e ri e s
p o s si b l y c o n v ol v e d w it h a m u l t i p l e o p e ra t or . It is al s o
s t at i o n ar y.
T h e e ff ec t o f t h e source wavefo rm m a y be modeled a s a
simple s ta t ionary convolu ti o n wit h t he e a rt h' s impuls e
re sponse .
Any noise is additive, white, and stationary.
Optionally, Earth's reflectivity series is white and stationary.
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -9

The Convolutional Model


Here we i llust rate the steps involve d i n the const ructio n o f a
multiple-fr ee synthetic s ei smic t race u sing a pseudo random
re fl ectivity:
0.2
Pseudo
random
reflectivity

0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.1

M in i m u m
p h as e
w a v el e t t o
s ca l e

0
-0.1

0.8

Time (sec)

Minimum
phase
wavelet
enlarged

0
-0.1

0.2

Time (sec)

0.02

0.05

0.1

Time (sec)

0.15

0.2

0.01
Noise free
seismogram

0
-0.01
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time
0.8(sec) 1
1.2
Amplitude Spectra

1.4

1.6

1.8

0
-20

Wavelet

-40
-60

Reflectivity

S eismogram

-80
-100
20
4-10

40

60

80
100
120
140
Frequency (Hz)
The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

The Convolutional Model


0.02
Noise
free
s e i s m o g ra m
with
noise
superimposed

0.01
0
-0.01
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Time (sec)

0.02
Noisy
seismogram

0.01
0
-0.01
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Amplitude Spectra
-20

Reflectivity

-40
-60

Noisy seismogram
Wavelet

-80
20

40

60

80
100
Frequency (Hz)

120

140

De f i n i ti o n : Th e em be d d e d wa v el e t . A s y o u n o w k n ow ,
th er e a re m an y wa v el e t s i n e x p lo ra t io n s ei s m ol o gy .
T h e p h ra s e e m b ed ded w av e l et r e fe r s t o a w av e l e t
d e r i ve d b y f i tt i ng an y s e i s mi c t r a c e t o t h e c o nv o l ut i o n a l
m o de l . T ha t i s , t h e e m b ed de d w a v e l e t i s w h a te v e r s i g n a l
m us t b e c on v o l ve d w i t h t h e r e f l e ct i vi t y t o g i ve t h e t r a c e
u nd e r c o n s i de r a t i o n. E v e n w he n t h e c o n vol u t ion a l m o d e l
i s a p o o r f i t t o t h e d a t a , a n e mb e dd e d w a v el e t c an s t i l l
b e e s t i ma t e d i n t he l e a s t -s qu a r e s e ns e .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -11

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


Perhaps
the
ea siest
d e c o nv o lu t io n
t e ch n iq u e
to
c o nc e p tu a li z e is th e fr eq ue n c y d o m a in m eth o d . I t i s
su g ge st e d b y t he sp e c tr a we e x a m in e d in o u r d isc u ssi o n o f
t he co n v o lu ti o na l m o d e l:
Reflectivity

-10

-20
Wavelet

Noisy seismogram

-30

-40

-50
N oise free seismogram
-60

-70
20

40

60

80
Frequency (Hz)

100

120

140

H e r e w e s e e t he b as i c i d e a t ha t u n d e r l i es a l l
d e c o nv o l ut i on c on c e pt s : T he a mp l i t ud e s pe c t r al s ha p e
o f t h e s e i s m i c t ra c e ( s e i s mo g ra m i n t h i s c a s e ) i s
e s s e nt i a l l y s i mi l a r t o t ha t o f t h e u nk no wn w a v e l e t . G i v e n
t hi s , a l l t ha t r e m ai ns i s t o d e du c e t he w av e l e t ' s p h a s e
a nd t h en w e c a n d e s i g n a n i n v e r s e f o r i t. W e o b s e r v e
t ha t t h e n o i s y s e i m og r a m i nt ro du c e s a
f u r t he r
c o mp l i c at i o n i n t ha t w e m us t r e s t r i c t o u r a t t e n t i on t o
t he s i g na l f r e q ue nc y ba nd .
N o t e t h a t w e a re re l yi n g o n t h e r ef l e c ti v i t y t o h a v e a
w h it e s p e c t ru m so t h at w e c an a t t ri b u t e a ll s p e c t ra l
" c h ar ac t e r" t o t h e w av e le t .
4-12

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


I f w e c a n c o m p u te t he a m p li t u de s pe ct r um o f t h e
w a v e le t b y s m o o t h in g th e a m p li tu d e sp e ct ru m o f t h e
s eis m ic tr a c e, t h en w e ca n i nv o ke th e m i ni m u m p h a s e
a s su m p t io n to c o m p le te ly s p ec if y t h e u n k n o w n w a v el et .
H er e i s t h e h e lp f il e f ro m t h e M a t la b ro u t in e , d ec o n f ,
w h i ch do es fr eq u en c y d o m ain d e co n v o l u ti o n :
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

deconf algorithm
Compute the power
spectrum of the design trace.
Add in th e stab power.
Con volve the power
DECONF performs a frequency domain deconvolution of the
input trace
spectrum with a boxcar
smoother to estimate the
trin= input trace to be deconvolved
wavelet power spectrum.
trdsign= input trace to be used for operator design
Compute the wavelet phase
n= number of points in frequency domain boxcar smoother
spectrum with the Hilbert
stab= stabilization factor expressed as a fraction of the
zero lag of the autocorrelation. This is equivalent to being transform.
a fraction of the mean power.
Compute the spectrum of
********* default= .0001 **********
the input trace.
phase= 0 ... zero phase whitening is performed
Divide the input trace
1 ... minimum phase deconvolution is performed
spectrum by the estimated
************** default= 1 ***************
wavelet spectru m.
trout= output trace which is the deconvolution of trin
Inverse FFT to give
specinv= output inverse operator spectrum. The time domain
deconvolved trace.
[trout,specinv]=deconf(trin,trdsign,n,stab,phase)
[trout,specinv]=deconf(trin,trdsign,n,stab)
[trout,specinv]=deconf(trin,trdsign,n)

operator can be recovered by real(ifft(fftshift(specinv)))

W e n ot e t h a t t h e d e c on v ol u t i on o p e r at or c an be
d es i gn e d o n o n e t r ac e a n d a p p l i ed t o a n o t h e r. T h i s i s t o
s i m u l at e t h e p ra c ti c e o f d e s ig n i n g th e o p er at o r o n a
s e gm en t o f t h e t r ac e t o a v o id l e t t in g su ch t h i n g s a s
s u r f ac e wa v es
i n f l u en c e t h e d e s ig n . T h e
o t h er
s i g n if i c an t p a ra m et e rs a r e : t h e l en g t h o f a b ox c ar
s m o ot h e r, a s t ab i li z at io n f ac t or , a n d a f l ag fo r z er o o r
m in i m um p h a se . I n o r d e r t o s p e c if y n , w e re c al l t h at t h e
f r eq u en c y s am p l e s i ze o f th e D F T s p e c t ru m i s f = 1 / T
w h e re T i s t h e t ra ce l en gt h i n s e co n d s . T h u s , a
s m o ot h e r o f l e n gt h F s mo ot h ( i n H er t z) wi l l h av e a n u m b er
o f p o in ts gi v e n b y:
F

n smooth =

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

smooth

= TFsmooth

4 -13

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


T he s t a b il i z a ti o n f a ct o r i s d e s ig n e d t o p r e ve n t t h e
o pe r at o r d e s ig n f r o m b e in g u n du ly i n fl u e nc e d b y n oi s e
a nd t o a vo id t h e p o s si b il i t y t h a t a d iv i s io n b y z e r o
m ig ht o cc ur w he n t he s pe c tr u m i s i nv e r te d . I t c a n b e
t h o ug h t o f a s w hi t e n oi s e a d de d t o t h e s p e c tr u m w it h a
c e r t a in p o w e r l e v e l. T ha t p o w e r l e v e l i s :
stab power (db below mean power) = 10*log10(stab)
So the default stab o f .0001 is a d b level o f 10*(-4) o r 4 0
dbdown f ro m mea n pow er .
If we c hoo s e a f r e quenc y s moot h er o f 1 0 Hz -> 10*1.6 = 16
points, and de f aul t
th e s t a b f ac t or , t hen, th e
deconvolution of t h e n oi s e f r ee s e i smog r a m giv es :
0.1

0.08

exact rcs

0.06

0.04
deconf
estimate
0.02
noise free
seismogram

-0.02

4-14

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


In the frequency domain our result looks like:

Exact rcs

-20

-40

deconf estimate

-60
N oise free seismogram
-80

-100

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

200

250

W e c a n s e e t h at t h e e st i m at e is q u i t e go od . W e c an b e
m o re p r e ci s e a b ou t h ow g oo d i t i s b y u si n g t h e M a t la b
f u n c t io n m x c or r wh i c h c om p a re s t w o t i m e s er i es a n d
re t u r n s t h e m ax i m u m o f t h ei r c ro s s co rr e la t io n a n d t h e
l ag a t wh ic h it o c c u r s. T h e r e su l t s i n :
m ax c or re l at i on = . 3 9 a t l ag o f . 1 s am ple s
If w e n o w r u n th e s am e pr o c e ss w it h t he sa m e
pa r a m e t e r s o n t he n o isy se i sm o g r a m w e o b t a in q ui te a
di ffe r e n t r e s ul t a s s ho w n o n th e n e xt p ag e .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -15

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution

0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12

exact rcs

0.1
deconf stab =.5

0.08
0.06

deconf stab = .01

0.04
deconf, stab=.0001

0.02

noisy seismogram

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.12
High cut filtered: 70-80 Hz rolloff
0.1
deconf stab =.5
0.08
deconf stab = .01

0.06
0.04

deconf stab=.0001
0.02
exact rcs

0
-0.02
-0.04
Here are some
-0.06
0
0.2
0.4
results
from
maxcorr:

4-16

Filtered results

Max corr

deconf stab=.0001
0.6deconf
0.8 stab1 = .01
1.2
deconf stab =.5

0.0603
1.4

Lag
1.3000

1.6
1.8 1.6000
0.0728
0.1510

3.0000

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


W e c a n d e v e lo p a s i m p l e m a t h em a t i ca l m o d el fo r
d e c on v o lu t i on i n t h e f r eq u en c y d o m ai n . F ir s t , t h e
c on v o lu ti o n al m o d e l f or a m u l t i p l e- fr e e se i s m i c t ra c e i s
(1)
w h er e r i s r ef l e ct i v i t y, w i s t h e wa v e l et , a n d n i s a d d i t iv e
n oi s e . I n t h e f re q u e n c y d om a in , t h i s be c om es
(2)
G e n e ra ll y , t h er e w il l b e a r an g e o f fr e q u en ci e s , c al l ed t h e
s i gn a l ba n d , o v er w h i c h t h e R ( f ) W ( f ) t e r m d o m i n at e s
o v e r N ( f ) . D en o t in g t h e b ou n d s o f t h is f re q u e n c y b an d
b y f m i n a n d f m a x, w e c an h av e t h e a p p r ox i m at i on
( 3)
w h er e t h e v er t i c al b ars ( e. g . |S ( f) | ) d e n ot e a b s ol u t e
v al u e s o r a m pli t u d e s p e ct r a. N o t e th a t b y u s i n g
a m p li t u d e s p ec t r a, we a r e d i s c ard in g t h e p o s si b i li t y o f
e st i m a t in g t h e wa ve l e t p h a se d ir e ct l y f ro m t h e d at a.
T h e n e x t st e p , s p ec t r al s m oo th in g i s d if f i c u l t t o fu ll y
j u s t i fy m at h e m a ti c al l y. D e n ot i n g a sm o o t h e d s p e c t ru m
b y a n o v er b ar , t h e " w h i t e re f le c t i v it y " a ss u mp t io n m ea n s
t h at

R (f ) 1

(4)

W e t h en a r g u e t h at s m oo t h i n g |S ( f ) | y i e l d s a n e s t im a t e
o f t h e a m p l it u d e s p e c t ru m o f t h e em b e d d e d wa v el e t .
T h o u g h we k n ow t h i s i s n ot p r e ci s e ly t ru e , i t i s
a p pro x im a t el y s o i n m a n y u s ef u l s i t u at i on s .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -17

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


T h us we h av e t h e e s t im a t e

W (f ) est = S(f ) W (f )

(5)

T h e a m pli t u d e sp ec t r u m o f th e d e c on v ol u t i on o p er at o r i s
j u s t t h e in v e r se o f t h i s
(6)
G e n e ra ll y , th is s p e c t ra l d i v is i on is p r ob l em a t i c i f t h er e
a r e f r eq u e n c i es wh er e t h e e s t im a t ed w av e l et ' s s p e c t ru m
i s v er y sm a l l. W h er e i t is s m a ll u su a ll y m e an s t h at t h er e
w as n ot m u c h ra d i at e d s ou r c e p o w er a n d s o n o is e i s
l i ke ly d o m i n an t . S i n c e t h e s e s m al l v a l u es a r e i n v er t e d ,
t h e y be c om e v er y i m p o rt an t i n D( f) . G i v e n t h e s e
c on s i d e ra ti o n s, i t i s c u s t om a r y t o a d d a s m a ll c on s t an t
t o t h e e s t im a t ed wa v el e t' s a m p l it u d e s p e c t ru m p ri or t o
i n v er s i on . T h en
(7)

w h er e :

( 8)

T h e c o n s ta n t i s c al l e d t h e " w h it e n o i se f ac t or " o r
" s t ab i li t y fa c t or" a n d is a sm a l l p os i t iv e n u m b e r u s u a ll y
b et w ee n .0 1 a n d . 0 00 0 0 1 .
L as t l y, w e m ust e s t im a t e th e p h a s e s p e c t ru m o f D ( f ) .
U n d e r th e m in i m u m p h as e a s s u m p t i on a n d u s i n g H t o
d e n ot e t h e H i lb e rt tr an s f or m , w e h a v e
(9)

4-18

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Frequency Domain Spiking Deconvolution


w h er e w e u s e |D ( f ) | a s gi v e n b y e q u at i on ( 7 ) . N ot e t h a t
t h e s t ab i li t y f ac t or a l so g u a rd s a g ai n s t t ak i n g t h e
l og ar it h m o f z er o i n e q u at i on ( 9 ) . S o , we n o w h av e t h e
a m p li t u d e a n d p h as e s p ec t r u m o f t h e d e c on v ol u t i on
o p er at or a n d w e a r e re ad y t o a p ply i t t o t h e s ei s m i c
t r ac e. A g ai n i n t h e f re q u e n c y d om a in , t h i s i s
(10)
I f we s u bs t i t u t e e q u a t io n ( 3 ) in to eq u at i on ( 1 0 ) w e c an
o b t ai n a n ex pre s si on
fo r th e
e m b ed d ed
wa v el e t
r em a in in g a f t er d e c on v o l u t io n
(11)
N e g le c t i n g t h e n oi s e t e rm , we es t i m at e t h e e m b ed ded
w av e le t a s
(12)
As s u m in g a
b an d p a ss
fi l t er
i s a p p l ie d
fo l lo wi n g
d e c on v o lu t i on , w e c an r eg ar d W D ( f ) a s ef f e ct i v e ly z e ro
o u ts i d e t h is b an d w i d t h . E q u a t io n ( 1 2 ) c an b e f u r t h er
w ri t t en a s
(13)

I n t h e l as t s t e p , t h e a p p ro x im a t e u n i t y f ol lo ws o n l y i f t h e
a s s u m p t i on s o f s t at i on ar y w av e le t , w h i t e r ef l e ct i v i t y,
a n d m in i m um p h as e a re a p p r ox i m a t el y v al i d . I f th e f i rs t
t w o f ai l th en w e e x p e c t a n on - wh i t e a m p l i t u d e sp ec t r u m
f or W D ( f ) a n d i f t h e l as t f ai ls t h e n we ex p e c t a re s id u al
p h a se sp e c t ru m .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -19

Finding a Wavelet's Inverse


If w symbolizes a wavelet and x is its unknown inverse, then the
two are related by:

w x = 1

Here, the d enotes convolution and 1 i s a unit vector. In


matri x n ot ation, this i s written:

w0 0 0 0 0

x0

w1 w0 0 0 0

x1

w2 w1 w0 0 0

x2

w3 w2 w1

x3

1
=

0
0

w0
Here we have assumed that both w and x are causal. In general
such an inverse will require infinitly many terms to produce and
exact result so we will look for an approximate finite length inverse.
If n is the length of the inverse and m is the length of the wavelet,
then the above matrix equation is:
n
n
m

4-20

X
= m

Vector D is the
desired output
which, in this
case is a spike
at zero lag.

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Finding a Wavelet's Inverse


T h u s w e h a v e c h o s en n <m p r o v id i n g m o r e eq u ati o n s t h a n
u n kn o w n s a n d a r e in a p osi t io n t o s ee k a l ea s t s q u a re s
s o lu t i o n . T h e c la s s ic le a s t s q u a re s a p p ro a c h i s ( se e H att o n
et a l. , 1 9 86 p 3 1 ):
T

W WX = W D
T

The normal equations


T

X = WW WD

The estimated X

w0 w1 w2 w3

w0 0 0 0 0

x0

w0 w1 w2 w3

0 w0 w1 w2

w1 w0 0 0 0

x1

0 w0 w1 w2

0 0 w0 w1

w2 w1 w0 0 0

x2 =

0 0 w0 w1

0 0 0

w3 w2 w1

x3

0 0 0

w0

0
w0

w0

M u l t i p li c at i on by W T d oe s a cr os s c or re l at i on be c au s e i t
c an b e e as i l y s ee n t o b e c o n v ol u t i on w it h t h e t i m e
r ev e rs e d w av e l et . T h i s c an be se e n t o b e:

0 1 2 3

x0

1 0 1 2

x1

2 1 0 1

x2

3 2 1

x3

w0
=

0
0

0
Where

is the jth lag of the autocorrelation of w.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -21

Finding a Wavelet's Inverse


We have seen that the process of finding the m-length causal
inverse, x, of a causal wavelet, w, reduces to solving the m by m
linear system:

0 1 2 3

x0

1 0 1 2

x1

2 1 0 1

x2

3 2 1

x3

w0
0
0

Where j is the jth lag of


the autocorrelation of w.

0
This remarkable result says that we don't need to know the
wavelet itself, just m lags of its autocorrelation. And, if we are
content to be off by an arbitrary scale factor, then we can replace
wo by 1. How this is possible is a consequence of the following
facts:
A causal, stable wavelet with a causal, stable inverse IS minimum
phase. (Karl, J.H., An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing,
Academic Press, 1989, see pages 35-37)
Th e F o ur i e r tr a ns f o r m o f t he a u tocorrelati o n i s t he p o w e r
s p e c tr u m of th e w a ve l e t (Wiener-K h i n tc h i ne Theorem) . T hu s
th e ph a s e i nfor m a ti o n is no t p r e s e nt i n t he a ut ocor r e lat i o n.
T hu s , th e problem o f e s t i ma ting th e inverse t o a mini m um
p ha s e wavelet i s r e d uce d to o n e o f e s ti m a ti n g th e
a ut ocor r e lat i o n o f th e un k no w n w av e l e t. Mo s t te c h niqu e s
d o s o imperfectly.

4-22

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Wiener Spiking Deconvolution


T he o r i g i na l d e c o nv o l ut i on t e c h ni qu e, a n d s t i l l t h e
w or k ho r s e o f t h e m e t ho d ol o g y i s a t i m e d o ma i n m e t h od
r e f e rr e d t o a s W i e ne r d e c on v ol u t i o n. I t re s t s o n t h e
t i m e d o ma i n c o mp u t at i o n o f t h e i nv e r s e o f a m i n i mu m
p h as e f i l t e r g i v e n i t s a ut o c or r e l at i on . B e l o w we s e e t h e
a ut o c or r e l at io ns o f t he s yn t he t i c t r ac e w hi c h w e h a v e
b e e n ex a m i ni ng :
6

5
autocorrelation of wavelet
4
autocorrelation of
noisy seismogram

3
2

a u t oc o r r el at io n
o f n o is e f r ee
s e i sm o gr am

autocorrelation of
synthetic reflectivity

-1
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

T hu s
we
are
r e m in d e d
of
the
f ac t
th a t
th e
a ut o co r r e la ti o n o f t he s e is m o g r a m i s v e r y s i mi l ar t o t h e
a ut o co r r e la ti o n o f t he w a ve l e t. T hi s i s a c o n s e q ue n ce o f
o ur a s su m pt io n t ha t t he r ef l e ct iv i ty i s a r a nd o m , w hi t e
s e q ue n c e a n d c an b e d e mo n s tr a t e d m a th e ma ti ca ll y a s
f o ll ow s:
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -23

Wiener Spiking Deconvolution


Recall the expression for the convolutional model:

s t = wm t r t + n t
w hi c h e x pr e s s e s t h e s e i s mi c t r a c e , s , a s a c o n v ol u t i on
b e t w e en a wa v e l e t w i t h a p os s i b l e m u l t i pl e t r a i n, w m ,
a nd a re f l e c t i c i ty , r , p l us a d di t i v e ra nd om n o i s e , n . S i n c e
a n a u t oc o r r e l at i o n i s f o rm e d b y t i m e re v e r s i ng t h e t r a c e
a nd c o nv o l v i ng i t w i t h i t s e l f , w e h a v e :

A s t = s t s t = wm t r t + n t wm t r t +n t
= wm t r t wm t r t + wm t r t n t +
n t wm t r t + n t n t
S in ce th e o r d e r o f co n vo lu ti o n i s u ni mp o r t a nt , t he f ir s t
te r m in th is e x p r e ss io n c a n b e se e n t o b e th e c o nv o lu tio n
o f th e a ut o co r r ela ti o ns o f w m a nd r . T h e se c o nd a n d th ir d
te r m s b o th inv o lv e th e cr o ss co r r e l at io n s b e t w e e n t w o
r a n do m se q u e n ce s, r an d n, a n d h e n ce a r e z e ro w h il e th e
la st te r m is t he au to c o r r a lt io n o f n . T hu s

A s t = A w t A r t + A n t
Since r and n are both random sequences by assumption, their
autocorrelations are delta functions and we obtain:

A s t = A w t + pn t
w h e r e p n is t he m e a n n o ise p o w e r . S o w e se e th a t th e
a u to co r re la ti o n o f se i sm o g r a m a n d w a v e le t s ho u ld b e
e q u al e xce pt f o r th e p o ss ib i lit y o f a sli g ht i nc r e a se in th e
z e r o la g po w e r.
4-24

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Wiener Spiking Deconvolution


T he p r oo f t ha t t he a ut o c or r e l at i on o f t he w av l e t c a n b e
o bt a i ne d f ro m t h at o f t he s e i s mo g r am r e l i e s o n
s t a t i s t i c a l p ro pe r t i e s t ha t c an n e v e r b e ex a c t l y s at i s f i e d
i n p r a c t i c e . T h e re f o r e t w o p r o bl e m s a r i s e : w e m u s t
c ho o s e h o w m an y l a g s o f t h e a u t o c o r r el a t i o n t o a l l o w
i nt o t he s o l ut i o n, a n d we m u s t g ua r d a g ai n s t t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t t he
s pe c tru m o f t he
t r un c at e d
a ut o c or r e l at io n m i g ht c o nt a i n z e r o s . T he f i r s t i s
" s o l v e d " b y m ak i ng t he n u m be r o f l ag s a u s e r
p a r am e t e r, w hi l e t h e s e c o nd r e qu i r e s t h e a dd i ti on o f a
" s ta b " f ac t or t o t he z e r o l ag o f t he a ut o c o rr e l a t i on .
T hu s t he n o r m al e qu a t i o ns w hi ch m us t b e s o lv e d f o r t h e
w av el e t i nv er s e a r e m o di f i e d t o :

0+

x0

0+

x1

0+

x2

x3

1
=

0
0

0 +
W h e r e is t h e a u tocorrelati o n o f th e s e is m ic t r a c e , i s
t he s ta b f a ct o r , a n d x is t h e un k n o w n in ver se o p e ra to r . In
c o mp a r i ng t hi s a lg o r i th m with fr e q u e n cy d o m a in d e c o n, i t
is n o te d t h a t t h e y a r e nea r ly t h e F o u r ier e q u iv a le n t s o f o n e
a n o th e r . W i nd o w i n g t h e a u t o co r re la t io n i n W iener d eco n i s
e q u iv a le n t to s m o o th in g t h e p o w e r sp e c tr u m in f r e q u e n cy
d e c o n. T he n u m b e r o f la g s i n t h e a u tocorrelati o n a n d th e
n um be r o f p o in ts in t h e fr equ e n c y d o m a in sm o o t her a r e
in v e r s e ly re la t e d . R ea so n in g v e r y lo o sely , w e h a ve:

nlagst

1
nsmoothf

nlags

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

nsamps
T
=
n smooth
nsmooth t
1

4 -25

Wiener Spiking Deconvolution


S i nc e o ur s y nt h e t i c ha s a 2 mi l s a mp l e ra t e , i t h as r o ug h l y
8 0 0 s am pl e s , s o w e e x pe c t t he 1 6 po i n t s mo o t he r w e
us e d t o b e s i mi lar t o 8 0 0/1 6 = 5 0 l ag s o f t h e
a ut o c o r r e l at i on . He r e a r e i s t he h e l p f i l e f r o m t he M a t l a b
r o ut i n e d e c o nw :
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

[trout,x]=deconw(trin,trdsign,n,stab)
[trout,x]=deconw(trin,trdsign,n)
routine performs a Weiner style deconvolution of the
input trace
trin= input trace to be deconvolved
trdsign= input trace to be used for operator design
n= number of autocorrelogram lags to use (and length of
inverse operator
stab= stabilization factor expressed as a fraction of the
zero lag of the autocorrelation.
********* default= .0001 **********

Algo rith m:
Co mpu te th e a uto co rre latio n o f
th e inp u t seismic trace .
Wind ow th e au to correla tion
(bo xca r) to o nly n la gs
Se t up th e n o rm al equ a tio n s fo r
th e wie ne r in verse, a dd th e sta b
fac tor to th e d ia gon al, a n d solve
Co nvo lve th e in ve rse o pe ra to r
w ith th e se ism ic tra ce.

trout= output trace which is the deconvolution of trin


x= output inverse operator used to deconvolve trin

U s i ng
e s s e nt i a l l y
c o m pa r a b l e
p ar a me t e r s
to
the
f r e qu e n c y d o ma i n e x a mp l e , w e o b t ai n f o r t he n o i s e f r e e
c a s e:
0.1
0.08
0.06

Exact rcs

0.04

deconw estimate
0.02

Noise free
seismogram

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

F r o m m a xc o r r , w e o b ta in a m a xi m um c r o ss c o r r e la ti on
c o e f fi c i e nt b e tw e e n t h e e s ti ma te d r cs a n d t h e e xa ct
o ne s o f . 3 9 a t a l a g o f . 2 s e c o nd s . V e r y c l os e t o t h e
r e s u lt f r o m d e co n f.
4-26

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Wiener Spiking Deconvolution


In the frequency domain these results look like:

Exact rcs

-20

-40
deconw estimate

-60
Noise free seismogram
-80

-100

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

200

250

H e r e a re so m e sa m p le d e c o ns o f th e n o is y t r a c e w hi ch
h a ve a lr ead y be e n f ilt e r ed b a ck t o 7 0H z .
High cut filtered: 70-80 Hz rolloff
0.14
0.12

exact rcs

0.1
deconw stab =.5
0.08
0.06

deconw stab = .01

0.04
deconw stab=.0001
0.02
0
-0.02

noisy seismogram
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Filtered results
Here are some
results from
maxcorr:

1.2

1.4

1.6

Max corr

1.8
Lag

deconw stab=.0001

0.1262

deconw stab = .01

0.1414

1.6000

deconw stab =.5

0.1802

3.0000

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1.4000

4 -27

Prediction and Prediction Error Filters


A f or wa r d p re d i c t io n f i lt e r i s a l i n ea r c on v ol u t i on a l
o p er at or wh i c h i s d e s i gn e d t o p r ed i c t t h e n e x t el e m en t
i n a s eq u e n c e g iv e n t h e v a l u es p r e c ed i n g i t . W e c an
w ri t e t h is p ro ce s s u s in g t h e m a t ri x f or m o f c on v ol u t i on
as :

w0 0 0

x0

w1

w1 w0 0

x1

w2

w2 w1 w0

x2

w3

Eqn 1

0
wm

w0

xN

wm+1

M u lt iplyin g b o th s id es o f t h is by t he transpose o f t h e
Toepl it z W m a tr ix a n d f o rming t h e normal equations a s w e
d id f o r in v ers e f il te ri ng gi v es:

0 1 2

x0

1 0 1

x1

2 1 0

x2

xN

Eqn 2

N+1

H e r e , i n c on t r as t t o t he n o rm al e qu at i o ns f o r i n v e rs e
f i l t e r i ng , we h a v e t he s i g na l a ut o c o rr e l a t i on a pp e ar i ng
o n b ot h s i d e s o f t he e qu a t i o n. T h e s o l ut i o n t o t h e s e
e qu at i o ns g i v e s a p r e di c tio n f i l t e r x , wh i c h, i n p r a c t i c e ,
i s u s e d t o p r e di c t v a l ue s " o f f t h e e n ds " o f t he s e qu e nc e
o n wh i c h i t w as d e s i g ne d. W e m i g ht s us pe c t t h at s i nc e
t he r e i s n o p ha s e i nf o r ma t i on go i ng i nt o t he p r e di c t i o n
f i l t e r d e s i g n t ha t t he f i l t e r w i l l be m in i mu m p h a s e a n d
t ha t i s i nd e e d t h e c a s e .
4-28

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Prediction and Prediction Error Filters


W e n ow w is h t o d ra w a p ar al l el b et w ee n p r e d ic t i on
f i lt e ri n g a n d t h e d e s ig n o f i n v er s e fi l t e rs . I t t u r n s o u t
t h at t h e r e la t io n s h ip i s n ot wi t h p r ed i c t i on f il t e rs bu t
w it h a c l os el y re l at ed f il t e r, t h e p r ed i c t i on e r ro r f i l t er .
T o d e r iv e t h i s , n ot e t h a t e q u at i on 1 c an be wr it t e n a s
t h e f ol l ow i n g ex pre s si on w it h z t ra n sf o rm s :
1

w z x z = z w z w0
Now, we can reformulate this into:
1

w z x z z w z = z w0
N o t e t h a t t h e l e ft h a n d si d e is e s se n ti a l ly t h e d if f ere n c e
be t wee n t h e p re d ic t ed va lu e s, w ( z ) x ( z ) , a n d t h ei r a c tu al
v a lu e s, z - 1w( z ) . H e nc e it i s t er m ed t h e p re d ic t io n e rr o r .
M a n ip u l a t i n g f u rt h e r:
1

multiply by z

w z z x z

= z w0

w z 1zx z

= w0

eqn 3

T h e o p e ra t o r , 1 -z x (z ), i s c a l l e d a p r e di c ti on e rr o r f i l t e r
o f u n i t l ag b e c a us e i t a s s e rt s t ha t w e c a n o pe r at e o n
w (z ) t o y i el d w 0 f o l l ow e d b y a s eq ue nc e o f z e r os . T h at
i s , w e c a n' t p os s i b l y p r e di c t t he f i r s t v a lu e i n a
s e qu e n c e, s o t he e rr o r i n t ha t p r e di c t i o n m u s t a l w a ys b e
1 0 0 % , h o w e v e r , w e a s s e r t t hr o ug h e qu at i o n 3 , t ha t a l l
o t h e r v a l ue s c an b e p r ed i c t e d w i t ho ut e rr o r . O f c o ur s e
t hi s wo n' t be p o s s i bl e i n g e ne r al a n d w e w i l l o b t ai n a
l e as t s qu a r e s s o l ut i o n w hi ch m i ni mi z e s t h e p r e di c ti on
e rr o r .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -29

Prediction and Prediction Error Filters


F o r m al ly , e q u a tio n 3 is i de n t ica l, to w i th in a sca le fa ct o r ,
o f th e z t r a ns fo r m e xp r e s sio n fo r th e de s ig n o f an
in ve r se f ilt e r fo r w . T ha t is, w - 1 m u st s a tis fy :
1

wzw z = 1
If we write the matrix expression for equation 3, we have:

w0 0 0

w0

w1 w0 0

x 0

w2 w1 w0

x 1 =

x N

0
wm

w0

Forming the normal equations as before leads to:


2

w0

1 0 1

x 0

2 1 0

x 1 =

x N

0 1 2

eqn 4

A s ex p e ct e d , eq u ati o n 4 is ne a r ly i d en t i ca l t o t h e n o rm a l
eq ua ti o n s f o r a W i en e r in v e rs e fi l te r. T h u s we m ake t wo
c o n c lu s io n s:
P re d ic t io n fi lt e rs a n d p re d i ct i o n er ro r f il t ers a r e
m i n im u m p h a se .
S p i ki n g ( W i en er ) d e co n v o lu t i o n i s i d en t ic a l t o u n it
l a g p re d i ct i o n e rr o r fi l te ri n g.
T h u s d e c o n v o lu t i o n r em ove s t h e p re d ic t a bl e p a rt o f
t h e tr a c e.
4-30

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Prediction and Prediction Error Filters


H a vi ng d e si g ne d a pr edi ct io n fi lt e r to pr e di ct o n e sa m p le
a h e a d, it is a s im pl e m a tte r to d e s ig n o ne to p r e d ic t
sa m p le s a h e a d b y m o di fy in g e q u at io n 1 t o g iv e :

w0 0 0

x0

w1 w0 0

x1

w+1

w2 w1 w0

x2 = w+2

eqn 5

0
wm

w0

xN

P ro c ed i n g a s be fo r e, w e
eq u i va le nt t o e q u a ti o n 2 :

0 1 2

w+m

fo r m t h e no rm a l e q ua t i o n s

x0

1 0 1

x1

+1

2 1 0

x2 = +2

xN

eqn 6

+N

T he s ol u t i o n t o e q ua t i o n 6 g i ve s a N + 1 l on g p r e di c ti on
o pe r a t o r w hi c h a t t e m pt s t o pr e d i c t s a mp l e s a he a d. It i s
c a l l e d a g a p pe d p r e di c t ion o p e ra t o r an d pl a y s an e s s e n t i a l
r o l e i n t he s ur pr e s s ion o f m ul t i p l e s w h i c h f i t t h e
c o nv ol u t i o na l mo de l .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -31

Gapped Predictive Deconvolution


W e h av e s ee n t h a t W i en e r sp ik i n g d ec on vo l u t io n i s
e q u i v al en t t o u nit l ag p re d i c t i on er r or f i l t er i n g. A s i m i l ar
t e ch n iq u e is t o u s e p r ed i c t i on f i l t er s o f so m e l ag o t h e r
t h an z e ro t o c om p u t e t h e p r e d i ct a bl e p ar t o f a s ei s m i c
t ra c e a n d s u bt r ac t i t f ro m t h e o r ig i n al t ra c e. T h u s, i f t h e
l ag u s e d is 1 , w e s h ou l d ge t t h e s am e r e su l t a s W i en e r
s p i ki n g d ec o n v ol u t i on . T h is t e c h n iq u e i s m o st u s e f u l in
a t t e n u at i n g m u l t ip le s t h at f i t t h e c on v ol u t i on a l m od e l .
S u c h a m u l t i p l e is t h e w at e r b ot t o m m u l t i p l e wh i c h c an
b e si m ula t ed (Backus, M.M., Geophysics, vol 24, p233-261,
1959) b y c on v o l v in g o u r se i s m og ra m wi t h t h e i m p u l s e
r es p o n se o f a n o c ea n . 2 s e c on d s d e e p ( 2 - wa y t i m e ) a n d
a n o c e an bo t t om rc o f . 4 ( h u ge ) .
0.1

Noise free
seismogram with
water bottom
multiple

0.08
0.06
0.04

Water bottom
impulse response.
Scaled by .1

0.02

Noise free
seismogram

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

I t is d if fic u lt to se e t he e f fe c ts o n t h e s e is m o g r a m b u t if
y o u lo o k cl o se l y a t .4 se c o nd s be h in d a m a j o r r e f le c to r,
t hen y o u sh o u ld s e e a r eve rse p o l a r it y im a g e o f it
su p e r i m po s e d o n th e se i sm o g r a m .

4-32

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Gapped Predictive Deconvolution


On the autocorrelations, we see a significant new side lobe has
developed at a lag of .4 seconds.
4

A ut o c o r r ela ti o n
of wa v ele t

A u t o c o r re lat i on of
n o i se fr e e sy nt h et ic
p l us wa te r bo t to m
m u lt ip le

2
1
0
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

A u t o c o r re lat i on of
n o is e fr e e sy nt h et ic

B a s e d o n t he s e d is p la ys w e a r e l e a d t o s e le ct a
p r ed i c ti o n g a p o f 1 80 s a m pl e s ( . 3 6 s e co n ds ) a nd a n
o pe r a t or l e n g th o f 5 0 s a m pl e s ( a s i n s p ik in g d e c o n) .
H e r e i s t h e h e lp f il e f r o m t h e M a t la b f u n ct io n d e co n pr :
% [trout,x]= deconpr(trin,trdsign,nop,nlag,stab)
% [trout,x]= deconpr(trin,trdsign,nop,nlag)
%
% DECONPR performs Wiener predictive deconvolution by calling
% PREDICT to design a prediction filter, nop long with lag nlag
% and stab factor, using trdsign. The predicted part of trin,
trinhat,
% then formed by convolving the prediction operator with trin,
% and trout is computed by delaying trinhat by nlag samples and
% subtracting it from trin. The prediction operator is returned
% in x.
%
% trin= input trace to be deconvolved
% trdsign= input trace used to design the prediction operator
% nop= number of points in the prediction operator
% nlag= prediction lag distance in samples
% stab= stabilazation factor expressed as a fraction of the zero
%
lag of the autocorrelation.
% ************ default= .0001 ***********
%
% trout= deconvolved output trace
% x= prediction operator
%
% See also: Peacock and Treitel, Geophysics vol 34, 1968
% and the description of PREDICT

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

Alg o rit h m:
De sig n a ga ppe d,
min im um ph as e pre dict io n
filt er ( w it h st ab f act o r)
fr om t he au toco rr ela tio n of
tr ds ig n.
Co n vo lv e t h e p re dict io n
op era to r w ith t ri n t o f or m
th e pre dict ab le pa rt .
Su bt ract t h e p re dica tb le
par t of t rin f ro m tr in t o
fo rm t he ou tpu t t ra ce.

4 -33

Gapped Predictive Deconvolution


S o , ru n n in g d ec o n p r o n th e n o i se f r ee s y n t h et i c w it h
m u l t i p l es u s in g t h e g ap a n d o p er at o r l en g t h m en ti o n ed
a n d a d e f au l t s t ab f ac t o r gi v e s:
0.1

Estimate of
multiples

0.08

True multiple
free seismogram

0.06
0.04

Estimate of
multiple free
seismogram

0.02

Seismogram with
multiples

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

I f w e e x a m in e t he a ut o co r r ela tio n s, w e se e th a t th e
p e r io d ic ity in th e a ut o co r r e l a tio n s a t la g o f .4 se co n d s
h a s b e e n su r p r e ss e d .
4

True
autocorrelation
with out multiples

3
2

Es t imat e o f
au to c o rr ela tio n
w ith o ut
mu lt ipl es
A utocorrelation
with multiples

1
0
-1
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
Max Coeff

Re su lts fr om us ing max corr t o com par e


with t he nois e f ree, m ult iple free
se ismogram

4-34

With multiples
After deconpr

0.9358

lag
-0.1000

0.9736 -0.1000

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Gapped Predictive Deconvolution


H e re w e c om pa r e t h e re s u l t s f r o m f o l l ow i n g ou r pr e v i ou s
de con pr b y a de c o nw ( n = 5 0 ) wi t h a s i ng l e de c o nw w i t h
n= 1 8 0 + 50 = 2 3 0.
0.16
0.14
exact rcs

0.12
0.1

deconw (n 230)

0.08

de conp r (la g 1 80, n


50) followe d by
de conw ( n 50 )

0.06
0.04

Noi se fre e
se ismogram w ith
mult ipl es

0.02

No ise f ree
s eis mo gra m

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Autocorrelations
7
exact rcs

6
5

deconw (n 230)

4
d econp r (la g 1 80 ,
n 5 0) fol lowed by
d econw (n 5 0)
N oise fre e
se i smog ram wi th
mul ti pl e s

3
2
1

No is e f re e
s eis m ogr am

0
-1
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

Re sults from using maxcor r to compare


the t wo de cons on thi s page w ith the
e xac t r c s

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
Max Coeff

deconpr + deconw
long deconw

lag

0.3451

-0.3000

0.3892

-0.2000

4 -35

Burg (Maximum Entropy) Deconvolution


B ur g d e c on v o lut io n i s clo se ly r e la te d to W ie n e r sp ik in g
d e co n vo l ut io n in th a t it i s a c co m pl ish e d u sin g p r e d ic tio n
e r r o r f ilt e r s o f un it la g . T he t e ch n iq ue w a s d e si g ne d b y
J. P.
Bu r g ( C la e rbout,
J. F .,
19 7 6,
F u ndamentals
of
G eophysi ca l Da t a P roces si ng, Mc G raw-Hill) in r e sp o ns e to
d o ub t s a b o u t t he W i e ne r te c hn iq u e o f w in d o w in g th e
a u to co r re la ti o n.
He
r e a so n e d t h at
w in d o w in g
th e
a u to co r re la ti o n ca u se d th e no rma l e q u a tio n s to d e si g n a
p r e d ict io n filt e r a s th o u g h t he d a ta ha d th e pr o p e r t y th a t
it s a ut o co r r ela tio n va n ish e d a ft e r n la g s . I t ce rta in ly
se ems r e a so n ab le to e x p e ct a b ette r sp e ct r a l e st im a tio n
fr o m a n a lg o r it h m th a t e xp e c ts t he a ut o co r r ela tio n to
co n ti nu e in s o me r e a s o na b l e w a y . B u r g f o un d a te ch niq u e
w h ich d e si g ne d a p r e d ic tio n e r r o r f ilt e r d ir e c tl y fr o m th e
d a ta r a th e r t h an f ir st fo r m in g t he au to c o r r e l at io n a nd
w in d o w in g it. H is t e c hn iq ue w i ll n o t b e de ve l o pe d h e r e
b u t w e w ill qu o te th e fo l lo w in g p r o p e r ti e s:
The Burg pr e diction e r r or f i lter m in imiz e s t he
s quar e d er r o r f r om f o r wa r d and ba c k wa r d pr ediction.

sum

T h e s o- c al l ed B u r g s p e c t r u m i s c o m p u t e d as t h e in v er s e
of t h e s p e c t ru m o f t h e p r e d i c t i on e r r or f i l t er . ( T h i s i s n o t
e x p l i c i t ly d on e i n B u rg d e c on v o l u t i on . )
The Burg prediction error filter is minimum phase.
T ho u g h n o t c o m pu te d d ir e c tl y , t h e B ur g t h e o r y c an
b e s h o w n t o b e e q u iv a le n t t o a W ie ne r t he o r y w h ic h ,
i n s te a d o f t r un ca ti n g t h e a u to co r r e la t io n, e x tr a po la t e s
i t i n a w a y w h ic h m a x im iz e s t he r a n do m ne ss ( e n tr o py )
o f t he i m pl ie s s i g na l. ( Ka n a s ew i ch , E.R ., 1 9 81 , T i m e
S e qu e n ce A n a ly s is in G e o p h y si cs ( 3r d E d it i o n ), U ni v ers it y
o f A l be rt a P res s )

4-36

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Burg (Maximum Entropy) Deconvolution


Here is the help file from the Matlab function deconb:
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

A l go ri t hm :
De si g n a un i t l a g
pr e di c ti on e rr or f i l te r of
routine performs a Burg scheme deconvolution of the
l e ng th l on t rds i g n.
input trace
Co nv ol ve t he pr e di ct i on
trin= input trace to be deconvolved
e r ro r f i l te r wi t h tr i n to
trdsign= input trace to be used for operator design
f or m the o utp ut t ra ce .
[trout,pefilt]=deconb(trin,trdsign,l)

l= prediction error filter length (and length of


inverse operator

trout= output trace which is the deconvolution of trin


pefilt= output inverse operator used to deconvolve trin

N ot e t ha t t h e r e i s no s t a b f a c t o r i nv ol v e d ( t he a l g o r i t hm
i s al w a y s s t a b l e ) a nd t h at w e m us t c ho o s e t he l e n g t h o f a
pr e d i c t i o n e r r o r f i l t e r i n s t e ad o f t he n umb e r o f l a g s on an
a ut o c o r r e l at i on f unc t i o n. Ho w e ve r , as a r ou g h g ue s s , w e
m i g ht c o ns i d e r l t o b e s i m i l ar t o t h e n um b e r o f l a g s .
He r e i s t h e r es u l t f r om d ec o n v o lv in g o u r n oi s e fr e e
s yn t h et i c w i t h l = 5 0 . It ac h i e v e s a m a x i m u m c ro s s
c or r e la t i on o f . 4 3 5 5 at a l ag o f ze r o, c o n s id er a bl y be t t e r
t h a n t he ot her al go r it hm s .
0.1
0.08

exact rcs

0.06
0.04

estimated rcs
from deconb

0.02

noise free
synthetic

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

4 -37

Burg (Maximum Entropy) Deconvolution


B e lo w i s t h e r es u l t fr o m d ec o n v o l v in g t h e n o is y
s ei sm ogr a m w it h t h r ee d i ff er en t p red ic t io n f il t er le n gt h s .
A l l re su l t s h a v e be en h i gh c ut fi l te re d a t 7 0 H z .
0.16
0.14
exact rcs

0.12
0.1

deconb l=12
0.08
deconb l=25

0.06
0.04

deconb l=50
0.02
noisy
seismogram

0
-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

R esu lt s fr o m u sin g m axc o r r


t o c o mp ar e e ac h
de c o nv o lu t io n w it h t h e
exa ct r c s:

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

max corr

lag

deconb l=50

0.2227

-1.4000

deconb l=25

0.2168

-1.4000

deconb l=12

0.2093

-1.4000

S o w e s ee t h at , a t l e a s t o n t h is s y nt he t ic , t he B u r g
a lg o r it hm d o e s a n e xc e ll e n t j ob , i s v e r y s t a b le , a n d n o t
v e r y s e ns i ti v e t o t h e c h o ic e o f t he p a r am e t e r l .

4-38

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

The Minimum Phase Equivalent Wavelet


A n y wa v el e t, n o m a t te r w h at i t s a m p l it u d e o r p h as e
s p e ct r u m , c an be s ai d t o h av e a re l at ed w av e l et c al l ed
i t s m i n i m u m p h as e eq u iv a l en t . I f t h e gi v e n w av e le t h a s
a n a m p li t u d e sp ec t r u m wh i c h is p os i t iv e d ef i n i t e, t h en
i t s m in im u m p h a se e q u i v al en t h a s t h e s a m e a m p l i t u d e
s p e ct r u m b u t a p h a s e s p ec t r u m c om p u t e d a s t h e H i l be r t
t ra n s fo rm o f t h e lo ga ri t h m o f t h e a m p l i tu d e s p e c t ru m. I f
w e l e t w( t ) d en o t e t h e a r b it r ar y w av e l et a n d F a n d H b e
t h e f or wa r d F ou r ie r a n d H il b e rt t r an s f or m s re s p ec t i v e ly ,
then:
F [ w ( t ) ] = W ( f) = A ( f ) e x p ( i ( f) ) .
I n t h i s e x p r es s i on , W ( f ) is t h e c o m p l ex - v a lu ed F o u r ie r
s p e ct r u m a n d A ( f ) a n d ( f ) a re t h e re al - v al u e d a m p l i t u d e
a n d p h as e s p e c t ra . N ow , i f W ( f ) i s p os i t iv e e v er yw h e re ,
t h e n t h e m in i m u m p h a s e eq uiv a le n t w av e l et h as a F ou r ie r
s p e ct r u m gi v e n b y:
W m i n( f ) = A ( f ) e x p ( i m i n( f ) ) .
w h er e
m in ( f) = H [ l n ( A( f ) ) ] .
I n th e m or e g en e r al c as e , w h en A ( f ) m i gh t h av e a z er o
s om e wh e r e o r w h e n l ar g e p or t i on s o f i t s d o m ai n a r e
d om in a t ed b y n oi s e, it is c u s to m ar y t o c om p ute t h e
m i n i m u m p h as e e q u i v al en t b y:
W m i n( f ) = A ( f ) ex p( i _ m in ( f) ).
_ m i n( f ) = H [ l n ( A ( f ) ) ] .
A ( f ) = A ( f) + m a x ( A( f ) )
I n t h e f i n al ex p r e ss i on , i s a s m a ll n u m b er , t yp i c al l y
be t w ee n 1 0- 1 a n d 1 0- 6, w h os e e x ac t v a l u e d ep en ds o n
t h e s i gn a l- to - n oi s e r at i o a n d t h e s p e c t ra l s h ap e o f t h e
s ig n al sp ec t r u m .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -39

The Minimum Phase Equivalent Wavelet


I n i t s m o s t g en er al fo rm , t h e m in i m u m p h as e e q u i v al en t
w av e le t i s n o t u n i q u e b ec au s e o f i ts d ep en d e n c e o n t h e
" w h i t e n oi s e f ac t or " .
T h e s im u la t io n be l ow s h o ws a [ 1 0 ,2 0 , 6 0 , 7 0] z er o- ph as e
O rm sb y w av e l et a n d t h re e o f i ts m i n i m u m p h as e
e q u i v al en t s . N o t e t h at a l l h av e d i st i n c l y d i f f er e n t p h as e
a s a r e su l t o f t h e i r d i f fe r in g v al u e s .
0
20
40
60
80
-100

Minimum phase equivalent =.01


Minimum phase equivalent =.0001
Minimum phase equivalent =.000001

Original zero phase wavelet

-120
-140
0

5
0

100
15
Frequency0(Hz)

200

250

4
Minimum phase equivalent =.01

3
2

Minimum phase equivalent =.0001

Minimum phase equivalent =.000001

Original zero phase wavelet

-0.1
4-40

0.1
0.
0.3
time (seconds) 2
The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Vibroseis Deconvolution
E x p l or at i on w it h V i br os e is s ou rc e s i s f u n d am en t a ll y
d i f f er en t f ro m t h e u s e o f e x p l os i v e s ou r c es a n d n e e d s
s p e ci a l c on s i d e ra ti o n i n o u r t h eo re t i ca l d e v e lo p m e n t .
I n s t e ad o f a n u nkn ow n i m p u l s i ve s ou r c e w av e f or m ,
v i br os e is a t te m p t s t o c re at e a k n ow n ex t e n d e d s ou r c e
kn o wn a s a sw e ep . A s w ee p i s t y p i c al ly a s ig n al w h i ch
m o v es c o n t in u o u s ly t h r ou g h a s p ec i f i ed fr e q u e n c y b an d
g en e r at i n g o n l y o n e f r eq u en c y i n s t an t an e ou sl y. T y p ic a ll y
s we e p s a r e l i n ea r ( t h e s am e t i m e i s s w ep t a t ea ch
f re q u e n c y) b u t n o n - l in e ar sw e ep s , w h i c h e m p h a s iz e t h e
h i gh f re q u e n c i es , a re a ls o c om mo n . H er e i s a 1 0 - 7 0 H z ,
8 s e c on d , li n e ar s w ee p :

sweep
Time (sec)

T h e c o n v ol u t i on al m od e l s t il l f i t s t h i s so u rc e e q u a ll y we l l
a s t h e im p u l si v e so u r ce . T h a t i s , gi v e n a r ef l ec t i v i t y r ( t ) ,
w e c an si m u l at e th e ea rt h ' s r es p o n s e by c o n v ol v i n g t h e
s we e p w i t h r ( t ) :
reflectivity

sweep
c on vo l ve d
with
r e f l e c ti vi t y

O b v io u s ly , t h i s is a d i f f er en t s or t o f re c or d t h an t h e
i m p u l s iv e s ou r c e a n d i s m u c h m o r e d i f f ic u l t t o in te r p re t e
b ec au se t h e s ou rc e wa v e f or m i s s o e x t en d ed . W e n e ed a
m e t h od o f co l la p s in g t h e s ou r ce t o a c om p a c t p u l se .
T h a t t u r n s o u t t o b e t h e c ro ss c or re la t io n m et h o d .
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -41

Vibroseis Deconvolution
According to the convolutional model, the vibroseis record is:

M o st o f t h e se t e rm s we re d e f i n ed a l r ea d y i n o u r
d i s c u s si on o f t h e c on v ol u t i on a l m od e l . W e r e p e at t h e
d e f i n it i on s h e re :
the uncorrelated vibroseis record
the vibroseis sweep
near s ur fa c e e ff ec ts a n d v ib rator d i st o rt io n
a convolutional approximati o n t o Q ef fec t s
the subset of all multiples which are convolutional
the desired reflectivity
zero mean, white noise
Now we cross correlate with the sweep and rewrite the model as:

where
is the correlated vibroseis record
is the autocorrelation of the sweep
(Klauder wavelet)
i s t h e ef f e ct i v e e art h f i lt e r
R o u gh ly s p ea ki n g , t h i s s ay s t h a t we c an u s e t h e
c on v o lu ti o n al m o d el fo r co rr e la t ed v ib r os e is d a t a i f w e
r eg ar d t h e s ou r c e w av e f or m a s t h e a u t o c or re l at i on o f
t h e s we e p . T h is is o f t en c al l ed t h e K l au d e r wa v el e t .

4-42

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Vibroseis Deconvolution
T h u s , i n t h e s im p le s t c as e , w e ex pec t a c o rr el at e d
v i br os e is r e co rd t o be t h e s we e p a u t o c or re l at i on
c on v o lv e d wi t h 0.25
t h e re f le c t iv i t y .
0.2
0.15

autocorrlation of
10-70 sweep
(Klauder wavelet)

wv t

30 Hz minimum
phase pulse

wm t

0.1

0.25

0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.15

0.2

0.5

wm t r t

0.4

0.3

wv t r t

0.2

0.1

rt

-0.1

-0.2

0.2

0.4

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

0.6

0.8

1.2

4 -43

Vibroseis Deconvolution
D e co n v ol u t i on o f t h e v i br os e i s s yn t h e t ic p r es e n t s a
s p e ci a l p r ob le m si n c e w e c an n o t a ss u m e t h e wa v el e t i s
m i n i m u m p h as e. M o st a p p ro ac h e s to t h i s p ro bl e m i n v ol v e
a t t e m p t i n g t o m o d i f y t h e t h e c or re l at ed v i br os e is r ec o rd
s o th a t i t s e m be d d e d wa v el e t i s m or e n e ar ly m i n i m u m
p h a se . A n i m med i at e p ro bl e m a ri s es be c au s e a m i n i m u m
p h a se wa v ef o rm c an no t be ba n d l im it e d y e t t h e v i b ro se i s
w av e le t i s e x p l i ci t l y ba n d l im it e d . T h is m e an s t h at A L L
m e t h od s wh i c h a t t em pt t o p r ec on d it i o n t h e e m b ed ded
v i br os e is wa v ef o rm m u s t em p lo y a wh it e n o i se o r " st a b"
f ac t or t o e x te n d t h e sp ec t r u m . I t i s u s u a ll y go od
p r oc t i c e t o e n s u re t h at t h i s f ac t or i s t h e sa m e a s t h a t
u s ed l at e r i n t h e d ec on a l g or it h m.
G i v e n t h i s, a n d a s su m in g t h at t h e e m be d d e d w av e le t i s
t h e K la u d er w av e le t , i t i s a s t ra i g h t f or wa rd ex e rc i s e in
s i gn a l p ro ce s s in g t o d es i g n a c o n v er s io n o p er at or w h i ch
c on v e r ts th e Kl au der w av e le t t o i t s m i n i m u m p h as e
e q u i v al en t :
0.25

spectrum of minimum
phase equivalent of
Klauder wavelet

0.2
-20
0.15

Klauder
wavelet

0.1

-40

0.05
-60
0
-0.05

-80

-0.1

minimum phase equivalent


of Klauder wavelet

-0.15
-0.2
-0.1

4-44

-0.05

0.05

-100

0.1

-120
0

Spectrum
of Klauder
wavelet
50

100
Frequency
(Hz)

150

200

250

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Vibroseis Deconvolution
A t t h i s p oi n t it i s a p p r op r i at e t o a s k w h y t h e v ib ro s ei s
r e co rd sh o u l d be d e c on v o lv e d a t a ll . A f t e r a ll , t h e s i g n al
i s ge n e ra t ed w i th a wh i t e sp e c t ru m o v e r t h e sw e p t ba n d
a n d i s n o m i n al l y z e r o e ls e wh e r e. T h us t h e z e ro p h as e
v i b ro se i s sy n t h et i c w h ic h c o n si s t s o f Kl a u d er w av el e t
c o n v ol v ed w it h re f l ec t i v i ty i s a lr e ad y o p ti m a l. T h e
a n sw e r, o f c o u rs e , l i es i n t h e o t h e r e ar t h f il t e ri n g
e f f ec t s s u c h a s t h e n e ar s u r fa c e ef f ec t , m u l t i p l es , a n d
a bs or p t i on ( Q ) . T h u s , a m in i m a l v i b ro se i s m o d e l f or
d e c on v o l u t io n t h e or y i s:

sx t = wv t n s t r t
U n l i ke u n l i ke t h e i m p uls i v e c a se , t h e g oa l o f v ib r os ei s
d e c on v o l u t io n i s t o re c ov e r r ( t ) o n ly o v e r t h e s we p t
b an d, e v en i n t h e n o is e fr e e c as e . W it h t h i s i n m i n d , we
u s e t h e 3 0 H z m i n im u m p h as e wa v el e t t o re p r es e n t t h e
n e ar s u rf ac e ef f e ct s a n d t h e K la u d e r w av e le t fo r t h e
s ou rc e a n d c r ea t e t h es e s yn t h e t i c s e is m o gr am s :
0.5

30 Hz min ph s an d m in p hs
Klau der wav lets con v olv ed
wit h r eflect iv ity

0.4

30 Hz min phs and Klauder


wavlets convolved with
reflectivity

0.3

30 Hz min phs
wavlet convolved
with reflectivity

0.2

Klauder convolved with


reflectivity

0.1

-0.1

r eflectivity

0.2

0.4

0.6

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

0.8

4 -45

Vibroseis Deconvolution
T h e r es u l t s o f W ei n e r d ec o n o n t h e s e sy n t h e ti c s i s
b el ow . N o t e t h a t we c om pa r e t o t h e r e fl e c t iv i t y
c on v o lv e d w it h t h e K la u d e r w av e le t a n d n o t t o t h e
r ef l ec t i v i t y it s e lf . A l l o f t h e s e d e c on v ol u t i on s h av e b e en
f i lt e re d ba c k to t h e s w ep t b an d .
0.45

0.4
0.35

Deco n o f 30 Hz min phs an d


Kla ud er wav let s co nv olv ed
wit h ref lectiv it y

0.3
0.25

0.2
0.15
0.1

-0.05

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

De con of 30 Hz min
p hs wa vle t convolve d
wi th r ef le ctivi ty

Decon of Klauder
convolved with
reflectivity

Klauder convolved
with reflectivity

0.05
0

Decon of 30 Hz min phs and


min phs Klauder wavlets
convolved with reflectivity

Max corr

W e c an s ee t h at t h e m in im u m p h as i n g o f A
t h e v i br os e i s re c or d p ro d u c es a b e t te r
d e c on b u t it a p p e ars t h e re s u l t h a s a 9 0 B
d e gr e e p h a s e r ot at i on . I n f ac t t h i s is t h e C
c as e :
0.15
D

0.3795

Lag
0.8000

0.3712

-2.3000

0.4978

-0.1000

-0.4138 -9.1000

-90 rotation of A

0.1
0.05
E

0
-0.05
4-46

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Deconvolution Pitfalls
T h e assumption s behind deconvolution t h e or y h e l p u s t o
u nde rs t a n d i t s b as i s an d , sometimes , t o anticipa t e p r ob lem s
b e f or e t h e y a ri s e . H e re w e w i l l examine s o m e c o m mon
deconvolution "pitfalls".
Mixed-wavetypes in the design gate.
T h e m o st c o mm o n e x a mp le h e r e is th e
o cc ur an ce o f a su r f ac e w av e o r si mi la r
co h e r e n t n o ise t r a in i n t he d e si g n g a t e .
T h e s im ul a te d su r fa ce w a v e b e g i ns a t . 2
se c o nd s.

Surface
waveform

Reflection
waveform
0

0.2

0.3
0.25

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Contaminated
with surface
wave

-10

0.2
-20

Contaminated
with surface
wave

0.15
0.1

-30

-40

0.05

Simple
synthetic

S imple
synthetic

-50

-0.05
-60
-0.1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

20

40

60
Frequency
(Hz)

80

100

Deconvolution Results

Contaminated
with surface
wave
S imple
synthetic

RCs

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

0.8

1.2
4 -47

Deconvolution Pitfalls
Here is a closeup of the ends of the traces so that the
considerable phase distortion can be appreciated:
Deconvolution Results
Contaminated
with surface
wave

Simple
synthetic

RCs

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

S o we s e e t h at t he pr e s e n c e o f t h e s ur fac e wa ve ha s
c a us e d a g r e a t de a l o f ph as e d i s t o r t i o n e v e n qu i t e f a r
f r o m t he on s e t of t h e w a ve . S i n c e t he p ha s e c or r e c ti on s
ap pl i e d b y m i ni m um p ha s e d e c o nvo l u t i o n ar e de d uc e d
f r o m a s mo o t he d r e p re s e n t a t i o n of t h e a mp l i t ud e
s pe ct r um , t he pr e s e n c e of t h e s ur f a c e w av e p e ak i n t h e
am p l i t ud e s pe c tru m c a u s e s e rr o ne o us p ha s e s t o b e
c o mp ut e d .

4-48

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Deconvolution Pitfalls
Filtering before deconvolution.
T h e i s s u e of f i l t e ri n g b e f or e d e c on v ol u t i o n c an b e a
c o m p l e x on e w h i c h t ak e s s om e s u r p r is i n g t wi s t s . It m i g h t
s e e m t h at on e c o u l d d og m a t i c al l y i n s i st t h a t a l l f i l t e ri n g
b e f or e d e c on v ol u t i on m u s t be m i n i m u m p h a s e. How e v e r;
a s w e sh al l s e e, t hat i s o f t en i n c or r ec t . I t g re a t ly h e l p s
t h e d ec i s i on p r oc e s s t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e u n f i l t er e d
d at a i s i n t h e " m i n i m u m p has e s t at e " o r n o t .
W e w il l s a y t h a t s ei sm i c d a t a i s in t h e " m i ni m u m p h a se
s ta t e " i f t h ere is a s in g le e m be dd e d w a v el et a nd t h a t
w ave le t i s m i n im u m p h a se . I f d a t a is in t he m in i m u m
p h a s e st a t e, t h en a ny f il te ri n g sh o u l d be m i n im u m p h a se
t o t ry t o p r es erv e t h a t st a t e. I f n o t , z er o p h a s e fi lt er in g
m i gh t a ct u a l ly be pr ef er red i f it c a n be a rg u ed t o m o v e
t h e d a t a t o wa rd s t he m i ni m u m p h a se s ta t e .
T he s u r fa ce w a v e s y nt he t ic w h ic h w e p r e se nt e d e a r li e r
i s n o t i n t he m i ni m um p ha s e s ta t e b e ca u s e i t c o n ta in s
t w o e m b e d de d w a ve le t s : t he m in im u m p h as e r e fl e c ti o n
w a ve le t a n d t he n o n -m in im um p h as e s u r f ac e w a v e fo r m .
T he r ef o r e ,
m in im um
p ha s e
f i l te r in g
before
d e co nv o lu t io n m ig h t n o t b e a p p r op r ia te . I n f a ct , a z e r o
p ha s e f il t e r d e si g n e d t o k no ck d o w n t h e s u r fa ce w a v e
p e ak s h o ul d m o ve t h e d at a t o w ar d s t he m in i mu m p h as e
s t at e . T h e e xa m pl e o n t he n e x t p ag e s h o w s t h at t hi s i s
th e ca s e .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -49

Deconvolution Pitfalls
0.6

0.5

Deconv ol ved surfac e w ave


syn theti c w it h mi nim um
phase f il teri ng to remov e
the surfac e w ave.

0.4

Deconvolved surface wave


synthetic with zero phase
filtering to remove the
surface wave.

0.3

0.2

Deconvolved synthetic
with surface wave
present.

0.1

Deconvolved minimum
phase synthetic

RCs

-0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Surface wave spectral peak

-10
-20
-30
-40

Uncontaminated spectrum

-50
-60

After filtering out the surface wave

-70
-80
-90
0

4-50

20

40

60
Frequency (Hz)

80

100

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Deconvolution Pitfalls
Design gate considerations.
T y p ic a ll y t h e d e c o nv ol ut i o n o p e r a to r i s d e si g ne d o ve r a
s u b s et o f t h e t r ac e c ho s e n f o r i t s h i g h s ig n al t o n o is e
r a t io . C o n s id e r a ti o n s :
- include the zone of interest
- include large dominant reflectors
- exclude surface waves and below basement
- don't design on noise
- highly non stationary data should avoid very long gates
- o p e r a t o r l e n g th s ho u l d be n o m o r e th a n 1/ 3 to 1/ 2
o f th e ga te le n g t h
0.5

1 80 m il o per ato r
d es igne d o ver .2 to .4
s eco n ds

0.4

0.3

60 mil operator designed


over .2 to .4 seconds

0.2

60 mil operator designed


over .4 to .6 seconds

0.1

60 mil operator designed


over entire trace

-0.1

RCs

0.2

0.4

0.6

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

0.8

1.2

4 -51

Deconvolution Pitfalls
Filtering after deconvolution.
R e al s e i s mi c d at a a l w ay s c o nt a i ns a g r e at d e a l o f
a pp ar e nt l y r a nd o m n o i s e . W e ' v e a l r e ad y m e nt i o ne d t he
i n ad v i s ab i l i t y o f d e s i g ni ng t he o p e ra t o r o n n oi s y d a t a.
A l s o , i t i s a l m os t a l w a ys n e c e s s ar y t o f i l t e r d a t a b ac k
t o s o me s i g na l b an d a f t e r d e c on v ol u t i o n. M o s t d e c o n
a l g or i t h ms c a nn ot d i s t i n gu i s h s i g n al f ro m n o i s e a n d s o
w hi ten b o t h. T hi s c a n h a v e a d i s a s t r ou s e f f e c t o n s u c h
n oi s e s e ns i t i v e p r o g ra ms a s r e s i du al s t a t i c s .
0

noisy data spectrum


-20
-40

noiseless
data
spectrum

-60
-80

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

200

250

0.2

0.1

noisy
seismogram

noiseless
seismogram

-0.1

4-52

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Deconvolution Pitfalls
0.5

RCs filt er ed b ack


to 60 Hz.

0.4

Deconvoled noisey
seismogram, filtered
back to 60 Hz.

0.3

0.2

Deconvoled noisey
seismogram

0.1

Deconvoled
noiseless
seismogram
RCs

-0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

T h o ug h th e r esu lts o f th e d e c o nv o lu tio n o f n o is y da t a a r e


a lm o st a lw a y s b ette r w h e n f ilt e r e d b a c k , in g e n e r a l, th e
m a tch t o th e R C' s is st ill m u ch w o r se th a n w i th o ut n oi se .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -53

Deconvolution Pitfalls
Iterative deconvolution.
I t i s o f te n a s s u m e d t h at d e c on v o lu t i o n i s s om e t h i n g t h a t
n e ed s d oi n g o n c e a n d i s t h e n b e st f or go t te n . T h i s
a t t i t u d e u su a l ly le ad s t o u n der wh i t e n e d d at a w it h
r es i d u al p h as e ro t at i on s . S i n c e t h e a s s u m p t i on s o f
d e c on v o lu t i on a re n e v er p r ec i s el y m e t, i t i s o f t en u s e f u l
t o a p p l y s ev e r al d i ff e re n t d e c on s f or d i f fe r en t p u r p o se s .
F o r e x am ple , we m ay u se p r ed i c t i v e d e c on t o a t t ac k a
m u l t i p l e a n d t h e n s p i k in g d ec on v ol u t io n t o s h ar p en
r es ol u t i on .
M or e i m p or t an t l y, d ec on v ol u t io n a l g or i th m s c an n o t
d i s t in g u i s h b e tw e en s ig n al a n d n oi s e. T h u s w e m u s t t h in k
o f t h e m a s wh i t e n in g t h e s p e ct r u m o f si g n al p l u s n o is e .
I f d e co n v ol u t i on i s t h e n fo l lo we d b y a n y p r oc e s s w h i ch
c an r ej e c t n oi s e w h i le re t ai n i n g s i g n al , t h e re s u l ti n g d at a
w il l h a v e a n o n - w h it e , l ow e r r e so l u t io n , s p e ct r u m . T h e
m o st c om m o n e x am p le o f t h i s i s C M P s t ac ki n g . T h us i t i s
o f t e n n e ce s s ary t o r u n a p o s t - st a c k d e c on v ol u t i on o r
w h it e n i n g s t e p t o e n su re m ax i m u m r e so lu ti o n . I f p o s ts t ac k m in i m u m p h as e d ec o n v ol u t i on i s d es i r ed , c ar e
s h ou l d b e t ak en t o en s u r e t h at z er o- p ha s e f i lt e r in g wa s
n ot d on e a f t er t h e p re - s t ac k d e c on v o lu t i on .

4-54

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Reflectivity Color
Here i s a r e fle c tiv it y series c o mp ut e d fr o m a n A lb er ta well
a nd p lo tt e d versus t im e .
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time (sec)
Since standard deconvolution algorithms
reflectivity spectrum, we are motivated
spectrum and see if it is white.

assume a white
to compute the

White spectrum is flat

0
-10

Anti-alias filter rolloff

-20
-30
Low fr e que ncy de ca y i s ty pi ca l we ll l og
beha vi er a nd indic a tes consi de r abl e
spe ct ra l col or .

-40
-50
-60

50

100
150
Frequency (Hz)

200

250

So we see that this spectrum is non-white.


What color is it?

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -55

Reflectivity Color
Example of a reflectivity estimate via Weiner deconvolution for a
non-white reflectivity. The traditional whitened estimate is shown
(A) along with a color corrected estimate (B) and the original well
log (C).

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time (sec)
4-56

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Reflectivity Color
A: Reflectivity estimate from normal Weiner decon
B: A convolved with a zero phase color restoration operator
C: A convolved with a minimum phase color restoration operator
D: Original well log at 2 ms sample rate
N u m b ers gi ve ( M a x im u m co r re la t io n c o ef f, l a g a t m a x
{ s a m p l es} ) f o r t h e c o rr el a ti o n be tw ee n a n e st im a t e a n d
t h e a n sw e r g iv e n in D
0.35

0.3

A
(.8037,-.2)

0.25

0.2

B
(.8470,-.2)

0.15

0.1

C
(.8816,-1.8)

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Methods of Seismic Data Processing


Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
4 -57

Q Example
H e r e i s a n e xa mp l e com p ar i n g a s ta tion a r y, mi n i m um ph a s e
s y nt he t i c w i th a s e r i e s o f c o nsta nt Q s y n th e ti c s . E a c h
c o n s ta nt Q s y nth e ti c ha s th e s am e 30 H z , mini m um ph a s e
w a ve l e t c o nv ol v e d w ith i t as t he s t at i o na r y s y nth e ti c do e s .

0.14

wavelet

0.12

Q=25

0.1

Q=50

0.08

Q=100

0.06

Q=150

0.04

Q=200

0.02

stationary

0
-0.02

RC's
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

T h e e ff e c t o f Q a t t e n u at i on c an b e s e en t o h a v e a t l ea s t
t h r ee c h ar ac t e ri s t ic s : a p r og r es s iv e l os s o f f r eq u e n c y
c on t e n t w i t h i n c r ea s i n g t i m e , a p ro g re ss i v e l os s o f
o v e r al l a m p l i t u d e , a n d a p r og r es s iv e t i m e d e l ay . T h e
c on s t r u c ti o n o f o n e o f t h e se s yn t h e t i cs i s d et a il e d o n
t h e n e x t p a ge .

4-58

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Q Example
E a c h o f t h e Q sy n t heti c w a s c r e a t e d b y f ir s t co n st r u ct in g
t he " Q m a t r ix " w h ic h a pp l ie s a Q r e s po n s e t o a t im e s e r ies
v ia a g e n e ra liz ed co n v o lu ti o n. H e re t h e p r o c e s s i s d e p ict e d
g r a p h ic a ll y fo r th e Q =2 5 ca se.

input time

Q= 25
RCs in
seismogram
time
E a c h c ol u mn o f t h e Q m a t r i x c o nt a i ns t h e Q = 2 5 i m pu l s e
r e s p o ns e f o r t he i np ut t i me o f t he c o l u mn c on vo l ve d w i t h
t he 3 0 Hz m i ni m um pha s e s o ur ce wa ve f o r m . If w e F o ur i e r
t r an s f o rm e a c h c o l um n, w e c a n s e e d i r e c t l y t he Q
a m pl i t u de a nd p ha s e r e s po ns e :
Q Matrix

input time

Am pl itude s p ec tr um
o f Q m a tr ix
Methods of Seismic Data Processing

input time

Phase spectrum of Q
matrix
4 -59

Q Example
T h e f i rs t s t ep in d ec o n v ol v i n g t he Q s yn th et i c s is t o
d e t er m i n e e x p on e n t i al g ai n c o rr ec t i on s a n d a p p l y t h e m .
T h e re s u lt i s:
0.14
0.12

Q=25

db/sec = 17

0.1

Q=50

db/sec = 11

0.08

Q=100 db/sec = 5

0.06

Q=150 db/sec = 2

0.04

Q=200 db/sec = 0

0.02

stationary
RC's

0
0.02 0

0.
2

0.4

0.6

0.
8

1.2

T h e s e g a i n f ac tor s w er e de t e r m i ne d e m pi r i c a l l y a s i s
s t an da r d p r ac t i c e . I t a pp e ar s t ha t Q =2 5 m ay b e a b i t
u nd e r g a i ne d .

4-60

The Convolutional Model and Deconvolution

Q Example
N ex t w e r un W e i ne r d e c o nv o l ut i on w i t h t he s am e
p a r am e t e rs f o r e ac h t r a c e ( 3 0 l a gs a n d . 0 0 0 1 wh i t e
n o i s e ).
0.14

MaxCC

Lag

0.12

Q=25

0.1557

-0.5000

0.1

Q=50

-0.2965

-3.6000

0.08

Q=100

-0.3676

-3.0000

0.06

Q=150

-0.3733

-2.8000

0.04

Q=200

-0.3693

-2.6000

0.02

Q=

-0.4811

-2.3000

R C's

-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

I t 's c lea r f ro m t h is e xa m p l e t h a t t h e d ec o n v o l ut i o n re su l t
d eg ra d e s s te a d il y w it h d ec re a si n g Q . Kee p in m i n d t ha t
t h is i s a " be st ca s e" sc en a r io : no n o i se , n o m u lt ip l es ,
m i ni m u m p h a s e so u r ce , a n d w h it e re fl ec ti v it y . A l s o , ev en
t h e Q= 2 5 c a se i s n o t a n u n rea s o n a b le a t t en u a ti o n le ve l
be ca us e t he m a x i m u m t im e i n t h e sy n t h et ic is o n l y 1
s ec o n d . S i n ce t/ Q d et er m in e s t h e a c tu a l a t te n ua t i o n ,
1 / 2 5 is t he s a m e a s 2 / 5 0 o r 3/ 75 .

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

4 -61

Geophysics 557 Final Exam Study Guide


What are the expressions for P and S wave velocities in terms of the Lame constants?
How does the Vp/Vs ratio depend on poison's ratio?
How is the normal incidence reflection coefficient (for P waves) related to impedance?
What is impedance?
How are normal incidence reflection and transmission coefficients related?
What is meant by the term "impulse response"?
What physical effects are modeled in construction of a normal incidence seismogram a
discussed in lecture?
Under what conditions can the earth response to a real source be modeled as a
convolution of a source waveform with an impulse response?
What is the major use for 1-D synthetic seismograms?
Why are multiples and transmission losses not typically included in such models?
What information is typically input to the 1-D synthetic seismogram computation?
Describe convolution by replacement.
Describe convolution as a weighted sum.
Use the integral form of convolution to prove that convolution is linear. That is, the
convolution of c with a+b is equal to the convolution of c with a plus the convolution of c
with b.
What happens when any function is convolved with a complex sinusoid?
What is technical meaning of a phrase " a 90 degree wavelet" ? 45 degree? any degree?
What is the definition of the 1-D Fourier transform? The inverse transform?
How is the Fourier phase spectrum defined? The amplitude spectrum?
How are the "time width" and "frequency width" of a function related?
What is a Dirac Delta function? What is its Fourier transform?
When g and f are convolved in time, what happens to their Fourier spectra? What
happens to their amplitude spectra? Their phase spectra?
How is the Nyquist frequency related to the temporal sample rate?
What is the frequency sample rate of a time series of length T?
To avoid aliasing a signal of frequency Fmax, what sample rate must be used?
From a practical viewpoint, the signal frequencies in your data should be less than a
constant, c, times Fnyquist. What is a good value for c?
What sample rate should you use for 80 Hz signal? For 130 Hz? For 40 Hz?
What is an anti aliasing filter? When should it be used?
What are the two main purposes of a zero pad when doing a discrete Fourier transform
(DFT)?
What is circular convolution?
What is the relationship between the DFT and the fast Fourier transform (FFT)?
How is the Z transform related to the DFT?
A filter which has a pole close to the unit circle at some frequency does what to that
frequency? How about a zero close to the unit circle?
Where are the zeros of a minimum phase filter located in the z plane?
What is the definition of minimum phase in terms of causality and stability?
How is an inverse filter defined in the z plane?
What is meant by a stable inverse?

11-2

Study Guide

What is meant by the statement that "This seismic data is minimum phase"? (Note that
the statement is technically always false but it has a practical, definite meaning.)
In order to assert that seismic data is "minimum phase" at some stage of the processing
what conditions must be met?
How is cross correlation defined? What does it mean? What does the cross correlation
lag mean?
What is an autocorrelation? What is the expected autocorrelation of a random sequence?
What are the two central problems of spectral estimation?
What is the role of the "window" in spectral estimation?
What kind of spectrum is well modeled by the Burg spectrum?
What is the 2-D Fourier transform of a linear event with apparent velocity v? Draw a
sketch showing (x,t) space and (f-k) space for a range of different apparent velocities.
What is the most likely apparent velocity and where is it found in (f,k) space?
What is spatial aliasing? For a given apparent velocity and spatial sample rate, what is
the critical frequency at which spatial aliasing begins?
How can convolution be expressed as a matrix operation? Draw a diagram showing the
Toeplitz matrix symmetry.
Describe the six basic modes of seismic attenuation.
Geometric spreading corresponds to what conservation law?
Under geometric spreading, amplitude decreases proportional to what?
How is Q defined?
What is the formula for amplitude loss in a constant Q theory?
What is the formula for transmission losses in a layered medium?
What phenomenon is responsible for trapping large amounts of seismic energy in the
near surface?
What is true amplitude processing?
What do constant Q models predict about the signal bandwidth of seismic data?
The phase effects associated with Q attenuation are known as what?
What assumptions are required to derive these phase effects?
What is unique about a minimum phase wavelet?
What is the most important property of minimum phase wavelets from the viewpoint of
deconvolution theory?
What is meant by velocity dispersion?
What is the convolutional model? Write a mathematical expression for the model as it is
applied in deconvolution theory. Define each term and state the assumptions which
constrain each.
Can all types of multiples be included in the convolutional model? Why or why not?
The convolutional model expects the seismic trace to be stationary, What is meant by
this? Is it a reasonable expectation?
What are the essential steps of frequency domain spiking deconvolution?
How is the seismic wavelet estimated in frequency domain spiking deconvolution?
If a wavelet is known to be minimum phase, then its inverse can be found by solving a
set of matrix equations whose left hand side involves not the wavelet itself but a
statistical measure of it. What is this measure? Explain intuitively how this result is
equivalent to computing a wavelet's phase spectrum from its amplitude spectrum under
the minimum phase assumption.

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

11- 3

Wiener spiking deconvolution assumes that the autocorrelation of the seismogram is


similar to the autocorrelation of the wavelet. Justify this assumption by argument from
the convolutional model.
What is meant by the 'stab' factor or 'white noise' factor in deconvolution?
It is customary in seismic data processing to follow deconvolution by a bandpass filter. Is
this a sensible practice? Either justify it or refute it by argument from deconvolution
theory.
What is the relationship between prediction error filters and spiking deconvolution?
Explain why deconvolution keeps the prediction error and rejects the predictable part of a
seismic trace.
How is gapped predictive deconvolution implemented? What is a typical example of a
type of multiple which it is designed to attenuate? How can the prediction gap be chosen?
How are midpoint and offset defined in terms of source and receiver coordinate?
Illustrate with a diagram.
The near surface is generally assumed to cause effects which are a function of what
coordinates?
The subsurface effects are often assumed to be a function of what coordinates?
How is a static delay defined? What physical effect is often used to justify the
assumption of static delays in the near surface?
What is the definition of source static? Receiver static?
What is meant by the term "datum"? How does its choice effect the statics application?
What datum is most appropriate for pre stack processing?
What are surface consistent methods? Why are they useful? List some examples of
common surface consistent applications?
What is the definition of vertical traveltime?
How can instantaneous velocity be computed as a function of vertical traveltime?
What is a time-depth curve and what is it used for?
How is average velocity defined? In what sense is it an average?
What is the mean velocity and how is it defined?
Define Vrms in terms of instantaneous velocity and as is relates to the mean and average
velocities.
Which is always greater the average or the rms velocity?
What is interval velocity? Define at least two type of interval velocities.
What is the expression for the addition of two interval velocities?
What is the expression for the "Dix" interval velocity calculated from two closely
positioned rms velocity measurements?
Under what conditions can an interval velocity be said to approximate a local wave
propagation velocity?
How can imaginary interval velocities result from a Dix interval velocity calculation?
Derive the traveltime equation for normal moveout. Use a diagram to show the meaning
of all quantities. What is the shape of the traveltime curve?
What is the shape of the wavefront in the nmo experiment as it approaches the receivers?
How must the nmo equation be modified if the reflector is dipping?
What is the stacking velocity for a dipping reflector beneath a constant velocity
overburden?

11-4

Study Guide

How must the nmo equation for a dipping reflector be modified to take the azimuth of the
seismic line into account?
What is the definition of stacking velocity? Explain why stacking velocity is always a
function of offset.
Using a diagram, derive the geometric relation between wavelength components and
wavelength for a periodic planar wavefront.
What are wavenumbers?
What is apparent velocity? What are the mathematical limits (upper and lower) of
apparent velocity?
How does apparent velocity relate to wavelength components and wavenumbers?
What is Snell's law? Snell's law can be considered as the conservation of what quantity?
What is a v(z) medium?
When raytracing in a v(z) medium, what quantity is conserved and how is it defined?
Derive the distance traveled and traveltime integrals for raytracing in a v(z) medium.
How can the ray parameter be measured?
When velocity increases linearly with depth, what shape are the raypaths? The
wavefronts? (Exact equations not necessary.)
For the nmo experiment in a v(z) medium, explain how the result that stacking velocities
may be approximated by rms velocities arises. What assumptions are required? In
practice, when can we expect it to be roughly valid?
The Dix equation moveout can be interpreted as allowing the replacement of the real v(z)
medium by a constant one with properly chosen parameters. Explain this.
Explain why interpolation of trace sample values is needed in nmo removal. What is
moveout stretch? Why does it arise?
What are residual statics? How are they computed? What is their purpose? What
processes should be run on seismic data prior to attempting a residual statics solution?
What is velocity analysis? How is it performed? What processes should be run on
seismic data prior to attempting a velocity analysis?
Do statics and moveout removal commute? That is, do you get the same result regardless
of the order of the processes? If not what is the preferred order?
In the extension of nmo and dip to v(z), what quantity must be measured in addition to
stacking velocity in order to allow the computation of apparent dip and the "dip
correction" of stacking velocities?
What can be said about the staking velocities of multiples? Where will they be found on
a stacking velocity analysis chart?
After stacking, the power of random noise can be expected to be reduced by what factor?
Considered as an "f-k" process, stacking can be said to pass what portion of the offset
wavenumber spectrum?
Are "f-k" filters applied to cmp gathers likely to improve a stack? What if they are
applied to shot or receiver gathers?
What is a zero offset section? How does is serve as a model for a stack?
What is the relation between traveltime gradient measured on a stack and the normal
incidence ray parameter?
What information is needed for the raytrace migration of a normal incidence
seismogram?

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

11- 5

What are the algorithmic steps in normal incidence raytrace migration?


Time migration processes are biased towards what class of rays? How are these rays
handled? When is time migration a valid process? When is depth migration a valid
process?
What is the migrator's formula? How can it be used?
Explain post stack migration by replacement of each point with a wavefront. How are the
wavefronts defined?
What is meant by "migration dip"?
Should data from an area where all geologic dips are less than 5 degrees be migrated?
Why? Should a steep dip algorithm or a low dip algorithm be used?
What is Huygens principle?
What is the traveltime curve of a point diffractor for post stack migration? For pre stack
migration?
What is a diffraction chart? Explain how diffraction curves can be used to construct a zos
image from a geologic model?
What is the exploding reflector model? Why is it useful?
In the exploding reflector model, what is the mathematical expression for the migrated
section? For the zos image?
Using the exploding reflector model to explain wavefield extrapolation. What is the
mathematical expression for an extrapolated section? What is the relationship between
any extrapolated section and the migrated depth section?
What is the dispersion relation? Use the dispersion relation to derive the mapping which
defines f-k migration. Use a diagram to illustrate the mapping of the f-kx spectrum to the
kx-kz spectrum. What is the meaning of the evanescent boundary? What determines the
maximum kx wavenumber after migration? What determines it before migration? Draw a
flow chart for f-k migration.
What is f-k wavefield extrapolation? Derive the expression for the f-k phase shift
required to shift the datum by z. Explain how recursive f-k phase shifting can be used to
create a v(z) migration algorithm. Draw a flow chart.
What is the geometric shape of the wavefield extrapolation operator? What are the two
distinct components of the operator? How can is be applied in the (x,t) domain?
What is the major distinction between time and depth migration? Can time migration
produce a depth section and depth migration a time section? Explain.
What is Kirchoff migration? What is the shape of the Kirchoff migration operator
(constant velocity) when applied post stack? Pre stack?
Describe a general method to determine the shape of the Kirchoff migration operator.
Your method must be valid for any (x,y,z) location, any velocity, and pre or post stack.
What is pre stack time migration? When is it a valid process? Should it be inferior, the
same, or superior to stacking and post stack time migration?
What is DMO? Describe a flow using DMO that should give similar results to pre stack
time migration. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the DMO approach? Under
what circumstance is DMO->stack->migration exactly the same as pre stack migration?
What kind of velocities should be input to the NMO removal step in a flow involving
DMO? How can these velocities be obtained?
Describe, without equations, the essential steps in CSP migration? How does CSP
analysis effect velocity resolution?

11-6

Study Guide

What is the central (most difficult and most important) problem in the application of
depth migration to the thrust belt? Describe at least one approach to solving this problem.
What is wavelet processing? What are the essential steps in wavelet processing? When
should it be done in a processing flow? When is it necessary? What are two common
methods of wavelet estimation?
What is impedance inversion? When should it be run in a processing sequence? How can
the convolutional model (from deconvolution theory) be used to justify impedance
inversion? What is the major computation involved in impedance inversion? Describe at
least two common problems with impedance inversions that are difficult to solve.
What is the expected behavior of the amplitude spectrum of the radiated waves from a
dynamite sources as a function of charge size?
Explain how Q effects necessarily lead to a time variant (i.e. non-stationary) signal
bandwidth. What is the relationship between spectral width and wavelet width?
What is a "corner frequency"? When can it be observed? What does it mean?
For a constant velocity earth, what are the equations which express the limits of
observable scattering angle due to aperture, record length, and spatial aliasing? Make a
sketch of their basic form.
Staring from the theory of f-k migration, derive an expression for the maximum kx after
migration as a function of frequency, velocity, and scattering angle. Explain the
relevance of this to the problem of resolving small horizontal features? What steps can be
taken in recording or processing to increase horizontal resolution?

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

11- 7

Exam sampler. There will be between 30-35 multiple choice questions and 48 short answer questions.
PLEASE ANSWER ALL OF THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
There are a total of 100 marks (points) for the examination. You have about 100
minutes for the exam.
Write all work directly on the examination sheets. If you need more room, you
may attach a work sheet with your name and the question number on it. PLEASE
HAND IN THE EXAMINATION SHEET AND ALL WORK SHEETS WITH
YOUR ANSWERS.

Multiple Choice Questions (2 points each)


INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, there are two best (most correct) responses.
Choosing both correct responses and no incorrect ones is worth two points. One
correct and one incorrect is worth one point, and any other result (including more
than two selections) is worth zero. Write your answers in the space provided below
each question.
1) The 1-D synthetic seismogram, as discussed in lecture:
a) can be made to contain all possible multiples.
b) is useful for modeling AVO and converted waves.
c) applies the source waveform of a band limited source by correlation.
d) is an excellent model of a trace on a stacked and migrated section, provided
that all possible multiples are included in the solution.
e) is based on ray theory and normal incidence reflection and transmission
coefficients.
answer _________
13) Average velocity:
a) characterizes the shape of diffraction curves on a cmp stack.
b) is depth divided by the vertical traveltime to that depth.
c) is a mathematical average over depth.
d) can be measured on an f-k plot.
e) is a mathematical average over traveltime.
answer _________
20) Post-stack F-K migration:
a) easily handles variable velocity.
b) is useful to explain the transformation of the data spectrum under migration.
c) shows that a constant frequency, f, maps to a hyperbola in (kx,kz).
d) is a steep dip algorithm.

11-8

Study Guide

e) works by applying a phase shift to the f-k transform.


answer _________

31) Minimum phase:


a) is the state of all raw seismic data.
b) is the desired state of final migrated sections.
c) means that the phase is the Hilbert transform of the log of the amplitude
spectrum.
d) is the smallest possible phase.
e) is only possible for time series which have inverses.
answer _________

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

11- 9

Short answer problems (10 points each)


Please work directly on the examination sheets. Show all work.
1) Deconvolution
Suppose a dynamite dataset has mistakenly had a zero phase bandpass filter
applied before deconvolution. Assuming that the original data was noise free,
with a minimum phase wavelet and a white reflectivity:
a) Write a time domain convolutional expression for a single trace after the bandpass filter was
applied but before deconvolution. Then rewrite this expression in the frequency domain.

b) By working through the steps in frequency domain deconvolution, derive a


frequency domain expression for the embedded wavelet remaining after standard
minimum phase deconvolution. Show each step in the frequency domain
deconvolution process and indicate any smoothing but you may assume that stab
factors (white noise) are not needed.

c) Derive an expression for a correction filter which can be applied after


deconvolution to give the desired result from the deconvolution process.

11-10

Study Guide

Methods of Seismic Data Processing

11-11