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MEDAN LISTRIK

A Brief History
of Electricity

Ancient Greeks Static Electricity


Rub amber with wool.
Amber becomes negatively charged by
attracting negative charges (electrons) from
the wool.
The wool becomes positively charged.
The amber can then pick up a feather.
How?

William Gilbert (1544-1603)


English scientist and physician to Queen
Elizabeth.
Coined the word electricity from the Greek
word elektron meaning amber.

In 1600 published "De Magnete, Magneticisque


Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure" ("On
the Magnet, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great
Magnet of the Earth").

Showed that frictional (static) electricity occurs in many common


materials.

Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692 1761)


Dutch physicist from Leiden, Netherlands, who
discovered capacitance and invented the Leyden jar.

Leyden jar (also called condenser)

Ref: http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/musschenbroek.htm

Leyden Jars
Q=CxV
= 700 x 10-12 x 175 x 103
= 1.225 x 10-4 coulombs

700 pF, 175 KV


No. of electrons =
1.225 x 10-4 coulombs / 1.6 x 10-19 coul/elec
= 7.66 x 1014 electrons
Refs:
http://www.alaska.net/~natnkell/leyden.htm
http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/stat-gen.htm

Benjamin Franklin (1706 1790)


Conducted many experiments on static
electricity from 1746 1751 (including his
lightning experiment) and became famous
throughout Europe by describing these
experiments in a series of letters to Peter
Collinson.

Charles Coulomb (1736 1806)


Using a torsion balance Coulomb in 1784
experimentally determined the law according to
which charged bodies attract or repel each other.

Coulombs Law

F1
1
4 0
Unit:

q1q2
e12
2
4 0 r12
1

107 c 2 9.0 109


Newton meter2 / coulomb2
volt meter / coulomb

Alessandro Volta (1745 1827)


Interpreted Galvanis experiment with
decapitated frogs as involving the
generation of current flowing through
the moist flesh of the frogs leg between
two dissimilar metals.
Argued with Galvani that the frog was
unnecessary.

In 1799 he developed the first battery (voltaic pile) that


generated current from the chemical reaction of zinc and
copper discs separated from each other with cardboard discs
soaked in a salt solution.
The energy in joules required to move a charge of one coulomb
through an element is 1 volt.

Hans Christian Oersted (1777 1851)

1822

In 1820 he showed that a current produces a


magnetic field.

Ref: http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/oersted.htm

Andr-Marie Ampre (1775 1836)


French mathematics professor who only a week
after learning of Oersteds discoveries in Sept.
1820 demonstrated that parallel wires carrying
currents attract and repel each other.

attract

A moving charge of 1 coulomb per


second is a current of
1 ampere (amp).

repel

Michael Faraday (1791 1867)


Self-taught English chemist and physicist
discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 by
which a changing magnetic field induces an electric
field.

A capacitance of 1 coulomb per volt


is called a farad (F)

Faradays electromagnetic
induction ring

Joseph Henry (1797 1878)


American scientist, Princeton University
professor, and first Secretary of the Smithsonian
Institution.

Discovered selfinduction

Built the largest


electromagnets of his
day

Unit of inductance, L, is the Henry

James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879)


Born in Edinburgh, Scotland;
Taught at Kings College in London (18601865) and was the first Cavendish Professor
of Physics at Cambridge (1871-1879).

Provided a mathematical description of


Faradays lines of force.
Developed Maxwells Equations which describe
the interaction of electric and magnetic fields.
Predicted that light was a form
of electromagnetic waves

D E

B H

B 0

B
E
t
D
H J
t

Albert Einstein (1879 1955)


In 1905 publishes his Special Theory of Relativity
based on two postulates:
1. Absolute uniform motion cannot be detected by any
means.
2. Light is propagated in empty space with a velocity
c which is independent of the motion of the source.

This theory predicts seemingly unusual effects such as the measured length
of moving bodies and time intervals being dependent on the frame of
reference being used for the measurement.

Some Electrical Inventors

Samuel F. B. Morse (Telegraph)


Guglielmo Marconi (Wireless telegraph)
Thomas Edison (Electric lights ..)
Nikola Tesla (A.C. generators, motors)
John Bardeen and Walter Brattain
Transistor

Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce


Integrated Circuit

The Telegraph
Samuel F. B. Morse
(1791 1872)

Wireless Telegraph
Guglielmo Marconi

Marconi Spark Transmitter


Built at the Hall Street Chelmsford Factory
September, 1897

Electric Lights
Thomas Edison
1847 - 1931

Replica of original lightbulb


Patent #223,898

Invented and developed


complete DC electric
generation and distribution
system for city lighting
systems

Carried on a major competition


with George Westinghouse who
developed an AC generation and
distribution system

Alternating Current (AC) Systems


Nikola Tesla
1856 - 1943

Over 700 patents


Rotating magnetic field principle
Polyphase alternating-current system
Inducton motor
AC power transmission
Telephone repeater
Tesla coil transfromer
Radio
Fluorescent lights

Bell Labs Museum

The First
Point-Contact
Transistor
1947

Bell Labs

The First
Junction Transistor
1951

M1752
Outside the Lab

Lab model

Texas Instruments First IC -- 1958

Jack Kilby

Robert Noyce

Fairchild
Intel

Properties of Electric Charges


There are 2 kinds of electric charge: positive (+) and
negative ()
Carrier of positive charge in matter is the proton
(charge = +e)
Carrier of negative charge in matter is the electron
(charge = e)
e = 1.602 1019 C (typical shock experienced on a dry
day transfers about 1 109 C)
Charge is quantized (only comes in integer multiples of e)

An object becomes electrically charged through


transfer of negative charge (movement of electrons)
Protons dont move because they are tightly bound to
atomic nuclei
Charge is conserved
Neutral objects have equal amounts of + and charge

Properties of Electric Charges


Rubbing a rubber rod with wool transfers negative
charge to rod
Wool has excess positive charge due to loss of negative
charge

Rubbing a glass rod with silk transfers negative


charge to silk
Glass rod has excess positive charge

Experiments show that:


Negatively charged rubber rod is attracted to positively
charged glass rod
Negatively charged rubber rod is repelled by another
negatively charged rubber rod

Opposite charges attract, like charges repel

Conducting Properties of Materials


Insulators are materials in which electric charge
does not move easily
They can be charged, but charge doesnt move well
Glass, rubber, plastic, wood, and paper are examples

Conductors are materials in which electric charge


moves easily
When an area becomes charged, charge distributes itself
over entire surface
Copper, aluminum, and silver are examples
Charge will remain on conductor if you hold it with an
insulator

Semiconductors are materials that have electrical


properties somewhere between conductors and
insulators
Silicon and germanium are examples

Methods of Charging/Discharging

Charging by rubbing

Increases surface area of contact and enhances charge


transfer
Works for insulators but not for conductors

Charging by conduction
Charged object brought in contact with a neutral object
Neutral object becomes charged with same sign of charge
as object doing the charging
Works when (originally) neutral object is insulated

Discharging by grounding
Negative charge leaves (or enters) object through
conducting path to Earth or other limitless reservoir of
charge
Third opening of electrical outlets is the ground (connected
to ground by wire and prevents static charge from building)

Methods of Charging
Charging by induction (no contact)
Repulsive force between like charges in
charged rod and (insulated) neutral
conducting sphere causes redistribution of
charge on sphere (figure (b))
Opposite (like) charges move closer to
(farther from) each other
Rod would attract sphere
Induced charge on sphere can remain
if some electrons leave through grounding
+ charge becomes equally distributed
because of high mobility of remaining
electrons

In insulators, induced surface charges can occur


due to polarization (alignment of molecular charge)

Application: Photocopiers

(from College Physics,


Giambattista et al.)

Hukum Coulomb

Hukum Coulomb
Gaya yg dilakukan oleh satu muatan titik
pada muatan titik lainnya bekerja
sepanjang garis yang menghubungkan
kedua muatan tersebut. Besarnya gaya
berbanding terbalik kuadrat jarak
keduanya, berbanding lurus dgn
perkalian kedua muatan.
Gaya tolak menolak muatan sama
Gaya tarik menarik muatan beda

F12

kq1q2

r12
2
r12

Dengan k = 8,99 109 N.m2/C2

o 8,854 x10

12

Contoh Soal

Dua muatan titik masing-masing sebesar 0,05 C


dipisahkan pada jarak 10 cm. Carilah (a) besarnya
gaya yang dilakukan oleh satu muatan pada muatan
lainnya dan (b) Jumlah satuan muatan dasar pada
masing-masing muatan.

Solusi Soal no.1


F21

0, 05C
q1

10 cm

0, 05C
q2
F12

kq1q 2
F
r2
8,99x10 9 N .m 2 / C 2 0,05 x10 6 C 0,05 x10 6 C

(0,1m) 2

2,25 x 10 -3 N

q Ne
q 0,05 x10 6 C
11
N

3
,
12
x
10
e
1,6 x10 19 C

Solusi Soal no.2


2m
q1 = 25nC

F1 0

1,5 m
q2 = -10nC

F10
F20

q0 = 20nC

kq1q0
r1 0
2
r1 0

(8,99 109 N .m 2 / C 2 )(25 10 9 )(20 10 9 )

i
2
(3,5m)
(0,367 N) i

kq2 q0
F20
r20
2
r20
(8,99 109 N .m 2 / C 2 )(10 10 9 C )(20 10 9 C )

i
2
(1,5m)
(- 0,799 N)i

Ftotal F10 F20 (0,367N )i (0,799N )i (-0,432N)i

Soal

Tiga muatan titik terletak pada sumbu x; q1 = 10 C


terletak pada titik asal, q2 = +4 C berada pada x=80
cm, dan q0 = 20 C berada pada x = 60 cm seperti
terlihat pada gambar di bawah. Carilah gaya total pada
q0 akibat q1 dan q2.
q2

q1

q3

Solusi Soal
(9 109 Nm 2 / C 2 )(4 10 6 C )(20 10 6 )
F23
2N
2
(0,6m)
(9 109 Nm 2 / C 2 )(10 10 6 )(20 10 6 )
F13
1,8 N
2
(1m)

F13x (1,8 N ) cos 37 o 1,4 N


F13 y (1,8 N ) sin 37 o 1,1N

Fx 1,4 N dan Fy 2,0 N 1,1N


F 1,4 2 3,12 3,4 N
3,1
dan arctan
66o
1,4

Medan Listrik

Untuk menghindari kesalahan yang mungkin


terjadi dalam konsep gaya maka diperkenalkanlah
konsep medan listrik. Dimana:

F
E
(q0 kecil )
qo

Hukum Coulomb untuk E


akibat satu muatan titik.

kqi
Ei
r
2 i0
ri 0
Hukum Coulomb untuk E
akibat suatu sistem
muatan titik.
kqi
E Ei 2 ri 0
ri 0
i

Contoh Soal
Sebuah muatan positif q1=+8nC berada pada titik asal dan muatan
kedua positif q2=+12nC berada pada sumbu x = 4m dari titik asal.
Carilah medan lisriknya di sumbu x untuk:
P1 yang berjarak x=7m dari titik asal.
P2 yang berjarak x=3m dari titik asal.
Mungkinkah kita menemukan suatu daerah bebas medan listrik
yang diakibatkan oleh kedua muatan listrik tersebut

P2

q1=8nC +
4m

7m

q2=12nC
+

P1

Solusi soal
3m
q2=12nC
+

P2

q1=8nC +

P1

4m
7m

kq1
kq2
i

i
2
2
x1
x2

8,99 10

Nm 2 / C 2 8 10 9 C
8,99 109 Nm 2 / C 2 12 10 9 C
i
i
2
2
7m
3m
(1,47 N / C )i (12,0 N / C )i (13,5 N / C )i (di P1 )
E

kq1
kq2
i

i
2
2
x1
x2

8,99 10

Nm 2 / C 2 8 10 9 C
8,99 109 Nm 2 / C 2 12 10 9 C
i
(i )
2
2
3m
1m
(7,99 N / C )i (108 N / C )i (100 N / C )i (di P2 )
9

Latihan Soal!
E di P3 ?

3m
q2=12nC
+

q1=8nC
+
4m

1. Dari gambar tersebut di atas

Hitunglah nilai E di P3 !
Berapa besar sudut yang diciptakan resultan E di P3 terhadap sumbu
x positif.

2.

3.

Hitunglah (a) medan listrik E di udara pada jarak 30 cm dari sebuah muatan
titik q1 = 5x10-9C, (b) gaya pada suatu muatan q2 4x10-10C yang ditempatkan
30 cm dari q1, dan (c) gaya pada muatan q3 = -4x10-10C yang ditempatkan 30
cm dari q1 (dimana q2 tidak ada).
Tiga muatan ditempatkan pada tiga sudut sebuah bujur sangkar seperti pada
gambar. Setiap sisi bujursangkar adalah 30 cm. Hitunglah E pada sudut ke
empat!
Berapakah gaya yang diberikan oleh muatan 6C pada sudut yang kosong
tersebut?
+8C

-5C

-4C
4.

Terdapat dua buah bola kecil bermuatan, q1 = +20x10-8C dan q2 = -5x10-8C.


Tentukan (a) medan listrik E pada titik P, (b) gaya pada muatan -4x10-8C yang
ditempatkan pada P, dan (c) posisi dimana medan listrik nol (jika tidak ada
muatan -4x10-8C).

q1

5 cm

5 cm

q2

46

Garis-garis medan listrik

Garis medan listrik bermula dari muatan + dan berakhir pada muatan
Garis2 digambar simetris, meninggalkan atau masuk ke muatan
Jumlah garis yang masuk/meninggalkan muatan sebanding dgn besar
muatan
Kerapatan garis2 pada sebuah titik sebanding dgn besar medan listrik di
titik itu
Tidak ada garis2 yang berpotongan

Gerak Muatan Titik di


Dalam Medan Listrik

Muatan titik dalam medan listrik akan mengalami gaya qE.


Sehingga percepatan partikel dalam medan listrik memenuhi:
Didapatkan dari: Fmekanik = Flistrik

q
a
E
m

Soal 6
Sebuah elektron ditembakkan memasuki medan
listrik homogen E = (1000 N/C)i dengan
kecepatan awal Vo=(2 x 106 m/s)i pada arah
medan listrik.
Berapa jauh elektron akan bergerak sebelum
berhenti?

Dipol Listrik
Dipol listrik terjadi jika dua muatan
berbeda tanda dipisahkan oleh
suatu jarak kecil L.
Suatu dipol listrik ditandai oleh
momen dipol listrik p, yang
merupakan sebuah vektor yang
mempunyai arah dari muatan
negatif ke positif.
p=qL, untuk gambar kartesian
diatas maka p=2aqi

-q

p=qL

+q

Contoh Dipol listrik :


Sebuah muatan positif dan sebuah muatan negatif
mempunyai besar
q yang sama TERPISAH SEJAUH 2a. Berapakah
besar medan E yang ditimbulkan oleh KEDUA muatan ini
pada titik P, sejarak r sepanjang garis pembagi tegak
lurus dari garis yang menghubungkan muatan MUATAN
tsb ? Anggap r >> a.
+q
a

a
-q

E2

E1

51

2.4 Medan Listrik oleh Distribusi Muatan Kontinu


Jika distribusi muatan tersebut adalah kontinu, maka
medan yang ditimbulkannya di setiap titik P dapat
dihitung dengan
membagi elemen2 yang sangat kecil dq.

Medan dE (r ) yang ditimbulkan oleh setiap elemen akan
dihitung, dengan memperlakukan
elemen2 tsb sebagai

muatan titik. dE (r ) diberikan oleh

1 dq
dE (r )
r
2
4 0 r
Dimana r adalah jarak dari elemen muatan dq ke titik P.
medan resultan kemudian dicari dari prinsip superposisi
dengan menjumlahkan kontribusi2 medan yang
ditimbulkan oleh semua elemen muatan, atau



E (r ) dE (r )

52

Medan karena batang bermuatan


Lihat gambar berikut:
Sebuah muatan listrik dengan rapat muatan terletak pada batang dengan
panjang L hitunglah besarnya medan listrik di titik P sejauh b dari salah satu
ujung batang bermuatan

Hitunglah besarnya medan listrik E pd bisektor dari muatan Garis


contoh

yang panjangnya L seperti diperlihatkan pada gambar dan hitung pula


bila panjangnya tak berhingga

dq
E
4 0 r 2

y
dE

dEy
P

dEx

dE
r

dq
1
dx

4 0 r 2 4 0 y 2 x 2
1

1 / 2

Ey

cos dE

1 / 2 L

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

dx

Bila panjang batang tak


berhingga maka

E y cos dE

dq
E Ey
2 cos 2
4 0
r

E
2 0 y