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Annual (National) Conference on Industrial Ventilation-IVC2010

Feb 24-25, 2010, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Simulation results of a subway environment ventilation using a developed code SSES

Mani Mahdinia
M.Sc. Student

Sima Zakani
M.Sc. Student

Hossein Afshin
PhD. Student

Bijan Farhanieh

Sharif University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering School, Tehran ,Iran

The piston action of a moving train in an underground
subway can act as a ventilator of the subway
environment. The modeling and simulation of this type
of ventilation, provides a means to investigate the
natural ventilation of the system and to ensure that the
pressure changes doesnt bother the passengers.
A visual Basic GUI code has been developed to
calculate the velocity and pressure distributions that
may be generated due to the natural ventilation, caused
by the piston action of a moving train. The outcome of
the software includes the Lagrangian and Eulerian
velocity and pressure profiles along the track. The other
results is the heat flux generated due to different
mechanisms like the train braking, car accessories,
lighting and etc. These data are used in the code to
calculate the required forced ventilation (without
considering the natural ventilation). Using the heat
generation data, one can design the subway equipments
and incorporating natural ventilation outputs, the
comfort criteria can be evaluated.
The code is used to simulate a subway track in
Tehran and the results are in a very good agreement
with the physical anticipations. The track includes 5
stations in its way, namely Enghelab, Valiasr, Ferdowsi,
Darvaze Shemran and Shohada, for which we have done
a heat generation analysis and calculated the required
mechanical ventilation. The code is developed by the
cooperation and team work of the Sharif Subway
Environmental Design Team (SSEDT). Accuracy
verification and realization of the code's capabilities,
eases the future work of the team, that may be
conducted for the other lines of the Tehran subway
Keywords: subway environment ventilation and cooling,
train piston effect, natural and mechanical ventilation
1) Introduction
The design and investigation of the working conditions
in a subway system may be conducted for three distinct
situations. Firstly, there is the situation in which no
means of mechanical ventilation exists and only the
train piston effect creates ventilation in the environment.
Such natural ventilation may be enough when the heat
load of the system is not too much, like in the winters,
but in the hot weather of the summer further ventilation
by the mechanical equipments may be required. Thus
the second type of the ventilation is the mechanical
ventilation, in which a ventilation system including air

washers, fans and other devices may be required. This

kind of setup is typically a requisite for the warm air in
the summer to create a comfortable environment for the
passengers. The last type of ventilation is in the case of
an emergency, like the times the train is caught in fire.
This kind of situation requires larger amounts of
ventilation, which needs to be provided by mechanical
means. For a further discussion on these cases, one may
consult the subway environmental design handbook [1].
In this article, our main concern is about the piston
action of the train and the natural ventilation of the
subway environment in normal operating conditions. In
our model for the piston action, we only consider the
one-dimensional changes along the subway track. This
is in contrast to the costly 2D and 3D simulations by the
commercial software, e.g. Fluent. Such a 1D simulation,
although less accurate, can give results which are
physically acceptable and a primitive design may be
based on them. The velocity and pressure profiles in a
coordinate system traveling with the train and a fixed
coordinate at the stations are derived and shown to be
true, physically. The second important part of the article
is about the section added to the code so that by
considering parameters of the patron, train and station
data, the code calculates the total heat gain production
and the required ventilation can be calculated. The
ventilation fluxes are given for each of the channels in a
single station. So this amount of ventilation, along with
the natural ventilation effect of the piston action of the
train may be used as design criteria of the subway
ventilation system. Also the effect of the various
parameters on the ventilation can be investigated.
Formerly, some codes have been developed for such
calculations. The most eminent software in this field is
the SES software (Subway Environmental Simulation)
[1], designed by the U.S. department of transportation.
This code has been used before for the design of some
subway systems around the world and can calculate
ventilation parameters for natural, forced and
emergency ventilation occasions. Also some articles are
published about the designs which have been carried
out, using this specific code [2]. The current code
provides some of the data generating mechanisms of
that software, but it is designed for the natural and
mechanical (and not emergency) ventilations only.
This code is used in the design and simulation of the
ventilating systems of 5 stations of a track in the Tehran
subway system. The installation of the ventilation
equipment system of one of the stations has been
completed and it is now under public use.