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A Level Literature Glossary

Abbreviations:
m. masculine noun
f. feminine noun
n. neuter noun
mfn. adjective
ind. indeclinable
 - root, dhaatu (you will find forms, tenses and moods of verbs associated with their
roots, as well as the class of the verb)
Alphabetical Order:
a

a|

ao

aO


[
q
Q

a
a,z,u m.

ray

aktR, m.

not the doer, non-doer

ak|yR, mfn.

not to be done; as a neuter noun a forbidden act

aFo, m.

absence of anger

aiGn, m.

fire, Agni

ag/, n.

front, tip, point

ac|pl, n.

absence of fickleness

aicNTy, mfn.

unthinkable, inconceivable

aD|t, mfn.

unperceived

aD|n, n.

ignorance

a~Iys\, mfn.

more minute

a~u, m.

atom

a, n.

egg

atiNt:, ind.

tirelessly

aiti, m.

guest

aitm|int|, f.

excessive pride

atIiNy, mfn.

beyond the senses

ad:, pronoun

that, yonder

aoh, m.

freedom from malice

amR, m.

unrighteousness, lawlessness

ay|pn, n.

instruction

ay|y, m.

study

ay|yn, n.

studying

an, m.

sinless one, an epithet for Arjuna

anl, m.

fire

ansUy|, f.

lack of displeasure, ill will, complaint

an|idTv, n.

beginninglessness, the state of having no beginning

an|my, mfn.

free from disease, healthy

ainl, m.

wind, air

anu-w\ (Cit Class


VI)
anu-gm\ (gCit, gCte
Class I)
anu-pz\ (pZyit,
present forms only)
anupUvRz:, ind.

seek after, seek; optative aiNvCet\


go after, follow, seek
perceives, sees
in successive order, in regular order, systematically

anu-uj\ (ue, uni


Class VII)
aNtr, n.

enjoys, suffers consequences, reaps fruit

aNy, pronoun.

other, another

aNy|y, m.

unlawful action

apr, mfn.

lower, inferior; as a pronoun other

apl|yn, n.

not fleeing

aph|irn\, mfn.

stealing, taking away

aip, ind.

also, even

apEzun, n.

not complaining, not slandering

aftKyR, mfn.

indefinable

afmey, mfn.

immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable

afsi, f.

avoidance of indulgence, avoidance of attachment

aifym\, ind.

unpleasantly, unkindly

ay, n.

fearlessness

ai- (it Class II)

comes to, approaches

ai-gm\ (gCit,

approach; gerund aigMy

opportunity, occasion, place; middle, intermediate

gCte Class I)
aij|t, mfn.

born

ai-yE (y|yit,

meditate; gerund aiy|y

aim|n, m.

conceit, haughtiness

ai-rx\ (rxit Class


I)
ai-v\ (vRte Class
I)
ay|s, m.

protect

practice, discipline

aimt, mfn.

unmeasured

amu], ind.

in the next world

aym\, pronoun

this

acR\ (acRit, Class I)

honour; gerund aCyR

ajRun, m.

Arjuna

aR, m.

aim, object, purpose, sake, thing, matter, affair, profit,


wealth, meaning; at the end of a compound for the purpose
of, for the sake of; aRe on account of, for the sake of

ahR\ (ahRit ahRte,


Class I)
alx~, mfn.

deserve, have a right to, be worthy to, be obliged to, should,


must, be able to, ought to, can (+ inf.)

y|ytee Class IV)

grow higher, increase

without characteristics

aloluPTv, n.

freedom from desire, freedom from intense greed

av-mn\ (mNyte, Class


IV)
av-sj\ (sjit, sjte
Class VI)
aviSt, mfn.

despise, treat with contempt; optative avmNyet

aivDey, mfn.

unknowable, indiscernible

aiv, mfn.

consistent with, not opposed to, harmonious with

av-Rx\ (Rxte Class I)

investigate, consider, regard; gerund aveXy

aVy, mfn.

unmanifest

aVyy, mfn.

eternal, imperishable, undecaying

aWq|, ind.

eight-fold

as\ (aiSt, Class II)

be, exist

ast\, mfn.
asmi, f.

not being or existing; as neuter noun the non-existent, the


unreal, that which does not exist
failure, non-accomplishment

as,zym\, ind.

without a doubt

asev|, f.

disregard, inattention

ah\ (defective verb)

say, speak; perfect 3rd person singular a|h

ahm\, pronoun

ah,k|r, m.

egoism, the I-maker

aih,s|, f.

harmlessness, non-violence

fling, throw, throw into, put into, cast


present, placed, contained in, abiding in

a|
a|- (it, Class II)

go towards; gerund Ty

a|k|z, m.

space, ether

-a|Tmk, mfn.

at the end of a compound having the nature / character of

a|Tmj, m.

son, child

a|Tmn\, m.
a|id, m.

self (reflexive pronoun), soul, individual soul, spirit,


individual Self, Self, mind, body, nature
beginning, at the end of a compound etc.

a|p:, f. pl.

waters

a||, f.

appearance, likeness, resemblance

a|jRv, n.

uprightness, rectitude

a|lSy, n.

idleness, sloth

a|-v (v~oit, v~t


u e
Class V)
a|sIn, mfn.

cover, obscure, veil; gerund a|vTy


seated

a|sur, mfn.

demonic

a|iStKy, n.

faith

a|-S| (itWQit, Class


I)

resort to, practise; optative a|itWQet\

Jy|, f.

sacrifice

t:, ind.

from this

it, ind.

so, thus, speech marks

Ndu, m.

moon

iNy, n.

sense, sense organ, organ

v, ind.

like, as it were

R
RZvr, m.

lord

t, ind.

indeed, even

.m, mfn.

best, best of

TsgR, m.

excretion

d, n.

water

dk, n.

water

d\-| (|it Class II)

become visible, appear; perfect O

d\-sj\ (sjit, sjte


Class VI)
p- (rit, rtee
Class I)

cast off, discard, abandon; gerund TsJy

pog, m.

enjoyment

p-ilp\ (ilMpit,
ilMpte Class I, VI)

defile, besmear, cover; passive pilPyte is defiled, is


besmeared, is covered

pSkr, m.

household utensils

pS, n.

organ of generation, genitals

y, mfn.

both

understand, comprehend, consider, regard; imperative of


causative 2nd person singular p|ry (causative has same
meaning as standard verb)

, m.

thigh

A
A (ACit Class VI)

reach, obtain, incur

Aiw, m.

seer, sage

k, mfn.
k|dz, numeral

one, a certain; as an adverb uniquely, singularly; plural ke


some
eleven

td\, pronoun

this

v, ind.

emphasises the word that falls previous to it. Can mean


very, indeed, verily, truly, really, alone, only
thus; vm\ aStu let it be so!

vm\, ind.
ao
aojs\, n.

strength, vigour, energy, power

k
k~I, f.

mortar and pestle

kmRn\, n.

action, deeds, work, actions and their results, occupation

kihRict\, ind.

never, at no time

k|m, m.

desire

k|yR, mfn.
k|l, m.

to be done; as a masculine noun, business, work, matter,


duty
time

k|, n.

log

ikm\, interr. pronoun

what?; + ict\, cn or aip, whoever (m/f), whatever; + it,


under what pretext? with what intention? why?
money lending

kusId, n.
 (kroit kute, Class
VIII)
TSn, mfn.

do, make, accomplish, perform

iw, f.

ploughing, agriculture

W~, m.

Krrswn-a

W~vTmRn\, m.

bahivrihi compound meaning whose way is black, fire

k?p\ (kLpte, Class I)


k?Pt, mfn.

be in order, be well ordered or regulated, conduce to, be fit


or suitable for (+4th); causative kLpyit distribute,
arranged, disposed
prescribed

kevl, mfn.

one, alone, all; as an indeclinable only, alone

entire, whole, all

kONtey, m.

son of Kunti

Fme~, ind.

step by step, gradually, in regular course

F|Nt, n.

step, motion

iFym|~, mfn.

being done, performed, made

Fo, m.

anger

xi]y, m.

Kswatriya

xm|, f.

patience, forbearance

xy, m.

decay

xr\ (xrit Class I)

flow, stream, trickle, fall from, slip

x|], mfn.

relating to the Kswatriya caste

x|iNt, f.

patience, endurance, tolerance of others, forgiveness

ixit, f.

earth, ground

xe], n.

field

xei]n\, mfn.

owning a field, one who owns a field

, n.

space

g
g~, m.

class, group

gt, mfn.

gone

git, f.

state, condition, mode of existence, happiness

gN, m.

smell, fragrance, scent

gm\ (gCit, gCte


Class I)
gMy, mfn.

go

g|], n.

limb

gu~, m.

quality, virtue

guiPt, f.

protection

ghmeidn\, mfn.

those who perform domestic rites

ghS, m.

householder

go, f.

cow, earth

goPt, m.

protector

gOrXy, n.

cowherding

g/h\ (g|it Class IX)

grab, grasp, lay hold of; passive gte is restrained

g/|, mfn.

to be grasped, taken hold of, perceived

GlE (Gl|yit Class II)

feel aversion or dislike, be reluctant;

to be gone to, to be approached


/| (ij/it, ij/te
Classes I and III)

smell; gerund /Tv|

c
c, ind.

and

cFvt\, mfn.

like a wheel

cxus\, n.

eye

c{cl, mfn.

trembling, unstable, wandering, unsteady

c{clTv, n.

unsteadiness

cr, mfn.

moving

cl, (clit, clte


Class I)
cl, mfn.

deviate, swerve from, move

cuLlI, f.

hearth

moving, unstable, restless

j
-j, mfn.

born from, produced from, caused by

jgt\, n.

earth, world, universe

jn\ (j|yit Class IV)


jNtu, m.

be born, arise, be born of; perfect jDe; causative jnyit


begets, produces, causes
creature

jNm, m or n.

birth

jPy, n.

muttered prayer

j|g (j|grit Class I)

wake up, watches over; causative j|gryit, awaken

j|it, m.

kinsman, relative

ijt, mfn.

conquered

ij|, f.

tongue

jIv, m.

living, living being, life, principle of life, living soul

jIvn, n.

subsistence, living, life

D|n, n.

wisdom, knowledge

Dey, mfn.

should be known

t
tt\, pronoun.

that

tt:, ind.

thus, thence, therefore, then

t], ind.

there, in this case, in this matter, at this time

t>v, n.

essence, reality, truth

t>vt:, ind.

accurately, according to reality, principle

t|, ind.

likewise, also

tps\, n.

austerity

tpiSvn\, mfn.

ascetic

-tm, mfn.

superlative ending

tms\, n.

darkness

-tr, mfn.

comparative ending

tpR~, n.

water, offering

tSm|t\, ind.

therefore

t|ms, mfn.

endowed with tamas (darkness)

tu, ind.

but, however; with v, truly, indeed

tW~|, f.

thirst, desire

t< (trit, trte Class I)

cross, cross over, get across

tejs\, n.

glory, majesty, splendour, brilliance, fire, energy

tejiSvn\, mfn.

powerful brilliant, majestic, energetic

toy, n.

water

Tyj\ (Tyjit, Tyjte,


Class I)
Ty|g, m.

leave, abandon, give up; optative Tyjet\

Tvc\, f.

skin

Tvm\, pronoun

you

renunciation

d
d, m.

stick, mace, sceptre, rod of punishment, punishment

d, mfn.

should be punished

dm, m.

restraint, self control, taming

dM, m.

hypocrisy, fraud

dy|, f.

compassion

dpR, m.

arrogance

dzm, mfn.

tenth

d|Xy, n.

skill, capability

d|n, n.

giving, charity, generosity

d|r|:, m. pl.

wife

idz\, f.

direction

duinRg/h, mfn.

difficult to restrain, hard to control, hard to subdue

dul
R , mfn.

difficult to find, difficult to attain

duWt, n.

bad deed

duWq, mfn.

bad, corrupted

duStr, mfn.

hard to cross

d, mfn.

firm, unyielding, fixed

dit, f.

steadfastness, firmness; a skin of leather, leather bag for


holding liquids
sees; gerund d|

dz\ (not conjugated in


the present tense)
di, f.

sight

devt|, f.

divinity, divine being

dez, m.

place

deh, m. or n.

body

deihn\, mfn.

embodied

dEv, mfn.

divine, for the gods

dow, m.

sin, fault, defect, harm, evil

uit, f.

splendour, brightness, lustre, majesty

ij, m.

a twice-born, member of the upper three castes


n{jy, m.

Winner of wealth, an epithet for Arjuna

mR, m.

virtue, righteousness, law, duty, custom

I, f.

thought, mental attitude, intelligence, mind

 (rit, rtee Class


I)

hold, bear, place; causative passive |yRte is borne, is


sustained

t, mfn.

practised, controlled, employed

it, f.

fortitude, courage

n
n

not, no; n j|tu never

n:

to us

ndI, f.

river

nr, m.

man

n|isk|, f.

nose

ing/h, m.

restraint, suppression

inTym\, mfn.

eternal, always

inTyz:, mfn.

always, constantly, eternally

in|, f.

sleep, slumber, sleepiness

10

in-bN\ (bn|it,

bind, bind on, enchain, fasten to, fetter

bnIte Class IX)


inbN, m.

bondage

in-ym\ (yCit Class I) restrain, rein in, check, curb, suppress, hold together, brings
in, procures
restriction, restraint, penance
inym, m.
ingRu~Tv, n.

devoid of qualities, absent of qualities

inmRlTv, n.

stainlessness, cleanness, purity

inWit, f.

atonement, expiation

nud, mfn.

dispelling, removing, driving away

n, m.

man, mankind, human being

Ny|y, m.

rule, custom

p
pi, f.

digestion

pc\, (pcit, pcte Class


IV)
p{c, numeral

cook, bake, roast, boil; future conditional 3rd person plural


apXyn\

p{ck, mfn.

consisting of five, made of five

p{cm, mfn.

fifth

pd\, m.

foot

pd, n.

stage, step, condition

pr, mfn.

highest, supreme, great, superior, next, other

prtr, mfn.

higher, more superior

prm, mfn.
pircy|R, f.

highest, supreme, most excellent, extreme; following, later,


next
service

pirTy|g, m.

relinquishment, abandoning

pw, mfn.

piercing, sharp, harsh, unkind; as a neuter noun roughness,


harshness
see; present participle 1st case singular masculine pZyn\

pz\ (pZyit, present


forms only)
pzu, m.

five

cattle, domestic animal

p|v, m.

Paan-ddava, an epithet for Arjuna

p|d, m.

foot

p|p, n.

evil deed, sin

p|yu, m.

anus

p|R, m.

son of Prrthaa, epithet for Arjuna

ipt|mh, m.

grandfather

11

ipt, m.

father

pI\ (pIyit, Class X) press, squeeze, harm, oppress; present participle pIyn\
puy, mfn.

good, meritorious, pleasant

pui.k|, f.

white ant

pu], m.

son

puw, m.

man, being, spirit, person

pUjn, n.

reverence

pUv,R mfn.

past, former, prior, preceding; as an indeclinable pUvm\ in


former times; pUve in a previous time

pk\, ind.

different, separate, several

pivI, f.

earth

pWq, mfn.

asked

pew~I, f.

grindstone

pOw, mfn.

manhood, virility, humanity

f-k|z\ (k|zte Class I)

be visible, shine, manifest; causative fk|zyit cause to


appear, cause to shine, illumine, reveal
clear, bright, shining, brilliant, illuminating

fk|z, mfn.
fit, f.
f-cx\ (cxte, Class I)

nature, primal matter, original state, ordinary state or


condition
tell, relate, say

fCNn, mfn.

covered, concealed

f-jn\ (j|yte Class


IV)
fjn, m.

is born

fj|, f.
fj|pit, m.

offspring, children, subject of a king, people, progeny,


creature
Prajaapati, the lord of creatures, the creator

fjuWq, mfn.

attached

fD|, f.

wisdom, knowledge

f~v, m.

the syllable Om

f~It, mfn.

hurled, inflicted

fitg/h, m.

acceptance of gifts

fit-cx\ (cxte, Class


I)
fit-pUj\ (pUjyit, Class
X)
fit-vc\ (vi, Class
II)
fTyhm\, ind.

tell, relate, say

procreation, begetting

honour; gerund fitpUJy


reply; perfect fTyuv|c
daily

12

f-nI (nyit, nyte


Class I)
fv, m.

inflict, promote; optative f~yet\

f|, f.

light, radiance

fu, m.

master, lord

fm|in\, mfn.

harassing, stirring about, troubling

fm|d, m.

intoxication, madness, insanity, carelessness, delusion

fly, m.

dissolution, destruction

f-lI (lIyte, Class I)

die, is dissolved, perish

f-vc\ (vi, Class II)

proclaim, explain, teach; future fvXyit

fz|ist, m.

governor, ruler, master

fs, m.

attachment

fsuPt, n.

deep sleep, fast asleep, latent

f|~, m.

breath, vital force

f|dur\, ind.

+ reveal, make manifest

f-a|p\ (a|Pnoit, Class


V)
f|p~, n.

obtain, gain, get; gerund f|Py; optative f|Pnuy|t\

ify, mfn.

beloved, loveable, dear; as an indeclinable ifym\ in a


pleasant way, kindly
declared, propounded, explained, told, taught, mentioned,
spoken
sewed, strung on

fo, mfn.
fot, mfn.

source, origin, cause

attainment, acquisition

b
bN\ (bn|it, bnIte
Class IX)
bl, n.

bind, tie, fasten; perfect bbN; passive bte

blvt\, mfn.

powerful, mighty, strong, intense; as an adverb powerfully

bil, m.

offering of food

b|Nv, m.

relative, kinsman

b|hu, m.

arm

bIj, n.

seed, germ, primary cause, origin

bui, f.
buimt\, mfn.

intellect, intelligence, discrimination, mind, resolve,


decision
endowed with understanding, intelligent, learned, wise

bu, mfn.

wise

b/n\, n.

Brahman, the Absolute, the Infinite; the Braahman-a caste; as


masculine noun Brahmaa

power, strength, might, vigour, force

13

b/|~, m.

Braahman-a caste

b/U (b/vIit, b/t


U e Class II)

say; imperfect ab/vIt\; optative b/Uy|t\


gvt\, mfn.

venerable, blessed

y, m.

fear, danger, dread

rtwR, m.

bull of the Bharatas, an epithet for Arjuna

|rt, m.

descendant of Bharata

|v, m.

being, state, condition, reality, character

iNn, mfn.

divided, split

uj\ (uni, u@\e)


Class VII)
U (vit, vte Class
I)
Ut, mfn.

enjoy, possess, eat; gerund u|


be, become; perfect bUv; gerund UTv|; optative vet\

Uim, f.

having become, been, being; at the end of a compound


consisting of, being like; as a neuter noun a being, creature
earth, ground

Uys\, mfn.

more, greater; as adverb again

og, m.

enjoyment, pleasure, delight, use

Ot, mfn.

to lower creatures

m
mi~g~, m.

pearl

mt, mfn.

is thought, is believed

m.:, ind.

from me

mTSy, m.

fish

musUdn, m.

Slayer of Madhu, an epithet for Krrswn-a

mn\ (mNyte Class IV)

think, imagine, believe, suppose

mns\, n.

mind

mnIizn\, mfn.

intelligent, wise; as a masculine noun wise man

mnu, m.

Manu

-my, mfn.

made of, composed of

mht\, mfn.

great

m|t, f.

mother

m|dRv, n.

gentleness, kindness

im], n.

friend; as a masculine noun Mitra

mu, n.

head, mouth

mUitR, f.

manifestation, material form

14

mt, mfn.

dead

mTyu:, m.

death

md\, f.

mud

me

to me, of me

mohn, n.

bewildering, deluding, confusing

y
yjn, n.

worshipping, sacrificing

yD, m.

sacrifice, worship

yTn, m.

effort, exertion

y| ... t|, ind.

as ... so, just as ... in the same way

y|hRt:, ind.

according to worth, according to merit, appropriately

y|vd\, ind.

properly, rightly, duly, exactly

yd\, relative pronoun

what, which

yd| ... td|, ind.

when ... then

yid ... tihR, ind.

if ... then

yNt, m.

charioteer

y| (y|it Class II)

go, proceed, move, walk

y|jn, n.

sacrificing for others, performing sacrifice

yu, n.

battle

yog, m.

intense, effortful action, discipline, union, yoga

yoin, m.

womb, place of birth, origin

r
rx~, n.

protection

r{j\ (rjit Class IV)


rjs\, n.

glow, is affected, is excited; causative r{jyit make happy,


gratify
passion; menstrual flow

rs, m.

sap, essence, flavour, taste

r|g, m.

passion, desire, longing

r|jn\, m.

king

r|js, mfn.

endowed with rajas (passion)

r|iv, m.

the sun

Km, m.

gold

l
ilp\ (ilMpit, ilPyte
Class I, VI)

stain, smear; passive ilPyte is attached, is stained, is


smeared
15

lok, m.

the world, people

loWQ, m or n.

clod

v
vc\ (vi, Class II)

say, speak; perfect v|c; infinitive vum\

vcnm\, n.

speech, words

vd\ (vdit, vdte Class


I)
vinKp, m.

speak, say
trade

v~R, m.

colour, caste

vitRn\, mfn.

engaging in, behaving

vLmIik, m.

anthill

vh\ (vhit Class I)

bear, carry; causative v|hyit draw, convey, carry; present


participle of causative 1st case singular masculine v|hyn\

v|c\, f.

speech, words, voice

v|ijn\, m.

horse

v|i~Jy, n.

trade

v|yu, m.

wind, air

iv-a{j\ (ani, ae
Class VII)
iv-a|p\ (a|Pnoit Class
V)
iv-cr\ (crit, Class I)

to cause to appear, manifest, display; present participle


masculine singular 1st case Vy{jyn\

ivD|n, n.

discrimination, discernment

ivDey, mfn.

is to be understood

-ivd\, mfn.

knowing

ivd\ (vei., Class II)

know; imperative ivi; perfect 3rd person plural ivdu:;

permeate, pervade, penetrate; gerund Vy|Py


move hither and thither, wander; present participle neuter
plural 6th case ivcrt|m\

optative iv|t\
iv|, f.

knowledge

ivt\, mfn.

wise; as a masculine noun wise man

iv|n, n.

arrangement, regulation, ordinance

iv-nz\ (nZyit, Class


IV)

perish, come to naught; present participle 7th case plural


masculine / neuter ivnZyTsu; present participle 2nd case

ivfduWq, mfn.

singular masculine / neuter ivnZyNtm\; causative ivn|zyit


destroy
very corrupt

iv|vsu, m.

flame

16

ivmu, mfn.

having an averted face

ivmox, m.

liberation

ivvijRt, mfn.

free from, devoid of

iviv, mfn.

various, diverse

iv-izw\ (izni Class


VII)
ivwy, m.
ivW~u, m.

distinguish, excel, leave apart, separate; passive ivizWyte


excel, is better than (+5th)
an object of the senses, matter, subject, topic, realm, sphere,
country, domain
Viswn-u

ivSt|r, m.

expansion, spreading, becoming large, diffusion

v., mfn.

happened, took place, set in motion

vi, f.

growth

veg, m.

current

ved, m.

Veda, knowledge, sacred knowledge

vEr|Gy, n.

indifference, aversion, distaste for worldly objects

vEZy, m.

Vaiszya caste

VyviSit, f.

persevering, steadfastness

z
zk\ (zKnoit, Class
V)
zi, f.

be competent, can; passive zKyte is able to (+ infinitive)

znE:, ind.

slowly, gently, gradually

ability

zm\ (zMyit, Class IV) is extinguished, is tranquillised


zm, m.

tranquillity, serenity

zrIr, n.

body

zrIirn\, mfn.

embodied being

zizn\, m.

moon

z|iNt, f.

peace, tranquillity, serenity

z|Zvt, mfn.

perpetual

z|s\ (z|sit, Class I)

teach, instruct, correct, direct; imperative z|i

zu\ (zuit Class


IV)
zuUw|, f.

is purified, cleansed

zU, m.

SZuudra caste

zUl, m. or n.

spit, spear

zoy, mfn.

is to be punished

zOc, n.

purity

service, attendance

17

zOyR, n.

heroism, valour, might

I, f.

good fortune, success, prosperity

Igvn\, m.

The Blessed Lord, an epithet for Krrswn-a

u (z~oit, z~ute Class


V)

hear; gerund uTv|; 3rd person singular passive imperative

o], n.

ear, hearing

Uyt|m\

s
sMyk\, ind.

correctly, accurately, properly, in the right way

s,ym, m.

restraint, control

s,zui, f.

purity

sm\-s (srit Class I)

flow together with, wander, undergo transmigration;


causative s,s|ryit causes to transmigrate, causes to pass
through a succession of states
sticking, attachment

s,g, m.
sm\-ic, (icnoit, icnute
Class V)
s{j\ (sjit Class I)
st\, mfn.
s>v, n.
sTy, mfn.
sn|tn, mfn.
sm\-in-ym\ (yCit
Class I)
sm\-in-ivz\ (ivzit,

collect up, accumulate; optative s,icnuy|t\


cling, stick, adhere; causative s,jyit causes to cling or
stick to
being, existing, real; as a neuter noun, a real object, what
exists, the real
goodness; being, mind
true, real; as a neuter noun, truth, reality; speaking truth,
veracity, honesty
ancient, permanent, everlasting, primeval
restrain, subdue; gerund s,inyMy; infinitive s,inyNtum\

ivzte Class VI)

sit or settle down together, establish in (+ 7th), direct the


mind towards (+7th); optative of causative s,invezyet\

s,Ny|s, m.

renunciation

sm, mfn.

the same, like, similar, identical

smt|, n.

sameness, identity

smviSt, mfn.

steady, standing, established

sm\-a|-idz\ (idzit,

allot, assign, appoint

idzte Class VI)


sm|st:, ind.

in a summary manner, concisely

sm|iht, mfn.

with great attention, concentrated

sm\-Rx\ (Rxte, Class I) investigate thoroughly; gerund smIXy


smu*v, m.

existence, production, origin, source

18

sm\-pd\ (pte, Class


IV)
sMpd\, f.

becomes complete, obtains, attains, enters into, is absorbed


in (+2nd)

sm\-pz\ (pZyit,
present forms only)

see; present participle 1st case masculine s,pZyn\; optative

endowment, destiny, attainment, characteristic


s,pZyet\

sm\-f-nI (nyit, nyte


Class I)
sMv, m.

inflict punishment (+7th); optative s,f~yet\

sgR, m.

creation

svR, pronoun

all, every

svRt:, ind.

everywhere, entirely

svR], ind.

everywhere, in all places

svRz:, ind.

wholly, completely, universally

sh, numeral

one thousand

sh|y, m.

attendant, companion

s|i>vk, mfn.

endowed with sattva (goodness)

s|My, n.

equality, equilibrium, equal state, impartiality, indifference

isi, f.

success

issxu, mfn.

desirous of emitting, wishing to create

sut, n.

good deed

su, n.

pleasure, happiness

suduWkr, mfn.

very difficult to do

sun|, f.

slaughterhouse

suPt, mfn.

sleeping, dull

sUXm, mfn.

subtle, minute, fine

sU], n.

string, thread

sUy,R m.

sun

sj\ (sjit, sjte


Class IV)
sOXMy, m.

let go, release, create; gerund s|; perfect ssjR

S]I, f.

woman

-S, mfn.

standing, situated, being, situated in, located, being in

S| (itWQit Class I)

stand, be situated, stay, remain, be, exist; present participle


2nd case singular itWQNtm\

S|vr, mfn.

stationary

iSit, f.

condition, state

iSr, mfn.

steady, permanent, changeless

origin, birth, source, production

subtlety, minuteness, fineness

19

Sneh, m.

affection, attachment towards (+7th); liquid, oiliness

SpzRn, m.

act of touching, touch

Spz\ (Spzit, Spzte


Class VI)
Sv, pronoun

touch; gerund Sp|

SvPn, m.

sleep

Sv|v, m.

inherent nature, ones own being, ones own nature

Svym\, ind.

oneself, himself, herself, itself, by himself

Svy,U, mfn.

self-existent

own, ones own, my own, your own, his own, etc.

h
hr, m.

SZiva

hivs\, n.

oblation (of butter)

hSt, m.

hand

ih, ind.

for, indeed

ih,s\ (ih,sit/ ihniSt


Class I, VII)
hEm, mfn.

harm, wound, kill, destroy

hom, m.

burnt offering

Hw\ (HWyit Class IV)

is excited, thrilled

I, f.

modesty

made of gold

20