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# Experiment No:-

## MOVING COIL METER

INSTRUCTED BY :
Mr. KANDEEPAN.S
GROUP MEMBERS :
RATHNAYAKE.R.M.P.B.
SAGARA.W.P.S.
SOMAPRIYA.G.R.H.U.

NAME
: SANDASIRI.D.D.K.G
COURSE
: B.Sc. Eng (level 2)
GROUP
: G3-08
FIELD
: Electrical
INDEX NO
: 020350
DATE OF PER : 27/11/2003
DATE OF SUB : 11/12/2003

CALCULATIONS
Part 1:
S1

R1

I2

A2

I2-I1
I1

6V

S2

A1
R2

## Internal resistance of A1 (RA1)= 0.5

(A2-A1) x R2 =A1 x RA1
(A2-A1) =
y

RA1 . A1
R2

m.x
RA1
R2

= 190-50
92-24

RA1
R2

= 2.1875

R1 = 0.5
= 0.228
2.1875
Shunt resistance = 0.228
Part 2:

I
6V

A
V

R2

## Internal resistance of A1 (RA1)= 0.5

V = (RA1 + R2) x 10-3. I
y = m.x
R2) x 10-3 = 0.059375

(RA1 +

Series

Part 1
Part 2

A1( mA)

A2(mA)

A2-A1(mA)

100

300

200

80

250

170

60

188

128

40

126

86

20

64

44

Practical value ()
0.2
59.0

## (0.5 + R2) = 59.375

R2 = 59.375-0.5 = 58.875
resistance = 58.875

Theoretical value ( )
0.228
58.875

Characteristics of (A2-A1) Vs A1

Ammeter
(mA)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Voltmeter
6
5.4
4.7
4.1
3.5
2.9
2.3
1.8
1.2
0.6
0

## Characteristics of Ammeter Reading Vs Voltmeter Reading

DISCUSSION
Construction on the moving coil instruments
There are two types of moving-coil instruments, namely,
(1) Permanent magnet moving coil meters
(2) Dynamometer type moving coil meters
Permanent magnet moving coil meters can only be used for direct current measurements. A light
coil is pivoted so that its sides lie in the air gaps between the poles of a permanent magnet and a softiron cylinder. When current passes throw the coil a deflecting torque is produced owing to the reaction
to between the permanent magnet field and the magnetic field of the coil. The deflecting torque
becomes proportional to the strength of the electromagnet and hence to the current. A coil spring is
used which produces a controlling torque proportional to the deflection. Thus at balance, the deflection
becomes proportional to the current. When the current is unidirectional, as with d.c., the deflection
would be to one particular side. When the current is varying at a rate which the needle cannot flow,
what will be indicated is the mean value, due to the inertia of the movement. Thus the moving coil
meter always measures the mean value or d.c. value of a given waveform.
In dynamometer instruments the permanent magnet is replaced by either one or two fixed coils
which carry the current to be measured (or a current proportional to the voltage to be measured) and
which are connected either in series or in parallel with the moving coil. The coils are usually air-cored,
the use of iron being usually avoided in such instruments owing to its introduction of hysteresis, eddy
current, and other errors when the instrument is used for a.c. In this case the deflection would be
proportional to the product of two magnetic fields, and hence to the product of the currents in the fixed
coils and the moving coil. Thus, if used as an ammeter will measure the mean square value, or usually
calibrated to read r.m.s. value.
Analogue meters usually show a particular deflection for a particular input quantity. For this to
happen, there are three main torques. These are

## (1) Deflecting torque

(2) Controlling torque
(3) Damping torque.
The deflecting torque is produced by the measured quantity or a value proportional to it.
This causes the pointer or needle to move away from the zero position. However, unless there is a
balancing torque, the pointer will continue to move and increase the deflection. This is controlled
by a controlling force, which is most commonly produced by a spring. As in any system, unless
the damping is provided, the two forces would cause the needle to oscillate about the final
position making reading very difficult. Thus damping is provided, which does not affect the final
position, but reduces the over swing making the final position to be achieved quickly.
Voltmeters and Ammeters

Voltmeters and Ammeters are classed together because there is no essential difference in
principle between them. Except in the case of electrostatic instruments, a voltmeter carries a current
which is proportional to the voltage to be measured, and this current produces the operating torque. In
an ammeter this torque is produced by the current to be measured, or by a definite fraction of it. Thus,
the only real difference between the two instruments is in the magnitude of the current producing the
operating torque.
An ammeter is usually of low resistance, so that its connection in series with the circuit in
which the current is to be measured does not appreciably alter this current. A voltmeter on the other
hand, is connected across the voltage to be measured, and must therefore have a high resistance so that
the current taken by it may be small. A low range ammeter- i.e. one which gives full-scale deflection
for a very small current-may thus be used be used as a voltmeter if a high resistance is connected in
series with it. The current which flows through it when it, together with series resistance, is connected
across the voltage to be measured, must be within its range when used as an ammeter.

In this experiment the practical value and theoretical value which observed have a small
difference. There are several reasons for that. Voltmeters and ammeters used to take readings are not
ideal although they were assumed to be ideal in the practical situation. To supply power to the circuit
DC power supplies were used. These power supplies also have considerable internal resistances which
were neglected when taking readings. Although using batteries could have reduced this error it causes
another error. That is the voltage of the battery does not remain constant with time.
The multi range ammeters use this technique to change the range that is measured. When the
ammeter is used to measure a larger range of current a smaller shunt resistance is used with the coil. It
allows more current to flow through the shunt resistor and less current to flow through the coil so at
the full scale deflection of the coil the actual current through the ammeter is large. So the range that
can be measured using the ammeter is increased. Similarly when the ammeter is used to measure
current at a smaller range a larger shunt resistance is fixed with the coil. This makes a larger portion of
the current to flow through the coil. Thus the range of the ammeter can be reduced.
The multi range volt meters also use a similar technique to change the range that is measured.
The coil of the volt meter is connected with different series resistances to change the range. When
measuring voltage at a larger range a series resistance of a larger value is selected. By reducing the
value of the series resistance the range of the voltmeter can be reduced.