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VIII Seminrio Tcnico de Proteo e Controle

28 de Junho a 1o de Julho de 2005


Rio de Janeiro RJ
Artigo: ST-3

ADVANCED POWER TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL


PROTECTION
Zoran Gaji, Ivo Brni, Birger Hillstrm
zoran.gajic@se.abb.com, ivo.brncic@se.abb.com, birger.hillstrom@se.abb.com
ABB Power Technologies AB, Vsters, Sweden

1.

ABSTRACT

Three most typical weaknesses of the analogue


differential protection relays for power transformers
and autotransformers have been:
1) Long operating time in case of heavy internal
faults followed by main CT saturation. Long
delays for heavy internal faults they can be of the
order of several tens of milliseconds are a
consequence of the harmonic distortion of the fault
currents as they are seen by the differential relay.
The harmonic distortion is due to initial heavy
saturation of the current transformers under fault
conditions. Harmonic restrain criterion prevents
immediate operation of the differential protection.

symmetrical components [1] and [2], or more exact,


on the negative-sequence current theory.
Key Words: Protection, Transformer Protection,
Differential Algorithm.

2.

INTRODUCTION

3) Bad sensitivity for low-level internal faults,


such as winding turn-to-turn faults. The lowlevel turn-to-turn faults typically cannot be detected
with differential relay due to limited sensitivity of
the relay operaterestraint characteristic. Even the
relatively high sensitivity in the first section of the
differential relay characteristic of typically 30%
may not be enough to detect a minor turn-to-turn
fault, which initially only causes a differential
current of 10%, until it evolves into a more severe
fault with higher differential currents.

The above-described problems can be effectively


solved by the application of directional comparison
principle between the negative sequence currents
from all power transformer sides. Existence of
relatively high negative-sequence currents is in
itself a proof of a disturbance on the power system,
possibly a fault in the power transformer. The
negative-sequence currents are measurable
indications of abnormal conditions, similar to the
zero-sequence currents. One of the several
advantages of the negative-sequence currents
compared to the zero-sequence currents is however
that they provide coverage for phase-to-phase and
power transformer turn-to-turn faults [4] as well,
not only for earth-faults. Theoretically the negative
sequence currents do not exist during symmetrical
three-phase faults, however they do appear during
initial stage of such faults [3] for long enough time
for the differential relay to make the proper
decision. Further, the negative sequence currents
are not stopped at a power transformer of the Yd, or
Dy connection. The negative sequence currents are
always properly transformed to the other side of
any power transformer for any external disturbance.
Finally, the negative sequence currents are typically
not affected by through-load currents.

All these weaknesses can be successfully avoided if


the position of the fault (i.e. internal or external to
the differential protection zone) is quickly and
correctly determined for all cases. The new
protection principle is based on the theory of

The new algorithm for the internal/external fault


discriminator is based on the theory of symmetrical
components, or more exact, on the negativesequence currents. Already in 1933, Wagner and
Evans [1] stated that:

2) Unwanted operations for external faults and


transformer inrush. Analogue differential
protection relays for power transformers show a
tendency to unwanted operations for faults external
to the protected zone with the power transformer
particularly for external earth faults.

1) Source of the negative-sequence currents is at


the point of fault, (ENS = -INS * ZNS)
2) Negative-sequence currents distribute through
the negative-sequence network
3) Negative-sequence currents obey the first
Kirchhoff's law
Similar statements are as well re-confirmed in
reference [2].

opposite directions. In other words, the


internal/external fault discriminator sees these
currents as having a relative phase displacement of
exactly 180o as shown in Figure 2.
INSS1

Yy0; 1:1

INSS1

INSS2

ZNSS1

ZNSS2

ENS
Negative Sequence
Zero Potential

INSS1

INSS1

Relay

The internal/external fault discriminator simply


determines the position of the source of the
negative sequence currents with respect to the
protected zone. If the source of the negative
sequence currents is found to be outside the zone,
then the fault is external. If the source is found to be
inside the zone, the fault is internal.
The internal/external fault discriminator only works
if the protected power transformer is connected to
some load, so that currents can flow through the
protected power transformer, or at least through two
windings in case of a three-winding power
transformer. Thus, at an initial current inrush, the
internal/external fault discriminator algorithm
declares neither internal, nor external fault.
3.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

In order to avoid misunderstandings about what is


meant by the same direction and opposite
direction, an explanation of relay internally used
CT reference directions is shown in Figure 1.

For an internal fault (with the fictitious negative


sequence source within protected power
transformer) the negative sequence currents will
flow out of the faulty power transformer on both
sides. According to the definitions in Figure 1, the
negative sequence currents on the respective power
transformer sides will have the same direction. In
other
words,
the
internal/external
fault
discriminator sees these currents as having a
relative phase displacement of zero electrical
degrees, as shown in Figure 3. In reality, for an
internal fault, there might be some small phase shift
between these two currents due to possible different
negative sequence impedance angles of the source
equivalent circuits on the two power transformer
sides.
INSS1

Z1S1

Z1S2

Yy0; 1:1

INSS2

ZNSS1

ZNSS2

ENS

IW2

IW1

E1S1

Figure 2: Flow of negative sequence currents for


power transformer external fault

Negative Sequence
Zero Potential

INSS2

INSS1

E1S2

Relay
IW2

IW1

Relay
Figure 1: Used reference connections of CTs, and
definition of positive direction of currents
As shown in Figure 1 relay will always measure the
primary currents on all sides of the power
transformer with the same reference direction
towards the power transformer windings.
For an external fault the fictitious negative
sequence source will be located outside the
differential protection zone at the fault point. Thus
the negative sequence currents will enter the
healthy power transformer on the fault side, and
leave it on the other side, properly transformed.
According to the current direction definitions in
Figure 1, the negative sequence currents on the
respective power transformer sides will have

Figure 3: Flow of negative sequence currents for


power transformer internal fault
3.1 Negative sequence differential current
Modern numerical transformer differential relays
use matrix equations to automatically compensate
for any power transformer vector group and turns
ratio [6]. This compensation is done automatically
in the on-line process of calculating the traditional
differential currents. It can be shown, that the
negative-sequence differential currents can be
calculated by using exactly the same matrix
equations, which are used to calculate the
traditional differential currents. However, the same
equation shall be fed by the negative-sequence
currents from the two power transformer sides
instead of individual phase currents, as shown in
the following matrix equation for a case of twowinding, Yd5 power transformer.

Id _ L 1 _ N S

IH V _ N S

1
Id _ L 2 _ N S
Id _ L 3 _ N S

1
Ur _ LV

3
1

1
Ur _ HV

IH V _ N S

Neg. Seq. current


contribution from
HV side

IL V _ N S

IH V _ N S

3
0

IL V _ N S
IL V _ N S

Neg. Seq. current


contribution from
LV side

"steady state"
for HV side
neg. seq. phasor

90
60

150

30
10 ms

180

0
0.1 kA

where:
Id_L1_NS is the negative sequence differential
current in phase L1 (in HV side primary amperes).
IHV_NS is HV side negative sequence current in
HV side primary amperes (phase L1 reference).
ILV_NS is LV side negative sequence current in
LV side primary amperes (phase L1 reference).
Ur_HV is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage
on HV side (setting parameter).
Ur_LV is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage
on LV side (setting parameter).
a is the well-known complex operator for sequence
quantities; a=0,5+j*0,866.
In reality only the first negative sequence
differential current, e.g. Id_L1_NS, needs to be
calculated, because the negative sequence currents
always form the symmetrical three phase current
system on each transformer side. Consequently
three negative sequence differential currents will
always have the same magnitude and be phase
displaced for 120 electrical degrees from each
other.
As marked in matrix equation, the first term on the
right hand side of the equation, represents the total
contribution of the negative sequence current from
HV side compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift. The second term on the
right hand side of the equation, represents the total
contribution of the negative sequence current from
LV side compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift and transferred to the power
transformer HV side.
When above compensation is made, then the 0-180
degree rule is again valid between negative
sequence current contributions from the two sides.
For example, for any unsymmetrical external fault,
the respective negative sequence current
contributions from the HV and LV power
transformer sides will be exactly 180 degrees apart
and equal in magnitude, regardless the power
transformer turns ratio and phase displacement, as
in example shown in Figure 4.

(0.1)

0.2 kA

0.3 kA

0.4 kA

10 ms

210

330

240
270

"steady state"
for LV side
neg. seq. phasor

Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from HV side


Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from LV side

Figure 4: Trajectories of Negative Sequence


Current Contributions from HV and LV sides of
Yd5 power transformer during external fault
Figure 4 shows trajectories of the two separate
phasors representing the negative-sequence current
contributions from HV and LV sides of an Yd5
power transformer (e.g. after the compensation of
the transformer turns ratio and phase displacement
by using previous matrix equation) for an
unsymmetrical external fault. Observe that the
relative phase angle between these two phasors is
180 electrical degrees at any point in time. There is
not any current transformer saturation for this case.
3.2 Internal / external fault discriminator
The internal/external fault discriminator is based on
the above-explained facts. Its operation is based on
the relative position of the two phasors representing
HV
and
LV
negative-sequence
current
contributions, defined by matrix expression. It
practically performs directional comparison
between these two phasors. First, the LV side
phasors is positioned along the zero degree line.
After that the relevant position of the HV side
phasor in the complex plain is determined. The
overall
directional
characteristic
of
the
internal/external fault discriminator is shown in
Figure 5.

Figure 5: Operating characteristic of the


internal/external fault discriminator

In order to perform directional comparison of the


two phasors their magnitudes must be high enough
so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault.
On the other hand, in order to guarantee a good
sensitivity
of
the
internal/external
fault
discriminator, the value of this minimum limit must
not be too high. Therefore this limit value, called
IminNegSeq, is settable in the range from 1% to
20% of the differential protections base current,
which is in our case the power transformer HV side
rated current. The default value is 4%. Only if
magnitudes of both negative sequence current
contributions are above the set limit, the relative
position between these two phasors is checked. If
either of the negative sequence current
contributions, which should be compared, is too
small (less than the set value for IminNegSeq), no
directional comparison is made in order to avoid the
possibility to produce a wrong decision. This
magnitude check, as well guarantee stability of the
algorithm, when power transformer is energized.
The setting NegSeqROA represents the so-called
Relay Operate Angle, which determines the
boundary between the internal and external fault
regions. It can be selected in the range from 30
degrees to 90 degrees, with a step of 1 degree. The
default value is 60 degrees. The default setting
somewhat favours security in comparison to
dependability.
If the above condition concerning magnitudes is
fulfilled, the internal/external fault discriminator
compares the relative phase angle between the
negative sequence current contributions from the
HV side and LV side of the power transformer
using the following two rules:
If the negative sequence currents contributions
from HV and LV sides are in phase, the fault is
internal (i.e. both phasors are within internal fault
region)
If the negative sequence currents contributions
from HV and LV sides are 180 degrees out of
phase, the fault is external (i.e. HV phasors is
outside internal fault region)
Therefore, under all external fault condition, the
relative angle is theoretically equal to 180 degrees.
During internal fault, the angle shall ideally be 0
degrees, but due to possible different negative
sequence source impedance angles on HV and LV
side of power transformer, it may differ somewhat
from the ideal zero value. However, during heavy
faults, CT saturation might cause the measured
phase angle to differ from 180 degrees for external,
and from about 0 degrees for internal fault. See
Figure 6 for an example of a heavy internal fault
with transient CT saturation.

Directional Comparison Criterion: Internal fault as seen from the HV side


90

excursion
from 0 degrees
due to
CT saturation

60

120
35 ms

150

30
definitely
an internal
fault

180
external
fault
region

0.5 kA

210

330
1.0 kA

240

300
1.5 kA

trip command
in 12 ms
Internal
fault
declared
7 ms after
internal
fault
occurred

270
HV side contribution to the total negative sequence differential current in kA
Directional limit (within the region delimited by 60 degrees is internal fault)

Figure 6: Operation of the internal/external fault


discriminator for internal fault with CT saturation
4.

IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROTECTION

The internal/external fault discriminator is a very


powerful and reliable supplementary criterion to the
traditional
power
transformer
differential
protection. It detects even minor faults, with a high
sensitivity and a high speed, and at the same time
discriminates with a high degree of dependability
between internal and external faults. When good
properties of traditional power transformer
differential protection are combined together with
advanced features of internal/external fault
discriminator a high performance differential
protection
for
power
transformers
and
autotransformers is achieved.
4.1 No extra delays at heavy internal faults
As the newly introduced internal/external fault
discriminator has proved to be very reliable, it has
been given a great power. If, for example, a fault
has been detected, i.e. start signals set by ordinary
differential protection, and at the same time the
internal/external fault discriminator characterised
this fault as internal, then any eventual block
signals produced by either the harmonic or the
waveform restraints, are ignored. This assures the
response times of the new and advanced differential
protection below one power system cycle (i.e.
below 20ms for 50Hz system) for all internal faults.
Even for heavy internal faults with severely
saturated current transformers new differential
protection operates well below one cycle because
the harmonic distortions in the differential currents
do not slow down the differential protection
operation. Practically, an unrestrained operation is
achieved for all internal faults.
4.2 Stability against external faults
External faults happen ten to hundred times more
often than internal ones. Many power transformer

differential protection relays have a rather poor


stability against external faults. If a disturbance has
been detected and the internal/external fault
discriminator characterised this fault as external
fault, the additional criteria are posed on the
differential relay before its trip is allowed. This
assures high stability against external faults.
However, in the same time the differential relay is
still capable to trip for evolving faults. Example of
such evolving fault is shown in Figure 7.
60

ext. 150
and
B
int.
faults
180

internal external
fault
boundary
30

only
ext.
fault

int.
only

0.2

210
external
faults

330
0.4 kA

240

300

If all comparisons indicate an internal fault,


then it is an internal fault.
If any comparison indicates an external fault,
then it is an external fault
If one of the windings is not connected, the
algorithm automatically reduces to the two-winding
version. Nevertheless, the whole power transformer
is protected, inclusive the non-connected winding.
5.1 Example of unsymmetrical internal fault for
three-winding transformer
An internal fault L2-L3-Ground on the secondary
winding (d1) of a three-winding power transformer,
connection group Yd1d5, has been simulated by
ATP [7].

internal
faults

270
Magnitude of contribution from the HV (Y) side (in kA)
Directional limit (within 60 degrees is internal fault)

Figure 7: Operation for evolving fault

Primary currents in kA

90
120

applied by the internal / external fault discriminator


in case of three-winding power transformers is:

iA
iB
iC
iN

0
-2
-4

4.3 Detection of minor internal faults


The internal/external fault discriminator has shown
extreme capability to detect low-level faults such as
winding turn-to-turn faults. For more information
on this subject please refer to reference [4].
5.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR THREEWINDING TRANSFORMERS

The principle of the internal/external fault


discriminator can be extended to power
transformers and autotransformers with three
windings. If all three windings are connected to
their respective networks, then three directional
comparisons can be done, but only two
comparisons are necessary in order to positively
determine the position of the fault with respect to
the protected zone. The directional comparisons,
which are possible, are: primary - secondary,
primary - tertiary, and secondary - tertiary. The rule

Inst. diff. curr. in kA

Secondary currents in kA

Point A in Figure 7 corresponds to the external fault


only. Point B corresponds to simultaneous external
and internal faults. The internal fault occurred 20ms
after the external one. Point C corresponds to the
situation after the external fault has been cleared by
some other protection in 128 ms, while the internal
fault persists. The advanced differential protection
would actually operates already at point B and
disconnects the power transformer, in spite of the
fact that the point B is deep in the external fault
area because of the more dominant (heavier)
external fault.

iB = primary (Y) line current L2

int. fault

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

100

ia
ib
ic

ib = secondary (d1) line current L2

50

int. fault

-50
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

inst diff L1
inst diff L2
inst diff L3

instaneous diff. curr. L2


5

int. fault

-5
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time in ms, internal fault at t = 13 ms

Figure 8: Currents for an L2-L3-E internal fault on


the secondary winding (d1) of an Yd1d5 power
transformer. Differential currents are in primary kA
The currents on the primary- and secondary sides,
and the instantaneous differential currents, are
shown in Figure 8. The two directional
comparisons, made by the internal/external fault
discriminator on the contributions to the total
negative sequence differential current from the
primary, secondary and tertiary are shown in Figure
9 and Figure 10.

Comparison Between Contributions: Primary - Secondary


90
external
fault
zone

Binary signals of the power transformer differential protection

120

60

57 ms
after
fault

150

18

trip in 15 ms

14

30

start-L1
start-L2
start-L3
trip
tripRestrained
tripUnrestrained
tripNegSeqUnrestrained
tripNegSeqSensitive
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L1
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L2
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L3
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L1
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L2
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L3
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L1
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L2
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L3
InternalFault
ExternalFault

16

12
10
8

180

6
4

0.2

210
external
fault
zone

0.6 kA

240

300
270

internal
fault
declared
here

Negative sequence differential current phasor (in kA)


Directional limit (within 60 degrees is internal fault)

Figure 9: Internal/external fault discriminator


operation between primary and secondary windings

Comparison Between Contributions: Primary - Tertiary


90
external
fault
zone

120

60

150

57 ms
after
fault
30

trip

180

external
fault
zone

330

0.4
0.6 kA

240

300
270

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time in ms, internal fault at t = 13 ms

Figure 11: Binary output signals of the advanced


differential protection during internal fault in 3winding power transformer.
It shall be noticed that in Figure 11 the usual
restrained differential protection (signal named
tripRestrained) was delayed due to harmonic and
waveform block criteria. Besides, this signal was
unstable (onoffon, etc). The usual unrestrained
differential protection limit, which had been set to
10 times transformer rated current, was not
exceeded due to heavy ct saturation, and thus no
help from the unrestrained differential protection
was obtained either. Only the new advanced
differential protection was capable to quickly detect
and trip the faulty power transformer in 15 ms after
the fault inception.
5.3 Example of two simultaneous external faults

0.2

210

int. fault declared

fault

0.4

internal
fault
zone

A case with two simultaneous external faults, the


first one L1Ground fault on the secondary side and
the second fault L1Ground on the tertiary side of
an Yd1d5 power transformer, is presented here.

Negative sequence differential current phasor (in kA)


Directional limit (within 60 degrees is internal fault)

90
120

Figure 10: Internal/external fault discriminator


operation between primary and tertiary windings
Obviously both of them steadily indicate that the
fault is internal. Deviations of the relative phase
angle from zero degrees in Figure 9 and Figure 10
were mainly due to current transformer saturation.
Severe current transformer saturation is actually the
most dangerous enemy of the internal/external fault
discriminator. However very effective means to
counteract the negative effects of main CT
saturation have been integrated in advanced
differential protection algorithm.

60

from
secondary
side

150

30

180

0
0.2 kA
0.4 kA
0.6 kA

210
from tertiary
side

330

240

300

270seq. diff. current from tertiary


Contribution to total neg.
Contribution to total neg. seq. diff. current from primary
Contribution to total neg. seq. diff. current from secondary

Figure 12. Trajectories of the contributions to the


total negative sequence differential current for the
first 25 ms during two simultaneous external faults
From Figure 12 it is obvious that the new
internal/external fault discriminator will securely

declare this fault as external for this complicated


test case.

Primary - Secondary

Primary - Tertiary
90

90

150

5.4 Example of three-phase internal fault

120

60

120

Figure 13 shows magnitudes of the negative


sequence differential current, and its components,
for an absolutely symmetrical internal three-phase
fault on the Y side of an Yd1d5 power transformer
as they were calculated by the differential relay. It
took in this example about 20 ms for current
transformers to reach heavy saturation. The
existence of the false negative sequence currents
after CT saturation was not a surprise. However,
much more interesting was that the negative
sequence system appeared immediately following
the inception of the internal symmetrical fault.
Figure 14 shows that during 22 ms after the fault
inception, both directional tests correctly indicated
an internal fault, which was long enough time to
disconnect the faulty power transformer in 14 ms
(output relay make time not included) as shown in
Figure 15.

Currents in kA (transformer rated current I1 = 0.523 kA)

IdifNegSeqTotal
IdifNegSeqContrPri
IdifNegSeqContrSec
IdifNegSeqContrTer

1.2

current transformer
saturation sets in
heavy ct saturation

total negative
sequence
differential
current

0.8

0.6
rated current

0.4

3-phase
internal
fault

0.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

210

300

240

180

330

210

30

330
300

240

270

270

Magnitude of negative sequence differential current (in kA)


Directional limit (within 60 degrees is internal fault)

Figure 14: Directional tests for an internal threephase fault on an Yd1d5 transformer, first 25 ms.
Binary output signals of the differential protection for 3-phase internal fault
18
16
trip in 14 ms

14
12

12 ms

10
8
6
4
2
int. fault found, 9 ms

fault

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

start-L1
start-L2
start-L3
trip
tripRestrained
tripUnrestrained
tripNegSeqUnrestrained
tripNegSeqSensitive
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L1
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L2
blockDueToCurr2ndHarm-L3
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L1
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L2
blockDueToCurr5thHarm-L3
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L1
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L2
blockDueToWaveAnalysis-L3
InternalFault
ExternalFault
60

70

80

90

Time in ms, internal fault occured at t = 13 ms

Figure 15: Output signals for an internal wholly


symmetrical three-phase fault.
As shown in Figure 15 the internal fault was
declared in 9 ms, the negative sequence differential
protection issued a trip request after 12 ms, and the
final trip command to the power transformer circuit
breakers was given in 14 ms after the fault
inception by the advanced differential protection.
6.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper shows, that by using advanced


numerical technology, it is now possible to protect
power transformers with advanced differential
protection principle, which has much higher
operation speed, security and sensitivity than
traditional transformer differential protection.

The total negative sequence differential current and its three components
1.4

150

30

180

The negative-sequence-current-based directional


principle yields a fast and reliable discrimination
between external and internal faults. This is easy to
understand in case of unsymmetrical faults, where
the negative sequence system is expected to exist.
But the principle is just as efficient in case of
wholly symmetrical three-phase faults as well. The
reason is that when a (symmetrical) three-phase
fault occurs, the negative sequence current source
appears at the fault for a while, more exactly, until
the dc components in the fault currents die out [3].
As far as advanced power transformers differential
algorithm is concerned, this interval of time is long
enough for the directional criterion to declare either
an internal or an external fault.

60

80

Time in ms, internal symmetrical fault at t = 13 ms

Figure 13: Magnitudes of the negative sequence


differential current, and its components, for an
internal three-phase fault on an Yd1d5 transformer.

Operation of new internal/external


fault
discriminator for power transformers has been
successfully tested, by using simulation files
produced by ATP [7], disturbance recording files
captured
during
independent
transformer
differential protection testing on the analogue
network simulator [5] and finally from the
disturbance recordings captured in the field. All
these tests indicate excellent performance of the
internal/external fault discriminator for power
transformers and autotransformers. It detects even
minor faults, with a high sensitivity and a high
speed, and at the same time discriminates with a

high degree of dependability between internal and


external faults. The only shortcomings of this new
directional comparison algorithm are that it only
operates when power transformer is loaded and it
does not provide indication of the faulty phase(s).
However, for internal faults power transformers are
always tripped three-phase, while from the captured
disturbance record at the moment of tripping the
faulty phase(s) can be identified.

7. REFERENCES
[1] C.F.
Wagner,
R.D.
Evans,
Book:
Symmetrical Components", McGraw-Hill,
New York & London, 1933
[2] J.L.
Blackburn,
Book:
Symmetrical
Components for Power System Engineering,
Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, Hong
Kong, 1993; ISBN: 0-8247-8767-6
[3] Jonas Johansson, Master Thesis: Fast
Estimation of Symmetrical Components,
Department
of
Industrial
Electrical
Engineering
and
Automation,
Lund
University, Sweden 2002.
[4] Z. Gaji, I. Brni, B. Hillstrm, I. Ivankovi
"Sensitive Turn-to-Turn Fault protection for
Power Transformers", CIGRE SC B5
Colloquium, September 2005, CalgaryCanada
[5] Z. Gaji, G.Z. Shen, J.M. Chen, Z.F. Xiang,
"Verification of utility requirements on
modern numerical transformer protection by
dynamic simulation" presented at the IEE
Conference on Developments in Power
System Protection, Amsterdam, Netherlands,
2001
[6] F. Meki, Z. Gaji and S. Ganesan, "Adaptive
Features of Numerical Differential Relays,"
presented at the 29th Annual Conference for
Protective Relay Engineers, Spokane,
Washington, USA, October 2002
[7] ATP is the royalty-free version of the
Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).
For more info please visit the following web
sites:
http://www.eeug.de/
or
http://www.ee.mtu.edu/atp/