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# INTRODUCTION

## Linear measurement is method of surveying is often referred to

as chain surveying where chain as the traditional equipment is
used to measure the distance. Nowadays, chain has been
replaced by steel band or known as measuring tape. Tape is
used exclusively in linear measurement. The mathematical
principles involved to making a linear survey or to measure a
distance.
Alongside height and angle measurement, liner measurement
is another essential component of any survey. In construction
work, distances are measured every day when setting out all
types of structure.
In engineering survey, three types of distances are used. They
are slope distance, horizontal distance and vertical distance.

OBJECTIVE

## To introduce the equipment used in linear measurements hence execute

the fieldwork and understanding the differences between slope,
horizontal and vertical distance in engineering survey

APPARATUS

100 METRE TAPE

FIGURE 1.2

## FIGURE 1.3 HAMMER

1.4 RANGING POLES

FIGURE 1.6 NAILS

FIGURE

PROCEDURE

## 1. Chaining needed two men to do proper operation. At the forward end of

chain, chain man at the rear end know as follower.
2. One person was put the chain forward and fix arrows at the end of chain.
Then he was follow the instruction of the followers.
3. Other person was direct the first person to the line with the ranging rod
and carried the rear end of the chain and pick up the arrows inserted by
the first person.
4. The second person was holding the zero handle of the chain against the
peg and directs the leader to be in line of the ranging rod.
5. Then the first person usually with to arrows drags the chain alone the line
and using code of signals the second person directs the first person that
was required to the exactly in the line.
6. The first person fixed the arrows at the end of chain the process is
repeated.
7. The ranging rods or poles was vertically behind each point and stand
about 2m behind the ranging rod at the beginning of the line.
8. Then, another person was moving the rod to right or left until the three
ranging rods appear exactly in the straight line.
9. The sight was taking only the lower portion of rod in order to avoid error
in non-vertically and one of the person fix up the rod after ascertaining
that three rods are in a straight line.

DISCUSSION
Linear measurement method was used to measure the perimeter of the
building including the drains, columns and trees measurement. Ranging pole
and measuring tape were used during the measurement.
There were some errors spotted during the measurement. First, the tape was
read at the starter of the tape where the starter is not at 0m but at -0.1m. Second,
the survey line was not straight a bit making the measurement of the building to
the survey line vary. Next, during the measurement, we had some
communication problem which is the distance between each other make us
having some hearing problem. Moreover, we waste a lot of our time by walking
because the distance between the first point to end point was far.
As the preventions, for the first error, all the data recorded was minus by
0.1m or during the measurement, read the tape starting from the 0m point not at
the starter of the tape. For the second error, the survey line should be straighten
thorough and frequently before proceed for the next measurement to prevent
from error in measurement of the building to the survey line. Furthermore, we
use our smart phone as a walkie-talkie to communicate to each other. In
addition, we decide to use our motorcycle to save our time while doing the
measurement

CONCLUSION
As conclusion, the objective is to calculate areas and volume for related areas.
The survey was conducted at MARA building to measure the area of perimeter
of the building including the drains, columns and trees measurement. Ranging
pole, measuring tape, hammer, nail and cone were the apparatus used during the
measurement. Before the surveying, we have been briefing about the equipment
detail and the correct way to use it by our lecture and assistance lecture

REFERENCE

1. http://www.chanthaburi.buu.ac.th/~wirote/GI1/surveyingmeasurem
ent.pdf
2. http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/eng/documents/survey/Chapt
er3.shtm
3. http://www.slideshare.net/gauravhtandon1/linear-measurements25265965