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Reading Comprehension Drills

Practice Drill 1
In Waiting for Godot and Krapps Last
Tape, both written in the 1950s, Samuel
Beckett examines the emptiness of
human existence, especially acute during
the post-war era. His plays, which
express the banality of life through
seemingly meaningless repetitions, have
been associated with existentialism in
that they deny any inherent purpose to
life. However, a careful reading of Waiting
for Godot and Krapps Last Tape reveals
that Becketts plays need not be interpreted
as despair ridden and pessimistic. A
dialectical reading of the plays illustrates
that Beckett offers a way for humans to find
essence in life by showing his audience
what not to do; in other words, by
repeatedly exposing why his characters
Vladimir, Estragon, and Krapp are
unhappy, Beckett highlights their weakness
and in turn suggests what one should do in
order to overcome lifes barrenness.
Becketts solution to existential despair
derives from Berkeleys idealism in which
nothing exists without being perceived.
Beckett applies this ideology to the human
psyche and dramatically conveys that
although meaning may not be inherent in
the world, humans can find essence in our
relationships and interdependence.

1. Which of the following are true about


Waiting for Godot and Krapps Last
Tape ? Select all the apply:
they portray the inherent lack of meaning
in human interactions and endearment
they underscore the fallibilities of its
protagonists characters
they are inconsistent in that, their
perspectives about the human psyche
fluctuate from being excessively
pessimistic to overly optimistic.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is


to treat Becketts plays in which of the
following ways?

Introduce an alternate perspective


Explicate their main features
Criticize the recondite nature of the plays
Present explanations that qualify them
Examine the virtues and limitations of the
ideologies they convey

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3. It can be inferred that the author of the
passage would most likely agree with
which of the following statements?
Becketts distinctively hermeneutic writing
style is the predominant reason behind
his rise to eminence
A good playwright understands that the
central meaning of a play should not be
made obvious to its audience
The characters Vladimir, Estragon, and
Krapp most expressively epitomize the
unhappiness associated with the tedium
that post-war generation faces
understanding the intended essence of a
work may require the knowing the
perspectives of the works author
People find meaning in the hardships
and struggles that war brings

4. Which of the following, according to


the passage, would Beckett most agree
with?
In a society where technology and
ambition promote self-reliant
individualism, a meaningful existence is
difficult to achieve
A pessimistic approach to living is
essential in that it prepares an individual
for the harsh meaninglessness of reality.
A purposeful life cannot be achieved
when there is no necessary or inherent
purpose to living
The lives of Vladimir, Estragon, and
Krapp represent the post-war lives of
most people
A dialectical reading is necessary to
perceive the fine distinctions in implied
meaning of any literary work

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Passage 2
The international team of scientists,
whose research was conducted under
the European Commission-funded
CARBO-Extreme Project, contends that
extreme climate events, such as
droughts, heat waves and storms,
weaken the buffer effect that terrestrial
ecosystems have on the climate system.
The researchers discovered that drought
has a particular capacity to reduce the
amount of carbon that is absorbed by
forests, meadows and agricultural land.
Their findings suggest that by diminishing
the natural environments ability to
absorb carbon, extreme weather
simultaneously results from, and
perpetuates, climate change.
During the course of their study, the
CARBO-Extreme team, headed by Dr
Reichstein, examined how extreme
weather affects forests, bogs, grassy
landscapes and arable areas across the
planet. The team, whose findings have
been published in the latest issue of the
journal Nature, enlisted the help of
complex computer models to calculate the
global effect of extreme climate events on
the carbon balance. They discovered that
drought, as opposed to heat, has the most
pronounced effect on an ecosystems
ability to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from
the atmosphere.

As climate change continues to gather


pace, many experts believe that extreme
weather events will occur more
frequently than they do at present. If the
CARBO-Extreme team is correct and
extreme weather is a significant driver of
climate change, this relationship could
turn out to be a self-fulfilling prophesy.
Unfortunately, it is very difficult for
scientists to categorically state whether
or not extreme weather is becoming
more frequent. Whilst there is a great
deal of evidence to suggest that heat
waves and droughts will increase in
frequency over the course of the next
century, data pertaining to other extreme
climate events remains inconclusive.

5. The author of this passage is primarily


concerned with

providing a list of evidences that


suggests a correlation between drought
and climate change
resolving a contention between two
schools of thought regarding a perceived
natural occurrence
arguing for a change in National policies
to incorporate a more ecologically
conscientious view to the use of natural
resources
evaluating a theory put forth by a team of
scientists regarding a possible
phenomenon
detailing the research findings of the
CARBO-Extreme team

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6. Which of the following can be best
inferred from the passage?
Increase in droughts is the cause for
extreme climate changes.
Extreme climate changes are the sole
causative factors for drought and other
extreme climate events
Accumulation of carbon-dioxide in the
environment can cause climatic changes
that are deleterious
Apart from droughts, other extreme
climate events have no apparent
connection with climatic change.
Aquatic ecosystems have a less
pronounced mitigatory effect on climate
change than do terrestrial ecosystems

7. The journal Nature is introduced in


the 2nd paragraph primarily to
cite the source used by the CARBOextreme team to substantiate their
hypotheses.
forestall potential criticisms that might
call into question the authenticity of the
teams findings.
provide a recorded instance of the teams
work from which information about the
teams findings could be obtained.
show the magnitude to which the teams
research findings have had an impact.
highlight the fact that - extreme climate
change is an issue that even the
common-man has become concerned
about.

8. Which of the following best describes


the organization of the passage
An opinion is discussed; evidences
suggesting the fallaciousness of the
opinion are then provided.
A phenomenon is discussed, this
phenomenon is then compared to
another to understand the similarities

shared.
A teams perspective about a natural
occurrence is discussed; some evidence
suggesting the validity of the theory are
provided.
An explanation to a phenomenon is
provided; evidences provided to
substantiate this explanation are
evaluated.
An assumption is put forth and the
validity of this assumption is analyzed in
light of new scientific findings.

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Passage 3
In Vietnam beliefs regarding the causes
of mental disorders hover between the
natural and the supernatural. They vary
according to an individuals level of
education and socioeconomic class. In
less educated areas of the countryside,
there exists a number of supernatural
explanations for mental illness, including
spirit possession, black-magic, or
astrological misalignment. Among the
educated class surveyed in Ho Chi Minh
City, however, most attributed mental
illness to natural causes. It is believed
that mental stresses or emotional strain
due to events such as trauma ,
lovesickness , or simply thinking too
much, produces weak nerves that make
one susceptible to a psychotic disorder. It
is a common belief that high school and
college students can fall ill from studying
too much. Even in the hospitals,
psychiatrists are issued shorter working
hours than other doctors, lest the strain
of being around mentally ill patients for
too long cause the doctors to go crazy
as well. Organic causes of mental illness
include heredity and head injuries. In
recent years, however, the Vietnamese
government has attempted to expel the
notion that psychiatric disorders are
passed on by inheritance, which
otherwise severely reduces marriage
prospects for the entire family.
Traditional medicine plays an enormous
role in the Vietnamese medical system
and is often the preferred method of
treatment for a variety of illnesses.
Families who believe in supernatural
causes of illness will seek the assistance
of fortunetellers , bonzes , and
witchdoctors. Traditional healing is more
revered among the masses than
psychiatry because of its long history of
integration into Vietnamese culture.
There are over 10,000 traditional healers
in Vietnam, compared to merely 600
psychiatrists . Traditional healers are also
more economically amenable to their
patients . The cost of treatment from a
bonze is lower than the cost of
psychiatric drugs and overnight stays.
The high number of traditional healers
also makes them more likely to be locally
accessible, eliminating the cost of
transportation to a large mental health

facility. Finally, there is no stigma


attached with going to a traditional healer
who treats all diseases as there is with
going to a doctor who only treats mental
illness. Psychiatry is commonly seen as
a last resort.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


highlight the faulty beliefs held by the
non-literate population with regarding to
mental illness
evaluate the perceived causes of an
illness in a region and discuss the
common remedies sought
evaluate the efficacy of traditional
medicine compared to modern methods
of treatment
evaluate probable causes and and
suggest remedies for a type of illness
enumerate the measures taken by a
government to eradicate superstitious
beliefs regarding the causes and modes
of propagation of an ailment

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Reading Comprehension Drills


10. The passage mentions shorter
working hours issued to psychiatrists in
order to
depict the appeal that practicing
psychiatry in Vietnam provides
provide an example that illustrates a
belief held by some people
provide an example to prove the
diminution in status of psychiatry in
hospitals
provide evidence of mental stress in
practitioner of psychiatry
suggest that unscientific assumptions
regarding mental illness is held even in
purely scientifically oriented institutions
such as hospitals

11. According to the passage, a


traditional healer is preferred to a
psychiatrist in all the following scenarios
EXCEPT ?
Monetary constraints that limit the
amount of money that be spent for
healthcare
Persisting superstitious beliefs that
suggest black magic or demon
possession as reasons for mental illness
rather than more scientific ones
Apprehension regarding societys
negative perception of mental illness
Persisting and increasingly deteriorating
illness that has not improved even after
many treatment session with a bonze
Living in a remote region with little
access to modern facilities

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 2
Although Francis Piagios writings have
proved fruitful for fields beyond
anthropology, his definition of ritual is
overly restrictive. Ritual, he says, is prescribed formal behavior for occasions not
given over to technological routine,
having reference to beliefs in mystical
beings or powers, Technological
routine refers to the means by which a
social group provides for its material
needs. Piagios differentiating ritual from
technology helps us recognize that
festivals and celebrations may have little
purpose other than play, but it obscures
the practical aims, such as making crops
grow or healing patients, of other rituals.
Further, Piagios definition implies a
necessary relationship between ritual
and mystical beliefs. However, not all
rituals are religious; some religions have
no reference to mystical beings; and
individuals may be required only to
participate in, not necessarily believe in,
a ritual. Piagio's assumption that ritual
behavior follows belief thus limits the
usefulness of his definition in studying
ritual across cultures.

According to the passage, all of the


following is true with respect to Piagios
conception of ritual EXCEPT
Routines directed toward practical ends
Behavior based on formal rules
Celebrations whose purpose is play
Behavior based on beliefs
Festivals honoring supernatural beings
The passage suggests that an
assumption underlying Piagios definition
of ritual is that
anthropological concepts apply to other
fields
festivals and ceremonies are related
cultural phenomena
there is a relationship between play and

practical ends
rituals refer only to belief in mystical
beings or powers
mystical beings and powers have certain
common attributes across cultures
Which of the following best describes the
organization of the passage?
Factual data are presented and a
hypothesis is proposed.
A definition is challenged, and two
reasons for the challenge are given.
A statement is quoted, and two
assumptions on which it is based are
clarified.
A distinction is introduced then shown not
to be a true distinction.
An opinion is offered and then placed
within a historical framework.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
Service-learning, a teaching method
wherein students learn by combining
academic concepts with community
service, has received much attention as
a means to empower youth and equip
them with important skills that are
conducive to both community
engagement and self-esteem. However,
it also functions as a mediator between
gender issues and educational practice,
an important divide that has enormous
implications for academics and educators
alike. Youth development is not an
inherently unified field; young people
present a multiplicity of identities that
cannot easily be addressed by a
totalizing methodology. Theories of
gender and sexuality remind us that
reforms for girls in public schools must
not take an essentialist stance that
purports to speak for all girls and women,
given that there is no easy reform for a
category so unable as woman. The key
question becomes how to keep this
principle in mind in practice. Curricula
that are designed to serve the needs of
women make the mistake of purporting
that there is a delineated population
called women that has specific issues
to be dealt with. Though there is no doubt
that girls in public schools need attention,
especially when one contends with the
masculinist tendencies of the American
schooling system, there is such a wide
array of voices within the category of
woman that some are silenced for the
sake of others. Service learning combats
this by allowing young people to examine
the structures of power that occupy their
lives while encouraging personal
achievement and growth alongside fellow
classmates.
4. The primary purpose of the passage is
to
illustrate the potential damages that a
totalizing methodology could propagate
bring to light the necessary changes that
need to be implemented to deal with the
appalling lack of self-esteem in youth
underscore the benefits of a particular
teaching method while suggesting its
applicability in addressing an issue

highlight the importance of a focus


towards community service in education
call for a change in the, now heavily
chauvinistic, perception of women in
education

5. Which of the following can be inferred


from the information provided in the
passage ?
The assumption that women have
definitive similarities is wrong
The most effective way to address
gender disparity is to promote a focus on
community based learning
A totalizing method has no discernible
benefits
Service-learning emphasizes the need for
a more inclusive approach, which
addresses issues taking into consideration
age, race and religious backgrounds.

An essentialist approach to addressing


issues is not without its merits

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Reading Comprehension Drills


6. The author mentions theories of
gender and sexuality in order to
Illustrate a difficulty that gender reforms
face
suggest that educational reforms have
always been inadequate
provide evidence to showcase an older
incarnation of a currently significant idea
refute the argument that women possess
many inadequacies that stifle the efficacy
of reforms
substantiate the presupposition that a
totalizing methodology is inherently
flawed

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
Although agricultural technologies like
machinery and chemicals have always
been protected under the Patent Act,
similar patent protections had never been
extended to plants on the basis that they
were creations of nature, which are not
patentable. In 1930, Congress passed
the Plant Patent Act (PPA), which permits
the patenting of plants, but only those
that reproduce asexually. Congress had
aimed to limit the reach of PPA, but
conceding in 1970 that sexually
reproducing plants needed some form of
protection as well, passed the Plant
Variety Protection Act (PVPA), which
grants owners an exclusive right to
multiply and market varieties of the
protected seed for 20 years. Though
similar in nature to utility patents (a
generic patent category for inventions
that perform useful functions), PVPA
made two critical exceptions: scientists
could use PVPA protected varieties for
research, and farmers would be able to
save patented seed for the next harvest.
The biggest change came in 1980, when
the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a
living microorganism could be patented
under the utility patent criteria for regular
inventions. The U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office affirmed and extended
this new rule in Exparte Hibberd, which
concluded that all sexually reproducing
plants were eligible for utility patent
protection. Following the ruling the U.S.
PTO began accepting applications for
utility patents on sexually reproducing
plants, even though Congress had never
authorized the agency to do so. With
these revolutionary reinterpretations of
the law, biotechnology became a highly
attractive and lucrative industry, almost
overnight.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


Elaborate the benefits of the utility patent
protection act
Chronicle the development of
biotechnology that led to its reaching the
pinnacle of lucrativeness

Give a historical overview of the changes


in plant patent methods
Evaluate the steps taken by congress to
make biotechnology more lucrative
Delineate the limitations of the PPA

Which of the following can be inferred


from the passage? Select all that apply.
Utility Patents extend, to the owners, a
much longer duration of exclusivity to the
patented plant than does the Plant
Variety Protection Act
Lucrativeness of an invention depends to
an extent on its patentability
Utility patents are also applicable to
plants that reproduce asexually
The US supreme court is a more
powerful entity than is Congress
Before 1980 Biotechnology was a field
that provided no monetary incentives

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Reading Comprehension Drills


9. The passage provides information to
answer which of the following?
Whether there had been any patentable
plant inventions before 1930
The number of years that the Plant
Patent Act allows owners exclusive rights
to produce and distribute their inventions
Whether asexually reproducing plants
are less valuable to farmers than are
sexually reproducing plants
Whether congress is the only authorizing
body that designs and alters patent acts
and regulations
Whether lack of patent laws discouraged
genetically engineering sexually
reproducing plants before the 1930s

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 3
Though prevailing models of dyslexia
ascribe reading difficulties to poor
phonological processing, in recent years
dyslexia has been increasingly
associated with deficits in visual attention
and poor oculomotor control, prompting a
suggestion that e-readers could be
configured to reduce demands on visual
attention and oculomotor control and
thus make reading less of an effort for
those impaired. A reading method called
Span Limited Tactile Reinforcement
(SLTR) was proposed, wherein text is
displayed on a small screen handheld
device (such as a smartphone), using
large fonts so that the text spans only a
few words per line. In the SLTR method,
text is advanced by manually scrolling
the text vertically, as if it were a long
continuous column of newsprint.

1. The passage as a whole is primarily


concerned with
describing a disability and speculating on
its probable causes
comparing two theories on how
impairment causes dyslexia
explaining how the ability to modify font
form and shape is useful in rectifying a
debilitating condition
explaining how the SLTR method can
help extenuate the difficulties that people
with a certain disability face
highlighting a potential benefit of using ereaders

2. The passage provides information


about which of the following?
Why impaired phonological processing is
not the causative factor for dyslexia in
children
Why there is an impairment of object
recognition in children
A possible way to facilitate better reading
in children with dyslexia

A mechanism that enables the


improvement of oculomotor control
A solution to curb excessive use of
technology for reading

3. Which of the following could be


inferred about a person with dyslexia?
Select all that apply
They will find reading crowded texts,
those with minimal inter-letter spacing,
challenging.
They will have difficulty with productive
skills such as speaking and writing
They are better at reading on electronic
devices than on printed media

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
In the summer of 2004, David Foster
Wallace published an article in Gourmet
magazine called Consider the Lobster.
The fourteen-page article explores the
notion of lobsters suffering as they are
boiled to death. This publication signified
enormous progress for the animal
welfare movement. It was a novel idea
for a renowned culinary magazine to take
an interest in the humane treatment of
animals. In light of these public writings,
it seems as though the animal welfare
movement is now heading in the right
direction. However, Only a fraction of
intellectuals are able to articulate their
ideas so effectively. The remaining
activists join PETA or other such
organizations and participate in more
radical displays that have recently been
shunned by the larger part of society.

4. The author of the passage is primarily


concerned with
elaborating the literary genius of David
Foster
giving an example of an effective mode
of expression
critiquing the efficacy of the methods
employed by PETA
chronicling the evolution of animal
welfare organizations
exposing the inhumane treatments that
animals are subjected to

5. The author mentions radical displays


in order to
bring to light the reason behind PETAs
success at creating awareness of animal
welfare issues
contrast Fosters article with that that of
PETAs initiatives
point out that PETA as an organization is
devoid of intellect

imply that the method of presentation of


a message can affect its reception
suggest that violent and disturbing
depictions are necessary to get a
message across

6. Which of the following statements


would the author of the passage agree
to?
The message put forth by any welfare
organization is of little importance as
compared to the medium of expression
of that message.
Over the last 100 years, large meatpackaging businesses have increasingly
sacrificed humane treatment for maximum
production speeds and profits.

the main goal of welfare groups should


be to promote recognition not of their
shocking exhibitions, but of the
underlying, foundational messages.
The implementation of stricter safety
guidelines is essential at places like
restaurants to ensure better working
conditions for the restaurant employees.
The article consider the lobster has
been the most effective propaganda for
the animal welfare movement.

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Passage 3
The Louisiana and Alabama Execution
Teams were interviewed in order to
understand the roles, experiences, and
effects of carrying out the death penalty.
120 out of a possible 124 correctional
officers were interviewed. Of those
questioned, 115 completed mental health
inventories. The subjects were grouped
based on their roles in order to gain a
broader picture of the steps and their
impact in carrying out the death penalty.
Our results show that participants in the
execution process stress caring
professionalism. There is an
overwhelming emphasis on carrying out
ones job at a high level. At the same time,
officers are neither dehumanized nor
callous, describing acting with respect and
decency toward all involved. While their job
is their prima facie duty, they experience
stress and emotional reactions, frequently
having a hard time carrying out societys
ultimate punishment.

7. The author of the passage is primarily


concerned with
delineating the psychology of officers
who are involved in carrying out state
ordered executions
evaluating the emotional responses that
executioners depict during an execution
illustrating the mental transitions that a
death-row inmate goes through during
the process of conviction leading to the
execution
highlighting the levels of professionalism
that officers in the execution team
depict
E. criticizing the death penalty for being
inhumane

8. Which of the following could most


closely be analogous to the character of
the Execution Team ?
A firefighter who risks his life to save
others, but resents the fact that he is not
afforded recognition

A teacher who punishes a boy for


misbehavior, but later feels remorse
because she felt that the boy was
wrongly punished
A cop who arrests an old man for shoplifting, but lets him go after a short stay in
jail
A soldier who kills enemy units in the
battlefield because his job required him
to, but is morally conflicted about his
actions.
A surgeon who euthanizes suffering
patients even though he knows that
doing so is a crime.

9. The author would agree that which of


the following is the best description of
correctional officers who participate in the
execution process
Apathetic
Sadistic
Stressed
Humane
Sedulous

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Practice Drill 4
Factors that may exacerbate or mitigate
psychological and physiological distress
responses in the aftermath of traumatic
events have been identified, although it is
unknown how these factors are
associated with mental and physical
health during and following extended
periods of repeated peer loss. For
example, existing literature suggests
prior adversity may alter responses to
subsequent adverse experiences such
as collective loss. Some research
supports an inoculation effect, whereas
prior exposure to traumatic events
appears protective against distress
following future events. Norris and
Murrell argue that because traumatic
events extend beyond normal human
experiences, once an individual has
experienced a particular traumatic event,
future exposure should reduce the
likelihood that such an event would be
perceived as distressing. They found
support for their hypothesis when
studying victims of a flood disaster. Older
adults who had no prior flood experience
showed increased anxiety and distress
responses to flood warnings compared to
individuals who had previously
experienced flooding. Similarly, Bornstein
and colleagues found that widows and
widowers who had previous experience
with the death of a relative reported lower
levels of depression following their
spouse's death than those without prior
experience of losing a loved one.
In contrast, some researchers have
found that repeated exposure to
traumatic events can sensitize
individuals, creating vulnerability to
enhanced psychological and
physiological distress following future
adversity. For example, researchers
examined the medical records and
interview responses from over 17,000
patients of a large health organization
and found a graded relationship between
the number of prior childhood adversities
and an increased risk for problems
across six domains in adulthood (i.e.,
affective, somatic, substance abuse,
memory, sexual, and aggression).
Dougall and colleagues interviewed
emergency workers responsible for

cleaning up after a large airline disaster


and collected physiological data from the
majority. Individuals who had
experienced dissimilar prior adverse
experiences were more vulnerable to
psychological distress than individuals
who had experienced a similar trauma in
the past. There is also evidence that the
number of prior adverse events matter.
Seery and colleagues conducted a
longitudinal study on a national sample
exposed to a collective trauma and found
that individuals with a history of no
(0) or a high number (5) of adverse
events reported higher global distress,
more post traumatic stress symptoms,
greater functional impairment, and lower
life satisfaction compared to individuals
with some (1-2) prior adversities.

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1. The passage is primarily concerned
with
Comparing and contrasting the
implications of trauma as suggested by
different researchers.
Discussing theories that explain the
effects of traumatic experiences and
factors that may help reduce or worsen
these traumatic experiences.
Underscoring the importance of a
longitudinal study while evaluating a
thesis.
Contesting the validity of a theory and
evaluating it against another theory that
explains the same phenomenon more
comprehensively.
Highlighting the deleterious effects that
traumatic experiences have on individuals.

2. Which of the following best describes


the organization of the passage?
The author compares and contrasts the
hypotheses of several researchers and
discusses areas that need to be probed
for new possible research.
The author presents his thesis, draws on
the work of several researchers for
evidence to support his thesis, and
concludes by reiterating his thesis.
The author presents the general
arguments for a phenomenon, describes
the studies in detail, and concludes with
a brief judgment of the studies value.
The author discusses some features of a
historically important subject and then
uses those features to substantiate his
position.
The author describes a thesis, introduces
studies that support it and then
introduces a contrasting viewpoint along
with studies that substantiate this
perspective.
3. One of the differences between the
first and the second paragraphs is that
the second paragraph

highlights the significance of recurrent


similar traumatic experiences
provides evidence to support the
hypotheses discussed
gives examples of the possible
implications of trauma during
adolescence and post adolescence
does not consider the mitigatory effects
of previous trauma experiences
Provides an instance where the effects of
loss of loved ones is examined

4. Which of the following is true of


inoculation effect as described by Norris
and Murrell? Select all that apply
It suggests that traumatic experiences
have a desensitizing effect
Its observed in people who have
undergone similar traumatic experiences
It is based on the assumption that an
experience, however out of the ordinary it
might be, is perceived to not be
extraordinary when a person has had a
prior experience of the same.
Its implications vary depending on the
number of traumatic experiences that an
individual has gone through previously
It is not exclusive to experiences of loss
of a loved one.

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Passage 2
The women of South Australia were
placed in a position of political equality
with men several years ago. Accordingly,
everybody has become accustomed to
the arrangement, and it seems perfectly
natural. It has not produced any marked
effect on female character, or made any
particular difference to domestic life.
Women are more interested in public
affairs than they used to be, and
politicians deal more earnestly with home
and social questions, but no neglect of
private duties on that account can be laid
to the women's charge. We are well
supplied with high-class newspapers, the
same sources of information are open to
women as to men, and the questions that
arise are not by any means beyond the
scope of their intelligence. At election
meetings there is commonly a good
sprinkling of women voters in the
audiences. It is said that their presence
tends to prevent disorderliness, and I
have never heard of a lady at any
meeting being rudely treated.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


propose the need for gender equality in
all modern societies
offer an explanation for the relative
orderliness observed in South Australia
during election times
discuss the consequences of affording
the right to vote to women
provide evidence that substantiates a
claim regarding the preeminence of one
nation over others
describe the subsequence of a
sociopolitical shift that occurred in a
particular region

From the information provided in the


passage, it can be ascertained that the
author of the passage would agree with
which of the following statements? Select
all that apply
The position that women have no
aptitude for politics or interest in public

affairs is fallacious
Womens involvement in political matters
has not led them to become any less
diligent as wives, mothers, or sisters.
Womens involvement in politics has
made the role of men in politics tenuous.

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7. Select the sentence in the paragraph
that discusses a change in perspective in
candidates of political parties.
(A) The women of South Australia were
placed in a position of political equality with
men several years ago. (B) Accordingly,
everybody has become accustomed to the
arrangement, and it seems perfectly
natural. (B) It has not produced any
marked effect on female character, or
made any particular difference to domestic
life. (C) Women are more interested in
public affairs than they used to be, and
politicians deal more earnestly with home
and social questions, but no neglect of
private duties on that account can be laid
to the women's charge. (D) We are well
supplied with high-class newspapers, the
same sources of information are open to
women as to men, and the questions that
arise are not by any means beyond the
scope of their intelligence. At election
meetings there is commonly a good
sprinkling of women voters in the
audiences. (E) It is said that their presence
tends to prevent disorderliness, and I have
never heard of a lady at any meeting being
rudely treated.

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Passage 3
One needs to stop thinking of ebooks as
books, and more as software packages:
Ebooks are computer codes that display
text and pictures instead of instructing
our devices to do some task. Not only
can we not legally fiddle with such
proprietary software, but we cant buy it,
either we lease it, according to terms
and conditions set by the manufacturer.
The same applies to ebooks. We dont
buy them, we lease them. It may be a
long-term lease, but a lease just the
same. There are limits and restrictions on
use for all ebooks, and confusingly, those
limits and restrictions vary depending on
which company is offering the product.
Buyers of physical books can do
whatever they want with them, from
loaning to friends as many times as they
like to reselling at a used-books store.
Unfortunately, such lending in the digital
world comes with restrictions. Apples
iBooks can only be read on an Apple
appliance. Amazons ebooks can only be
read on Kindle software, lent only once,
and only for 14 days.

8. The author of the passage primarily


sets out to
criticize the fact the one cannot buy an
ebook
admonish companies that have posed
limitations on accessibleness of ebooks
through the implementation of proprietary
formats
debate the economic viability of using
ebooks as an alternative for actual books
discuss some of the limitations
characteristic of ebooks
contrast two mediums and suggest the
superiority of one over the other

9. Which of the following, would the

author agree, is similar to the limitations


posed by companies that publish
ebooks? Select all that apply
Walking into a library or bookstore and
needing three or four pairs of different
glasses to read different books
manufactured to specific viewing
equipment.
Buying a car that is designed to run only
on a particular type of fuel, but with some
illegal modifications can be made to run
on any fuel type.
A painting that you purchase, but, that
which will technically still belong to the
organization that sold it to you.

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10. It can be inferred from the passage
that the author believes ebooks should
not be viewed as books because
unlike books, ebooks need electronic
devices to be used
books, unlike ebooks, once bought
becomes the sole property of the
purchaser
books, unlike their digital counterpart can
be copied, used and edited as per the
purchasers discretion
unlike books, ebooks can be obtained
legally or illegally without the need to
purchase them
unlike reading a book, reading an ebook
can be a very distracting and alienating
experience.

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Practice Drill 5

The TRIPS (Trade-related Aspects of


International Property Rights) agreement
was brought into effect on January 1, 1995.
The agreement unambiguously extended
the scope of intellectual property rights,
declaring in Article 27 that patents shall be
available for any inventions, whether
products or processes, in all fields of
technology. Moreover, patent rights would
be enjoyable without discrimination as to
the place of invention, the field of
technology and whether products are
imported or locally produced. These
provisions were in part a response to the
lack of protection for pharmaceutical
products in countries such as India, whose
1970 Act of Parliament granted patent
rights only to manufacturing processes,
rather than to the end products
themselves, allowing Indian firms to
reverse engineer the production process
and manufacture generic copies of drugs.
Pharmaceutical companies in the US and
EU had campaigned in favor of the
agreement, as the provisions ensured that
any company that invented a drug would
have exclusive rights over its production
and distribution for the duration of the
patent. However, by preventing cheap
generic copies of a drug under patent from
being produced, the TRIPS agreement had
serious ramifications for public health. The
ability of patents to restrict access to
treatments for diseases became glaringly
evident with the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS.

1. Which of the following is the primary


purpose of the passage?
discuss the ramifications of an
international trade act
suggest that the motives of
pharmaceutical companies are more
monetary than humanitarian
Discuss an international agreement and
its implications
highlight the ambiguities in the perceived
intention of Article 27 and the Trade

agreement as a whole
criticize the lack of provisions that protect
intellectual property in countries such as
India

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Reading Comprehension Drills


2. Which of the following best describes
the organization of the passage?
a provision is described and its purpose
is detailed; one adverse consequence of
this provision is then introduced.
a provisions limitations are discussed;
evidence suggesting the
inconsequentiality of these limitations are
then provided.
a provision is described; evidence
suggesting the necessity of this provision
are first provided and then contradicted
an agreement is described, its benefits
are evaluated and then detailed
an agreement is introduced, one of its
provisions is detailed and evidence
suggesting that this provision should be
discarded is provided

3. In context the use of the word


generic refers to
A. drugs designed by local industries for
the sole purpose of upsetting big
pharmaceutical companies
B. therapeutic drugs that are invented by
government aided local industries
all products that have been reverse
engineered from an already patented
invention
drugs that have been manufactured
through a process that is alternate to that
followed by the drugs invertors
drugs that are intended to cure or reduce
the deleterious effects of more than one
disease

4. Which of the following can be inferred


about countries such as India as
mentioned in the passage

generic drugs manufactured there are


much less expensive than those
manufactured by the company that
invented the drug
they generally have less robust
economies
they do not have access to patented
drugs
people who live there, generally do not
have the financial resources to purchase
pharmaceutical drugs
indigenous drug industries in such
countries are either under developed or
non-existent due to the lack of laws that
protect intellectual property

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
Amateur journalism, or the composition
and circulation of small, privately printed
magazines, is an instructive diversion
which has existed in the United States for
over half a century. In the decade of
1866-1876 this practice first became an
organized institution; a short-lived society
of amateur journalists, including the now
famous publisher, Charles Scribner,
having existed from 1869 to 1874. In
1876 a more lasting society was formed,
which exists to this day as an exponent
of light dilettantism. Not until 1895,
however, was amateur journalism
established as a serious branch of
educational endeavor. On September
2nd of that year, Mr. William H.
Greenfield, a gifted professional author,
of Philadelphia, founded The United
Amateur Press Association, which has
grown to be the leader of its kind, and the
representative of amateur journalism in
its best phases throughout the Englishspeaking world.
In many respects the word "amateur"
fails to do full credit to amateur
journalism and the association which
best represents it. To some minds the
term conveys an idea of crudity and
immaturity, yet the United can boast of
members and publications whose polish
and scholarship are well-nigh
impeccable. In considering the adjective
"amateur" as applied to the press
association, we must adhere to the more
basic interpretation, regarding the word
as indicating the non-mercenary nature
of the membership. Our amateurs write
purely for love of their art, without the
stultifying influence of commercialism.
Many of them are prominent professional
authors in the outside world, but their
professionalism never creeps into their
association work. The atmosphere is
wholly fraternal, and courtesy takes the
place of currency.

5. According to the passage which of the


following would the author of the
passage agree with regarding amateur
journalism ?

Its authors are no less adept than are


professional authors.
Amateur journalists never author works
that will be sold commercially.
Before 1866 there were no significant
works of amateur journalism
Writers usually turn to amateur
journalism to gain recognition, which
would is much required before becoming
a full fledged professional writer
There were no instances of amateur
journalism endeavors before 1895

6. The passage provides information


regarding which of the following ?
The period during which amateur
journalism originated
The academic qualifications of the
members of The United Amateur Press
Association
Some notable figures who helped
develop amateur journalism
Some of the notable works created by
amateur journalists
Some of the ways in which amateur
journalism has influenced the written
media

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Reading Comprehension Drills


7. In context, the author uses the word
professionalism to suggest which of the
following?
That professional authors find it much
easier to gain recognition through
amateur journalism
That professional authors who write for
amateur journalism associations do not
adhere to the same level of competency
as they would otherwise
That amateur authors although unpaid do
not stint in their level of commitment or
passion towards writing
That the lack of monetary incentives
generally leads to professional authors
who participate in amateur journalism to
be lax in their efforts
That professional authors who part-take
in amateur journalism do so because of
motivations that are anything but
monetary

8. Which of the following is the best


representation of the organization of the
passage?
The history of a organization is
described; and then details regarding the
motives behind this organizations
genesis are discussed.
The development of a practice during a
time period is described; and the nature
of the practice is qualified.
The origins of a particular practice are
detailed and a famous association of this
practice is described and evaluated.
An activity is evaluated historically and
then defended against critique.
A field of interest is described and two
organized institutions of this field are
compared and evaluated.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
The Southeast Asian smoke haze of
1997, which resulted from widespread
and synchronized incidents of incendiary
land-clearing agricultural practices in
Indonesia, is described by many experts
as one of the centurys worst
environmental disasters. Leaving a
charred area the size of Costa Rica
utterly devastated with reported damages
amounting to US$4.5 billion, the haze
cast a poisonous shadow over 70 million
people living in Malaysia, Singapore,
Brunei Darussalam, the Philippines,
Thailand, and Indonesia itself. Globally
localized but doubtlessly a transnational
environmental issue, the corresponding
economic downturn and ecological
damage, coupled with the astronomical
implications for human health, was
unprecedented. At its peak, the haze
even forced the closure of several
Southeast Asian international airports
due to the incredibly poor visibility. As a
further demonstration of the extent of the
catastrophe, biodiversity was also
harmed: endangered species including
rhinos, tigers and orangutans were
driven precariously closer to extinction.
Interestingly, despite these more
immediately obvious ramifications, what
many scholars and political scientists
found most unsettling about the event
was the fact that this haze was not an
isolated phenomenon. In fact, Southeast
Asia had been plagued by periodical
occurrences of haze since 1982 (with the
most recent haze outbreak occurring in
2004). Although the haze of 1997 was
greater in severity of effect, reach and
consequence, it was no different in terms
of origin and cause than the hazes of
1994, 1991, or even 1986; all this in spite
of several agreements signed after the
first haze occurrence by the Association
of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
committing member nations to cooperate
in preventing trans-boundary air
pollution. Clearly, ASEAN was not doing
enough to enforce its environmental
policies.

9. The author of the passage is primarily


concerned with

discussing the methods that will help


avert the disastrous consequences of
smoke haze
condemning the lack of initiative by
ASEAN to curb the continued recurrence
of a disastrous phenomenon
chronicling the destructive potential of
the smoke haze of Southeast Asia and
contrast it with that of another natural
phenomenon
discussing the effects of an
environmentally disastrous phenomenon
and suggesting the inefficacy of a body
purposed to curtailing it.
Detailing the causes of the smoke haze
and elaborating its method of
propagation

10. The passage provides information


that could answer all of the following
EXCEPT:
The earliest recorded instance of the
smoke haze in Southeast Asia
The number of human fatalities incurred
during the Southeast Asian smoke haze
of 1997
Some of the non-environmental
implications of smoke haze
Whether non-Asian countries are
affected by smoke haze as well
The cause for the smoke hazes of 1986,
91, 94 and 97

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Reading Comprehension Drills


11. The author mentions ... the hazes of
1994, 1991, or even 1986 in the second
paragraph in order to
give a historical perspective into the
propagation of hazes in southeast Asia
provide an example to illustrate the fact
that the haze of the 1997 was not the
most devastating
highlight the similarity in terms of origin
and cause that all of these hazes share
show that the practice of incendiary landclearing has been a long standing
tradition among farmers in Indonesia
substantiate the perspective that the
association of Southeast Asian nations
has been lax in its efforts

12. Which of the following scenarios


could be true with respect to the
information provided by the passage?
Slash and burn deforestation results in
haze that originates in the Indonesian
island of Sumatra but its effects are felt as
far as Singapore and Malaysia as well.

Traditionally, the large multinational


corporations had been blamed, but in
recent years the small- to medium-size
plantations have been found to start the
majority of fires that instigate the Haze
During dry seasons the frequency of
forest fires increases drastically in
Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, southern
Thailand, and Indonesia resulting in
higher number of hazes in these regions.
The practice of mass land clearing has
not only been the reason for smoke
haze, but has also caused the removal of
habitats of many animals resulting in
extinction of many species animals.
The seasonal wind changes often cause
the smoke haze to spread over and
beyond Asia, into neighboring continents

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 6
The `Confessio Amantis' of John Gower,
exhibits comparatively little of the life of
the spirit, either in its verse or in its
thought. The thought rarely passes the
limit of natural intelligence. The stories,
which the poet drew from the `Gesta
Romanorum' and numerous other
sources, can hardly be said to have been
born again. The verse is smooth and
fluent, but the reader feels it to be the
product of literary skill. It wants what can
be imparted only by an unconscious
might back of the consciously active and
trained powers. It is this unconscious
might which John Keats, in his `Sleep
and Poetry', speaks of as "might half
slumbering on its own right arm", and
which every reader, with the requisite
susceptibility, can always detect in the
verse of a true poet.

1. Which of the following would the


author of the passage agree with? Select
all that apply
Literary adeptness alone cannot produce
extraordinary works of poetry.

A truly exceptional writer possesses


abilities that are never latent.
Unconscious might portrayed through
the works of a writer is often confused for
literary skill by readers.

2. Select the sentence in which the


author provides an instance of what
Confessio Amantis' lacks
(A) The `Confessio Amantis' of John
Gower, exhibits comparatively little of the
life of the spirit, either in its verse or in its
thought. (B) The thought rarely passes
the limit of natural intelligence. (C) The
stories, which the poet drew from the
`Gesta Romanorum' and numerous other
sources, can hardly be said to have been
born again. (D) The verse is smooth
and fluent, but the reader feels it to be
the product of literary skill. (E) It wants
what can be imparted only by an
unconscious might back of the
consciously active and trained powers.

3. Which of the following is true about the


author of `Confessio Amantis' ? Select all
that apply
His best works were inspired by Sleep
and Poetry
He is adept in his use of literary devices
His writing is not indicative of a person
who surpasses the norms of standard
writing

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2

In the United States, a criminal defendant


can show himself to be not guilty of the
crime of which he is accused by showing
that he was entrapped by agents of the
government. Entrapment is not merely a
mitigating factor to be considered in
sentencing a defendant who is
acknowledged to be guilty of a crime. It is
not treated in the law in the way, for
instance, a defendants poverty is often
treated, as providing reason to give a
guilty defendant a lighter sentence than
an equally guilty but rich defendant, who
also stole for money. Rather, entrapment
constitutes a complete defense: An
entrapped defendant is simply not guilty
of violating the law under which he is
being prosecuted. Those who think that
there would be something wrong with a
legal system that did not allow the
entrapment defense have, in the
background of their thoughts, a particular
picture of the conditions under which it is
appropriate to hold a person legally
responsible for his behavior, conditions
that are absent when that person has
given in to certain temptations supplied
by the government. They accept, that is,
however implicitly, a theory of legal
responsibility under which certain people
who, under certain circumstances, give in
to a temptation issued by the government
are thereby, and on those grounds alone,
rightly excused from legal responsibility.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is


to
describe entrapment and criticize its
prevalence in the United States.
describe entrapment and the legal
provisions afforded to its victims.
suggest that mitigation of charges under
pretense of entrapment must not be
afforded to defendants.
contend the need for better defence
provisions for people who have been
entrapped by the government.
contend that the police force in the
United States unscrupulously instigate

crimes through entrapment - to warrant


arrests.

5. The author of the passage would most


likely agree with which of the following?
The entrapment defense is an essential
element in a just legal system
Exculpation of account of entrapment is
frivolous because it will set free criminals
prone to commit the crime
The entrapment defense is meritorious in
certain aspects but has a few flaws.
Although applicable to justice systems
outside the United States; its efficacy
cannot be accurately calculated.
E.
The entrapment defense is the
most important provision in defending the
rights of the wrongly implicated.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


6. Select the sentence that gives an
example of circumstances that could
extenuate a conviction
In the United States, a criminal defendant
can show himself to be not guilty of the
crime of which he is accused by showing
that he was entrapped by agents of the
government. (A) Entrapment is not
merely a mitigating factor to be
considered in sentencing a defendant
who is acknowledged to be guilty of a
crime. (B) It is not treated in the law in
the way, for instance, a defendants
poverty is often treated, as providing
reason to give a guilty defendant a lighter
sentence than an equally guilty but rich
defendant, who also stole for money.
Rather, entrapment constitutes a complete
defense: An entrapped defendant is simply
not guilty of violating the law under which
he is being prosecuted.

Those who think that there would be


something wrong with a legal system that
did not allow the entrapment defense
have, in the background of their
thoughts, a particular picture of the
conditions under which it is appropriate
to hold a person legally responsible for
his behavior, conditions that are absent
when that person has given in to certain
temptations supplied by the government.
(E) They accept, that is, however
implicitly, a theory of legal responsibility
under which certain people who, under
certain circumstances, give in to a
temptation issued by the government are
thereby, and on those grounds alone,
rightly excused from legal responsibility.

7. Which of the following can be inferred


from the passage? Select all that apply
If a person has had a history of
committing a particular crime, he cannot
avail exculpation through the entrapment
provision.
If a defendant was tempted into
committing a crime by a
non-government agent, the law will find
the the defendant culpable for the crime.
C. A person who has been entrapped will

be afforded extenuation with respect to


the level of financial hardship he or she
has been enduring.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
The most striking parallel between
tourism and religion is the need for
authenticity. Seeing a real bone of the
Buddha, or a piece of the true cross
was a fulfilling experience for the
believer. He would have felt cheated and
upset were the relic proven to be a fake.
Tourists similarly demand authentic sites
and authentic experiences. The care with
which the Japanese recreated
Disneyland in Tokyo is a case in point.
Snow White and Cinderella, the two
unmasked characters, have to be played
by white foreigners. Part of the appeal of
Disneyland is seeing if the three
dimensional Mickey Mouse is true to the
two dimensional original, or if Tokyos
fantasy castle is true to the spirit of the
real one in Anaheim. On the issue of
authenticity Mc Cannell disagrees with
another scholar of tourism, Daniel
Boorstin, who states that the American
tourist in Paris would rather listen to a
French-sounding song in English than to
a real chanson which he could not
understand. But Mc Cannell proves how
seriously tourists pursue authenticity,
even peering into restaurant kitchens and
private court-yards, societys back
areas to see what is really going on.
Even tourists who reject foreign
experiences and cling to the familiar
when away from home, the American in
Tokyo who chooses to eat at McDonalds,
or the Britisher drinking brown ale in the
Riviera, have made conscious choices to
reject the foreign, choices that are not
necessary at home.

8. The best representation of the primary


purpose of the passage is that it
demonstrates the various similarities
shared between religion and tourism
along with some of the few differences
that set them apart
contends that tourists, like religious
people expect a level of authenticity in
their experiences
lauds Japans ingenuity in creating as
authentic an experience for its tourists
illustrates the behaviour that motivates

tourists to want an authentic experience


and also the behaviour that makes
people choose to experience the familiar
instead
compares Mc Cannells perspectives on
tourists behaviour with that of other
researchers and argues for the former
after considering specific sociological
situations

9. back areas as mentioned in the


passage is introduced primarily in order
to
Highlight the fact that tourists tend to visit
the less commercial areas to get a more
real experience of that region.
Make an allegorical comparison between
the Disney World in Japan and the
Restaurants in France
Suggest that tourists, when abroad, are
inherently suspicious of the authenticity
of restaurants
Substantiate a point regarding tourists
choice to either demand authenticity or
reject it.
Introduce an example to challenge an
assertion that suggests that tourists only
seek experiences that superficially
resemble the original.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


10. As used in the passage, what can be
inferred about real bone of Buddha?
That the existence of such authentic
religious souvenirs gives substantiation
to the faith of many believers
That most religious people are gullible in
matters that concern their religious
beliefs.
That searching for an authentic
experience is the prime motivating factor
tourists who visit holy places
That Buddhas bones have been
preserved very well for many centuries
That irrespective of whether the object is
the original, the perceived authenticity of
an object is what matters most to
believers

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 7
A measles-like virus is being cited as a
likely cause for the mass dolphin die-off
thats been plaguing the U.S. East Coast
this summer. Since July 1, 333 carcasses
have littered shores from New York to
North Carolina a number thats roughly
10 times more than normal for this time of
year. Scientists dont yet know how many
dolphins have died offshore without
reaching mid-Atlantic beaches, but it could
be thousands. In July, NOAA declared the
die-off an Unusual Mortality Event, which
frees up federal funding and investigators
to address the crisis.

Now, a NOAA team in charge of


investigating the event is pointing to a
type of morbillivirus as the culprit behind
the bottlenose dolphin deaths.
Morbilliviruses are responsible for
measles in humans, rinderpest in cattle,
and canine distemper in dogs, coyotes,
wolves and seals. There is no easy way
to identify morbillivirus infection just by
looking at a carcass, so identifying the
pathogen as the cause of the die-off
involved a feat of molecular detective
work using tissue collected from the dead
animals.
While there are no unifying anatomical
findings that point toward the pathogen,
many of the animals washing ashore
have suggestive lesions in their mouths,
lymph nodes, brain, or lungs. Scientist
who have conducted necropsies (animal
autopsies), have collected bits of these
damaged tissues, as well as other
organs.
So far, nearly all of the carcasses 32 out
of 33 fresh enough to be analyzed by
these methods have tested positive for, or
are strongly suspected of having,
morbillivirus. Of those, genetic sequencing
confirmed that 11 of the carcasses carry
the cetacean form of the virus, which
affects dolphins and porpoises.

1. The passage is primarily concerned


with
exploring possible causes for a
phenomenon
illustrating the mechanism of propagation

of infection by the morbillivirus in


dolphins
evaluating the actions taken by the
NOAA with respect to Unusual mortality
events
providing evidence to suggest a likely
cause for a phenomenon
suggesting that the cetacean form of the
morbillivirus is the only cause for the
dolphin dieoffs

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2. Which of the following is the most
accurate description of the organization
of the passage?
Limitations to a theory are exposed, and
are then addressed in light of new
findings.
A. A theory explaining an occurrence is
put forth, evidences suggesting that this
theory is valid are provided.
A phenomenon is described, probable
causes for that phenomenon are
evaluated and qualified.
A problem is established; an
organizations initiatives to curb that
problem is illustrated.
The effects of a parasitic virus on an
organism is described, the significance of
these effects are then illustrated.

3. It can be inferred from the passage


that the morbillivirus
is the only pathogen that causes lesions
in the organs of dolphins
has other forms apart from the cetacean
form that can affect dolphins
is more lethal , in its viral proliferation, to
infected dolphins than to infected
humans, cows, or dogs
is the cause of the mass dolphin die-off in
the U.S. East Coast
has been substantially more virulent than
it was last year

4. Which of the following is true


according to the passage?
The infected dolphins show similar
characteristic signs of infection in their
bodies.
The number of necropsied dolphins that
tested positive for morbillivirus infection
represents a small proportion in
comparison to the total dolphin mortality
this year.

There is incontrovertible proof that


suggests that the die-offs are caused by
the morbillivirus
The NOAA has been lax in its efforts to
curtail the dolphin deaths
Dolphin dieoffs have been exclusive to
the U.S. East Coast

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Passage 2
The 2005 Eurobarometer study, Europeans, Science and Technology, found that
only 15 per cent of respondents were satisfied with the quality of science classes in
schools. Science lessons are dominated by a pedagogic model characterized by
the transmission of conceptually difficult material to often uncomprehending
students. There are, though, some signs that the situation is improving.
Mid-way through the first decade of this century, an expert group under the
leadership of Michel Rocard, former Prime Minister of France and member of the
European Parliament, was set up to reflect on which educational initiatives seemed
to be working in terms of raising science attainment. Rocards group published a
report, Science Education Now: Renewed Pedagogy for the Future of Europe, in
the year before France assumed the EU Presidency. The report concludes with an
appeal to promote inquiry-based science education (IBSE) as a basis for improving
the way science is taught in schools. In particular, Rocard and his team identified
two initiatives that seemed to be working well the French Pollen Project and the
German SINUS-Transfer Project. Frances residency resulted in science education
becoming a fundamental concern of the EU.

The Pollen Project was launched in 2006 and involved primary school students
developing their inquiry-based skills. Pollen was spread to 12 seed cities
throughout Europe with some success, suggesting that IBSE was transferable
to other nations education systems. SINUS-Transfer was aimed at secondaryaged students. Based on the reported success of these two initiatives, the
Rocard report concluded that a reversal of school science teaching pedagogy
from mainly deductive to inquiry-based methods was more likely to increase
childrens and students interest and attainment levels while at the same time
stimulating teacher motivation.

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to


compare and contrast two methods of science education in schools
champion the IBSE as the new gold standard to which all other models of
education must adhere to
underscore the limitations of the deductive based method of education
bring to light the educational reforms, under the guidance of Michael Rocard
that have helped alter the status quo in European literacy.
Evaluate an issue and detail some remedial initiatives

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage


The inquiry based method of learning, pedagogically, is not a new concept.
Frances Presidency ensured inquiry based pedagogys propagation in the EU.

Whether it can be implemented in other countries, is the most important


consideration while adopting a pedagogical method.
The SINUS transfer program has been more successful than has the Pollen
program.

Rochards initiatives in revamping the education system have yet been


unmatched by any other political candidate

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7. Which of the following can be inferred,
from the passage, as the primary reason
for the intended change to IBSE?
To improve science scores among school
children
To employ more science teachers in high
schools
To revamp the current system of
education to be one that is more relevant
to contemporary needs
To increase the level of involvement in
science as a subject among students
To create a more student friendly
curriculum and thereby decrease the
number of school dropouts

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Passage 3
From the early to mid-16th century to the
late 18th century, European states began
to assume increasing responsibility in the
administration of their societies. This
centralizing tendency was accelerated by
the fact that modern nations were
forming. This centralizing tendency had
implications for the expansion of colonial
rule: to fund their growth and military
engagements within Europe, European
states began the trend of colonial
acquisition.
Emerging European nations, believing
that wealth was limited and thus wanting
to obtain as much of it as possible,
sought to use their overseas colonies as
sources of revenue. Europeans shaped
their colonies economies with the
guiding belief that agriculture was the
basis of wealth. While agricultural
enterprises in colonies were run privately,
the majority of the labor in the expanding
empires was concentrated in agriculture
and natural resource acquisition. As a
result, European nations funded their
growth by taxing the trade in raw
materials extracted from their colonies.
To obtain wealth for themselves and to
prevent foreigners from obtaining wealth,
nations also imposed tariffs on their
colonies overall trade. Because
European nations saw wealth also in
terms of precious metals such as gold
and silver, so they established extensive
networks to trade goods for these metals.
As private trade flourished in these
networks (often under the auspices of
state chartered companies), the
European nations intervened and
collected taxes.

8. The passage primary sets out to do


which of the following?
illustrate the relationship between state
chartered companies and European
nations, and elaborate the effects this
had on the economic development of
Europes colonies.
describe the central traits of the
mercantile system utilized by European

nations.
discuss the contributing factors that led
to the European supremacy during the
17th century
provide perspective on the belief systems
, concerning economics , of the early
European nations
explain the origins of colonialism in early
16th century nations.

9. Which of the following can be inferred


from the passage?
European colonies did not trade
exclusively with other European colonies
and Nations.
Private companies were more interested
in agricultural development than in
precious metal trade.
Tax imposed on colonies trade was the
primary wealth source for most European
countries.
Before the 18th century the influence that
European countries had over their
colonies was tenuous due to their lack of
focus on wealth acquisition.
To ensure control, many European
countries set up Puppet governments in
their colonies.

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10. According to the passage, all of the
following were part of the centralizing
trend noticed in European colonies
EXCEPT:
Commerce run by non-government
agencies
Focus on acquiring ore wealth for the
European nations
Taxation of commerce within a colony
Taxation of trade between foreign
countries
Focus on agriculture and precious metals

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Practice Drill 8
For many years, Douglas Andersons
seminal account of the participation of
African Americans in the American
Revolution has remained the standard
work in the field. According to Anderson,
the outcome of this conflict was mixed for
African American slaves who enlisted in
Britain's fight against its rebellious
American colonies in return for the
promise of freedom: the British
treacherously resold many into slavery in
the West Indies, while others obtained
freedom in Canada and Africa. Building
on Anderson' analysis of the latter group,
Sylvia Frey studied the former slaves
who emigrated to British colonies in
Canada. According to Frey, these
refugees - the most successful of the
African American Revolutionary War
participants - viewed themselves as the
ideological heirs of the American
Revolution. Frey sees this inheritances
reflected in their demands for the same
rights that the American revolutionaries
had demanded from the British: land
ownership, limits to arbitrary authority
and burdensome taxes, and freedom of
religion.

1. According to the passage, which of the


following is true about the African
American Revolutionary War participants
who settled in Canada after the American
Revolution?
While they were not immediately
betrayed by the British, they ultimately
suffered the same fate as did African
American Revolutionary War participants
who were resold into slavery in the West
Indies.
Although they were politically unaligned
with either side, they identified more with
British ideology than with American
ideology.
They were more politically active than
were African American Revolutionary
War participants who settled in Africa.
They were more successful than were
African American Revolutionary War
participants who settled in Africa.

They settled in Canada rather than in


Africa because of the greater religious
freedom available in Canada.S

2. Which of the following is most


analogous to the relationship between
the African American Revolutionary War
participants who settled in Canada after
the American Revolution and the
American revolutionaries, as that
relationship is described in the passage?
A brilliant pupil of a great musician rebels
against the teacher, but adopts the
teacher's musical style after the teacher's
unexpected death.
A child who has sided with a domineering
parent against a defiant sibling later
makes demands of the parent similar to
those once made by the sibling.
Two research scientists spend much of
their careers working together toward a
common goal, but later quarrel over
which of them should receive credit for
the training of a promising student.
D.Two warring rulers finally make peace
after a lifetime of strife when they realize
that they have been duped by a common
enemy.
A writer spends much of her life
popularizing the work of her mentor, only
to discover late in life that much of the
older writer's work is plagiarized from the
writings of a foreign contemporary.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


3. The author of the passage would most
agree with which of the statements
regarding Douglas Anderson' work?
At the time it appeared, its author already
enjoyed a well-established reputation in
the field.
It contained theories so controversial that
they gave rise to an entire generation of
scholarship.
It launched the career of a scholar who
later wrote even more important works.
It introduced a new and untried research
methodology.
It was a pioneering work that has not yet
been displaced by subsequent
scholarship.

4. Which of the following can be inferred


from the passage concerning Britain's
rule in its Canadian colonies after the
American Revolution?
Humiliated by their defeat by the
Americans, the British sharply curtailed
civil rights in their Canadian colonies.
The British largely ignored their
Canadian colonies.
The British encouraged the colonization
of Canada by those African Americans
who had served on the American side as
well as by those who had served on the
British side.
Some of Britain's policies in its Canadian
colonies were similar to its policies in its
American colonies before the American
Revolution.
To reduce the debt incurred during the
war, the British imposed even higher
taxes on the Canadian colonists than
they had on the American colonists.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
In style and subject matter, Kuru Art Project arts appeal to tourist tastes.
The images are navely rendered, brightly colored, and convey images
such as African animals and scenes of scantily clad hunters and gatherers
that correspond to mythic ideas about Africa. As a souvenir for its buyer,
Kuru artworks serve as mementos of a sojourn in southern Africa. Sidney
Kasfir defines the souvenir as an object of memory; a token of
remembrance of a person, a place, or an eventthat is, an object that
stands for something remembered. As objects of memory, souvenirs have
two functions: they are mnemonic devices and repositories for nostalgia.
As mnemonic devices, souvenirs serve as a touchstone for the memory of
an experience, and as a repository of nostalgia, they represent qualities
that tourists long for that do not exist in their own everyday world. For
Susan Stewart, the souvenir therefore generates an inward narrative
suggesting the personal, internalized meanings that a souvenir may bear.
Dean MacCannell theorizes that when life in modern society is perceived
to be devoid of meaning, people embark on a journey, seeking places and
cultures that fulfill their longing for spirituality and authenticity. Through an
encounter with people or places that are perceived to be pristine,
primitive, natural and, as yet untouched by modernity the traveler is
himself or herself transformed.

5. The author of the passage primarily sets out to


discuss the artistic quality that the souvenirs created by Kuru have.
discuss some qualities that are viewed as important in souvenirs.
illustrate the mechanism by which souvenirs become the touchstone for
the memory of an experience.
illustrate the role souvenirs play in allaying the feeling of depression
caused by the perception hat life in the modern society is devoid of
meaning.
contrast the different perceived functions of souvenirs that artists and
tourists have

6. It can be inferred from the information provided in the passage that a


souvenir serves to do which of the following? Select all that apply.
remind people of their experiences during a journey
provide a contrast between an experience once had with that of those
experienced routinely
an object of trivial importance, often purchased as gifts for family and
friends or for the purposes of being displayed at home.

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7. Souvenirs as mnemonic devices could
help relate to an event that would mollify
a sense of negativity: Select in passage
the sentence that provides a perspective
in support of this assertion.
(A) In style and subject matter, Kuru Art
Project arts appeal to tourist tastes. The
images are navely rendered, brightly
colored, and convey images such as
African animals and scenes of scantily clad
hunters and gatherers that correspond to
mythic ideas about Africa. (B) As a
souvenir for its buyer, Kuru artworks serve
as mementos of a sojourn in southern
Africa. Sidney Kasfir defines the souvenir
as an object of memory; a token of
remembrance of a person, a place, or an
eventthat is, an object that stands for
something remembered. (C) As objects of
memory, souvenirs have two functions:
they are mnemonic devices and
repositories for nostalgia. As mnemonic
devices, souvenirs serve as a touchstone
for the memory of an experience, and as a
repository of nostalgia, they represent
qualities that tourists long for that do not
exist in their own everyday world. For
Susan Stewart, the souvenir therefore
generates an inward narrative suggesting
the personal, internalized meanings that a
souvenir may bear.(D) Dean MacCannell
theorizes that when life in modern society
is perceived to be devoid of meaning,
people embark on a journey, seeking
places and cultures that fulfill their longing
for spirituality and authenticity. (E) Through
an encounter with people or places that are
perceived to be pristine, primitive, natural
and, as yet untouched by modernity the
traveler is himself or herself transformed.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
One of the principal themes of Salazar's critique of liberal capitalism is that it is
insufficiently egalitarian. Salazar's case against the economic inequality generated by
capitalism and in favor of "a radical redistribution of wealth" is presented in a widely
cited essay entitled ''Its Defense of Equality".
The most striking feature of Salazar's critique is that far from rejecting the principle of
reward according to merit, Salazar insists on its validity. People who excel should
receive the superior benefits appropriate to their excellence. But people exhibit a
great variety of qualities "intelligence, physical strength, agility and grace, artistic
creativity, mechanical skill, leadership, endurance, memory, psychological insight, the
capacity for hard work even moral strength, sensitivity, the ability to express
compassion." Each deserves its proper recompense, and hence a proper distribution
of material goods should reflect human differences as measured on all these different
scales. Yet, under capitalism the ability to make money ("the green thumb of
bourgeois society") enables its possessor to acquire almost "every other sort of social
good," such as the respect and esteem of others.
The centerpiece of Salazar's argument is the invocation of a quotation from Georgio's
Pensees, which concludes: "Tyranny is the wish to obtain by one means what can
only be had by another." Georgio believes that we owe different duties to different
qualities. So we might say that infatuation is the proper response to charm, and awe
the proper response to strength. In this light, Salazar characterizes capitalism as the
tyranny of money (or of the ability to make it). And what Salazar envisions is a society
in which wealth is no longer convertible into social goods which it has no intrinsic
connection with.
Salazar's argument is a puzzling one. After all, why should those qualities unrelated to
the production of material goods be rewarded with material goods? Is it not tyrannical,
in Georgio's sense, to insist that those who excel in "sensitivity" or " the ability to
express compassion" merit equal wealth with those who excel in qualities (such as
"the capacity for hard work") essential in producing wealth? Yet Salazar's argument,
however deficient, does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism
namely, that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who no matter how
legitimately they have earned their material rewards, often lack those other qualities
that evoke affection or admiration. Some even argue plausibly that this weakness
may be irremediable: in any society that, like a capitalist society, seeks to become
ever wealthier in material terms disproportionate rewards are bound to flow to the
people who are instrumental in producing the increase in its wealth.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


8. The primary purpose of the passage is
to
argue that Salazar's critique of liberal
capitalism is the cornerstone of Salazar's
thinking
identity and to deprecate the origins of
the intellectual tradition championed by
Salazar
present more clearly than does the essay
"In Defense of Equality" the distinctive
features of Salazar's politico-economic
theories
demonstrate that Salazar's critique of
liberal capitalism is neither original nor
persuasive
outline and to examine critically Salazar's
position on economic equality

9. The author mentions all of the


following as issues addressed by Salazar
EXCEPT
proper recompense for individual
excellence
proper interpretation of economic
equality
proper level of a society's wealth
grounds for calling capitalism the tyranny
of money
exchangeability of money for social
goods

10. The passage provides sufficient


information to answer which of the
following questions?
What weight in relation to other qualities
should a quality like sensitivity have,
according to Salazar, in determining the
proper distribution of goods?
Which quality does Salazar deem too
highly valued under liberal capitalism
Which are the social goods that are,
according to Salazar, outside the reach

of the power of money?


What practical steps does Salazar
suggest be taken to relieve the economic
inequality generated by capitalism?
What deficiencies in Salazar's own
argument does Salazar acknowledge?

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 9
The outpouring of contemporary American Indian literature in the last two decades,
often called the Native American Renaissance, represents for many the first
opportunity to experience Native American poetry. The appreciation of traditional oral
American Indian literature has been limited, hampered by poor translations and by
the difficulty even in the rare culturally sensitive and aesthetically satisfying
translation, of completely conveying the original's verse structure, tone and syntax.
By writing in English and experimenting with European literary forms, contemporary
American Indian writers have broadened their potential audience, while clearly
retaining many essential characteristics of their ancestral oral traditions. For
example, Pulitzer-prize-winning author N. Scott Momaday's poetry often treats art
and mortality in a manner that recalls British romantic poetry, while his poetic
response to the power of natural forces recalls Cherokee oral literature. In the same
way, his novels, an art form European in origin, display an eloquence that echoes the
oratorical grandeur of the great nineteenth-century American Indian chiefs.

According to the passage, Momaday's poetry shares which of the following with
British romantic poetry?
Verse structure
Oratorical techniques
Manner of treating certain themes
Use of certain syntactical constructions
Patterns of rhythm and rhyme

Which of the following is most likely one of the reasons that the author mentions the
work of N. Scott Momaday?
To illustrate how the author believes that members of the Native American
Renaissance have broadened their potential audience
To emphasize the similarities between Momaday's writings and their European
literary models
To demonstrate the contemporary appeal of traditional Native American oral
literature
To suggest that contemporary American Indian writers have sacrifices traditional
values for popular literary success
To imply the continuing popularity of Translations of oral American Indian Literature

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Reading Comprehension Drills


3. Which of the following can be inferred
from the passage about written
translations of oral Native American
poetry?
They were less widely read than are the
works of contemporary Native American
poets writing in English.
They were often made by writers who
were intimately familiar with both English
and Native American languages.
They often gave their readers aesthetic
satisfaction, despite their inaccuracies.
They usually lacked complex verse
structure.
They were overly dependent on
European literary models.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate change, ocean
acidification, overfishing, and eutrophication. Due to a number of these threats, coral
reefs have experienced a distressing decline in the past several decades, associated
in many places with an increase in algal biomass. Accordingly, the loss of live coral
cover is often associated with a phase-shift from a coral-dominated community
structure to a fleshy algae dominated ecosystem.
There are many ways that this community shift can happen, and controversy exists
over the relative importance of different factors in contributing to change. According
to the bottom-up model, nutrient enrichment of coral reef areas results in an increase
of benthic algae, which can grow quicker than coral in large blooms and outcompete
coral for resources, leading to reef degradation. In the top-down model, herbivory
keeps macroalgae biomass in check and allows the coral-dominated community to
persist. Furthermore, disturbance events like bleaching can lead to a community shift
because coral cover grows at a slower rate after a disturbance event and competitive
interactions with macroalgae become more frequent. The health of corals has come
under more scrutiny particularly because of incidences of bleaching, which has been
linked to heat stress. Thus, knowledge of coral physiology and coral-algae
interaction is becoming increasingly relevant to understanding how corals can
recover from stress events.
Previous studies have shown that a number of algae species have negative effects
on coral health and physiology. For example, coral tissue mortality may be strongly
affected by the presence of competing macroalgae. However in some cases, coral
has been shown to actually overgrow and displace algae, while in other cases the
algae has no significant impact on the coral. It seems the impact of macroalgae on
coral is dependent on both the coral and algae species, and that the competition
between the two is highly variable, sometimes showing very little to no effect.
Despite the importance of understanding coral-algal competition and the phase-shifts
in community structure, there has been very little previous experimental research on
quantifying this interaction. Past studies have focused on the impact of herbivory or
nutrient enrichment on algal growth and resulting competition with corals, but few
quantify the effects of algae on coral physiology to measure the possible competition
between the two.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


discuss the competition for survival that exists between the coral tissue and the
macroalgae.
evaluate the environmental consequences the loss of live coral cover has and
suggest some reparative measures.
discuss a factor that could be causative for the loss of live coral cover and suggest
the need for further research to ascertain its impact.
present a concern about the possible consequences of promoting macroalgae
population growth in marine ecosystems.
explain why a particular strategy to increase coral reef population has been less
successful than was once anticipated.

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5. Which of the following can be inferred about macroalgae ?
They are often more hardy than the coral reef during disturbance events like
bleaching
They pose the biggest threat to the coral reef population
They are less likely than are the corals to be affected by competition from other
marine organisms.
Some species of macroalgae are more competitive than others
Some macroalgae are considered inedible by many herbivores resulting in thir being
unchecked by herbivory

6. According to the passage, the decline of coral reef could occur because of all of
the following EXCEPT?
Substantial elevation of temperature
Competition with other marine organisms
Increased levels of acidity in water
Increased bleaching in coral reefs
Unconscientious fishing practices

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
While it is true that living organisms are profoundly affected by their environment, it is
equally important to remember that many organisms are also capable of altering
their habitat significantly, sometimes limiting their own growth. The influence of the
biological component of an ecosystem is often greater in fresh waters than in marine
or terrestrial systems, because of the small size of many freshwater bodies. Many of
the important effects of organisms are related to their physiology, especially growth
and respiration. By their growth many species can deplete essential nutrients within
the system, thus limiting their own growth or that of other species. Lund has
demonstrated that in Lake Windermere the algae Asterionella is unable to grow in
conditions that it itself has created. Once a year, in the spring, this plant starts to
grow rapidly in the lake, using up so much silica from the water that by late spring
there is no longer enough to maintain its oval growth. The population decreases
dramatically as a result.

7. Which of the following is an example of the type of organism described in first


sentence of the paragraph ?
A kind of ant that feeds on the sweet juice exuded by the twigs of a species of thorn
tree that grow in dry areas
A kind of fish that, after growing to maturity in the ocean, return to fresh water
A kind of flower that has markings distinctly perceptible in ultraviolet
light to the species of bee that pollinates the flowers
A kind of tree with seeds that germinate readily only in a sunny spot and then
develop into mature trees that shade the area below them
A kind of butterfly, itself nonpoisonous, with the same markings as a kind of butterfly
that birds refuse tomcat because it is poisonous

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true about
Asterioncella plants in Lake Windermere?
They are not present except in early spring
They contribute silica to the waters as they grow
They are food for other organisms
They form a silica-rich layer on the lake bottom
Their growth peaks in the spring

The passage indicates that organisms frequently have the strongest effects on their
environment in
oceans, since oceans contain the largest organisms living on Earth
oceans, since oceans provide habitats for many different kinds of species

freshwater bodies, since such effects become pronounced in relatively small spaces

fresh water lakes, since nutrients in freshwater lakes are present only in small
amounts
land area, since there exist major influences of climate on the kinds of small
organisms supported in land areas

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10. The primary topic of the passage is
the way in which
organisms are affected by the amount of
nutrients available
organisms can change their own
surroundings
elements of freshwater habitats impede
the growth of small organisms
the reproduction of organisms is
controlled by factors in the environment
plant matter in a given local can increase
up to a limit

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Practice Drill 10
Allen and Wolkowitz's research
challenges the common claim that
homework waged labor performed at
home for a company is primarily a
response to women workers' needs and
preferences. By focusing on a limited
geographical area in order to gather indepth information, the authors have
avoided the methodological pitfalls that
have plagued earlier research on
homework. Their findings disprove
accepted notions about homeworkers:
that they are unqualified for other jobs
and that they use homework as a shortterm strategy for dealing with child care.
The authors conclude that the
persistence of homework cannot be
explained by appeal to such notions, for,
in fact, homeworkers do not differ sharply
from other employed women. Most
homeworkers would prefer to work
outside the home but are constrained
from doing so by lack of opportunity. In
fact, homework is driven by employers'
desires to minimize fixed costs:
homeworkers receive no benefits and are
paid less than regular employees.

The passage is primarily concerned with


advocating a controversial theory
presenting and challenging the results of
a study
describing a problem and proposing a
solution
discussing research that opposes a
widely accepted belief
comparing several explanations for the
same phenomenon

According to the passage, which of the


following has been generally believed
about homework?
The benefits of homework accrue
primarily to employers rather than to
homeworkers.
Homework is prevalent predominantly in

rural areas.
Homework is primarily a response to the
preferences of women workers.
Few homeworkers rely on homework for
the majority of their family income.
Most homework is seasonal and parttime rather than full-time and year-round.

The passage suggests which of the


following about previous research on
homework?
It was conducted primarily with women
who did not have extensive household
responsibilities or care for small children
at home.
It was conducted with homeworkers and
companies over a large geographical
area.
It indicated that women homeworkers
had numerous opportunities to work
outside the home.
It indicated that homeworkers usually
work for companies that are close to their
homes.
It indicated that homework was
financially advantageous to large
companies.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
After the demise in 1975 of the Francisco Franco dictatorship, Spains leading political
parties negotiated the so-called Pact of Forgetting, an informal agreement that made
any treatment of the most difficult episodes of Spanish history, such as the horrific
violence of the Civil War, unnecessary and unwelcomed. Far from seeking justice,
truth or reconciliation, the nation chose to forget and move on, even passing a
comprehensive amnesty law making it all but impossible to prosecute the human
rights abuses of the old regime.
The pact to forget meant that in Spain there would be no accountability for the
thousands of people who perished during the Civil War (1936-39), or for the many
more who were executed, forced into exile, tortured in prison or sent to labor camps in
the postwar years for simply having defended democracy against Francos fascist
coup. The pact also committed the government to la desmemoria (disremembering),
a policy that entailed avoiding anything that could awaken the memory of the past,
such as the observation of the 50th anniversary of the start of the Civil War, in 1986;
the creation of a truth commission to look into who bore ultimate responsibility for the
Civil War; and the use of state funds to exhume the remains of thousands buried in
unmarked Civil War mass graves, most of whom died fighting Franco.

Which of the following is the author of the passage most likely to agree with? A. Spain
thrived after 1875
B. The pact of forgetting does not do justice to the affected people in Spain
C. The sacrifices made by the participants of the Civil war should not be remembered
to ensure that memories of the past are not awakened.
D. Spain was most prosperous under Francisco Francos rule
E. The Civil War of 1986 was deleterious to the progress of Spain

Which of the following is a role that the second paragraph of the passage plays? A. It
provides evidence to substantiate the reasons behind the decline of the Francisco
Franco governance.
B. It elaborates some of the implications that an agreement discussed in the first
paragraph had.
C. It highlights the importance of disremembering with respect to the 1986 Civil War.
D. It introduces a perspective that detracts from the main idea of the passage
E. It highlights some of the brutal acts committed during Francisco Francos regime

All of the following is true regarding the Civil War discussed in the passage EXCEPT:
A. It was intended to revolt against an oppressive governance
B. Its end was marked by the death of Francisco C. Many people died as a result of the
War

D. The government was involved in inhumane treatment of its citizens

E. The participants of this war were treated inhumanely even after the end of the war

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Passage 3
In Europe, a favorite method of aiding science is to offer a prize for the best thesis on a
specified subject. On theoretical grounds this is extremely objectionable. Since the
papers presented are anonymous and confidential, no one but the judges know how
great is the effort wasted in practical replication of these theses. The larger the prize, the
greater the injury to science, since the greater will be the energy diverted from untried
fields. It would be much wiser to invite applications, select the man most likely to
produce a useful thesis, and award the prize to him if he achieved success.
The award of a medal, if of great intrinsic value, would be an unwise expenditure. The
Victoria Cross is an example of a successful foundation, highly prized, but of small
intrinsic value. If made of gold, it would carry no greater honor, and would be more liable
to be stolen, melted down or pawned. Honorary membership in a famous society, or
honorary degrees, have great value if wisely awarded. Both are highly prized, form an
excellent stimulus to continued work, and as they are both priceless, and without price,
they in no way diminish the capacity for work.

7. The author of the passage sets out to


Suggest a method by which truly brilliant scientific work can be identified
Criticize the the use of rewards that have great intrinsic value
Evaluate various ways in which scientific excellence can be achieved in a particular field

Discuss the fallibilities of scientists who melt down or pawn their rewards
Suggest a method of rewarding excellence in a field

All of the following can be inferred about the Victoria Cross EXCEPT: It is an honorary
medal
It has almost no intrinsic value
It is often made of gold
It carries great honor among those who receive it
It is an example of a good award for a persons excellence

Which of the following can be inferred regarding a favorite method of aiding science ?
It does not necessarily do much service in aiding the progress of science
It helps promote the development of new and ground breaking scientific theories.
The fact that the papers are presenting anonymous is the only draw back of this method
It is an essential model that should be replicated in other nations to ensure scientific
progress
It has been without any merit in the scientific community

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Reading Comprehension Drills

Practice Drill 11
The accidental introduction of nonnative
nuisance (invasive) species is a critical
environmental issue. Estimates of the
economic damages arising from these
introductions are needed to formulate
effective policy in this area. Damage
estimates can help policymakers and
managers to understand the gravity of
the problem and develop appropriate
management responses. To be useful,
such estimates must rely on both a
sound ecological understanding and the
proper application of economic methods.
To date, policy responses to the
introduction and spread of invasive
species have been based on very crude
estimates of economic damages. For
example, in drafting the Ballast Water
Management Act of 2005, the US Senate
found that annual estimates of the costs to
the US economy from aquatic nuisance
species alone range from millions to
billions of dollars. This finding can be
traced back to a compilation by Pimente of
the annual economic effects of many of the
invasive species that have become
established and have displaced many
native species in the United States. There
are many reasons to be concerned about
the use of these estimates for
policymaking, however.

All of the following is true regarding


nonnative nuisance species EXCEPT: A.
They are an ecological concern
B. They pose an economic concern in the
regions they are introduced C. They pose
a threat to the native species
D. Their effect on the economy has been
largely underestimated
E. Policies have been drafted to manage
their introduction and spread

Which of the following is an opinion that


the author of the passage would agree
with?
There are native species of animals that
can be more harmful to the ecology and

economy than certain nonnative species.


Policy makes must be cautious while
using estimates to draft policies.
Economic damage estimates should not
be considered while drafting policies that
regulate the nuisance species
propagation .
The issues of accidental introduction of
non-native invasive species into the
environment does not merit attention.
The United States is the most affected by
the introduction of invasive nuisance
species.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


3. Which of the following is true about the
Ballast Water Management Act of 2005?
It is based on very accurate estimates
It neglects the use of data that represents
potential economic damages

It overestimates the effects of native


species on nonnative species
It is based on crude estimates
It detracts from the issue it is required to
address

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 2
Comparing designs in music with visual
designs raises interesting questions. We
are familiar with the easy transfers of
terms denoting qualities from one field to
another. The basic problem can be put
this way: can music sound the way a
design looks? The elements of music are
not the same as those of painting. They
may be analogous, but to be analogous
is not to be identical: is it possible, then,
for the same broad characteristics to
emerge from different perceptual
conditions?
Two facts about the relation between
broad characteristics of a work and their
perceptual conditions must be kept
distinct. First, the global characteristics of
a visual or auditory complex are
determined by the discernible parts and
their relationships. Thus, any notable
change in the parts or their relationships
produces a change in some of the global
characteristics. Second, a change in the
parts or their relationships may leave
other global characteristics unchanged.

4. In the first paragraph, the author is


primarily concerned with establishing the
fact that
careless perceptions result from careless
thought
auditory phenomena are not visual
phenomena
frequently used comparisons are usually
inaccurate
comparisons are not equations
questions concerning perception are
psychological

5. In the passage, the author is primarily


concerned with
distinguishing mutually exclusive
categories
clarifying an apparent contradiction

supporting new ideas


comparing opinions
analyzing a problem

6. The second paragraph is primarily


concerned with establishing the idea that
different global characteristics of a work
result from the same discernible parts
the parts of a work of art influence the
total perception of the work
visual and auditory characteristics can be
combined
changes in the parts of a work remain
isolated from the work as a whole

the visual complexes in a work of art


influence the work's auditory

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Reading Comprehension Drills


Passage 3
In The Women of Mexico City, 1796-1857 Sylvia Marina Arrom argues that the status
on women in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century. According to
Arrom, households headed by females and instances of women working outside the
home were much more common than scholars have estimated; efforts by the
Mexican government to encourage female education resulted in increased female
literacy; and influential male writers wrote pieces advocating education, employment,
and increased family responsibilities for women, while deploring women's political
and marital inequality. Mention of the fact that the civil codes of 1870 and 1884
significantly advanced women's rights would have further strengthened Arrom's
argument.
Arrom does not discuss whether women's improved status counteracted the effects on
women of instability in the Mexican economy during the nineteenth century. However,
this is not so much a weakness in her work as it is the inevitable result of scholars'
neglect of this period. Indeed, such gaps in Mexican history are precisely what make
Arrom's pioneering study an important addition to Latin American women's history.

7. The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?


Reviewing a historical study of the status of women in Mexico City during the
nineteenth century.
Analyzing the effects of economic instability on the status of women in Mexico during
the nineteenth century
Advancing a thesis explaining why women's status in Mexico City improved during
the nineteenth century
Rejecting the thesis that the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth
century actually improved
Praising an author for a pioneering attempt to bridge significant gaps in Mexico's
economic history prior to 1790

8. It can be inferred from the passage that Arrom would agree with which of the
following assertions?
Efforts by the Mexican government to encourage education for women during the
nineteenth century were hampered by the economic instability of that period.
The most significant advances in the rights of Mexican women during the nineteenth
century occurred prior to 1857.
Improvements in the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century
were accompanied by similar improvements in the status of women in other large
Latin American cities.
Scholars have in the past accorded the most significance to nineteenthcentury
Mexican literature that supported the status quo in women's political and marital
rights.

Scholars have in the past underestimated the number of households headed by


females in Mexico City.

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Reading Comprehension Drills


9. Which of the following best describes
the author's attitude toward Arrom's
work?
Uncritical approval
Enthusiasm tempered by minor
reservations
Praise for her thesis, despite skepticism
regarding the sources of her evidence
Reluctant acceptance, despite lingering
doubts regarding the accuracy of her thesis

Rejection, despite admiration for her


attempt to break new ground in a hitherto
neglected field

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Reading Comprehension Drills

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