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Assignment 2


Roll # AB523655
Semester: Autumn 2009



Discuss major steps of flood management and
government enactments pertaining to flood



Flood is a state of high water level along a river channel or on the coast that
leads to inundation of land, which is not usually submerged. Floods may
happen gradually and also may take hours or even happen suddenly without
any warning due to breach in the embankment, spill over, heavy rains etc.

There are different types of floods namely: flash flood, riverine flood, urban
flood, etc. Flash floods can be defined as floods which occur within six
hours of the beginning of heavy rainfall, and are usually associated with
cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring rapid localized warnings and
immediate response to reduce damage. Wireless network and telephone
connections are used to monitor flood conditions. In case of flash floods,
warnings for timely evacuation may not always be possible.

There are several causes of floods and differ from region to region. The
causes may vary from a rural area to an urban area. Some of the major causes
a) Heavy rainfall
b) Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces the water carrying capacity of
c) Blockage in the drains lead to flooding of the area.
d) Landslides blocking the flow of the stream.


e) Construction of dams and reservoirs

f) In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down
pour along with storm surge leads to flooding.

Flood forecasting and warning has been highly developed in the past two
decades. With the advancement of technology such as satellite and remote-
sensing equipments flood waves can be tracked as the water level rises.
Except for flash floods there is usually a reasonable warning period. Heavy
precipitation will give sufficient warning of the coming river flood. High
tides with high winds may indicate flooding in the coastal areas. Evacuation
is possible with suitable monitoring and warning. Warning is issued by the
Central Water Commission (CWC), Irrigation & Flood Control Department,
and Water Resources Department. CWC maintains close liaison with the
administrative and state engineering agencies, local civil authorities to
communicate advance warning for appropriate mitigation and preparedness

Mitigation Measures

Mapping of the flood prone areas is a primary step involved in reducing

the risk of the region. Historical records give the indication of the flood
inundation areas and the period of occurrence and the extent of the
coverage. Warning can be issued looking into the earlier marked heights of
the water levels in case of potential threat. In the coastal areas the tide levels


and the land characteristics will determine the submergence areas. Flood
hazard mapping will give the proper indication of water flow during floods.

Land use control will reduce danger of life and property when waters
inundate the floodplains and the coastal areas. The number of casualties is
related to the population in the area at risk. In areas where people already
have built their settlements, measures should be taken to relocate to better
sites so as to reduce vulnerability. No major development should be
permitted in the areas which are subjected to high flooding. Important
facilities like hospitals, schools should be built in safe areas. In urban areas,
water holding areas can be created like ponds, lakes or low-lying areas.

Construction of engineered structures in the flood plains and

strengthening of structures to withstand flood forces and seepage. The
buildings should be constructed on an elevated area. If necessary build on
stilts or platform.

Flood Control aims to reduce flood damage. This can be done by decreasing
the amount of runoff with the help of reforestation (to increase absorption
could be a mitigation strategy in certain areas), protection of vegetation,
clearing of debris from streams and other water holding areas, conservation
of ponds and lakes etc. Flood Diversion include levees, embankments, dams
and channel improvement. Dams can store water and can release water at a
manageable rate. But failure of dams in earthquakes and operation of
releasing the water can cause floods in the lower areas. Flood Proofing


reduces the risk of damage. Measures include use of sand bags to keep flood
water away, blocking or sealing of doors and windows of houses etc. Houses
may be elevated by building on raised land. Buildings should be constructed
away from water bodies.

Flood Management In India, systematic planning for flood management

commenced with the Five Year Plans, particularly with
the launching of National Programme of Flood Management in 1954. During
the last 48 years, different methods of flood protection structural as well as
nonstructural have been adopted in different states depending upon the
nature of the problem and local conditions. Structural measures include
storage reservoirs, flood embankments, drainage channels, antierosion
works, channel improvement works, detention basins etc. and non-
structural measures include flood forecasting, flood plain zoning, flood
proofing, disaster preparedness etc. The flood management measures
undertaken so far have provided reasonable degree of protection to an area
of 15.81 million hectares throughout the country.


It is recognized world over that floods are the most destructive of natural
hazards and the greatest cause of large scale damages to lives and property.
Over the years, major floods have occurred in almost all the south asian


countries, causing huge loss of life and property. Despite the investment of
millions, even billions of dollars to tame the rivers of the region, the
frequency of major flood disasters has actually increased over the past 25 to
30 years. There is a growing consensus that the impacts of climate change
may well lead to an increase in both the frequency and magnitude of floods.
Mankind has to live with the floods and devise measures to better manage
them to minimize the losses and harness benefits.
During the last fifty nine years in Pakistan, the total losses ascribable to
floods are colossal, while more than 7200 peoples lost their lives. Heaviest
direct flood damages in Pakistan occur to infrastructure, agricultural crops,
damage to urban and rural property and public utilities.

Organizations with overall Disaster Related Responsibilities

The Federal Flood Commission (FFC), Emergency Relief Cell (ERC) and
Pakistan Meteorological Department are the key agencies for disaster
management in Pakistan. However, in case of a disaster, almost all federal
and provincial ministries, departments and divisions start dealing with the
situation offhandedly. A brief description of responsibilities of such
organizations is given below:

1. Emergency Relief Cell (ERC)

Responsibilities of the ERC in connection with disaster relief are:
 To provide in cash as well as in kind to supplement the resources of
the provincial governments in the event of major disasters
 To coordinate the activities of the federal Division, Provincial
Governments, as well as governmental, semi governmental,


international and national aid-giving agencies, in the conduct of

operations for relief of disasters
 To maintain contact with international aid-giving agencies/ voluntary
organizations and donor countries for disaster relief measures
 To administer Relief Funds, being maintained at the Federal Level
 To stockpile certain items of basic necessity and establish central
inventory of resources f. To provide assistance to the calamity stricken
friendly countries

The ERC operates an Emergency Control Room, which coordinates the

situation during calamities by liaising with relevant agencies such as the
Federal Flood Commission, Meteorological Department, and Provincial
The ERC maintains a warehouse in the capital, Islamabad, stocking essential
non-perishable relief item such as medicines, blankets, clothing and tents. In
addition, there is a Relief Goods Dispatch Organization (GDO) located in
Karachi. This is responsible for receiving and dispatching all relief goods
from foreign and local agencies in the event of a disaster. The ERC also
maintains an Aviation Squadron with a fleet of 4 helicopters, whose task is to
assist rescue operations and enable officials to visit the affected areas.

2. Pakistan Meteorological Department

The Met Department is both a scientific and a service department, and
functions under the Ministry of Defence.

It is responsible for providing meteorological service throughout Pakistan.

Apart from Meteorology, the department is also concerned with
Agrometeorology, Hydrology, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Seismology,
Geomagnetism, Atmospheric Electricity and studies of the Ionosphere and
Cosmic Rays.

The major functions of the Met Department are to provide information on

meteorological and geophysical matters with the objective of disaster


mitigation due to weather and geophysical phenomena, agriculture

development based on climatic potential of the country, prediction and
modification of weather forecast. The department has established:

 A network of observing stations to generate meteorological,

geophysical and phonological data.
 A telecommunication system for speedy dissemination of data
 Meteorological offices to analyze data for issuing forecasts and
warnings for aviation, agriculture, shipping, sports, irrigation etc.
 Climatological and data processing units for scrutinizing, comparing
and publishing data for appraisal of long term weather trends and

The department has introduced a modern flood forecasting system,

earthquake and nuclear explosion detection system, radar, satellite,
computer technology, flight safety consultancy services in seismic design of
dams, buildings and other development and disaster relief schemes.

3. Federal Flood Commission (FFC)

The Federal Flood Commission was created in 1977. Till the end of 1976, the
Provincial Irrigation Departments (PIDs) were responsible for the planning
and execution of flood protection works. But after the massive floods of 1973
& 1976 and huge losses to human lives, land and property, the federal
government deemed it necessary to have a federal agency in place for flood
protection and preventive measures across the country.
Responsibilities of the FFC:

 Preparation of flood protection plans for the country

 Approval of flood control / protection schemes prepared by provincial
governments and concerned federal agencies
 Recommendation regarding principles of regulation of reservoirs for
flood control


 Review of damage to flood protection works and review of plans for

restoration and reconstruction works
 Measures for improvement of flood forecasting and warning system
 Preparation of a research programme for flood control and protection
 Standardization of designs and specifications for flood protection
 Evaluation and monitoring of progress of implementation of the
National Flood Protection Plan
 Monitor the provincial government’s implementation of the national
Flood Protection Plan. The federal government provides the resources
for meeting the capital cost of the project(s)

4. National Crisis Management Cell (NCMC)

The National Crisis Management Cell, under the Ministry of Interior, has a
round the clock operational control room for collecting information of
emergencies of all sorts in the country. It coordinates with the Provincial
Crisis management Cells (PCMCs) and other security agencies to gather
relevant information. It is also responsible for coordinating plans for
emergency response services in case of emergency situations / disasters.

5. Civil Defence
The Civil Defence Department was established through an ordinance in 1951.
It is now governed through 1952 Civil Defence Act. Before 1993, it was
mandated to “take measures not amounting to actual combat, for affording
defence against any form of hostile attack by a foreign power or for depriving
any form of hostile attack by a foreign power of its effect, wholly or in part,
whether such measures are taken before, during or after the time of the
attack”. But then it was assigned with an additional task during peace times
to take remedial measures against natural or man-made disasters.
Specifically, the Civil Defence is to:

 assist local administration / Army in rescue, evacuation and relief



 supplement anti-flood equipment of Army

 Provide personnel for anti flood training in rescue and relief work

6. Provincial Relief Departments

 Provide adequate resource support to area Administration through co-
ordination with Provincial Government Departments / Agencies
 Provision of necessary funds to the area administration for relief work
 Oversee the working of area administration for relief work
 Obtain field reports of losses and apprise the Provincial Government /
Federal Government
 Assess and evaluate losses and suggest to the Federal / Provincial
Governments for providing relief to the affected persons

7. Provincial Irrigation Departments

 Complete repairs of the flood protection works in the pre-flood season
 Provide funds to the Army for replenishment of stores
 Review the plan for regulation of water supply
 Position requisite machinery and material at safe localities near
vulnerable points for emergency repairs
 Inspection of breaching sections and carrying out final survey

8. Provincial Health Departments

 Establish a system of high readiness and list of personnel to be
mobilized when alert of danger warning is received or impact of
disaster reported
 Establish an Emergency Cell (Medical) to ensure better coordination in
disaster situations
 Set-up medical camps and organise Medical Mobile Teams (MMTs) to
be sent to the scene of disaster with a minimum of delay
 Ensure communication links between hospitals and the scene of
 e. Activate emergency field medical units


9. Provincial Agriculture & Livestock Departments

 To assist in saving crops, agriculture land and livestock in disaster
 To make available inputs like seed plant, fertilizers and agriculture
equipment to the victims of disaster on credit basis
 To survey and investigate extent of damages to the crops and livestock

10. Provincial Food Departments

 To ensure adequate availability of food stocks in disaster situation
 To organize ration depots at location required by the local authorities

11. Communication & Works

 To supervise, direct and control protection of roads and structures
 To coordinate survey investigation of the extent of damage to roads
and structures
 To organize emergency repairs for restoration of public transport

12. Planning & Development Departments

 To assist in obtaining of information and data for pre-disaster survey
and planning to serve as a basis for prevention measures and for relief
 To assist in evaluation of losses and damages

13. Army
 Survey and inspect flood protection works
 Assess resources for relief, rescue and evacuation work
 Position personnel, material and equipment at planned pre-
determined location
 Review and revise flood protection and relief operation plans
 Train civil / military power boats operators


 Review the logistics of ration, POL, arms and ammunition, medical

cover, tentage, communications and allied measures for movement of
troops in aid of civil powers
 Set-up flood emergency cells at each corps headquarters

14. Police Department

 Operate through Police Telecommunication the wireless and tele-
printer network for flood
 information and messages to all concerned departments and agencies
 Ensure law and order during flood emergency
 Provide assistance in flood warning, rescue, relief and evacuation

15. Dams Safety Council

 To carry out periodic inspections of dams and advise WAPDA and
provincial governments regarding repairs and maintenance of dams
and reservoirs
 To review the plans of new dams to ensure adequate safety of
 To review the plans and specifications for enlargement, modifications,
major repairs, revival or abandoning of dams / reservoirs
 To supply technical data and maintain general liaison with World
Bank and UN Organizations
 To keep a close liaison with International Commission on Large Dams
based at Paris, France

16. Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission

The Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(SUPARCO) is the country’s national space agency, responsible for the
execution of the space science and technology programs in the country.
SUPARCO is an autonomous R & D organization under the Federal


Government. The Commission comprises the Chairman and four Members

for Space Technology, Space Research, Space Electronics and Finance.

SUPARCO undertakes studies / surveys on environment and has developed

natural hazard monitoring system that deals with thunderstorms, floods,
drought and desertification. It also keeps tracks of the movements of tropical
cyclones in the Arabian Sea. By using satellite images, cloud cover and
rainfall data, SUPARCO monitors drought conditions in Pakistan. Satellite
Remote Sensing has been used to monitor and map flood risk zones in order
to enable the flood risk zones management agencies to take remedial
measures to minimize damages to population and property.





Disaster brings out best Human Behavior,
Comment on it.



This essay summarizes what social science research has established about
human and group behavior in the emergency time period of disasters. First,
we discuss the behavior of human beings at the height of a disaster. This is
followed by a similar discussion of how groups react during the same time
period. We conclude by very briefly looking at whether the behaviors that
have been observed in the last half century are likely to be the same in future

Our remarks are drawn from a large body of research literature developed
over the last 40 years. Some findings come from the over 535 field studies
that the Disaster Research Center (DRC) alone has conducted on natural and
technological disasters since 1963. However, we also draw from the
systematic work done by others including the research undertaken in three
dozen countries around the world.

For expositional purposes, we primarily focus on community type disasters--

where there is a sudden and major disruption of the everyday routines of an
urban area as a result of some natural or technological disaster agent that
threatens and/or impacts life, property, and social routines. However, there
are –community type disasters such as most transportation accidents which
seldom disrupt the ongoing routines of an urbanized area (an exception was
the chemical threat from a train derailment which forced the evacuation of
215,000 residents near Mississauga, a Toronto, Canada suburb.
At the other extreme, there are also catastrophic occasions that extend far
beyond temporarily disrupting the normal habits of a single community and
that are qualitatively as well as quantitatively different from typical
“disasters”. Overall, our remarks will be mostly about individual and
organizational behaviors in community disasters.


The Reactions of Human Beings

There is a prevailing popular image of how people will react in disasters.

While there are variations in the imagery, the general picture is that human
beings do not respond too well in such situations (Wenger, Faupel and
James, 1985). It is generally assumed that individuals are likely to panic and
act irrationally, will be stunned and unable to take care of themselves, act in
antisocial ways, be emotionally traumatized or psychologically incapacitated,
and generally react selfishly and in self centered ways during and
immediately after a disaster threat and impact. However, the research
studies indicate that this picture is an incorrect one in almost every respect.
The popular image is a compound of myths and misunderstandings about
how human beings actually behave in the emergency time periods of

1) The panic myth.

If there is one word associated with disaster behavior, it is the word “panic”. Of course,
the term can have many references. If the referent is to the probability that most human
beings during disasters will be frightened and afraid, that is a correct perception. Any
sane person will be scared in the face of great personal danger. However, when the term
panic is used in everyday speech, mass media accounts, or official statements in
connection with disasters, usually far more is implied. It is assumed that in the face of
great danger most people will “panic” in the sense of wildly fleeing, aimlessly running
around or hysterically breaking down. Even if the response is not viewed as intrinsically
self destructive, the behavior is seen as nonadaptive and inappropriate for the situation
and in a basic sense as being irrational.

However, research has consistently shown that panic in these behavioral senses of the
term, is extremely rare if not actually nonexistent in community disasters. Disaster
victims do not flee wildly, they do not run around aimlessly, they do not hysterically
break down. Instead of fleeing away, they will usually converge upon impact sites to help
in whatever ways they can. Instead of irrationally running around (a favorite scene in
disaster movies), victims intentionally and deliberately proceed to search for relatives and
friends. Instead of breaking down in hysterics, they do what they can for themselves and
others in the situation.


Disaster victims may be very concerned and frightened, but that does not mean they will
act selfishly, impulsively or without thinking. They do not become unreasoning animals.
In fact, it is arguable that they show more rationality under stress than they do normally,
if by rationality is meant conscious weighing of alternative courses of action. None of us
undertake much conscious weighing of optional courses of actions in performing the
great majority of our daily routines. But those caught in disasters, when their very lives
and those of others that are important to them may be at stake, become very conscious
and aware of the behavioral choices they have and make.

Panic flight behavior can occur. But it is quite rare, usually engaged in by very small
numbers of people, and typically is of short duration and distance. Furthermore, the
occurrence of panic requires an unusual combination of circumstances, mainly the
perception of an extremely sudden and very direct threat to one's life in a very limited
spatial area, that escape by one's own actions from a specific danger is still possible, and
that self can not be helped by others around them. These are conditions that are not
usually present in community disasters; they are more likely to be present in a spatially
focused emergency occasion such as a nightclub or hotel fire.

Overall, panic behavior is not a major characteristic of almost any kind of disaster. It is of
very little practical or operational importance in the great majority of community
disasters. It can be ignored in disaster planning, except for the keeping in mind that
it is a myth and not something to be expected.

2 The passivity myth.

If panic is not generated, it is sometimes thought that disasters create just the opposite--
paralysis of action. Thus, it is believed that in the face of warnings of extreme threats,
people will freeze and be unable to react. Another related widespread notion is that most
victims are so stunned or shocked, that they cannot cope with the crisis in which they
find themselves. There is a tendency to assume survivors are so dazed, shocked and
disoriented that outsiders will have to do the most elementary tasks for victims such as
feeding, clothing and sheltering them.

Essentially the image is one of passive dependency on others by those impacted, and that
nothing will happen unless Big Brother in the form of helping outsider agencies step in.
Research has consistently shown that this image of helplessness is also quite incorrect. In
the face of credible warning messages, people will seek safety and generally take actions
that are adaptable for the situation. Furthermore, those who experience disasters are not


immobilized by even the most stressful of occasions. They are neither devoid of initiative
nor passively expectant that others will take care of them and their needs.

Usually before full impact is over, survivors initiated search and rescue efforts (over 90
percent are typically rescued in this way). The injured are found and transported as
quickly as possible by any available means to hospitals. Temporary shelter is actively
sought from and offered by kin and friends; the same is true of food and water. In fact,
the evidence is substantial that far from even seeking and depending upon formal relief
organizations, these are among the last sources that most victims will turn to for help.

In the immediate aftermath of disasters, self- and kin-help and mutual informal initiative
and assistance will emerge. Except for the severely injured, survivors respond quickly and
initiate many personal and social recovery actions. Helplessness and passively waiting for
organizations to provide help is far from the norm.

3 The antisocial myth.

To inexperienced officials and journalists, disasters are seen as offering opportunities for
the surfacing of antisocial behavior. It is assumed that deviant behavior will emerge and
that dazed victims will be the easy targets for looting and other forms of criminal activity
if they do not engage in widespread pillaging themselves. In fact, next to the supposed
“panic” problem, is the supposed “looting” problem. The imagery is that as Mr. Hyde
takes over from Dr. Jekyll, crime will increase and exploitative behavior will spread. This
picture is often supported by mass media accounts and widely circulating stories or

According to research studies, this image is also basically incorrect and fundamentally
mythical. Many stories of looting do typically circulate, but actual instances will be very
rare and if they occur will be done by outsiders rather than the impacted population
itself. Far more material will be freely donated and given away than could conceivably be
looted. Postimpact crime rates almost always drop. Exploitative behavior is only likely to
be seen in relatively rare instances of profiteering after the immediate emergency period
is over.

In actuality, prosocial rather than antisocial behavior is a dominant characteristic of the

emergency time period. If disasters unleash anything, it is not the criminal in us but the
altruistic. Such crime as occurs will be far below that which would normally occur in the
community on a normal everyday basis.


4 The traumatized myth.

The traumatic stress of a disaster experience is widely thought to have both short and
long run negative consequences for the mental health of the survivors. Thus, supposedly
some people are driven “crazy”. Numerous others are so psychologically scared that they
cannot function normally, and many seriously emotionally damaged victims are left
behind. These pathological reactions are presumably manifested by a great majority of
victims and may last indefinitely unless treatment is given.

The Reactions of Groups

Just as there are many mythologies about human behavior in disasters, there
are also widespread misconceptions about organizational responses. In what
follows we will summarize under four categories the major mythological and
real problems of organizations in the emergency time periods of disasters.

The mobilization of groups.

It is sometimes thought that organizations cannot mobilize and function well because of
a possible conflict between the work role and the family role of officials. Thus it is
sometimes assumed that key personnel will stay away or leave their jobs at the emergency
times of disasters because of a concern for or a need to take care of their victimized
families. Forced to choose, it is believed that people will choose family over work
responsibilities, thus hindering organizational mobilization for a crisis.

Research however shows that this role conflict does & result in the failure to carry out or
the abandonment of major occupational responsibilities. At least it is not a major
problem, especially in the higher echelons of organizations and particularly those work
roles that are seen as necessary in a crisis. Studies indicate officials in such positions can
be expected to do their jobs, although it does result in psychological stress for those
caught in such a role conflict (Dynes and Quarantelli, 1986; Rogers, 1986).

It is also sometimes believed that local organizations cannot mobilize quickly because
they are overwhelmed by a disaster. Part of this is seen as stemming from the shock that
groups undergo as a result of the experience (paralleling the shock that humans
supposedly undergo as noted earlier) , and part from the belief that organizations are
faced with a totally unfamiliar situation.


Studies do not support this view of organizational paralysis. Groups move quickly to do
what they are capable of doing; many tasks and responsibilities are the same as in normal
times (e.g., fire departments can continue to fight fires, lifeline agencies can provide usual
services). While often there may be a lag in group mobilization, this stems mostly from
the lack of adequate information and knowledge about the needs and demands of the
disaster which are relevant to the operations of the organization.

Learning what has happened in the immediate aftermath of a disaster impact is usually a
major problem for all responding organizations; this is the problem rather than any kind
of organizational shock. There are also other organizational difficulties in mobilizing.
One problem is that often there is little of an appropriate nature around for a required
task. For example, it is not always clear, who has the responsibility for suddenly
performing new disaster related tasks, such as undertaking large scale formal search and
rescue, making up lists of missing persons, or processing large number of dead bodies.
These are not the normal responsibility of any community agency, but these and similar
tasks in a major disaster will have to be assumed by someone sooner or later.

Absent prior planning, some group will have to mobilize its personnel for the work and
attempt to ascertain what has to be done and what will be needed for a rather untypical
type of work activity. So while a disaster does not generate an overall unfamiliar social
setting, it can create specific new tasks that will hinder group mobilization.

Along another line, the problem in mobilizing may be an overabundance of something

that is not needed. For example, an almost always existing problem at emergency time of
disasters is the use of volunteers. Many well motivated volunteers with a wide variety of
skills are not necessarily an organizational resource.

In fact, in the absence of very good prior planning of who will use volunteers, where they
will be sent, how they will be supervised, when they will be used, and so on--in the
absence of such detailed planning, the sheer presence of masses of individual volunteers
will simply create another disaster related organizational problem. Often, vitally needed
regular staff members will have to be used to attempt some ad hoc planning and/or
training for some hurriedly designed tasks. Consequently, volunteers often hinder rather
than help in the mobilization of almost all organizations.


Explain the concept, factors and significance of
disaster rehabilitation.



Disaster rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. Disasters,

as we all know, are catastrophic events that can seriously degrade a country’s
long term potential for sustained development. They can also cause
government to considerably modify their socioeconomic priorities and
programs. Disasters also create psychological stress leading to many
dysfunctional consequences. In the process, they do highlight high-risk areas
where necessary actions must be taken before another disaster strikes.
Managing disasters thus is an uphill task. Disasters are very costly in terms of
both human life and resources and require a long gestation period of
rehabilitation. Disaster management should therefore involve systematic
policy making and effective use of resources to make a potent dent in
disaster relief, rehabilitation and long term recovery.

In common parlance, disaster rehabilitation involves methodical steps for

necessitating changes in the disaster affected site, with a view of ensuring
long term recovery. Disaster rehabilitation may be considered a transitional
phase between immediate relief and recovery. It refers to actions taken in
the aftermath of a disaster to enable basic services to resume functioning,
assist victim’s self help efforts to repair physical damages, revive economic
activities and provide support for the psychological and social well being of
the survivors.

To understand the intricacies of disaster rehabilitation process, its place in

the disaster management cycle needs to be comprehended. The cycle
comprises five major stages:


1. Disaster preparedness and mitigation, which rests on the principle that

prevention is better than cure. It involves all the steps necessary for
creation of disaster resilient structures and communities.
2. Disaster response, which includes immediate disaster search and
rescue operations.
3. Disaster relief, which involves provision of food, clothing and shelter
for the affected.
4. Disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction that takes into view the
efforts to restore all essential facilities to pre-disaster status.
5. Disaster recovery, which focuses on measures that will pave the way
for long-term recovery of social, economic and physical structures, as
well as processes in such a way that future disasters are unable to
impact severely and irreversibly.

All the five stages are well integrated into the disaster management cycle.
These stages could be examined separately, but it needs to be kept in mind
that they essentially complement and supplement each other in an attempt
to rectify the disaster related problems. Disaster rehabilitation is thus
preceded by disaster response and relief and followed by disaster
reconstruction and recovery. Disaster preparedness and mitigation, however
are continual processes that are part of each and every stage of disaster
management cycle.

It is often not possible to suggest any time frame for disaster rehabilitation,
reconstruction and recovery, as these processes are completely intertwined.
Reconstruction represents long term development assistance that could help
the affected people to rebuild their lives and meet their present and future
needs. Rehabilitation and reconstruction should together lead to long term
recovery, but this may not happen unless certain measures are closely
adhered to. A comprehensive rehabilitation and reconstruction plan, or what
can be called a long term recovery plan should taken into consideration both
physical and non physical requirements of the affected areas, or else it may
result in large and unwieldy investments in infrastructure. The plan then


may not be able to provide for the necessary inputs to help the victims in
becoming socially ready, economically self-sufficient and psychologically fit.

Purpose of Rehabilitation

The basic purpose of rehabilitation is to provide services and facilities which

will restore to communities, families and individuals their former living
standards whilst at the same time encouraging any necessary adjustments to
drastic changes caused by the disaster that has occurred. If as a result of the
material damage suffered in locality. A large scale programme of
rehabilitation is seen to be required, the aim might be to improve rather
than merely restore the accustomed living standards and social conditions.

Morale is one of the most important factors in rehabilitation. This factor

should be considered in relation to the community itself and also in relation
to families and individuals. It is possible for people to emerge from a disaster
in a hopeless and apathetic state of mind. If this attitude is allowed to
persist, people affected will become over dependant on welfare services and
be a permanent burden on the nation. A spirit of high morale can be fostered
by helping people to realize that the efforts made on their behalf are
prompted by a regard of tier value to the country and by the desire to
promote feelings of self reliance and a determination to participate in the
work and social life on a community growing in prosperity.

Principles of Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation and reconstruction programs need to base themselves on a

few guiding principles. The broad priorities in a disaster rehabilitation plan
could be:

1. Provision of emergency relief to be operationalized by the way of

mobilizing human and material resources, ensuring food security,


constructing temporary structures and making available all basic

2. Relocation of all the displaced people, restoration of basic and
alternative means of livelihood along with community based
infrastructure and institutions.
3. Initiation of long term development interventions, which would lead
to sustainable community based strategies for disaster reduction.

Disaster rehabilitation planning needs to be broadly based on these three

priorities. However, it can produce results only if it entails sub-plans
pertaining to the different facets of rehabilitation.

Dimensions of Disaster Rehabilitation

There are three types of rehabilitation i.e.

 Physical rehabilitation
 Social rehabilitation
 Physiological rehabilitation

Physical Rehabilitation
Physical rehabilitation is a very important facet of rehabilitation. It includes
reconstruction of physical infrastructure such as houses, buildings, railways,
roads, communication networks, water supply, electricity and so on. It
comprises short term and long term strategies towards watershed
management, canal irrigation, social forestry, crop stabilization, alternative
cropping techniques, job creation, employment generation and
environmental protection. It involves rehabilitation of farmers, artisans,
small businessmen, and those engaged in animal husbandry. The physical
rehabilitation and reconstruction package must also incorporate adequate
provision for subsidies, farm implements, acquisition of land for relocation
sites, adherence of land planning, flood plain zoning, retrofitting or
strengthening of undamaged houses and construction of model houses.


Social Rehabilitation
Social rehabilitation is also an important part of disaster rehabilitation. The
vulnerable groups such as the elderly, orphans, single women and young
children would need special social support to survive the impact of disaster.

Thus construction of infrastructure such as community centers, day care

centers, homes for women and old age homes is a vital part of social
rehabilitation. The rehabilitation plan must have components that do not
lose sight of the fact that the victims has to undergo the entire process of re-
socialization and adjustments in a completely unfamiliar social milieu.

Physiological Rehabilitation
Another crucial dimension of disaster rehabilitation is physiological
rehabilitation. Dealing with victim’s psychology is a very sensitive issue and
must be dealt with caution and concern. The psychological trauma of losing
relatives and friends and the scars of the shock of disaster event can take
much longer to heal than the stakeholders in disaster management often
presume. The fear of changing the means of livelihood could lead to
occupational disruption and subsequently high degree of occupational
redundancy in the victims.

Thus counseling of stress management should form a continuous part of a

disaster rehabilitation plan. Efforts should be made to focus more on
psychotherapeutic health programs, debriefing and trauma care. While
implementing the disaster rehabilitation program, tradition, values, norms,
beliefs and practices of disaster affected people need to be kept in mind. It is
therefore essential that social welfare and psychological support measures be
considered immediately after a disaster event so that they could be made a
vital part of a rehabilitation program.



Explain the policy and institutional frameworks
of some successful practices in dealing with
disaster mitigation around the world.


Successful National Practices

1. The US System

Of all the national emergency management structures, the United States of

America has one of the most comprehensive and efficient emergency
regimes and institutional structures. In the USA, domestic emergencies are
handled by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), set up in 1979
by president Carter. Overseas assistance is handled by the Office of the
Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), which functions under the
Administrator United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
with tenure coterminous with the president. The focal point of the US
Government Domestic Management System is FEMA.

FEMA History
FEMA has more than 3,700 full time employees. They work at FEMA
headquarters in Washington D.C., at regional and area offices across the
country, the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the
National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. FEMA also
has nearly 4,000 standby disaster assistance employees who are available for
deployment after disasters. Often FEMA works in partnership with other
organizations that are part of the nation's emergency management system.
These partners include state and local emergency management agencies, 27
federal agencies and the American Red Cross.


FEMA Mission
FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to
ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain, and
improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to,
recover from, and mitigate all hazards.

DISASTER. It strikes anytime, anywhere. It takes many forms -- a hurricane,

an earthquake, a tornado, a flood, a fire or a hazardous spill, an act of nature
or an act of terrorism. It builds over days or weeks, or hits suddenly, without
warning. Every year, millions of Americans face disaster, and its terrifying

On March 1, 2003, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

FEMA’s Role

The disaster life cycle describes the process through which emergency
managers prepare for emergencies and disasters, respond to them when they
occur, help people and institutions recover from them, mitigate their effects,
reduce the risk of loss, and prevent disasters such as fires from occurring.

And at every stage of this cycle you see FEMA -- the federal agency charged
with building and supporting the nation's emergency management system.

FEMA’s activities include:

 advising on building codes and flood plain management

 teaching people how to get through a disaster
 helping equip local and state emergency preparedness
 coordinating the federal response to a disaster
 making disaster assistance available to states, communities, businesses
and individuals
 training emergency managers...supporting the nation's fire service


 administering the national flood and crime insurance programs

 the range of FEMA's activities is broad indeed and spans the life cycle
of disasters.

FEMA’s organizational structure mirrors the functions that take place in the
lifecycle of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and
recovery. FEMA also contains the U.S. Fire Administration, which supports
the nation’s fire service and the Federal Insurance Administration, which
provides flood insurance to property owners nationwide.

Local and state governments share the responsibility for protecting their
citizens from disasters and for helping them to recover when a disaster
strikes. In some cases a disaster is beyond the capabilities of the state and
local government to respond. The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance
Act was enacted to support state and local governments and their citizens
when disaster overwhelms them. A guide to the Disaster Declaration Process
explains the declaration process and provides an overview of the assistance

Assistance is available in the form of Public Assistance programs (PA) or

individual assistance programs. FEMA’s public assistance programs is one
way in which federal assistance goes to the state and local governments and
to certain private non-profit organizations. These grants allow them to
respond to disasters, to recover from their impacts and to mitigate impact
from future disasters.

The PA program provides:

 the basis for consistent training and credentialing of staff who

administer the program
 more accessible and understandable guidance and policy for
participating in the grant program


 improved customer service through a more efficient grant delivery

process, applicant centered management, better information
 continuing performance evaluations and program improvements

Apart from the above, other federal, state, local and volunteers agencies offer
disaster assistance in several forms’ some of which are discussed below.

Low interest loans, such as The Farm Service Agency (FSA) and the Small
Business Administration (SBA), offer low interest loans to eligible
individuals, farmers and businesses to repair and replace damaged property
and personal belongings not covered by insurance.

Assistance for individuals and households. This program, which may include
cash grants of up to $25,000 per individual or household, offers housing
assistance in the form of lodging expenses reimbursement (for a hotel or
motel); rental assistance (cash payment for a temporary rental unit or
manufactured home); home repair; home replacement; permanent housing
construction in rare circumstances; other needs assistance; medical, dental,
funeral costs, transportation costs and other disaster related needs like
veterans benefits.

2. The Canadian System

Canada’s history of disasters and the emergency management systems that

have resulted mirrors that of the United States, but it is a distorted
reflection. While Canada has not experienced the same number or degree of
tragic events, and although the emergency management systems have always
been on a smaller scale, emergency management in Canada has, like so many
other aspects of the culture, been caught in the wake of the events and


developments in the United States. In the Canada, domestic emergencies are

handled by Canadian Center for Emergency Preparedness (CCEP). The
Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness (CCEP) is a federally
incorporated, not-for-profit organization based in Burlington, Ontario.

CCEP Vision

 To foster the development of a disaster resilient Canada through

individuals, communities and businesses.
 To increase community resiliency through emergency preparedness
programs that drive individuals, small enterprises and non-profit
organizations from awareness to action.

CCEP Purpose
 To provide assistance to the disaster management community through
consultation, access to information and the delivery of applicable
programs and services.
 To be a national advocate for disaster resilient communities across
 To provide leadership to Canada's disaster management community as
its premier advocate.
 To foster soundly researched public policy that reflects the interests of
a more disaster resilient Canada.
 To foster the establishment and maintenance of professional
standards, best practices and certification for the disaster management
 To influence government policy in a positive, visible, consistent and
representative manner.
 To improve communications between the disaster management
community, private sector and all levels of government.
 To liaise with the international disaster management community as
Canada's premier advocate.


Organizational Framework
In 2001, the Canadian prime minister announced the creation of the Office of
Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP).
The office was established to enhance the protection of Canada’s critical
infrastructure from disruption or destruction and to act as the government
of Canada’s primary agency for ensuring national civil emergency

Critical infrastructure (which includes energy and utilities, communications,

services, transportation, safety and government) constitutes the backbone of
the nation’s economy, and is essential to the health, security, safety and
economic well being of all Canadians and to the effective functioning of

The minister of national defense is responsible for OCIPEP, which

encompasses all the responsibilities of the previously named Emergency
Preparedness Canada (EPC). With a necessarily broader mandate than the
Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC), OCIPEP takes an all hazards
approach, recognizing that different hazardous events can have similar

2. The Bangladesh System

A low-lying country with more than 230 waterways, Bangladesh is one of the
most disaster-prone nations in the world. Fifteen per cent of its land floods
annually on average. In 2004 that figure reached 34 per cent and in 2007 two
floods and a cyclone together killed 4,000 people and caused economic
losses of about $3 billion. When such events occur water-borne diseases and
mass internal displacements are inevitable consequences.

Natural disasters disrupt the nation’s food supply and decimate the
livelihoods of the many Bangladeshis who work in agriculture. Besides


triggering flooding, severe weather frequently causes environmental damage

by eroding riverbanks, directly affecting 100,000 people every year. Poor
town planning, overcrowding and weak infrastructure amplify the threat of
disasters to urban communities, particularly in cities vulnerable to

Dealing with these many hazards is a major challenge for the national
government. As well as the immediate cost to life and to the economy, large-
scale disasters in such a small country can negate poverty-reduction efforts
and divert development resources from more productive uses.

Disaster Management in Bangladesh

In 2003 the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management launched the

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) in partnership
with DFID and UNDP. The European Commission became the Programme’s
third major donor in September 2006.

Phase I of the initiative, due to conclude in December 2009, aims to improve

Bangladesh’s disaster management system’s ability to reduce unacceptable
risks and improve response and recovery activities. It supports significant
policy and planning reforms, shifting the focus of disaster management from
response to comprehensive risk reduction. And it increases efficiency and
coordination, integrating sustainable risk management initiatives into
broader development planning.

The Programme has rolled out in two stages. Seven particularly vulnerable
districts – Cox’s Bazar, Faridpur, Lalmonirhat, Rajshahi, Shatkhira, Shirajgonj
and Sunamgonj – were pilots for phase I. Remarkably the success of the
Programme’s partnership mobilization efforts has covered 32 of the total 64
districts in the first four years. In the second phase the Programme will
extend to other districts.


The structure of the Bangladesh Disaster management System is made up of

the following:

 Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM)

 Disaster Management Bureau (DMB)
 National Disaster Management Council (NDMC)
 Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee
 National Disaster Management Advisory Committee (NDMAC)
 District, Upazila and Union Disaster management Committee

This structure supports policy formulation and coordination of disaster

management at the national level. The focal point for disaster related issues
is the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM). The Disaster
Management Bureau (DMB) assists the MoFDM with information on all
phases of disasters. The ministry supplies information to NDMC and
IMDJMCC, and assists them in making decisions. The NDMC, headed by the
prime minister, formulates policies and guidelines on the disaster
management. The Secretary of Ministry coordinates the activities of all
officials directly and indirectly engaged in emergency relief work.
Bangladesh is the only South Asian country to have a separate ministry for
disaster management and relief.




Disaster Management (AIOU)



Write a detailed note on “Planning Tools”. Also
explain the Problem Solving Techniques.


Many tools can be used to assist planner in developing a planning process
and implementing an emergency training and practical exercise program.
Two areas that warrant mention are:

 Budgeting
 Project Planning


Programs cost money and when you want to set up an emergency planning
process, it is important to learn how to develop and propose a budget.
During a disaster, costs are often considered irrelevant, but they can cause
major problems for companies and individuals later on.

The uncertainties of a disaster often make it difficult to prepare a budget. A

good budget for dealing with disaster should:

 Be flexible
 Be simple
 Be realistic
 Be based on trust
 Provide for fixed and variable costs
 Be based on policy
 Provide for use of cash

Program Planning

Graphic charts and diagrams are an excellent way of helping those involved
in the planning process to visualize the relationship between activities and
the time needed to complete them. Gantt or bar charts, and models such as
PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) are very useful in the
planning phases. Note the following use of a PERT chart to assist a


emergency planner who is starting work for a company that already has an
emergency plan in place.


Disaster Management (AIOU)



Sometimes solving problems generated during the planning phase seems to
be overwhelming, and people wonder how they are ever going to solve
problems during a disaster itself.

Here are some problem solving techniques that can be used while the plan is
being developed or during the emergency itself.

1. What is Problem ?

Although this may seem to be a foolish question, in many cases

getting to the point can save a lot of time. Many people when


seeking assistance especially in times of crises, describe the

situation but never get to the point. By merely asking, “what is the
problem” one can get people to rephrase the situation, focus on the
problem and see their way toward solving it. Don’t try to solve the
problem until you determine exactly what the problem is.

2. Why me ?

Why are you being asked to solve the problem? In times of crises,
people often start to work on the problem without first asking
themselves if they are the best people to respond to the situation. In
many cases, delegating the responsibility to someone else can best
solve the problem.

3. What are the Constraints ?

The two most common constraints are time and resources. In many
cases, there never appears to be enough time to resolve the issue.
Often people spend more time discussing how there is not enough
time to solve it than getting to the problem and doing something
about it. Be realistic. When must a solution be reached? What are
the consequences of delaying the answer? People never have all the
time and information they would like, but given the time
constraints, what is the best way of solving the problem?

Information, money, personnel and materials are seldom available

in the quality and quantity we would like. There is no purpose in
stating that you need twenty people and $1 million to solve the
problem when you have four staff and a budget of $100,000. If the
problem has to be solved, it must be solved with the best available

Before beginning to solve a problem, it is often useful to quickly jot

down the constraints, as this helps to keep the problem in


perspective. If a suspected toxic gas is going to approach the

company in five minutes, the constraints are very different from
those if the gas will reach the company in one hour.

Especially in a disaster, people often lose track of the constraints

and start to treat every problem as if it has to be resolved right
away. That is not always the case.

4. What are the Priorities ?


At first the problem may seem overwhelming, it seems too

complicated to solve. Can the problem be divided into sub-
problems? And can these sub-problems be delegated to others?
Seldom is only one problem presented at one time during a crisis.
Usually there are numerous problems at the same time. If you are
responsible for their resolution, it is critical to keep priorities in
mind. If a flood is rising and people’s lives are at stake, saving lives
becomes the priority.

If the company is threatened with rising flood waters, what should

be done? Rather than coping with the problem in its entirety,
concentrate on pinpointing the sub-problems. One person or team
could be working on preventing the water from coming into the
premises, another could work on moving materials above the
possible water level, and yet another could set up the EOC.

Each problem should be examined to see if it has sub-problems.

You may not be able to delegate the sub-problems to others, but by
having the big problem broken into smaller problems, the situation
may be easier to handle.



Disaster Management (AIOU)