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# ﻿Chapter Four:

Operational Amplifiers

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

261

An amplifier has a gain of 15 and the input waveform shown in Fig. P4.1. Draw the output waveform.

150

100

50

-50

-100

-150

Figure P4.1

SOLUTION:

1.0 0·5

- I

-I.)

- 2.0

- Z. 5

262

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

An amplifier has a gain of -5 and the output waveform shown in Fig. P4.2. Sketch the input waveform.

vo(v)
12

10
6
5
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 t (ms)
-2 -8

-4

-6

FigureP4.2

SOLUTION: -0i1i'LVl

"3 2.

-.--t--------t----t----+---+-"~----+__---.t___-~-~ i

L :. 't <J"

o

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

263

An op-amp base amplifier has supply voltages of ±5 V and a gain of 20.

(a) Sketch the input waveform from the output waveform in Fig. P4.3.

(b) Double the amplitude of your results in (a) and sketch the new output waveform.

50

75

100

125

t (ms)

vo(v)
3
2
1
0 25
-1
-I
-2
-3 Figure P4.3

SOLUTION:

bl

o--:-or-------r-o-o-'rr------4;-----o--f-~ t (

eo "7' fbO (2\$'

V

- D.,

264

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

For an ideal op-amp, the voltage gain and input resistance are infinite while the output resistance is zero. What are the consequences for

(a) the op-amp's input voltage? (b) the op-amp's input currents? (c) the op-amp's output current?

SOLUTION:

0) Since. ddl\A. i-6 iv-.~;II\_J't.-,) ~y\ \ "'VIlT '\IO\tll-,<L 6'\ cera

C ,;o..~ 'P (tl c,/J.A ()_ tl fl l.A.l ~ e. 0 .A- f u-\; V1J U JfiY-- .

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

265

(a) s; (b) s; (c) Rin

00, Rout> 0, Ao == 00. =j::. 00, Rout == 0, Ao == 00.

SOLUTION:

(~ .

J I 'ALe-

S''''fiL S '\ \-. (~.

J lh Q S i YI (ft_ 5; I-.. u..

'f-\t... -:::: 00 ) ?'OUT::':'O )

1'\ 0 1:- CJl') )

f:';11\ = =, Ao i: CPJ

uT >D)

LoUT' z: 'I.l1"- ~o

L.

LIlA"'" 0

\I',v-:::'O

t /) u T i4L ~:!;1~ t- 'i'1~ b 1 b b +\r-

Ut ¢

'\Ji"'- ""'0

I',v<- := '\);""·/rz.jk..

lj'''''"''- 0 =': hNtU-dL v;...._:= 0

., UT M~-4.1- ~ b(J l1.

266

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

(e)

Plot the ratio of the gain in (a) to the ideal gain versus Ao for 1 <: Ao <: 1000 for an ideal gain of -10.

From your plot, does the actual gain approach the ideal value as Ao increases or decreases?

FrOITI your plot, what is theminimum value of Ao if the actual gain is within 5% of the ideal case?

Revisit the exact analysis of the inverting configuration in Section 4.3.

(a) Find an expression for the gain ifRin == 00, Rout == 0, Ao # 00.

Ib' \ J

(d)

SOLUTION:

_ f:..z/

( J2-,

I+-( III fflz) .r.

Jl1 AI:'

()Y')

~~'

------------------~

b) )3.\'1' &ece -:. - [22_ -/0
--- -
(Z/
A Vo - tu
(l. c-f-ud. =- :::.
t{)s 1+ II
1.2 0.8
.2
iii 0.6
....
c::
Oro
G 0.4
0.2
0
0 200 400 600
Ao l _

I

I

800 10001

__ _j

- J 0

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

267

Revisit the exact analysis of the inverting amplifier in Section 4.3.

(a) Find an expression for the voltage gain if Rin "* 00, Rout == 0, Ao ::j:: 00.

(b) For R2 == 27 kil and R, == 3 kG, plot the ratio of the actual gain to the ideal gain for Ao == 1000 and

1 kfi < Rio < 100 kO.

(c) From your plot, does the ratio approach unity asRin increases or decreases?

(d) From your plot in (b), what is the minimum value of Rin if the gain ratio is to be at least 0.98?

SOLUTION:

I _ (1, t -{ f~ ) ( ~ 7_ -t ~~

_____ ~"_'_r' '_.

1-. ( -I-. _ 14\9_\

(l'l z, J

(,L-r- ')

) +1l-1

--_.-_._-----_ .. _--

AO/~2

----

I -r

o :.;::;

~ 0.98 c:

'iii

C'I

0.99

0.97

0.96

o

20

40

60

80

100

Rin (kOhms)

c)

i .

rAA7rf

/ ·f» !J.oI r Z 1ZL:

£.

I

Z,54

268

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

An op-amp based amplifier has ± 18 V supplies and a gain of -80. Over what input range is the arnplifier linear?

SOLUTION:

to<~ \; V\.uv- 6 ~~-

'b u.e_ \.-b ovl-r,,* vltMJ-s )

Lil'1l:'d<.c ret((l>-.. L;,,"";\e,J_ *"

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

269

Determine the gain of the amplifier in Fig. P4. 9. What is the value of 10? (es)

In

R2 = 20k11 Rl = 3.3 kQ Vin = 2V

0/\

Figure P4.9

SOLUTION:

7.D

270

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

R2 == 20 kQ Rl == 3 .. 3 kQ VS== 2 V

For the amplifier in Fig. P4.10, find the gain and 10?

-

-

01\

DV

.D

Vs

. . Figure P4. 10

SOLUTION:

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

271

.. 11 Using the ideal op-amp assumptions, determine the values of ~ and II in Fig. P4.11.

11 V

11

04.

1 kO

v

o

10 kO

Figure P4.11

SOLUTION:

T) tt-~ i c 'rtCfV\ - i "- If ~~ ift-I{;Jrifv'.v ,

VD __ It, e-z_ - j\Vo-;: [\\),I<.l

Vl~ - -lit-

272

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

U sing the ideal op-amp assumptions, determine II' 12, and 13 in Fig. P4.12.

1 mA

13
II oA 1~·2
t- 12 Vo
ov
- Figure P4.12

SOLUTION:

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

273

1 In a useful application, the amplifier drives a load. The circuit in Fig. P4.13 models this scenario.

(a) Sketch the gain ~)/Vs for 10 n <. RL <. 00. (b) Sketch 10 for 10 0 <. RL <. 00 if Vs = 0.1 V.

(c) Repeat (b) if Vs - 1.0 V.

(d) What is the minimum value of RL if 1101 must be less than 100 rnA for IVsl < 0.5 V?

(e) What is the CUI Tent Is if RL is 100 O? Repeat for RL = 10 kO.

SOLUTION:

-1 v

:rLIO

r

Cl)

@ I'iI.J;<.-." /'0

l c: -+-------

I......------.---~ 12- L CJt")

10 _.!> (lib

b) v;) '" o· I V ) Vo -= I V

:50

jO 1151)

c.

\0 f2L

'500

100

o

10

1000

l') \JS '::' O. S V J VfJ -= 5 V ":: 4- -< iOOm 1\
) \$OX\D~ (2L
[RL'> 50v1SL\
-~.------
e.) Is H6WS cl4-r.eJI"} ( h-tn ~1-h D~ "- IIV\.~ "1' M"- •. ) V\V JU-h~
i "f-wt: . I~ is -C~ /'.t~e.p j fL 274 Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

R2 = 27 kQ Rl = 3 k!2

1 Repeat Problem-Ll J for the circuit in Fig. P4.14.

Rl

Vs

v

o

Figure P4.14

SOLUTION:

,,\ \( - - P.Z/17 -.,L", -. Ll V

-a ) D .- \<-1 J - - l 'S

-j

Vo

/0

L

b ) . 'V s ;;:.. o . I V j if D ,,::-. - 0.1 \/

(rnAl

_ [cc:

- :ro

(

o

f()

IuD

If .- liJ \/..,-: -t\\I

V s., ) v

Io (r.'\f\ ')

-5eD

- 1000

-I -- - C1 Vs q Vs
0 27 '></0"3 ll~
Cut Vs ':::' D.'S'V) 1 ~I~ 1- + 4· s;- < l o o o- ~
z ,X'o ')
L '> 45. Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

275

The op-amp in the amplifier in Fig. P4.15 operates with ±15 V supplies and can output no 1110re than 200mA. What is the maximum gain allowable for the amplifier if the maximum value of \(s' is 1 V?

Rl

10

Vo

10 k(l

-...

Figure P4.15

SOLUTION:

2:>~L ~1<\-"I-\Vfl-(\\6 ~~'6U(W~:

if 121

T2! I 005...51. ~ ~ Z-.DO f""\ A
22 ::: 844
t~~k ~ct~ t;~: I+- e, -::: 1.'1 <1<':.::"/
, ... .J! <\$
Fin A w~ '" tDo5.JL 276

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

For the amplifier in Fig. P4.16, the maximum value of VS' is 2 V and the op-amp can deliver no ITIOre than 100 InA.

(a) If ±10 V supplies are used, what is the maximum

allowable value of R2 ?

(b) Repeat for ± 3 V supplies.

(c) Discuss the impact of the supplies on the maximum allowable gain.

....

0'1./

RL = 10 kQ R, = 100 kQ

Figure P4.16

SOLUTION:

itl \)u i c. 1\ 6"'- - i ~IJ .4..(-\)6 ~ f~f~n~ :

FIf'(' \J \$ -:::-2-\f) Yo -:::. z L \-\- ~) -::. loY

L~'l ::: 400 lWL ~ Ckc.k :r; \;"",-~-\-',

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

277

1 For the circuit in Fig. P4.17, (a) find ~ in terms of Vi and V;.

(b) If VJ. == 2 V and V2 == 6 V, find ~.

(e) If the op-amp supplies are ±12 V, and Vi == 4 V, what is the allowable range of V2 ?

V1 V20i---~

2kf! 1 kO

Figure P4.17

SOLUTION:

2) ICt L a± 'IS _ l "'-F-t ~ (rL~\r.,"",< 'I.f-\- -;::"1)_ ""- \)\)

278

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find Vo in the circuit in Fig. P4.18 assuming the op-amp is ideal.

[2~

1 kD 5kD

+

Figure P4.18

SOLUTION:

o~\C 'Vtv.u-t\6 W'fV1Af~~ ..

\J I

o := \ c-

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

279

1 The network in Fig. P4.19 is a current-to-voltage converter or transconductance amplifier, Find vol is for this network.

1 f),

+

DV

Figure P4.19

SOLUTION:

\<:C L 0--1;- \\ - \ k-VA :

~ ~

280

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Calculate the transfer function iol Vi for the network shown in Fig. P4.20.

Rp

Figure P4.20

SOLUTION:

I(CL

,

! 0 ::: ~ __ 12.___ -e,

fri"~f

"\fl / /~

:::. Vo-\J1

-"----

'RF

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

281

Determine the relationship between VI and i., in the circuit shown in Fig. P4.21. [ei)

Figure P4.21

SOLUTION:

~(l":> ., i Yl.V-L(t\d ~.~ ~.vh'{k"

282

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find v:) in the network in Fig. P4.22 and explain what effect R, has on the output.

10.0

2D

+

2V

Figure P4.22

SOLUTION:

S jl'\/..t it"-:::"o ~ (J_ul 7 =r . 1/1) I~ t1_(r~ ~ =-V ~

'V t i l<\.f,.._t ,'oS. eu-t ov 0-3 wU,),_. ~ ia A- hC:Ur{(_ f~D'~

~ 1·~rJi((h.

Vo -:: - t. ( 12 ~ / 12z_) =-') [v 1) -;- - I 0 v]

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

283

Determine the expression for o; in the network in Fig. P4.23.

VA VB

-

-

Figure P4,.23

Vo

SOLUTION:

::: 0

284

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Show that the output of the circuit in Fig. P4.24 is

Figure P4.24

SOLUTION:

\J I - \I x = cO -.:::)

12-3

\f D t: \} x I I +- ~2.... "\ - \j z, (12z /'V- ")

l Tt) \

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

285

Find V:J in the network in Fig. P4.2S.

40

5V

4V

+

Figure P4.25

SOLUTION:

286

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find the voltage gain of the op-amp circuit shown in Fig. P4.26.

20 kD V1.

+

Vl

BOkU

Figure P4.26

24kO

SOLUTION: f

Two s rep 50 /vll"n,_;

. I J L. 0 0 f ;]/Y1JLl.rs (5: r

\j I ::::

I) V 2-

Fih.t:L Vo !V?..

o"~

Dp .-~ i s i k b /97~ (_ ~"- r k Ii.a.-v- h ~ 4rJ,..!1 ir"wf,f...- .

_ ! +- h -;:: '2

o

V)

v

:::

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

287

For the circuit in Fig. 4.27 find the value of R, that produces a voltage gain of 10.

+

18kO

Figure P4.27

SOLUTION:

\I '0 _ \ -l- ~2 := 1 + I

Vi

288

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Determine the relationship between va and vin in the circuit in Fig. P4.28.

V· In

Rp

RJ

-

-

Figure P4.2B

SOLUTION: [VJD < ~~ :SCI lun

I) A-vJ_ V,/Vr",z.) fi~ «s/»,

2_} 6J~ ta: t 1--- bfl.31'C h£vt fWLAO UY(~dJ~
1J~ :::. ! i-
UI
DVJv 1t~ -_ I
lJ;\A. ~ Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

289

In the network in Fig. P4.29 derive the expression for Vo in terms of the inputs VI and V2' g.'l

RF

Figure P4.29

SOLUTION:

l( (L td;:. u-'__ iV1'J:

, q

'\J,I( -;: 15z_ l ~:t:

f2:r:. + ~.z.

290

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find ~ in the circuit in Fig. P4.30.

40 kf!

5kO \Ix
~I +
0\)
+
VX
5V VO
4V 20 kfl Figure P4.30

SOLUTION:

K CL ,J::

\J +- \ Lt.~· :

4- -'Vx \ix .~

121-\. - 12;~

0=(+121>

1----

\4-t·~"6

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

291

1 Find Va in the circuit in Fig. P4.31.

9V

10 kfl

10V

20 kfl

100 kO

20kD.

+

Figure P4.31

SOLUTION:

~ __ ::_l I. I 0 - ("

T +.

'gl i2-z.

3x'o'f

292

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Determine the expression for the output voltage, va, of the inverting summer circuit shown in Fig. P4.32.

Rl Rp
v1
R2
V2
va
V3 R3 Figure P4.32

SOLUTION:

Ie C L ttl \l - i 1'wt- :

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

293

Determine the output voltage, vo' of the noninverting averaging circuit shown in Fig. P4.33. tei

Figure P4.33

Rp

SOLUTION:

ttl J '1)+ i~:

294

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find the input/output relationship for the current amplifier shown in Fig. P4.34.

Rp

Figure P4.34

SOLUTION: ICLL tJX' 1L ir 1 I ::i} or
I - !) - 1JF 1Jf - ~ L /J,t ..
IIIL -. -- n".Au-rh" /}d LA)'---';' y.Jh ~

1 ~ 11 -"IfF 1fr:

() /:) _

I I. L 0 It , 1 h... _-

tv

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

295

Find ~) in the circuit in Fig. P4.35.

80 k!l

40k!l

5V

+ z, 20 k!l Va 40 k!l

Figure P4.35

SOLUTION:

\(L L ",;t '\L 1

5 V 'Ij V - - 1'-3

+ ...2- 1- ;::-0.., x~ --

~3 ~I

e ), M./j'

'\_)x -:;. .- 40 - 1.

)

296

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Find o; in the circuit in Fig. P4.36.

R2

R2

Figure P4.36

\

/

I 'V z -

\

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

297

Find the expression for Vo in the differential amplifier circuit shown in Fig. P4.37. (eS!

Rp

Figure P4.37

SOLUTION:

!;i'\-Of-G i~ J.~~ i~~+i~ ~fl'r&tJh'~:

'\))<.::;_-~\ '\.)2 '\Jx.=-tr2.

\2-\

Find IVo in the circuit in Fig. P4.38.

298

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Figure P4.38

SOLUTION:

tL( L Ak 1.1- \ "'fJr: 'U 1 + ~I

::':'0

)

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

299

Find the output voltage, o.; in the circuit in Fig. P4.39.

Figure P4.39

SOLUTION:

KCL- ttk1r_ '1 -r ~ I:

'UF "\t ( ~i;-4)

111) -, 'U.(I- ( I t ~ 4/~) . lJ x f:.:1 K.3

300

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

The electronic ammeter in Example 4.9 has beenmodified and is shown in Fig. P4.40. The selector switch allows the user to change the range of the meter. Using values for RJ and R2 from Example 4.9, find the values of RA and RB that will yield a 10- V output when the current being measured is 100 rnA and 10 rnA, respectively.

rV,)<

I

Unknown current

Rl = 1 kO

Selector switch

Figure P4.40

SOLUTION:

Of 6~f i h Y\Q VI - \ 1A~.ft.,{h~ Uhh' otV 6- h(V'.- :

'\1)( -e, I 'f-A :::: O. I ~A.

v; :::: IDV)( ::- 10 (tJ.llZrk:) 0:: ~A :::-'/0

-=- 0.01

\)0' 10\1,.":. 10 LOobl

10

-.o-lo

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

301

1 Given a box of lO-kO resistors and an op-amp, design a circuit that will have an output voltage of

Va == -2V1 - 4V2 IGsl

SOLUTION:

I\$TIrYS -s: I

302

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Design an op-amp circuit that has a gain of -50 using resistors no smaller than 1 kO.

SOLUTION:

::: 100

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

303

Design a two-stage op-amp network that has a gain of -50,000 while drawing no current into its input terminal. Use no resistors smaller than 1 kil.

SOLUTION:

1-rx 'NJ i ~ 6v-( r e-vl ) o: YLo h - I ~ o ~·1"'i d- a». {\rr cJt. ~ k> /Vi_A_d

1rr ~6un' u ) oW- i V\_~+i ~ '5' t~ V:, 1A.JJJ_tJJ._J_ .

TLI{

1>)( I +- h- 1)0 -- ~ 'Up - (ll:-
_- -.- _.- _-, .. - - ::
\)5 f2.-1 'iJ)< ~ li-s f~
Ck.vo~ 'lJx 2SD a.~. '1,.).0 -200
- "" -.
V:s u>< 304

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Design an op-amp circuit that has the following input/output relationship:

SOLUTION:

Pr ~. h.-~ or -dMf ~ tLo -if w-{_ w.u_ b o-.!-h + t - \ L(,~~ •

v 0 - \J x -:::: V)<- \J I

fZ- L- tL \

v; -:. \)x ( \ -\- \L~ ) - ~ VI

~) {2-zh-1 :: '5 u~ R,=lkJL ~ Ilz_::: S\dl.
NoW) (., ~-1> -::. -L ~ ~~'lrL. =0 'tA:::: \\\J\...
ILl'" ~Ib 2 Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

305

A voltage waveform with a maximum value of

200 mVmust be amplified to a maximum of 10 V and inverted. However, the circuit that produces the waveform can provide no more than 100 I-LA. Design the required amplifier. C*sl

SOLUTION:

D..JU.:lk \v tJ/U_

306

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

An amplifier with a gain of 'IT ± 1 % is needed. Using resistor values from Table 2.1, design the amplifier. Use as few resistors as possible.

SOLUTION: 1-<5Y po '5IAuz

Z. } f 0 ~ el- c Z. I 1 "3

- E_ -

I

~ ~'~ cJ'.L

If I " 2D kfL 1'?- ~ 43 k_fI_ 1

A. ~ 3./5'

o , Z70Z0 ~ -II

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

307

Design an op-amp-based circuit to produce the function

SOLUTION:

-1'0 &16 f" -f. J: - ~ MMS

tid" .( ,,y- v ) tv c (CiJlA.. LA,,~.

{;

308

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Design an op-amp-based circuit to produce the function

SOLUTION:

LA.sz. b D~ + ~ - i ~lJb 1u

-\- ~ - 0~;~' \({~L J: '\l t <'lA.fA)

\Jx

\i7" il-A ~ .. ~

v 0 -. \f x _ \J x- \j 7..

__ ,_"._,.,--,_ _.. '--"----.,.

[2:1. e-\

~<t-/ ~ --= 7 Cl'tlD~ -_ Ik5L -7 tzz:: 7 kJl
/ fb 8'= S C~ ~:= SI'\.JL :::3kQ
\1lA~ Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

309

Show that the circuit in Fig. P4.49 can produce the output

Y:) == KI VI - K2 V2 only for 0 <s, < K2 + 1. em

Figure P4.49

V 7: v, (1+ \- ~ k, VJ - Vz. -7 /(z '" R'I
D I -=
J 12'3
£'2 -:::: o K, ::: 1
- ) .::;,K, :;:;(Kztl
:::.0 ),} ~: ) +- -:::: i+
) SOLUTION:

Kt L- M: v, i ~p~ ~

-~ v )< :: ~_!~-

!.,

310

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

A 1700e maximum temperature digester is used in a paper mill to process wood chips that will eventually become paper. As shown in Fig. P4.50a, three

electronic thermometers are placed along its length. Each thermometer outputs 0 V at O°C, and the voltage changes 25 m V / "C. We will use the average of the three thermometer voltages to find an aggregate digester temperature. Furthermore, 1 volt should appear at Y:) for every lOGe of average temperature .. Design such an averaging circuit using the op-amp configuration shown in Fig. 4.S0b if the final output voltage must be positive.

Paper mill digester

(a)

VI

+

(b)

-_

.\- "1
11
::: J_ ~4
o .i : b'Jt> _

.._--~.- ....

~\f I

~ A ";:. Lr ~ }'kJ2 (£ c, I2I:fL

.r: I -z: (~ -:::'£ 4 ::: 3

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

311

A 0.1-!1 shunt resistor is used to measure current in a fuel-cell circuit. The voltage drop across the shunt resistor is to be used to measure the current in the circuit. The maximum current is 20 A. Design the network shown in Fig. P4.51 so that a voltmeter attached to the output will read 0 volts when the current is 0 A and 20 V when the current is 20 A. Be careful not to load the shunt resistor, since loading will cause an inaccurate reading.

0.1 n

Figure P4.51

Voltmeter

SOLUTION:

Lv h~ ~ xL-:: 'ZoA) V::J:::: (D.I) Xl- -e- Z V {J_ftcl \/0 -:::. ZoV.

312

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

Wood pulp is used to make paper in a paper mill,

The amount of lignin present in pulp is caned the kappa number. A very sophisticated instrument is used to measure kappa, and the output of this instrument ranges from 1 to 5 volts, where 1 volt represents a kappa number of 12 and 5 volts represents a kappa number of 20. The pulp min operator has asked to have a kappa meter installed on his console. Design a circuit that will employ as input the 1- to 5-volt signal and output the kappa number. An electronics engineer in the plant has suggested the circuit shown in Fig. P4.52.

Figure P4.52

SOLUTION:

\{ CL d V I:

@ V\L- : V, ... ZVK -\f-z.
@ \) \ '. 24 e.. -;:: VI ( z e \ .r e) - V\(. R-\
1 i t ltt\$ v~ -;:: 24R + \}s ~ ( 2 g,+- ll- 2
3f2,+z.rz.. "3 e.l ;. 2.e_
MSD)
\f \L -:>.. b -I- I'h \/S
unJ. aJ:- \fs"'-"'\v) v\£: ;::: 12V iJ.. h.A.. iJ;:: 2-0 - 12.. '" 2.

5" = ]

h " 10

2LIJ2- -+- 'd llJ? .. \ -I- ~ ') V'S

'3~ \ t-'ZIL ?.f.., + z.g_

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

313

An operator in a chemical plant would like to have a set of indicator lights that indicate when a certain chemical flow is between certain specific values. The operator wants a RED light to indicate a flow of at least IO GPM (gallons per minute), RED and YELLOW lights to indicate a flow of 60 GPM, and RED, YELLOW, and GREEN lights to indicate a flow rate of 80 GPM. The 4-20 mA flow meter instrument outputs 4 rnA when the flow is zero and 20 mA when the flow rate is 100 GPM.

An experienced engineer has suggested the circuit shown in Fig. P4.53. The 4--20 mA flow meter and 250 n resistor provide a 1-5 V signal, which serves as one input for the three comparators. The light bulbs will tum on when the negative input to a comparator is higher than the positive input. Using this network, desizn

a circuit that will satisfy the operator's requirements. tc~

12 V

4-20mA

T

-5

Figure P4.53

SOLUTION:

+-6

4!Y'1 1\" T'n ( ~ b

(\':' rn (l 00') +- \:,

A+

)

A

=.) b _. 4rn A

=~ fV' -::: O. 16 \"YI A

2

'S~rv""\&'<\~\ aJc ~~I..,w"" (.,0 t;P(h, ~ 13.~('r'IA (AM Vs= 3·4V

Need. Vy:; 3. 4- V ::: ~ t-k~ ~-tI- '" I t.n. -=::I) ILl::: 2. kJL f!-.Cf + f)

r::: if) ~ tf d ) tv!- f'ku.J-:; !lJ 4 fl7l~ ::I;::: 5.trn ft 01 n,,}_ V'S -:: I. VV
Fry ~-:: I. 1:V '" 12 1l c~ K(.::: I kfl ::S) 1ls---= 7.o71UL
fl(.. +-4 }2 z ::. ~ -s., e.(,,:::: \ \t-Sl. ill :: \.~t.,\wL

fL'\$ ~ 2· 5~ \uL

rts ::- 1. S I k.SL

314

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

An industrial plant has a requirement for a circuit that uses as input the temperature of a vessel and outputs a voltage proportional to the vessel's temperature. The vessel's temperature ranges from aoc to 50aoC, and the corresponding output of the circuit should range frOITI 0 to 12 V. A RTD (resistive thermal device), which is a linear device 'whose resistance changes with temperature according to the plot in Fig. P4.54a, is available. The problem then is to use this RTD to design a circuit that employs this device as an input and produces a 0- to

12- V signal at the output, where 0 V corresponds to O°C and 12 V corresponds to 500°C. An engineer familiar with this problem suggests the use of the circuit shown in Fig. P4.54b in which the RTD bridge circuit provides the input to a standard instrumentation amplifier. Determine the component values in this network needed to satisfy the design requirements.

SOLUTION:

\(CL tLt 'l-TD',

1'2 TL'f..T.D '" 'VI U·t T e 7!--rr> ") '\J I z: I~ 1Zl!-Tj) If... ~ -'r \?-~l~

Ie CL cJ: \11-+: '\1L. -c, n (211( 72z +-«'3,)

£. t:r1) (T): £ J1.T.P -::. )(/ r t2 -r

.t-t t-o t"> £'£..,D ::: r, -::. /1J7).J'2

A -t- ,:; 5 DO 0 G) e: 1L T1)" b 0052 -e / D 0 1- J~ (~)

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

315

600
500
C/)
E
..c
0 400
c
Q)
o 300
c
co
......
C/)
"05
Q) 200
a:
100 100 200 300 400 500

Figure P4.54a

Temperature in °C

12 V

RTD

Figure P4.54b

Lot E I z: f2-z -= f-.s := IODJ?._ ( An «:«: b,'fy1 b vt r.::i Gku; 2tz., .
Ncw\
12 ~ "VI s: '1f1 V - c" \/ ~ '-(Do/
'2 -
1;- l/roo \J)< -Ill. + \)1 -\)1...- -::. 1J 2-

~ v_, ~

L~t ~q. =- £-5 -:: 10 l.0L ( A ~i~

'\J 0 == ( '2.. .j. ~ )'111- tVz. F-'1 _ '\J x

\ ~~ 1<~

I'-If'" \,; ~ H'(f ')

{ '11,' ~,(Z+~) - VI t

Itt J-= 0 0 c )'\J 0 -; Z 1 C ~ - t) L [+ r;) = [) V t}<nci 1 At t= 5ol)'C ) VD'" 2'+ ( ~ - j_\ ()~ IO~ -.,: IZV 1aD &) 1,)

l> 12~:: z. 5 J<.fL,______ 1 -___,

316

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/E

R2

1 Given the summing amplifier shown in Fig. 4PFE-] select the values of R2 that will produce an output voltage of -3 V. ml

4V

4kfl

+

12 kO

2V

y

--

-

Figure 4PFE-1

SOLUTION:

~;\lLd ,1\. ~ :

,+ - f [2,') -

ll2.-00D

Chapter Four: Operational Amplifiers

317

Determine the output voltage Vo of the summing op-arnp circuit shown in Fig. 4PFE-2.

18 kn

36 kfl

6kn

6kO

2V

12 xn

+

1V

12 kO

3V

Figure 4PFE-2

SOLUTION:

v - \ -

'3 b XIo '3

Vo ~ I