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# Problem Specification

Consider fluid flowing through a circular pipe of contant cross-section. The pipe diameter
D=0.2 m and length L=8 m. The inlet velocity Vin=1 m/ s. Consider the velocity to be
constant over the inlet cross-section. The fluid exhausts into the ambient atmosphere
which is at a pressure of 1 atm. Take density ρ=1 kg/ m3 and coefficient of viscosity µ= 2
x 10-3 kg/(ms). The Reynolds number Re based on the pipe diameter is

where Vavg is the average velocity at the inlet, which is 1m/s in this case.

Solve this problem using FLUENT. Plot the centerline velocity, wall skin-friction
coefficient, and velocity profile at the outlet. Validate your results.

Note: The values used for the inlet velocity and flow properties are chosen for
convenience rather than to reflect reality. The key parameter value to focus on is the
Reynolds no.

Preliminary Analysis

We expect the viscous boundary layer to grow along the pipe starting at the inlet. It will
eventually grow to fill the pipe completely (provided that the pipe is long enough). When
this happens, the flow becomes fully-developed and there is no variation of the velocity
profile in the axial direction, x (see figure below). One can obtain a closed-form solution
to the governing equations in the fully-developed region. You should have seen this in
the Introduction to Fluid Mechanics course. We will compare the numerical results in the
fully-developed region with the corresponding analytical results. So it's a good idea for
you to go back to your textbook in the Intro course and review the fully-developed flow
analysis. What are the values of centerline velocity and friction factor you expect in the
fully-developed region based on the analytical solution? What is the solution for the
velocity profile?
We'll create the geometry and mesh in GAMBIT which is the preprocessor for FLUENT,
and then read the mesh into FLUENT and solve for the flow solution.

## Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

If you would prefer to skip the mesh generation steps, you can create a working directory
(see below), download the mesh from here (right click and save as pipe.msh) into the
working directory and go straight to step 4.

## Strategy for Creating Geometry

In order to create the rectangle, we will first create the vertices at the four corners. We'll
then join adjacent vertices by straight lines to form the "edges" of the rectangle. Lastly,
we'll create a "face" corresponding to the area enclosed by the edges. In Step 2, we'll
mesh the face i.e. the rectangle. Note that in 3D problems, you'll have to form a "volume"
from faces. So the hierarchy of geometric objects in GAMBIT is vertices -> edges ->
faces -> volumes.

## Create a Working Directory

Create a folder called pipe in a convenient location. We'll use this as the working folder
in which files created during the session will be stored.

Note for ACCEL computer lab users: Each user gets his/her own 100 MB of disk
space under S: at ACCEL. You can put your files in S: and it'll be accessible from any
computer. This is where you should put files that you want to keep and access later on.

Start GAMBIT

Start > Programs > Lab Apps > Fluent Inc Products > Gambit 2.3.16 > Gambit 2.3.16

This brings up the GAMBIT startup window. Click Browse and select the folder that you
just created. Enter -id pipe in the options box to tell GAMBIT to use pipe as the default
file prefix, then click Run.
In Windows, the Exceed X-server starts up before the GAMBIT interface comes up.
Exceed is a third-party application needed to render the interface in Windows (GAMBIT
was originally developed under Unix). To make best use of screen real estate, move the
windows and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement. This way you
can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in GAMBIT.

You can resize the text in the browser window to your taste and comfort:

In Internet Explorer: Menubar > View > Text Size, then choose the appropriate font size.

In Netscape: Menubar > View > Increase Font or Menubar > View > Decrease Font.

## The GAMBIT Interface consists of the following:

Note that the job name pipe appears after ID: in the title bar of the Utility Menu.

We'll more or less work our way across the Operation Toolpad as we go through
the solution steps. Notice that as each of the top buttons is selected, a different

The Global Control Toolpad has options such as Fit to Screen and Undo

that are very handy during the course of geometry and mesh creation.
• GAMBIT Graphics:

This is the window where the graphical results of operations are displayed.
• GAMBIT Description Panel:

The Description Panel contains descriptions of buttons or objects that the mouse
is pointing to. Move your mouse over some buttons and notice the corresponding
text in the Description Panel.
• GAMBIT Transcript Window:

This is the window to which output from GAMBIT commands is written and
which provides feedback on the actions taken by GAMBIT as you perform
operations. If, at some point, you are not sure you clicked the right button or
entered a value correctly, this is where to look to figure out what you just did.
You can click on the arrow button in the upper right hand corner to make the
Transcript window full-sized. You can click on the arrow again to return the
window to its original size. Go ahead, give this a try.

Select Solver

If the window titlebar does not say the solver is FLUENT 5/6, then you need to specify:

## Main Menu > Solver > FLUENT 5/6

Verify this has been done by looking in the Transcript Window where you should see:

The boundary types that you'll be able to select in the third step depends on the solver
selected.

We can assume that the flow is axisymmetric. The problem domain is:

## Strategy for creating geometry

We will put the origin of the coordinate system at the lower left corner of the rectangle.
The coordinates of the corners are shown in the figure below:
We will first create four vertices at the four corners and join adjacent vertices to get the
edges of the rectangle. We will then form a face that covers the area of the rectangle.

Create Vertices

Find the buttons described below by pointing the mouse at each of the buttons and

Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Vertex Command Button >
Create Vertex

Notice that the Create Vertex button has already been selected by default. After you
select a button under a sub-pad, it becomes the default when you go to a different sub-pad
and then come back to the sub-pad.

## Create the vertex at the lower-left corner of the rectangle:

Next to x:, enter value 0. Next to y:, enter value 0. Next to z:, enter value 0 (these values
should be defaults). Click Apply. This creates the vertex (0,0,0) which is displayed in the
graphics window.

In the Transcript window, GAMBIT reports that it "Created vertex: vertex.1". The
vertices are numbered vertex.1, vertex.2 etc. in the order in which they are created.

## Repeat this process to create three more vertices:

Vertex 2: (0,0.1,0)
Vertex 3: (8,0.1,0)
Vertex 4: (8,0,0)

Note that for a 2D problem, the z-coordinate can always be left to the default value of 0.
Operation Toolpad > Global Control > Fit to Window Button

This fits the four vertices of the rectangle we have created to the size of the Graphics
Window.

## (Click picture for larger image)

Create Edges

We'll now connect appropriate pairs of vertices to form edges. To select any entity in
GAMBIT, hold down the Shift key and click on the entity.

Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Edge Command Button >
Create Edge

Select two vertices that make up an edge of this rectangle by holding down the Shift
button and clicking on the corresponding vertices. As each vertex is picked, it will appear
red in the Graphics Window. Then let go of the Shift button. We can check the selected
vertices by clicking on the up-arrow next to Vertices:.
This will bring up a window containing the vertices that have been selected. Vertices can
be moved from the Available and Picked lists by selecting them and then pressing the left
or right arrow buttons.

After the correct vertices have been selected, click Close, then click Apply in the Create
Straight Edge window.

## (Click picture for larger image)

Create Face
Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Face Command Button >
Form Face

To form a face out of the area enclosed by the four lines, we need to select the four ledges
that enclose this area. This can be done by holding down the Shift key, clicking on each
line (notice that the currently selected line appears red), and then releasing the Shift key
after all four lines have been selected.

Alternatively, an easier way to do this would be to click on the up arrow next to edges:

This will bring up the Edge List window. Click on All-> to select all of the edges at once.
Click Close.

## Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

We'll now create a mesh on the rectangular face with 100 divisions in the axial direction
and 5 divisions in the radial direction. We'll first mesh the four edges and then the face.
The desired grid spacing is specified through the edge mesh.

Mesh Edges
Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Edge Command Button > Mesh
Edges

Shift-click or bring up the Edge List window and select both the vertical lines. If this is
difficult, one can zoom in on an edge by holding down the Ctrl button, clicking and
dragging the mouse to specify an area to zoom in on, and releasing the Ctrl button. To
again. You can also hold down Ctrl and double-click in the window to zoom out to a
fitting window. To pan the view, hold down the middle mouse button and drag the
mouse.

Once a vertical edge has been selected, select Interval Count from the drop down box that
says Interval Size in the Mesh Edges Window. Then, in the box to the left of this combo
box, enter 5 for the interval count.

Click Apply. Nodes appear on the edges showing that they are divided into 5.

## (Click picture for larger image)

Repeat the same process for the horizontal edges, but with an interval count of 100.

Now that the edges are meshed, we are ready to create a 2-D mesh for the face.

Mesh Face
Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Face Command Button > Mesh
Faces

Shift left-click on the face or use the up arrow next to Faces to select the face. Click
Apply.

## Create Boundary Types

We'll next set the boundary types in GAMBIT. The left edge is the inlet of the pipe, the
right edge the outlet, the top edge the wall, and the bottom edge the axis.

Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button > Specify Boundary Types Command
Button
This will bring up the Specify Boundary Types window on the Operation Panel. We will
first specify that the left edge is the inlet. Under Entity:, pick Edges so that GAMBIT
knows we want to pick an edge (face is default).

Now select the left edge by Shift-clicking on it. The selected edge should appear in the
yellow box next to the Edges box you just worked with as well as the Label/Type list
right under the Edges box.

## Next to Name:, enter inlet.

For Type:, select VELOCITY_INLET. (Note: Sometimes all the items in a dropdown
menu will not be visible. If you cannot find the VELOCITY_INLET option in the Type
Right-click on the taskbar and go to properties.)

Click Apply. You should see the new entry appear under Name/Type box near the top of
the window.
Repeat this process for the other three edges according to the following table:

Edge
Name Type
Position
Left inlet VELOCITY_INLET
Right outlet PRESSURE_OUTLET
Top wall WALL
Bottom centerline AXIS

You should have the following edges in the Name/Type list when finished:
Save and Export

## Main Menu > File > Save

Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh...

Type in pipe.msh for the File Name:. Select Export 2d Mesh since this is a 2 dimensional
mesh. Click Accept.

Check pipe.msh has been created in your working directory (the box will be filled in red).

## Select 2ddp from the list of options and click Run.

The "2ddp" option is used to select the 2-dimensional, double-precision solver. In the
double-precision solver, each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in
contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. The extra bits increase not only
the precision but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented. The downside of
using double precision is that it requires more memory.

Import Grid

Navigate to the working directory and select the pipe.msh file. This is the mesh file that
was created using the preprocessor GAMBIT in the previous step. FLUENT reports the
mesh statistics as it reads in the mesh:
Check the number of nodes, faces (of different types) and cells. There are 500
quadrilateral cells in this case. This is what we expect since we used 5 divisions in the
radial direction and 100 divisions in the axial direction while generating the grid. So the
total number of cells is 5*100 = 500.

Also, take a look under zones. We can see the four zones inlet, outlet, wall, and centerline
that we defined in GAMBIT.

## Check and Display Grid

First, we check the grid to make sure that there are no errors.

## Main Menu > Grid > Check

Any errors in the grid would be reported at this time. Check the output and make sure that
there are no errors reported. Check the grid size:

## Main Menu > Display > Grid...

Make sure all 5 items under Surfaces is selected. Then click Display. The graphics
window opens and the grid is displayed in it. You can now click Close in the Grid
Display menu to get back some desktop space. The graphics window will remain.

## Some of the operations available in the graphics window are:

Translation: The grid can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse
Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction.

Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand
Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on.

Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the
Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner.

Use these operations to zoom into the grid to obtain the view shown below.

Note: The zooming operations cannot be performed without a middle mouse button.

## (Click picture for larger image)

You can also look at specific parts of the grid by choosing the boundaries you wish to
view under Surfaces (click to select and click again to deselect a specific boundary).
Click Display again when you have selected your boundaries. For example, the wall,
outlet, and centerline boundaries have been selected in the following view:
These options will display the graph:

## (Click picture for larger image)

For convenience, the button next to Surfaces selects all of the boundaries while the
deselects all of the boundaries at once.

## Define Solver Properties

Main Menu > Define > Models > Solver

Choose Axisymmetric under Space. We'll use the defaults of pressure based
("segregated", in older versions) solver, implicit formulation, steady flow and absolute
velocity formulation. Click OK.

## Main Menu > Define > Models > Viscous

Laminar flow is the default. So we don't need to change anything in this menu. Click
Cancel.

## Main Menu > Define > Models > Energy

For incompressible flow, the energy equation is decoupled from the continuity and
momentum equations. We need to solve the energy equation only if we are interested in
determining the temperature distribution. We will not deal with temperature in this
example. So leave the Energy Equation unselected and click Cancel to exit the menu.

## Main Menu > Define > Materials...

Change Density to 1.0 and Viscosity to 2e-3. These are the values that we specified under
Problem Specification. We'll take both as constant.
Click Change/Create. Close the window.

## Main Menu > Define > Operating Conditions...

For all flows, FLUENT uses gauge pressure internally. Any time an absolute pressure is
needed, it is generated by adding the operating pressure to the gauge pressure. We'll use
the default value of 1 atm (101,325 Pa) as the Operating Pressure.

## Define Boundary Conditions

We'll now set the value of the velocity at the inlet and pressure at the outlet.

## Main Menu > Define > Boundary Conditions...

We note here that the four types of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on the
left side of the Boundary Conditions Window. The centerline zone should be selected by
default. Make sure it is, then make sure the Type of this boundary is selected as axis and
click Set.... Notice that there is nothing to set for the axis. Click OK.
Move down the list and select inlet under Zone. Note that FLUENT indicates that the
Type of this boundary is velocity-inlet. Recall that the boundary type for the "inlet" was
set in GAMBIT. If necessary, we can change the boundary type set previously in
GAMBIT in this menu by selecting a different type from the list on the right.

Click on Set.... Enter 1 for Velocity Magnitude. Click OK. This sets the velocity of the
fluid entering at the left boundary.

The (absolute) pressure at the outlet is 1 atm. Since the operating pressure is set to 1 atm,
the outlet gauge pressure = outlet absolute pressure - operating pressure = 0. Choose
outlet under Zone. The Type of this boundary is pressure-outlet. Click on Set.... The
default value of the Gauge Pressure is 0. Click Cancel to leave the default in place.

Lastly, click on wall under Zones and make sure Type is set as wall. Click on each of the
tabs and note that only momentum can be changed under the current conditions. This will
not be so under later exercises so make a note of the location of these options. Click OK.

## Click Close to close the Boundary Conditions menu.

Go to Step 5: Solve!

Step 5: Solve!

Click OK.

## Main Menu > Solve > Initialize > Initialize...

In the Solution Initialization menu that comes up, choose inlet under Compute From. The
Axial Velocity for all cells will be set to 1 m/s, the Radial Velocity to 0 m/s and the
Gauge Pressure to 0 Pa. These values have been taken from the inlet boundary condition.

## Set Convergence Criteria

FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved. The residual is a
measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing
equation. We'll iterate the solution until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6.

## Main Menu > Solve > Monitors > Residual...

Change the residual under Convergence Criterion for continuity, x-velocity, and y-
velocity, all to 1e-6.

Also, under Options, select Plot. This will plot the residuals in the graphics window as
they are calculated.

Click OK.

## Main Menu > File > Write > Case...

Type in pipe.cas for Case File. Click OK. Check that the file has been created in your
working directory. If you exit FLUENT now, you can retrieve all your work at any time
by reading in this case file.

## Main Menu > Solve > Iterate...

In the Iterate Window that comes up, change the Number of Iterations to 100. Click
Iterate.

The residuals for each iteration is printed out as well as plotted in the graphics window as
they are calculated.

## (Click picture for larger image)

The residuals fall below the specified convergence criterion of 1e-6 in about 46 iterations.
Actual number of convergence steps may vary slightly.

## Main Menu > File > Write > Data...

Enter pipe.dat for Data File and click OK. Check that the file has been created in your
working directory. You can retrieve the current solution from this data file at any time.

## Step 6: Analyze Results

Centerline Velocity

We'll plot the variation of the axial velocity along the centerline.

## Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot...

Make sure that Position on X Axis is set under Options, and X is set to 1 and Y to 0 under
Plot Direction. This tells FLUENT to plot the x-coordinate value on the abscissa of the
graph.

Under Y Axis Function, pick Velocity... and then in the box under that, pick Axial
Velocity.

Please note that X Axis Function and Y Axis Function describe the x and y axes of the
graph, which should not be confused with the x and y directions of the pipe.

Finally, select centerline under Surfaces since we are plotting the axial velocity along the
centerline. This finishes setting up the plotting parameters.

Click Plot.

This brings up a plot of the axial velocity as a function of the distance along the
centerline of the pipe.
(Click picture for larger image)

In the graph that comes up, we can see that the velocity reaches a constant value beyond a
certain distance from the inlet. This is the fully-developed flow region.

Change the axes extents: In the Solution XY Plot window, click on Axes.... Under
Options, deselect Auto Range. The boxes under Range should now be activated. Select X
under Axis. Enter 1 for Minimum and 3 for Maximum under Range.

We'll turn on the grid lines to help estimate where the flow becomes fully developed.
Check the boxes next to Major Rules and Minor Rules under Options. Click Apply.

Now, pick Y under Axis and once again deselect Auto Range under Options, then enter
1.8 for Minimum and 2.0 for Maximum under Range. Also select Major Rules and Minor
Rules to turn on the grid lines in the Y direction. We have now finished specifying the
range for each axes, so click Apply and then Close.
Go back to the Solution XY Plot menu and click Plot to replot the graph with the new
axes extents. We can see that the fully-developed region starts at around x=3m and the
centerline velocity in this region is 1.93 m/s.

## Save the data from this plot:

In the Solution XY Plot Window, check the Write to File box under Options. The Plot
button should have changed to Write.... Click on Write.... Enter vel.xy as the XY File
Name and click OK. Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working
directory.

## Now, save a picture of the plot:

Leave the Solution XY Plot Window and the Graphics Window open and in the main
FLUENT window click on:

## Under Format, choose one of the following three options:

EPS - if you have a postscript viewer, this is the best choice. EPS allows you to save the
file in vector mode, which will offer the best viewable image quality. After selecting
EPS, choose Vector from under File Type.

TIFF - this will offer a high resolution image of your graph. However, the image file
generated will be rather large, so this is not recommended if you do not have a lot of
JPG - this is small in size and viewable from all browsers. However, the quality of the
image is not particularly good.

After selecting your desired image format and associated options, click on Save...

Enter vel.eps, vel.tif, or vel.jpg depending on your format choice and click OK.

Verify that the image file has been created in your working directory. You can now copy
this file onto a disk or print it out for your records.

## Coefficient of Skin Friction

FLUENT provides a large amount of useful information in the online help that comes
with the software. Let's probe the online help for information on calculating the
coefficient of skin friction.

## Main Menu > Help > User's Guide Index...

Click on S in the links on top and scroll down to skin friction coefficient. Click on the
second 965 link (normally, you would have to go through each of the links until you find
what you are looking for). We can see an excerpt on the skin coefficient as well as the
equation for calculating it.

Click on the link for Reference Values panel, which tells us how to set the reference
values used in calculating the skin coefficient.

## Main Menu > Report > Reference Values...

Select inlet under Compute From to tell FLUENT to calculate the reference values from
the values at inlet. Check that density is 1 kg/m3 and velocity is 1 m/s. (Alternately, you
could have just typed in the appropriate values). Click OK.
Go back to the Solution XY Plot menu. Uncheck Write to File under Options since we
want to plot to the window right now. We can leave the other Options and Plot Direction
as is since we are still plotting against the x distance along the pipe.

Under the Y Axis Function, pick Wall Fluxes..., and then Skin Friction Coefficient in the
box under that.

## Under Surfaces, select wall and unselect centerline by clicking on them.

Reset axes ranges: Go to Axes... and re-select Auto-Range for the Y axis. Click Apply.
Set the range of the X axis from 1 to 8 by selecting X under Axis, entering 1 under
Minimum, and 8 under Maximum in the Range box (remember to de-select Auto-Range
first if it is checked).

Click Apply, Close, and then Plot in the Solution XY Plot Window.
(Click picture for larger image)

We can see that the fully developed region is reached at around x=3.0m and the skin
friction coefficient in this region is around 1.54. Compare the numerical value of 1.54
with the theoretical, fully-developed value of 0.16.

Save the data from this plot: Pick Write to File under Options and click Write.... Enter
cf.xy for XY File and click OK.

Velocity Profile

We'll next plot the velocity at the outlet as a function of the distance from the center of
the pipe. To do this, we have to set the y axis of the graph to be the y axis of the pipe (the

To plot the position variable on the y axis of the graph, uncheck Position on X Axis under
Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. To make the position variable the radial
distance from the centerline, under Plot Direction, change X to 0 and Y to 1. To plot the
axial velocity on the x axis of the graph, for X Axis Function, pick Velocity... and Axial
Velocity under that.

Since we want to plot this at the outlet boundary, pick outlet under Surfaces.

Change both the x and y axes to Auto-Range. (Don't forget to click apply before selecting
a different axis)

Uncheck Write to File under Options so that we can see the graph. Click Plot.
(Click picture for larger image)

## Does this look like a parabolic profile?

Save the data from this plot: Pick Write to File under Options and click Write.... Enter
profile.xy for XY File and click OK.

To see how the velocity profile changes in the developing region, let us add the profiles
at x=0.6m (x/D=3) and x=0.12m (x/D=6) to the above plot. First, create a line at x=0.6m
using the Line/Rake tool:

## Main Menu > Surface > Line/Rake

We'll create a straight line from (x0,y0)=(0.6,0) to (x1,y1)=(0.6,0.1). Select Line Tool
under Options. Enter x0=0.6, y0=0, x1=0.6, y1=0.1. Enter line1 under New Surface
Name. Click Create.
To see the line just created, select

## Main Menu > Display > Grid...

Note that line1 appears in the list of surfaces. Select all surfaces except default-interior.
Click Display. This displays all surfaces but not the mesh cells. Zoom into the region
near the inlet to see the line created at x=0.6m. (Click here to review the zoom
functionality discussion in step 4.) line1 is the white vertical line to the right in the figure
below.

## Similarly, create a vertical line called line2 at x=1.2; (x0,y0)=(1.2,0) to (x1,y1)=(1.2,0.1)

in this case. Display it in the graphics window to check that it has been created correctly.

Now we can plot the velocity profiles at x=0.6m (x/D=3) and x=0.12m (x/D=6) along
with the outlet profile. In the Solution XY plot menu, use the same settings as above.
Under Surfaces, in addition to outlet, select line1 and line2. Make sure Node Values is
selected under Options. Click Plot. Your symbols might be different from the ones below.
You can change the symbols and line styles under the Curves... button. Click on Help in
the Curves menu if you have problems figuring out how to change these settings.
The profile three diameters downstream is fairly close to the fully-developed profile at
the outlet. If you redo this plot using the fine grid results in the next step, you'll see that
this is not actually the case. The coarse grid used here doesn't capture the boundary layer
development properly and underpredicts the development length.

In FLUENT, you can choose to display the computed cell-center values or values that
have been interpolated to the nodes. By default, the Node Values option is turned on, and
the interpolated values are displayed. Node-averaged data curves may be somewhat
smoother than curves for cell values.

Velocity Vectors

One can plot vectors in the entire domain, or on selected surfaces. Let us plot the velocity
vectors for the entire domain to see how the flow develops downstream of the inlet.

## Main Menu > Display > Vectors... > Display

Zoom into the region near the inlet. (Click here to review the zoom functionality
discussion in step 4.) The length and color of the arrows represent the velocity
magnitude. The vector display is more intelligible if one makes the arrows shorter as
follows: Change Scale to 0.4 in the Vectors menu and click Display.

You can reflect the plot about the axis to get an expanded sectional view:

## Main Menu > Display > Views...

Under Mirror Planes, only the axis surface is listed since that is the only symmetry
boundary in the present case. Select axis and click Apply. Close the Views window.
The velocity vectors provide a picture of how the flow develops downstream of the inlet.
As the boundary layer grows, the flow near the wall is retarded by viscous friction. Note
the sloping arrows in the near wall region close to the inlet. This indicates that the
slowing of the flow in the near-wall region results in an injection of fluid into the region
away from the wall to satisfy mass conservation. Thus, the velocity outside the boundary
layer increases.

By default, one vector is drawn at the center of each cell. This can be seen by turning on
the grid in the vector plot: Select Draw Grid in the Vectors menu and then click Display
in the Grid Display as well as the Vectors menus. Velocity vectors are the default, but
you can also plot other vector quantities. See section 27.1.3 of the user manual for more
details about the vector plot functionality.

## Step 7: Refine Mesh

It is very important to assess the dependence of your results on the mesh used by
repeating the same calculation on different meshes and comparing the results. We will re-
do the previous calculation on a 100x10 mesh and compare the results with the 100x5
mesh used previously. If you prefer to skip the GAMBIT steps for modifying the mesh,
analysis discussed below.

## Modify Mesh in GAMBIT

The 100x5 mesh is saved as pipe.dbs in your working folder. Copy and paste the file in
the same folder. Rename Copy of pipe.dbs to pipe2.dbs. We will work with pipe2.dbs in
order to retain pipe.dbs as is. Launch GAMBIT and browse to where pipe2.dbs is saved.
Notice that under Session ID, pipe2 is now listed. Select this and click Run. Note in the
main menu bar that pipe2 is the ID of this job. Files created during this session will have
that prefix.
We will delete the face mesh, modify the edge meshes for the vertical edges and remesh
the face. To delete the original face mesh, choose

Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Face Command Button > Delete Face
Meshes

In the Delete Face Meshes Window that comes up, uncheck the Remove unused lower
mesh box. This tells GAMBIT to remove the face mesh only and keep the edge meshes
associated with the face mesh. Since we will be changing the mesh on only two edges of
the rectangle, there is no need to redo the meshes for all four edges.

Select the only face of the rectangle by shift-clicking on it and then click Apply.

## Modify Edge Meshes

To change the number of divisions on the vertical edges from 5 to 10, choose:

Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Edge Command Button > Mesh Edges

Select the two vertical edges by holding down the Shift button, clicking on each in turn,
and then releasing the Shift button. Select Interval count from the box under Spacing that
says Interval size. Change the number in the box next to the Interval count box from 5 to
10.

Make sure that the Remove old mesh box is checked under Options. This will make sure
that the old edge meshes are erased before the new edge meshes are created.

Click Apply.
Remember that you can zoom in by holding down Ctrl, dragging a box across the area
you want to zoom in on, and then releasing Ctrl. Do this now and make sure that the
vertical edges have 10 divisions.

## Recreate Face Mesh

Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Face Command Button > Mesh Faces

Shift-click on the face in the Graphics Window to select it. Click Apply.

## Main Menu > File > Save

Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh...

Type in pipe2.msh for the File Name:. Select Export 2d Mesh option. Click Accept.

## Finer Mesh Analysis

Repeat steps 4 and 5 of this tutorial with the 100x10 mesh (a tad on the repetitious side
but consider it good practice).

One you obtain the solution, plot the variation of the centerline velocity along the x-
direction as described in step 6. Compare this result with that obtained on the previous
mesh which is stored in the vel.xy file created earlier. To do this, after centerline velocity
has been plotted, click on Load File... in the Solution XY Plot window. Navigate to your
working folder if necessary and click on vel.xy and OK. Click Plot.

In the graphics window, we can see both of the lines plotted in the same window. Adjust
the axes so that you can zoom in on the beginning of the fully developed region.

## (Click image for larger picture)

In the centerline velocity plot above, the white and red symbols represent the results on
the 100x10 mesh and 100x5 meshes, respectively. The centerline velocity in the fully-
developed region for the finer mesh is 1.98 m/s. This value agrees better with the
analytical value of 2 m/s that the value of 1.93 m/s obtained on the coarser mesh. Save
the data for this plot as vel2.xy. The velocity result gets more accurate on refining the
mesh as expected.

Plot the skin friction coefficient as described in step 6. Compare the result with that

The finer mesh provides a skin friction coefficient of 0.159 in the fully-developed region,
which is much closer to the theoretical value of 0.16 than the corresponding coarser mesh
value of 0.154. Save the data for this plot as cf2.xy.

Similarly, plot the velcoity profile at the outlet and compare with the coarser grid result in
out.xy. The two results compare well with the greatest deviation occurring near the
centerline. Save the data for this plot as out2.xy.

## (Click picture for larger image)

If you repeat the calculation on a 100x20 mesh, you'll see that the results on the two
finest meshes are grid-independent to a high level of accuracy. In the plots below, the
white, red and green symbols correspond to the 100x20, 100x10 and 100x5 meshes,
respectively.
Velocity along centerline:

## (Click picture for larger image)

Skin Coefficient:

Outlet Velocity:

Go to Problem 1

## 2 Density of kitchen waste (kg/m3) 568.38

3 Fuel 22.81

4 Organics 45.42

5 Inert 30.22

6 Recyclable 1.32

7 Other 0.19

## 11 Fixed Carbon 26.65

12 Calorific Value 1308.67

## An estimated 30 million tones of solid waste is generated every year in urban

areas of the India. The MSW generation ranges from 0.25 to 0.66Kg/person /day
with an average of 0.45 kg/person/day. Most of the waste generated find their
way into land and water bodies without proper treatment, emitting gas like
Methane (CH4) and CO2 etc resulting in bad odors, air and water pollution, as
well as increase in the emission of green house gasses. This problem can be
significantly mitigated through adoption of environment friendly WTE
technologies for treatment and processing wastes before disposal. It not only
reduces the quantity of waste, but also improves its quality to meet required
pollution control standards, besides generating substantial quantity of energy.
DESCRIPTIONS OF RDF PELLETS

## Size 100mm X 100mm

Bulk Density 80-100 kg/m3
Proximate analysis
Moisture 15 % - 25 %
Ash content 15 % - 25 %
Volatile matter 40 % - 60 %
Fixed carbon 10 % - 20 %
Ultimate analysis
Moisture 15 % - 25 %

Mineral matter 15 % - 25 %
Carbon 35 % - 40 %
Hydrogen 5%-8%
Nitrogen 1 % - 1.5 %
Sulphur 0.2 % - 0.5 %
Oxygen 25 % - 30 %
Gross Calorific Value of 2,600 kcal / kg
RDF (Avg)

## Solid waste management is a serious problem in many of the urban areas as

populations attracted to cities continues to grow. This has led to ever increasing
quantities of domestic solid waste while space for disposal decreases. Municipal
managers are looking to the development of sanitary landfills around the
periphery of their cities as a first solution. However, setting and preparation of a
landfill requires the acquisition of large areas as well as good day to day
operation in order to minimize potential negative environmental impacts. Another
approach that has recently caught the attention of the decision makers is waste
to energy (WTE) technologies. However, capital and operating requirements for
these plants are generally an order of magnitude greater than required for
landfills.
This paper tries to evaluate and understand one of the WTE technologies
known as Gasification for Gazipur land fill site (Delhi).The key criteria for
considering Thermal Gasification or other WTE technologies is the lower calorific
value of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).The average lower calorific value of
the waste must be at least 6 MJ/kg throughout all seasons. The annual average
lower calorific value must not be less than 7 MJ/kg. The average lower calorific
value is 2.3MJ/kg at the landfill site in Delhi. Therefore, it is necessary to remove
non-combustible element from the MSW: This technology is known as RDF
technology,Which has high calorific value 10 MJ/kg for Gazipur land fill site.This
RDF of high calorific value can be used for producing power through different
WTE technologies.

## WHAT IS THERMAL GASIFICATION OF MSW?

Simply described, thermal gasification is the chemical conversion at high
temperatures of materials containing carbon atoms into a synthetic gas (syngas).
This syngas can be used to manufacture chemicals, and because it is
combustible, it can also be used as a fuel in place of natural gas for electric
generation. Gasification employs a controlled thermal (high temperature)
chemical conversion processes. It is a well established technology that has been
used in a variety of applications for over 100 years. It is used to convert
feedstock such as coal, petroleum coke, and biomass into a wide range of fuels
and chemicals. Applying thermal gasification to MSW is a relatively new
development. The differences among these thermal gasification technologies will
emerge from the following description.
1. Overview of the Process

## The most common thermal conversion technologies are:

• pyrolysis
• conventional gasification (fixed or fluidized bed)
• combined pyrolysis and gasification
• plasma gasification.

Pyrolysis

## In pyrolysis,carbon-based materials are thermally degraded using an

indirect, external source of heat, at temperatures of 400°¿900°C in the
absence of free oxygen. The volatile portion of the feedstock is thermally
decomposed, producing syngas composed primarily of hydrogen and
carbon monoxide. If the syngas is cleaned of contaminants, it can be
combusted in a reciprocating engine, producing electricity. Otherwise, it can
be combusted in a boiler, producing steam for power generation, with the
flue gas treated in an emission control system. Non-volatile organic
materials are left behind as char, typically disposed of with the ash.
Pyrolysis has been in use for hundreds of years, primarily for producing
charcoal. MSW pyrolysis, with power generation, has been in successful
operation in Europe for almost 20 years.

Conventional gasification

## Gasification converts carbonbased materials in the presence of direct heat

at temperatures of 760°-1650°C and with a limited supply of oxygen to a
syngas composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This is a
chemical process, not combustion. As with pyrolysis, if the syngas is
cleaned of contaminants, it can be combusted in a reciprocating engine,
producing electricity. Otherwise, the syngas can be combusted in a boiler,
producing steam for power generation.

The char that would have been left behind in pyrolysis is converted to
additional syngas. Inorganic materials end up as either bottom ash (low-
temperature gasification) or as an inert, glassy slag (high-temperature
gasification). Gasification has been in use for more than 200 years. It has
been used worldwide to gasify coal to produce `town gas¿ for heating,
cooking and lighting. MSW gasification has been implemented worldwide in
the past few years, with some facilities producing steam and others
electricity.

## Combined pyrolysis and gasification

This process essentially follows the pyrolysis reactor with a separate
gasification reactor . At the end of the pyrolysis section, the syngas exits the
chamber and the carbon char left over from pyrolysis is fed into the adjacent
gasification chamber, producing more syngas. Together, this integrated
process results in high conversion to syngas.

Plasma gasification

## In plasma gasification, a plasma arc is used to create a high-temperature

stream of ions (plasma) using air, oxygen, nitrogen, steam or other gases at
temperatures up to 5500ºC. The plasma is used to heat the MSW to a
gasification temperature of 1100º-1650ºC, producing syngas and melting the
inorganic components into slag. Metals can be segregated in molten form
below the slag layer and reclaimed in fairly pure form. Particulate matter
removed downstream can be re-injected into the reactor to produce slag.
Plasma gasification has been in use for years in steelmaking and is being
used to melt WTE ash to meet limits on dioxin/furan content. It has been
installed on a commercial scale in Japan for treating MSW and auto
shredder residue (ASR). Plasma gasification has the potential to be more
efficient in terms of electricity production than either conventional
gasification or pyrolysis.

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

## • Conversion technologies often incorporate pre-processing

subsystems to produce a more homogeneous feedstock. This
provides the opportunity to recover chlorine-containing plastic (as a
recyclable), which could otherwise contribute to the formation
of organic compounds or trace contaminants.
• Syngas produced by thermal conversion technologies is a much
more homogeneous and cleaner burning fuel than MSW.
• Conversion technology processes occur in a reducing environment,
so that formation of unwanted organic compounds or trace contaminants is
precluded or minimized.
• Conversion technologies are closed pressurized systems such that
there are no direct air emission points. Contaminants are removed from the
syngas and/or from the flue gases before being exhausted from a stack.
• The volume of syngas produced in the conversion of the feedstock is
considerably lower than the volume of flue gases formed by WTE facilities.
Smaller gas volumes are easier and less costly to treat.
• Pre-cleaning of syngas is possible, thus reducing the potential for
corrosion
in power generation equipment and reducing overall air emissions. Sulphur
compounds can be removed by commercially available equipment and
recovered as marketable sulphur or gypsum.
• Syngas produced by thermal conversion technologies is a much
more homogeneous and cleaner-burning fuel than MSW.
• Methane emissions from landfills are significant even with energy
recovery. Using a conversion technology to convert the carbon content of
the MSW to combustible syngas, instead of allowing it to degrade in a
landfill to methane, eliminates this environmental impact.
• The inert, glassy slag recovered from high-temperature gasification is
similar to that produced from steel mills and coal-fired power plants. It can
be used for making roofing tiles and as sandblasting grit or asphalt filler.

## MSW as an Energy Feedstock

MSW is a negatively priced, abundant and essentially renewable feedstock.
Currently, about 220 million tons per year or 0.8 tons of MSW per capita are
generated in the US. The composition of these wastes can vary from one
community to the next, but the overall differences are not substantial. Table 2
shows two separate estimates of the typical US MSW composition. Moist food
and yard wastes have the lowest heating value and are better suited for
composting, rather than for combustion or gasification The ash composition and
concentration of a fuel can result in agglomeration in the gasification vessel and
that can lead to clogging of fluidized beds and increased tar formation. Ingeneral,
no slagging occurs with fuels having an ash content below 5%. MSW has high
ashcontent (10-12%), versus coal ash (5-10%) and wood wastes (1-5%
ash).Raw MSW can be converted into a better fuel for power generation by
making it morehomogeneous. Several waste-to-energy plants create a refuse-
derived fuel (RDF), through theseparation of inert materials, size reduction, and
densifying. RDF plants remove recyclable ornon-combustible materials and
shred the remaining trash into a homogenous fuel. The densifiedmaterial is more
easily transported, stored, combusted and gasified than raw MSW. The size of
aparticle affects the time required to combust. Therefore shredded RDF, which
typically has adiameter of 6 inches or less, reduces the required residence time
in a fluidized bed and allows formore complete combustion. During gasification,
the use of a RDF permits a lower air-to-fuelratio and lowers bed temperatures.
Under these conditions, a very large fraction of the organic refuse component
breaks down into volatile components. In addition, the processing of MSW to
RDF can include the addition of calcium compounds that reduce HCl emissions
and may reducetrace elements concentration by one to two orders of
magnitude.Producing a true RDF cost-effectively remains one of the most difficult
tasks in thermochemical conversion of solid waste. It involves a large amount of
mechanical processing and close supervision, which greatly impact operating
costs and can account for as much as 50% of the total plant capital costs. If too
much metal and glass are allowed to pass through into the gasifier, the heating
value of the RDF decreases and there are constant operational problems and
plant shutdowns making the plants costly and unreliable. Therefore, waste
gasification will be most successful in communities where there is good recycling
practice. It should be noted that energy recovery from waste is not in competition
with recycling, but rather its complement in a sound waste management plan.
4. Product Gas
The product gas resulting from waste gasification contains various tars,
particulates, halogens, heavy metals and alkaline compounds depending on the
fuel composition and the particular gasification process. The downstream power
generating and gas cleaning equipment require removal of these contaminants.
The specific fuel requirements for end-use technologies vary significantly and will
be discussed in a later section.
4.1 Tars
When MSW is gasified, significant amounts of tar are produced (between .1 and
10% of the product gas, Milne & Evans, 1998). Tar is considered to be any
condensable or incondensable organic material in the product stream, and is
largely comprised of aromatic compounds. It can cause coke to form on fuel
reforming catalysts, deactivate sulfur removal systems, erode compressors, heat
exchangers, ceramic filters, and damage gas turbines and engines. and
complicate environmental emissions compliance.
The amount and composition of tars are dependent on the fuel, the operating
conditions and the secondary gas phase reactions The most widely used and
studied tar cracking catalyst is dolomite (a mixture of MgCO3 and CaCO3).
Dolomite has been shown to work more effectively when placed in a vessel
downstream from the gasifier and in a low carbon monoxide environment. When
used in the gasifier, the catalysts accumulate a layer of coke rapidly causing
them to lose their effectiveness. The specific tar conversion and destruction
schemes chosen depend on the nature and composition of the tars present, as
well as the intended end-use equipment. For a closely coupled lime-kiln or well-
designed combustion boiler, tar clean-up is not critical. However, advantages of
tar cracking in the product gas include increased thermal-to-electrical
efficiencies, lower emissions, and lower effluent treatment costs. The lack of
effective and inexpensive tar removal processes has remained the primary
barrier to widespread commercialization of biomass and MSW integrated
gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation.
4.2 Halogens/Acid Gases
The principal combustion products of halogens are either hydrogen halides, (i.e.
HCl, HBr) or metal halides (i.e. HgCl) that leave the fuel bed along with the flue
gases. In the gasificatio of pure MSW, HCl is the prevailing chlorine product.
Bromine (Br) seems to accumulate to a greater extent in the bottom ash. Typical
Br content in municipal solid waste, however, is very low (30 - 200 mg/kg), as
compared to Cl (3,000-6,000 mg/kg). Chlorine is mainly transformed to HCl and
bromine to HBr, both of which are easily removed in all modern scrubbing
systems and hence cause no emission problems.A significant advantage of
gasification is that it takes place in a reducing atmosphere, which prevents sulfur
and nitrogen compounds from oxidizing. As a result, most elemental
nitrogen or sulfur in the waste stream end up as H2S, COS, N2 or ammonia
rather than SOx and NOx. The reduced sulfur species can then be recovered as
elemental sulfur at efficiencies between 95 and 99%, or converted to a sulfuric
acid by-product. The typical sulfur removal and recovery processes used to treat
the raw syngas are the same as commercially available methods used in other
industrial applications, such as oil refining and natural gas recovery. One
commonly used process to remove sulfur compounds is the selective-amine
technology where reduced sulfur species are removed from the syngas using an
amine-based solvent in an absorber tower. Physical solvents a  re also used. The
reduced sulfur species removed in the solvent stripper are converted to
elemental sulfur in a sulfur recovery process such as the Selectox/Claus process
(Orr and Maxwell, 2000).
4.3 Heavy Metals
Trace amounts of metals and other volatile materials are also present in MSW.
These are typically toxic substances that pose ecological and human health risks
when released into the environment. Volatilized heavy metals that are not
collected in the gas cleanup system can bioaccumulate in the environment
(Gregory, 2001) and can be carcinogenic and damage human nervous systems.
For this reason, mercury must be removed from the product gas prior to being
combusted. However, the MSW combustion industry has demonstrated
extraordinary success removing heavy metals with activated carbon, baghouses
filters and electrostatic precipitators. Activated carbon injection and baghouse
filters. Even greater removal can be expected from gasification plants, because
heavy metals will have a higher partial pressure in the product gas, which will
encourage greater adsorption during cooling according to the thermodynamic
relationship: ∆G=RTln(P1/P0).
4.4 Alkalis
Alkali compounds in biomass and MSW gasification ash can cause serious
slagging in the boiler or gasification vessel. Sintered or fused deposits can form
agglomerates in fluidized beds and on grates. There has been extensive
research on developing ceramic filters followed by high temperature “getter beds”
that may be used for capturing alkali compounds while simultaneously removing
other particulate matter from the hot product gas produced in high pressure, high
temperature gasifiers. An ideal high temperature “getter” material would have the
alkali into a less corrosive form, and irreversible adsorption to prevent the release
of adsorbed alkali during process fluctuations. Such materials include bauxite
(aluminium ore) and emathlite (roughly 70% SiO2 and 10% Al2O3, with the
remainder composed of smaller amounts (<5%) of MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO,
K2O, and Na2O), and have been shown to reduce alkali species below the
specifications for the operation of gas turbines (Turn, et al 2000). However, more
research needs to be done to determine the impact of carbonaceous tars on
such “getter beds”. If tar concentrations are relatively high in the product gas they
are likely to cause significant fouling. As a result, high temperature gas cleanup
depends on sufficient tar cracking upstream.
2.4 BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The proposed integrated waste processing facility will have a section for
processing Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which will involve manual segregation,
shredding, screening to separate both fine inerts and some percentage of bio-
degradable matter, fines screening, ballistic separation etc which will finally result
in the production of RDF as byproduct. RDF, thus produced will be utilized for the
generation of electricity. The Ghazipur landfill site on an average receives about
1300 TPD of MSW. Table 2.1 depicts the characteristics of Municipal Solid waste
samples taken from Ghazipur Landfill site.

The fluff is expected to have a gross calorific value (GCV) of 2600 kcal/kg to
3,000 Kcal/kg.
THE CONVERSION OF MSW INTO RDF
The conversion of MSW into RDF involves the following operations
 M anual Segregation.
Shredding.
Screening to separate both, fine inerts and some percentage of bio-degradable
matter.
Rotary conveying and as per requirements of drying system.
Fines Screening.
Density Separator (Ballistic separation)
The schematic process flow diagram for conversion of MSW to RDF is given in
Figure

## Gasification of MSW, to treat it besides generating energy, technologies is

advancing .Plant based on this technology are being evaluated on the basis of
operational and finanacial and environmental persepective and are getting their
acceptance for treating MSW having high calorific value.Lower calorific value of
the MSW being produced in Indian cities is less and it has more
moisture.Therefore, it is necessary to separate combustible elements from MSW
and reduce its moisture level by using proper recycling and suitable cost effective
mechanical pretreatment plant for producing RDF .This can be used as input to
differne chemical industries or producing syngas through gasification
technologies which can be used for power/heat/input to different chemical
industries.Sevral power plant based on gasification of msw have been set up in
Europe and Japan for last 20 yearseven in India one plant is coming up in
Cocchhine .Gasification technologies reduces landfill diversion around 95% and
can provide efficiencies (in net KWH/ton) upto 50% greater than that of WTE
along with meeting tough emission norms.
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Investigation Into Municipal Solid Waste Gasification – PUB Draft May 27, 2004
Prepared for: Alameda Power & Telecom Draft to the Public Utilities Board Prepared by: Advanced Energy Strategies, Inc.
May 27, 2004

## ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROCESSING COMPLEX

GHAZIPUR, DELHI
Submitted to: Delhi Pollution Control Committee Submitted by: East Delhi Waste Processing Company Pvt. Ltd. January 2008

Dear Sir,

## Please recall my telephonic discussion with you today morning. Kindly

go through the attachment and do the needful. Please see the
qualification part. Since diploma level candidates will also be
appearing as
Internal Candidates hence maintain a balance in the paper. It should
not be
very hard or very soft. However, please note that there is no Interview
stage after the written examination. Please ensure that there is no
repeation of same question.

Kindly get two sets of question paper prepared from two different
experts. You can share a copy of letter and annexure provided to
you.Finally
01 set need to be moderated by you. After completion, please call me
so that I will depute my person to pick up all the three papers. Please
pack all papers separately. Kindly get the keys signed by the experts.
Please ensure to send me back the Annexure-III.

Regards.

## Manas Ranjan Behera

Deputy Manager
Educational Consultants India Ltd.
(A Government of India Enterprise)
"Ed.CIL House", 18A, Sector-16A
Noida - 201 301 (U.P)
Tel No.- (0120) 251 2001-6
E-MAIL i.d.-mrbehera@yahoo.com