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Physics

Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement


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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

Mechanical Energy

1.1 Understanding Physics


By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to
Explain what physics is,
Recognise the physics in everyday objects and in natural phenomena.
What is physics ?
The word Physics is originated from the Greek word physikos.
In physics, we study natural phenomena and the properties of matter. The aim of physics is to
explain the fundamental nature of the universe by using the concept of physics.
Physics involves the conduct of studies and experiments to find anwers to the question Why?
and How? in relation to the mysteries of the universe.
The majority of natural phenomena can be explained using the principles of physics, for
example ;
i)
We cannot see an object behind a wall because light travels in a straight line.
ii)
The image of the pencil formed by the mirror is due to the reflection of light.
Fields of study in physics
The scope of physics very wide. Knowledge of physics is grouped into different fields of study as
shown in figure 1.1.

Force and motion


- investigates the
action of force and
motion

Forces and pressure


- pressure, pressure in liquids, gas
pressure, atmospheric pressure,
Pascals principle, Archimedes
principle, Bernoullis principle.

Light
- explains the
different
phenomenon due
to light.

Waves
- understands the properties
of different types of waves
and their uses.

Fields of
study in
physics

Electricity and
electromagnetism
- investigates the
interactions of electric
and magnetic fields.

Heat
- Studies the
influence of heat on
different types of
matter.

Electricity and
electromagnetism
- investigates the
interactions of electric
and magnetic fields

Electronics
- studies the use of
electronic devices in
various fields

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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STUDENT WORKSHEET 1
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
-

The value of the measurements consists of a numerical magnitude and a unit.


example :

the length of a metre rule is 250 cm


physical
quantities

unit

numerical
magnitude

- Physical quantities are categorized into base quantities and derived quantities

Base quantity
1

Base quantities is ..

2. There are seven kinds of base quantities; length, mass, time, current, temperature,
luminous intensity and amount of subtance.
Base quantity

Symbol
l

Length

S.I. Unit
metre

Symbol for S.I. Unit


m

Mass
Time
Current
Temperature
Luminous Intensity
Amount of subtance
Derived quantities
1. Derived quantity is .....

.
2

Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.


Derived
quantity

Formula

Derived unit

Name of
derived unit

area

area = length x width

m x m = m2

volume

volume = length x width x height

mxmxm=
m3

mass
volume

displacement
time

....

kg m s-1

density
velocity
momentum

density
velocity

momentum = mass x velocity

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Derived
quantity
Acceleration
Force
pressure

Formula
acceleration

Derived unit
.

change in velocity
time

force = mass x acceleration


pressure

force
area

Name of
derived unit

kg m s-2

Newton (N)

weight

weight = mass x gravitational


acceleration

work

work = force x displacement

.
Joule (J)

power

power
kinetic
energy

K.E

work
time

1
mass velocity 2
2

potential
energy

P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration


x height

Kg ms-2

charge

charge = current x time

Ampere second
(As)

Coulomb I

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES


1. Scalar quantities are
Examples :
2. Vector quantities are...
Examples :
3. Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require
magnitude, direction or both to specify them.
Description of events
1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C
2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the northwest of Palembang
3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W

Magnitude

Direction

4. A car is travelling at 80 km/hour from


Palembang to Jambi
Some common examples of scalar and vector quantities.
Scalar quantities

.
.

Vector quantities

STUDENT WORKSHEET 1

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES


1. Scalar quantities are .
Examples :
2. Vector quantities are.
Examples :
3. Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require
magnitude, direction or both to specify them.
Description of events
1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C
2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the northwest of Palembang
3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W

Magnitude

Direction

4. A car is travelling at 80 km/hour from


Palembang to Jambi
Some common examples of scalar and vector quantities.
Scalar quantities

.................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.

Vector quantities

.........................
.....................................................................
.....................................................................
.....................................................................

STUDENTS WORKSHEET 1

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
1

Scientific notation have form = A x 10n ,

Scientific notation is used to ...

Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantities in

1 < A < 10 and n = integer

scientific notation :
a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =.
b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =...
c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m =
b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = ...
c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ..
PREFICS
1. Prefixes are usually used to ...
2. It will be written
3. The list of prefixes :
1012
10

106
2

Tera (T)

Mega (M)

10-3
10-6

micro ()

10-9

nano (n)

10-12

pico (p)

10
100 10-1
10-2

1 Tm = ......m

Giga (G)

kilo (k) Hekto (ha)


Deka (da)
desi (d)
centi (s)
mili (m)

10 3
10
1

Question:

3.6 mA = ......A
How to change the unit;
Eq :
1. Mega to nano
......................................................................
2. Tera to micro
......................................................................
3. piko to Mega
......................................................................

4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and small
values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the quantities in
standard prefixes:
a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = .
b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m =
c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m =
d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 kg =

STUDENT WORKSHEET 3

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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UNDERSTANDING MEASUREMENTS
1.Using appropriate instruments to measure.
When we measure a physical quantity, we need to consider its magnitude and then choose a
suitable instrument.
The magnitude of the quantity should not exceed the maximum capacity of the instrument, and
the instrument must be sensitive enough to detect and give a meaningful measurement of the
quantity.
For example; metre rule is used to measure the length of a book, measuring tape is used to
measure the length of a table and micrometer screw gauge is used to measure the diameter of a
glass rod.
Example of measuring instruments :
1. Ammeter is used to measure ..
incorrect reading
1
1

pointer

pointer

mirror

correct
reading
4

mirror

Pointers image is behind the pointer

Pointers image can be seen

2. Measuring cylinder is used to measure ....................


wrong position of eye
Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of
the scale)
wrong position of eye
water

3. A ruler is used to measure


wrong

10

11

right

12

wrong

13

14

4. Vernier Caliper
A vernier caliper is used to measure a small object with dimension up to 12 cm
It is has an accuracy / sensivity of 0.01 cm
There are two pair of jaws, one is designated to measure linear and outer diameters while
the other is to measure inner diameter
A vernier caliper consists of two steel bar scales, one sliding over the other.
The main scale is graduated in intervals of 0.1 cm.
The sliding vernier scale has a scale on which ten divisions are equal to nine small
divisions on the main scale 0.09 cm)
The difference between the sizes of one division on the main scale and one division on the
vernier scale is
0.1 0.09 = 0.01 cm

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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giving a vernier scale an accurancy of 0.01 cm.

Figure 1.3 : Ten divisions on the vernier scale are equal to nine small divisions on the main scale.

HOW TO READ THE VERNIER CALIPER.

Main scale

= .

1 2 3 4 5

cm

6 7 8 9 10

Find the division of


vernier scale which is
coincides with any part of
the main scale

Vernier scale = ..
Caliper reading = main scale reading + (0.01 cm x vernier scale )=....................

The diagram below shows a vernier caliper with reading.


0

10

Vernier caliper reading = . cm

5. Micrometer Screw Gauge


A micrometer srew gauge is used to measure a small lengths ranging between 0.10 mm and
25.00 mm.
Examples; can measure diameters of wires and thicknesses of steel plate.
It is has an accuracy/sensivity of 0.01 mm

Figure 1.5 : Micrometer screw gauge


The micrometer scale comprises a main scale marked on the sleeve and a scale marked on the
thimble called the thimble scale.

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Each division on main scale is 0.5 mm.


The timble scale is subdivided into 50 equal divisions. When the thimble is rotated through
one
complete turn, the main scale will moved to 0.5 mm.
This means that one division on the thimble scale is

0.50 mm = 0.01 mm
50 divisions

The reading of the micrometer screw gauge = main scale reading + ( 0.01 mm x thimble
scale )
When taking a reading, the thimble is turned until the object is gripped very gently between the
anvil and the spindle.
The ratchet knob is then turned until a click sound is heard.
The ratchet knob is used to prevent the user from exerting undue pressure.
HOW TO READ THE MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE

1.
2.

Main scale reading= 2.0 mm.


The reading on the thimble scale = 22nd mark on the thimble scale.

3.

The final reading of the gauge is = 2.0 mm + ( 0.01 x 22) mm


= 2.22 mm.

STUDENT WORKSHEET

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Vernier Caliper And Micrometer Screw Gauge


1. Write down the readings shown by the following
(a)
Answer: ..

(b)
Answer: ..

(c)

(d)

Answer: ..

5
1

1
0
0

Answer: ..

10

2. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.
(a)
(b)
0

40

35

10

35

30

Answer: .
(c)
0

Answer:..
(d)

25

20

Answer:

20
15

Answer:.

3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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(a)

(b)
0

40

35

10

35

30

Answer:

Answer: ........

(c)

(d)
0

25

20

20

Answer:

15

Answer:

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Reading shown
EXAMPLES OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR
ACCURACY.
1.

= .6.67..mm

Corrected reading = 6.64..mm

Mechanical stop watch


Accuracy : ..

2.

Electronic stop watch


Accuracy :
Reading :.
3.Measurement Current

Ammeter range 0 5A
Accuracy :.

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Double-scale ammeter
Accuracy of upper scale :..
Acuracy of lower scale : .
Reading :..

Miliammeter range 0- 50 mA
Accuracy:
Reading :..
Accuracy:
Measurement Temperature

Accuracy:..

Measurement of Length
calipers
The smallest
scale division
on gauge
the measuring
We normally use ruler, measuring tape , vernier
or micrometer
screw
to measure
instruments shows the sensitivity of the instruments.
length.
Thus the more sensitive the measuring instruments the
Measuring
Smallest scale
smaller the scale divisions .
instrument
division

Therefore the micrometer screw gauge has the


highest sensitivity

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Ruler
Vernier
calipers
Mikrometer
screw gauge

0.1 cm or
1 mm
0.01cm
0.01 mm

Errors in measurements
Any measurement of a physical quantity has errors or uncertainty.
Two main types of errors:
i.
ii. ....................................................
Causes of Systematic Errors:
(i)

.......................................................................................................................................

(ii)

.......................................................................................................................................

Causes of Random Errors :


a)
b)
c)

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS :
1. In this section you are required plan an experiment based on the scenario given .
2. To answer this section, students must be able to

Identify Responding Variable (RV) and Manipulated Variable (MV).

Relate the Responding Variable (RV)and Manipulated Variable (MV).

The table below provides the technique to answer questions in this section
STEPS
1.Making
observation
to identify
RV
And MV

REMARK
RV and MV must be the
physical quantities that
can be measured during
the experiment.

FORMAT

SAMPLE ANSWER
RV: acceleration of the boat
MV: The total mass of the
boat

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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2. Inference

An inference is a
conclusion drawn from
observation of a
phenomenon studied

RV depends on MV
OR
MV influences RV

(a)
Acceleration of the boat
decreases when its mass is
increased. OR
Acceleration of the boat
depends on the total mass
of the boat

General statement that


assumed to be true
regarding the relationship
The longer/bigger the
between MV and RV
3. Hypothesis
MV the longer/smaller
(Must have
the RV
DIRECTION) based on
the experiment being
planned.

(b)
For a constant external force
acting on an object, the
bigger the mass of the object,
the smaller is its acceleration.

To find the relationship


between the MV and
the RV

(c)(i)
To find the relationship
between acceleration and the
mass of an object.

4. Aim

To find the relationship


between MV and RV

5. Variable

Manipulated
Variable (MV)
Physical Quantity which
is controlled / changed
for the purpose of
investigating the results
of an experiment..
Responding
Variable (RV)
Physical Quantitiy
which is the result of the
changes made to MV
Constant Variable
(CV) Physical
Quantities which are
kept constant during the
experiment

6. Equipment
or
Apparatus

List all apparatus and


materials used (the
apparatus that are used
to measure the RV and
MV must be included)

List down the:


Manipulated
Variable (MV)
Responding
Variable (RV)
Constant Variable
(CV)
that are used in the
experiment

List all apparatus and


materials used

(C)(ii)
Manipulated variable
(MV): mass of the object, m
Responding variable
(RV): acceleration of the
object, a
Fixed variable (FV):
force acting on the object, F

(C)(iii)
Ticker tape, cellophane tape,
three identical elastic
cords/rubber bands, ticker
timer, three trolleys, two
retort stand with clamps as
support, power supply,
runway for trolley.
(C)(iv)

7. Diagram

Draw the correct diagram

Draw the correct


diagram

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Write in passive form


past tense.
The procedures must
include:
o Method of measuring
8. Procedure
the first value of MV.
o Method of measuring
the RV
o Repetition of
experiments using at
least another 4 MV

Write down the


procedures

(C)( v)
(i)
The apparatus is
set up as shown in the
figure.
(ii)
the ticker timer
which is connected to
the 12 V a.c. power
supply is started and the
trolley is pulled down
the runway.The elastic
cord is always
maintained at the same
length and parallel with
the trolley.
(iii)
The ticker
obtained is cut into 5tick strips and a tape
chart for the motion of
the trolley is made. The
acceleration of the
trolley, a, is calculated
and recorded.
(iv)The steps are repeated
with 2 and then 3
identical trolleys stacked
up. For each case, the
elastic cord is kept
stretched until the end of
the runway.
(C)(vi)
Mass, m /
number of
trolley

9. Tabulation
of data

Draw the basic table to


record data

10. Analysis
of data

Sketch the graph with


suitable quantities.

Draw table to record


data

1
2
3
4
5

1/
m

Accele
ration,
a / cm
s-2

Normally must have


a minimum of 5
trials/data

(vii)
the graph of acceleration, a
against m (or a against 1/m)
is plotted.
(1 point will be given for
EITHER

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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(a) writing: the graph of a


against m (or a against 1/m)
is plotted , or
(b) any of these graph
sketches. ALL labels must be
present.)

Plan and report an experiment


Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a playground. It is
found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.
Steps
1

Inference

Hypothesis

Aim

Variables

List of
apparatus and
materials

Arrangement of
the apparatus

Example : refer to the situation above

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Procedures

Tabulate the
data

Analyse the
data

10 Discussion

11 Conclusion

Precautions :
1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady
state.
2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.
3. Discussion (refer to given questions)
The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.
Hypothesis accepted.

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and Measurement
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Reinforcement Chapter 1
Part A :Objective Question

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and
Measurement
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1. Which of the following is a base SI


quantity?
A Weight
B Energy
C Velocity
D Mass
2. Which of the following is a derived
quantity?
A Length
B Mass
C Temperature D Voltage
3. Which of the following is not a basic
unit?
A Newton
B kilogram
C ampere
D second
4. Which of the following quantities
cannot be derived?
A Electric current B Power
C Momentum
D Force
5. Which of the following quantities is
not derived from the basic physical
quantity of length?
A Electric charge B Density
C Velocity
D Volume
6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v,
time t and another physical quantity k
is related by the equation v - u = kt.
The unit for k is
A m s-1
B m-1 s
-2
C ms
D m2 s-2
7. Which of the following has the
smallest magnitude?
A megametre
B centimetre
C kilometre
D mikrometre

10. The diameter of a particle is 250 m.


What is its diameter in cm?
A 2.5 x 10-2
B 2.5 x 10-4
-6
C 2.5 x 10
D 2.5 x 10-8
11. Which of the following prefixes is
arranged in ascending order?
A mili, senti, mikro, desi
B mikro, mili, senti, desi
C mili, mikro, desi, senti
D desi, mikro, mili, senti
12. Velocity, density, force and energy are
A basic quantities
B scalar quantities
C derived quantities
D vector quantities
13. Which of the following shows the
correct conversion of units?
A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3
B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3
C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3
D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3
14. Which of the following measurements
is the shortest ?
A 3.45 x 103 m
B 3.45 x 104 cm
C 3.45 x 107 mm
D 3.45 x 1012 m
15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio
waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in
the north region. What is the frequency
of the radio wave in Hz?
A 9.28 x 104
B 9.28 x 105
7
C 9.28 x 10
D 9.28 x 1010

8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is


A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m
C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m

16. An object moves along a straight line


for time, t. The length of the line, s is

9. Which of the following measurements


is the longest?
A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm
C 0.12 mm
D 1.2 x 10-11 km

SI unit of g is
A m2 s2
B m s-2
-1
C s
D s-2 m
Part B : Structure Question

given by the equation s

1 2
gt . The
2

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and
Measurement
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1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as
shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the
two towns.
P
Q

Figure 1
(a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective
SI units.

(ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit.

(b) Convert the value

1 . m to standard form.
5 x 10-3

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

Table 1
(d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in
terms of its basic units.

(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12
cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and
Measurement
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2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 03 A range.

Figure 2
(a) (i) Name component X. ...
(ii) What is the function of X? .
(b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2
(i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ...
(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).

3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye
positions while measuring the volume of the water.
(a) (i) Which of the eye positions is
correct while
taking the reading of the volume of
water?
.

Figure 3
(b) The

water in the measuring cylinder is

Physics
Chapter 1: Unit and
Measurement
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replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury.


(i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the
mercury in the measuring cylinder.
Figure 4
(ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).