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TheProjectGutenbergEBookofHesiod,TheHomericHymns,andHomerica,by
HomerandHesiod
ThiseBookisfortheuseofanyoneanywhereatnocostandwith
almostnorestrictionswhatsoever.Youmaycopyit,giveitawayor
reuseitunderthetermsoftheProjectGutenbergLicenseincluded
withthiseBookoronlineatwww.gutenberg.org
Title:Hesiod,TheHomericHymns,andHomerica
Author:HomerandHesiod
Editor:HughG.EvelynWhite
ReleaseDate:July5,2008[EBook#348]
Language:English
***STARTOFTHISPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKHESIOD,THEHOMERICHYMNS***

ProducedbyDouglasB.Killings

HESIOD,THEHOMERICHYMNS,ANDHOMERICA

Thisfilecontainstranslationsofthefollowingworks:
Hesiod:"WorksandDays","TheTheogony",fragmentsof"TheCatalogues
ofWomenandtheEoiae","TheShieldofHeracles"(attributedto
Hesiod),andfragmentsofvariousworksattributedtoHesiod.
Homer:"TheHomericHymns","TheEpigramsofHomer"(bothattributedto
Homer).
Various:FragmentsoftheEpicCycle(partsofwhicharesometimes
attributedtoHomer),fragmentsofotherepicpoemsattributedtoHomer,
"TheBattleofFrogsandMice",and"TheContestofHomerandHesiod".
ThisfilecontainsonlythatportionofthebookinEnglish;Greektexts
areexcluded.WhereGreekcharactersappearintheoriginalEnglish
text,transcriptioninCAPITALSissubstituted.

PREPARER'SNOTE:Inordertomakethisfilemoreaccessibletothe
averagecomputeruser,thepreparerhasfounditnecessarytorearrange
someofthematerial.Thepreparertakesfullresponsibilityforhis
choiceofarrangement.
Afewendnoteshavebeenaddedbythepreparer,andsomeadditionshave
beensuppliedtotheoriginalendnotesofMr.EvelynWhite's.Wherethis
occursIhavenotedtheadditionwithmyinitials"DBK".Someendnotes,
particularlythoseconcerningtextualvariationsintheancientGreek
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text,arehereomitted.

PREFACE
ThisvolumecontainspracticallyallthatremainsofthepostHomeric
andpreacademicepicpoetry.
Ihaveforthemostpartformedmyowntext.InthecaseofHesiodI
havebeenabletouseindependentcollationsofseveralMSS.byDr.
W.H.D.Rouse;otherwiseIhavedependedontheapparatuscriticusof
theseveraleditions,especiallythatofRzach(1902).Thearrangement
adoptedinthisedition,bywhichthecompleteandfragmentarypoemsare
restoredtotheorderinwhichtheywouldprobablyhaveappearedhad
theHesiodiccorpussurvivedintact,isunusual,butshouldnotneed
apology;thetrueplaceforthe"Catalogues"(forexample),fragmentary
astheyare,iscertainlyafterthe"Theogony".
Inpreparingthetextofthe"HomericHymns"mychiefdebtanditisa
heavyoneistotheeditionofAllenandSikes(1904)andtotheseries
ofarticlesinthe"JournalofHellenicStudies"(vols.xv.sqq.)byT.W.
Allen.TothesamescholarandtotheDelegatesoftheClarendonPressI
amgreatlyindebtedforpermissiontousetherestorationsofthe"Hymn
toDemeter",lines387401and462470,printedintheOxfordTextof
1912.
OfthefragmentsoftheEpicCycleIhavegivenonlysuchasseemedto
possessdistinctimportanceorinterest,andindoingsohaverelied
mostlyuponKinkel'scollectionandonthefifthvolumeoftheOxford
Homer(1912).
Thetextsofthe"Batrachomyomachia"andofthe"ContestofHomerand
Hesiod"arethoseofBaumeisterandFlachrespectively:whereIhave
divergedfromthese,thefacthasbeennoted.
HughG.EvelynWhite,Rampton,NR.Cambridge.Sept.9th,1914.

INTRODUCTION

General
TheearlyGreekepicthatis,poetryasanaturalandpopular,andnot
(asitbecamelater)anartificialandacademicliteraryformpassed
throughtheusualthreephases,ofdevelopment,ofmaturity,andof
decline.
Nofragmentswhichcanbeidentifiedasbelongingtothefirstperiod
survivetogiveusevenageneralideaofthehistoryoftheearliest
epic,andwearethereforethrownbackupontheevidenceofanalogy
fromotherformsofliteratureandofinferencefromthetwogreat
epicswhichhavecomedowntous.Soreconstructed,theearliestperiod
appearstousasatimeofslowdevelopmentinwhichthecharacteristic
epicmetre,diction,andstructuregrewupslowlyfromcrudeelements
andwereimproveduntilthevergeofmaturitywasreached.
Thesecondperiod,whichproducedthe"Iliad"andthe"Odyssey",needs
nodescriptionhere:butitisveryimportanttoobservetheeffect
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ofthesepoemsonthecourseofpostHomericepic.Asthesupreme
perfectionanduniversalityofthe"Iliad"andthe"Odyssey"castinto
oblivionwhateverpreHomericpoetshadessayed,sothesesamequalities
exercisedaparalysinginfluenceoverthesuccessorsofHomer.Ifthey
continuedtosingliketheirgreatpredecessorofromanticthemes,they
weredrawnasbyakindofmagneticattractionintotheHomericstyle
andmanneroftreatment,andbecamemereechoesoftheHomericvoice:in
aword,Homerhadsocompletelyexhaustedtheepicgenre,thatafterhim
furthereffortsweredoomedtobemerelyconventional.Onlytherare
andexceptionalgeniusofVergilandMiltoncouldusetheHomericmedium
withoutlossofindividuality:andthisqualitynoneofthelaterepic
poetsseemtohavepossessed.Freedomfromthedominationofthegreat
traditioncouldonlybefoundbyseekingnewsubjects,andsuchfreedom
wasreallyonlyillusionary,sinceromanticsubjectsalonearesuitable
forepictreatment.
Initsthirdperiod,therefore,epicpoetryshowstwodivergent
tendencies.InIoniaandtheislandstheepicpoetsfollowedtheHomeric
tradition,singingofromanticsubjectsinthenowstereotypedheroic
style,andshowingoriginalityonlyintheirchoiceoflegendshitherto
neglectedorsummarilyandimperfectlytreated.IncontinentalGreece
[1101],ontheotherhand,butespeciallyinBoeotia,anewformof
epicsprangup,whichfortheromanceandPATHOSoftheIonianSchool
substitutedthepracticalandmatteroffact.Itdealtinmoraland
practicalmaxims,ininformationontechnicalsubjectswhichare
ofserviceindailylifeagriculture,astronomy,augury,andthe
calendarinmattersofreligionandintracingthegenealogiesofmen.
ItsattitudeissummedupinthewordsoftheMusestothewriterofthe
"Theogony":`Wecantellmanyafeignedtaletolookliketruth,butwe
can,whenwewill,utterthetruth'("Theogony"2627).Suchapoetry
couldnotbepermanentlysuccessful,becausethesubjectsofwhichit
treatsifsusceptibleofpoetictreatmentatallwerecertainlynot
suitedforepictreatment,whereunityofactionwhichwillsustain
interest,andtowhicheachpartshouldcontribute,isabsolutely
necessary.While,therefore,anepiclikethe"Odyssey"isanorganism
anddramaticinstructure,aworksuchasthe"Theogony"isamerely
artificialcollocationoffacts,and,atbest,apageant.Itisnot
surprising,therefore,tofindthatfromthefirsttheBoeotianschool
isforcedtoseasonitsmatterwithromanticepisodes,andthatlater
ittendsmoreandmoretorevert(asinthe"ShieldofHeracles")tothe
Homerictradition.

TheBoeotianSchool
Howdidthecontinentalschoolofepicpoetryarise?Thereislittle
definitematerialforananswertothisquestion,buttheprobabilityis
thattherewereatleastthreecontributorycauses.First,itislikely
thatbeforetheriseoftheIonianeposthereexistedinBoeotiaa
purelypopularandindigenouspoetryofacrudeform:itcomprised,
wemaysuppose,versifiedproverbsandpreceptsrelatingtolifein
general,agriculturalmaxims,weatherlore,andthelike.Inthissense
theBoeotianpoetrymaybetakentohaveitsgerminmaximssimilarto
ourEnglish
'TillMaybeout,ne'ercastaclout,'
or
'Arainbowinthemorning
IstheShepherd'swarning.'
Secondlyandthirdlywemayascribetheriseofthenewepictothe
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natureoftheBoeotianpeopleand,asalreadyremarked,toaspiritof
revoltagainsttheoldepic.TheBoeotians,peopleoftheclassofwhich
Hesiodrepresentshimselftobethetype,wereessentiallyunromantic;
theirdailyneedsmarkedthegenerallimitoftheirideals,and,asa
class,theycaredlittleforworksoffancy,forpathos,orforfine
thoughtassuch.ToapeopleofthisnaturetheHomericeposwould
beinacceptable,andthepostHomericepic,withitsconventional
atmosphere,itstriteandhackneyeddiction,anditsinsincere
sentiment,wouldbeanathema.Wecanimagine,therefore,thatamong
suchfolkasettler,ofAeolicoriginlikeHesiod,whoclearlywas
wellacquaintedwiththeIonianepos,wouldnaturallyseethatthe
onlyoutletforhisgiftslayinapplyingepicpoetrytonewthemes
acceptabletohishearers.
ThoughthepoemsoftheBoeotianschool[1102]wereunanimouslyassigned
toHesioddowntotheageofAlexandriancriticism,theywereclearly
neithertheworkofonemannorevenofoneperiod:some,doubtless,
werefraudulentlyfatheredonhiminordertogaincurrency;butitis
probablethatmostcametoberegardedashispartlybecauseoftheir
generalcharacter,andpartlybecausethenamesoftheirrealauthors
werelost.Onefactinthisattributionisremarkabletheveneration
paidtoHesiod.
LifeofHesiod
OurinformationrespectingHesiodisderivedinthemainfromnotices
andallusionsintheworksattributedtohim,andtothesemustbeadded
traditionsconcerninghisdeathandburialgatheredfromlaterwriters.
Hesiod'sfather(whosename,byaperversionof"WorksandDays",299
PERSEDIONGENOStoPERSE,DIONGENOS,wasthoughttohavebeenDius)
wasanativeofCymeinAeolis,wherehewasaseafaringtraderand,
perhaps,alsoafarmer.Hewasforcedbypovertytoleavehisnative
place,andreturnedtocontinentalGreece,wherehesettledatAscra
nearThespiaeinBoeotia("WorksandDays",636ff.).EitherinCymeor
Ascra,twosons,HesiodandPerses,wereborntothesettler,andthese,
afterhisdeath,dividedthefarmbetweenthem.Perses,however,whois
representedasanidlerandspendthrift,obtainedandkeptthelarger
sharebybribingthecorrupt'lords'whoruledfromThespiae("Works
andDays",3739).Whilehisbrotherwastedhispatrimonyandultimately
cametowant("WorksandDays",34ff.),Hesiodlivedafarmer'slife
until,accordingtotheveryearlytraditionpreservedbytheauthorof
the"Theogony"(2223),theMusesmethimashewastendingsheepon
Mt.Heliconand'taughthimaglorioussong'doubtlessthe"Worksand
Days".Theonlyotherpersonalreferenceistohisvictoryinapoetical
contestatthefuneralgamesofAmphidamasatChalcisinEuboea,where
hewontheprize,atripod,whichhededicatedtotheMusesofHelicon
("WorksandDays",6519).
BeforewegoontothestoryofHesiod'sdeath,itwillbewellto
inquirehowfarthe"autobiographical"noticescanbetreatedas
historical,especiallyasmanycriticstreatsome,orallofthem,
asspurious.Inthefirstplaceattemptshavebeenmadetoshowthat
"Hesiod"isasignificantnameandthereforefictitious:itisonly
necessarytomentionGoettling'sderivationfromIEMItoODOS(which
wouldmake'Hesiod'meanthe'guide'invirtuesandtechnicalarts),
andtorefertothepitifulattemptsinthe"EtymologicumMagnum"(s.v.
{H}ESIODUS),toshowhowprejudicedandlackingeveninplausibility
sucheffortsare.Itseemscertainthat'Hesiod'standsasapropername
inthefullestsense.Secondly,Hesiodclaimsthathisfatherifnot
hehimselfcamefromAeolisandsettledinBoeotia.Thereisfairly
definiteevidencetowarrantouracceptanceofthis:thedialectofthe
"WorksandDays"isshownbyRzach[1103]tocontaindistinctAeolisms
apartfromthosewhichformedpartofthegeneralstockofepicpoetry.
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AndthatthisAeolicspeakingpoetwasaBoeotianofAscraseemseven
morecertain,sincethetraditionisneveroncedisputed,insignificant
thoughtheplacewas,evenbeforeitsdestructionbytheThespians.
Again,Hesiod'sstoryofhisrelationswithhisbrotherPerseshavebeen
treatedwithscepticism(seeMurray,"Anc.Gk.Literature",pp.5354):
Perses,itisurged,isclearlyameredummy,setuptobethetarget
forthepoet'sexhortations.Onsuchamatterpreciseevidenceis
naturallynotforthcoming;butallprobabilityisagainstthesceptical
view.For1)ifthequarrelbetweenthebrotherswereafiction,we
shouldexpectittobedetailedatlengthandnotnoticedallusivelyand
ratherobscurelyaswefindit;2)asMM.Croisetremark,ifthe
poetneededalayfiguretheordinarypracticewastointroducesome
mythologicalpersonas,infact,isdoneinthe"PreceptsofChiron".
Inaword,thereisnomoresolidgroundfortreatingPersesandhis
quarrelwithHesiodasfictitiousthantherewouldbefortreating
Cyrnus,thefriendofTheognis,asmythical.
Thirdly,thereisthepassageinthe"Theogony"relatingtoHesiodand
theMuses.Itissurelyanerrortosupposethatlines2235allrefer
toHesiod:rather,theauthorofthe"Theogony"tellsthestoryofhis
owninspirationbythesameMuseswhooncetaughtHesiodglorioussong.
Thelines223arethereforeaveryearlypieceoftraditionabout
Hesiod,andthoughtheappearanceofMusesmustbetreatedasagraceful
fiction,wefindthatawriter,laterthanthe"WorksandDays"by
perhapsnomorethanthreequartersofacentury,believedinthe
actualityofHesiodandinhislifeasafarmerorshepherd.
Lastly,thereisthefamousstoryofthecontestinsongatChalcis.In
latertimesthemodestversioninthe"WorksandDays"waselaborated,
firstbymakingHomertheopponentwhomHesiodconquered,whilealater
periodexerciseditsingenuityinworkingupthestoryofthecontest
intotheelaborateforminwhichitstillsurvives.Finallythecontest,
inwhichthetwopoetscontendedwithhymnstoApollo[1104],
wastransferredtoDelos.Thesedevelopmentscertainlyneedno
consideration:arewetosaythesameofthepassageinthe"Worksand
Days"?CriticsfromPlutarchdownwardshavealmostunanimouslyrejected
thelines654662,onthegroundthatHesiod'sAmphidamasisthehero
oftheLelantineWarsbetweenChalcisandEretria,whosedeathmaybe
placedcirca705B.C.adatewhichisobviouslytoolowforthe
genuineHesiod.Nevertheless,thereismuchtobesaidindefenceof
thepassage.Hesiod'sclaiminthe"WorksandDays"ismodest,since
heneitherpretendstohavemetHomer,nortohavesunginanybutan
impromptu,localfestival,sothatthesupposedinterpolationlacks
asufficientmotive.Andthereisnothinginthecontexttoshowthat
Hesiod'sAmphidamasistobeidentifiedwiththatAmphidamaswhom
PlutarchaloneconnectswiththeLelantineWar:thenamemayhavebeen
bornebyanearlierChalcidian,anancestor,perhaps,ofthepersonto
whomPlutarchrefers.
ThestoryoftheendofHesiodmaybetoldinoutline.Afterthecontest
atChalcis,HesiodwenttoDelphiandtherewaswarnedthatthe'issue
ofdeathshouldovertakehiminthefairgroveofNemeanZeus.'Avoiding
thereforeNemeaontheIsthmusofCorinth,towhichhesupposed
theoracletorefer,HesiodretiredtoOenoeinLocriswherehewas
entertainedbyAmphiphanesandGanyetor,sonsofacertainPhegeus.This
place,however,wasalsosacredtoNemeanZeus,andthepoet,suspected
byhishostsofhavingseducedtheirsister[1105],wasmurderedthere.
Hisbody,castintothesea,wasbroughttoshorebydolphinsandburied
atOenoe(or,accordingtoPlutarch,atAscra):atalatertimehis
boneswereremovedtoOrchomenus.Thewholestoryisfullofmiraculous
elements,andthevariousauthoritiesdisagreeonnumerouspointsof
detail.Thetraditionseems,however,tobeconstantindeclaringthat
HesiodwasmurderedandburiedatOenoe,andinthisrespectitisat
leastasoldasthetimeofThucydides.Inconclusionitmaybeworth
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whiletoaddthegracefulepigramofAlcaeusofMessene("Palatine
Anthology",vii55).
"WhenintheshadyLocriangroveHesiodlaydead,theNymphs
washedhisbodywithwaterfromtheirownsprings,and
heapedhighhisgrave;andthereonthegoatherdssprinkled
offeringsofmilkmingledwithyellowhoney:suchwasthe
utteranceofthenineMusesthathebreathedforth,thatold
manwhohadtastedoftheirpuresprings."

TheHesiodicPoems
TheHesiodicpoemsfallintotwogroupsaccordingastheyaredidactic
(technicalorgnomic)orgenealogical:thefirstgroupcentresroundthe
"WorksandDays",thesecondroundthe"Theogony".

I."TheWorksandDays":
Thepoemconsistsoffourmainsections.a)Aftertheprelude,which
Pausaniasfailedtofindintheancientcopyengravedonleadseenby
himonMt.Helicon,comesageneralexhortationtoindustry.Itbegins
withtheallegoryofthetwoStrifes,whostandforwholesomeEmulation
andQuarrelsomenessrespectively.ThenbymeansoftheMythofPandora
thepoetshowshowevilandtheneedforworkfirstarose,andgoeson
todescribetheFiveAgesoftheWorld,tracingthegradualincreasein
evil,andemphasizingthepresentmiserableconditionoftheworld,a
conditioninwhichstruggleisinevitable.Next,aftertheFableofthe
HawkandNightingale,whichservesasacondemnationofviolence
andinjustice,thepoetpassesontocontrasttheblessingwhich
Righteousnessbringstoanation,andthepunishmentwhichHeaven
sendsdownupontheviolent,andthesectionconcludeswithaseries
ofpreceptsonindustryandprudentconductgenerally.b)Thesecond
sectionshowshowamanmayescapewantandmiserybyindustryandcare
bothinagricultureandintradingbysea.Neithersubject,itshould
becarefullynoted,istreatedinanywaycomprehensively.c)Thethird
partisoccupiedwithmiscellaneouspreceptsrelatingmostlytoactions
ofdomesticandeverydaylifeandconductwhichhavelittleorno
connectionwithoneanother.d)Thefinalsectionistakenupwith
aseriesofnoticesonthedaysofthemonthwhicharefavourableor
unfavourableforagriculturalandotheroperations.
Itisfromthesecondandfourthsectionsthatthepoemtakesitsname.
Atfirstsightsuchaworkseemstobeamiscellanyofmyths,technical
advice,moralprecepts,andfolkloremaximswithoutanyunifying
principle;andcriticshavereadilytakentheviewthatthewholeisa
cantooffragmentsorshortpoemsworkedupbyaredactor.Veryprobably
Hesiodusedmuchmaterialofafarolderdate,justasShakespeare
usedthe"GestaRomanorum",oldchronicles,andoldplays;butclose
inspectionwillshowthatthe"WorksandDays"hasarealunityandthat
thepicturesquetitleissomewhatmisleading.Thepoemhasproperlyno
technicalobjectatall,butismoral:itsrealaimistoshowmen
howbesttoliveinadifficultworld.Soviewedthefourseemingly
independentsectionswillbefoundtobelinkedtogetherinarealbond
ofunity.Suchaconnectionbetweenthefirstandsecondsectionsis
easilyseen,butthelinksbetweentheseandthethirdandfourthareno
lessreal:tomakelifegotolerablysmoothlyitismostimportantto
bejustandtoknowhowtowinalivelihood;buthappinessalsolargely
dependsonprudenceandcarebothinsocialandhomelifeaswell,and
notleastonavoidanceofactionswhichoffendsupernaturalpowersand
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bringillluck.Andfinally,ifyourindustryistobefruitful,you
mustknowwhatdaysaresuitableforvariouskindsofwork.This
moralaimasopposedtothecurrentlyacceptedtechnicalaimofthe
poemexplainstheotherwisepuzzlingincompletenessoftheinstructions
onfarmingandseafaring.
OftheHesiodicpoemssimilarincharactertothe"WorksandDays",only
thescantiestfragmentssurvive.Oneatleastofthese,the"Divination
byBirds",was,asweknowfromProclus,attachedtotheendofthe
"Works"untilitwasrejectedbyApolloniusRhodius:doubtlessit
continuedthesamethemeofhowtolive,showinghowmancanavoid
disastersbyattendingtotheomenstobedrawnfrombirds.Itis
possiblethatthe"Astronomy"or"Astrology"(asPlutarchcallsit)was
inturnappendedtothe"Divination".Itcertainlygavesomeaccountof
theprincipalconstellations,theirdatesofrisingandsetting,andthe
legendsconnectedwiththem,andprobablyshowedhowtheseinfluenced
humanaffairsormightbeusedasguides.The"PreceptsofChiron"was
adidacticpoemmadeupofmoralandpracticalprecepts,resemblingthe
gnomicsectionsofthe"WorksandDays",addressedbytheCentaurChiron
tohispupilAchilles.
Evenlessisknownofthepoemcalledthe"GreatWorks":thetitle
impliesthatitwassimilarinsubjecttothesecondsectionofthe
"WorksandDays",butlonger.PossiblereferencesinRomanwriters
[1106]indicatethatamongthesubjectsdealtwithwerethecultivation
ofthevineandoliveandvariousherbs.Theinclusionofthejudgment
ofRhadamanthys(frag.1):'Ifamansowevil,heshallreapevil,'
indicatesagnomicelement,andthenotebyProclus[1107]on"Works
andDays"126makesitlikelythatmetalsalsoweredealtwith.Itis
thereforepossiblethatanotherlostpoem,the"IdaeanDactyls",which
dealtwiththediscoveryofmetalsandtheirworking,wasappendedto,
orevenwasapartofthe"GreatWorks",justasthe"Divinationby
Birds"wasappendedtothe"WorksandDays".

II.TheGenealogicalPoems:
Theonlycompletepoemofthegenealogicalgroupisthe"Theogony",
whichtracesfromthebeginningofthingsthedescentandvicissitudes
ofthefamiliesofthegods.Likethe"WorksandDays"thispoemhasno
dramaticplot;butitsunifyingprincipleisclearandsimple.Thegods
areclassifiedchronologically:assoonasonegenerationiscatalogued,
thepoetgoesontodetailtheoffspringofeachmemberofthat
generation.Exceptionsareonlymadeinspecialcases,astheSonsof
Iapetus(ll.507616)whoseplaceisaccountedforbytheirtreatment
byZeus.Thechieflandmarksinthepoemareasfollows:afterthe
first103lines,whichcontainatleastthreedistinctpreludes,
threeprimevalbeingsareintroduced,Chaos,Earth,andErosherean
indefinitereproductiveinfluence.Ofthesethree,Earthproduces
HeaventowhomshebearstheTitans,theCyclopesandthehundredhanded
giants.TheTitans,oppressedbytheirfather,revoltattheinstigation
ofEarth,undertheleadershipofCronos,andasaresultHeavenand
Earthareseparated,andCronosreignsovertheuniverse.Cronosknowing
thatheisdestinedtobeovercomebyoneofhischildren,swallowseach
oneofthemastheyareborn,untilZeus,savedbyRhea,growsupand
overcomesCronosinsomestrugglewhichisnotdescribed.Cronosis
forcedtovomitupthechildrenhehadswallowed,andthesewithZeus
dividetheuniversebetweenthem,likeahumanestate.Twoeventsmark
theearlyreignofZeus,thewarwiththeTitansandtheoverthrowof
Typhoeus,andasZeusisstillreigningthepoetcanonlygoontogive
alistofgodsborntoZeusbyvariousgoddesses.Afterthisheformally
bidsfarewelltothecosmicandOlympiandeitiesandenumeratesthesons
bornofgoddesstomortals.Thepoemcloseswithaninvocationofthe
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Musestosingofthe'tribeofwomen'.
Thisconclusionservedtolinkthe"Theogony"towhatmusthavebeen
adistinctpoem,the"CataloguesofWomen".Thisworkwasdividedinto
four(Suidassaysfive)books,thelastone(ortwo)ofwhichwasknown
asthe"Eoiae"andmayhavebeenagainadistinctpoem:thecurious
titlewillbeexplainedpresently.The"Catalogues"properwereaseries
ofgenealogieswhichtracedtheHellenicrace(oritsmoreimportant
peoplesandfamilies)fromacommonancestor.Thereasonwhywomenare
soprominentisobvious:sincemostfamiliesandtribesclaimedtobe
descendedfromagod,theonlysafecluetotheiroriginwasthrougha
mortalwomanbelovedbythatgod;andithasalsobeenpointedoutthat
'mutterrecht'stillleftitstracesinnorthernGreeceinhistorical
times.
Thefollowinganalysis(afterMarckscheffel)[1108]willshowthe
principleofitscomposition.FromPrometheusandPronoiasprang
DeucalionandPyrrha,theonlysurvivorsofthedeluge,whohadason
Hellen(frag.1),thereputedancestorofthewholeHellenicrace.From
thedaughtersofDeucalionsprangMagnesandMacedon,ancestorsofthe
MagnesiansandMacedonians,whoarethusrepresentedascousinstothe
trueHellenicstock.Hellenhadthreesons,Dorus,Xuthus,andAeolus,
parentsoftheDorian,IonicandAeolianraces,andtheoffspring
ofthesewasthendetailed.Inoneinstanceaconsiderableand
characteristicsectioncanbetracedfromextantfragmentsandnotices:
Salmoneus,sonofAeolus,hadadaughterTyrowhoboretoPoseidontwo
sons,PeliasandNeleus;thelatterofthese,kingofPylos,refused
HeraclespurificationforthemurderofIphitus,whereuponHeracles
attackedandsackedPylos,killingamongsttheothersonsofNeleus
Periclymenus,whohadthepowerofchanginghimselfintoallmannerof
shapes.FromthisslaughterNeleusaloneescaped(frags.13,and
1012).Thissummaryshowsthegeneralprincipleofarrangementofthe
"Catalogues":eachlineseemstohavebeendealtwithinturn,andthe
monotonywasrelievedasfaraspossiblebyabriefrelationoffamous
adventuresconnectedwithanyofthepersonagesasinthecaseof
AtalantaandHippomenes(frag.14).SimilarlythestoryoftheArgonauts
appearsfromthefragments(3742)tohavebeentoldinsomedetail.
Thistendencytointroduceromanticepisodesledtoanimportant
development.SeveralpoemsareascribedtoHesiod,suchasthe
"EpithalamiumofPeleusandThetis",the"DescentofTheseusinto
Hades",orthe"CircuitoftheEarth"(whichmusthavebeen
connectedwiththestoryofPhineusandtheHarpies,andsowiththe
Argonautlegend),whichyetseemtohavebelongedtothe"Catalogues".
Itishighlyprobablethatthesepoemswereinterpolationsintothe
"Catalogues"expandedbylaterpoetsfrommoresummarynoticesinthe
genuineHesiodicworkandsubsequentlydetachedfromtheircontexts
andtreatedasindependent.Thisisdefinitelyknowntobetrueofthe
"ShieldofHeracles",thefirst53linesofwhichbelongtothe
fourthbookofthe"Catalogues",andalmostcertainlyappliestoother
episodes,suchasthe"SuitorsofHelen"[1109],the"Daughtersof
Leucippus",andthe"MarriageofCeyx",whichlastPlutarchmentionsas
'interpolatedintheworksofHesiod.'
Tothe"Catalogues",aswehavesaid,wasappendedanotherwork,the
"Eoiae".Thetitleseemstohaveariseninthefollowingway[1110]:
the"Catalogues"probablyended(ep."Theogony"963ff.)withsomesuch
passageasthis:'Butnow,yeMuses,singofthetribesofwomenwith
whomtheSonsofHeavenwerejoinedinlove,womenpreeminentabove
theirfellowsinbeauty,suchaswasNiobe(?).'Eachsucceedingheroine
wasthenintroducedbytheformula'Orsuchaswas...'(cp.frags.88,
92,etc.).Alargefragmentofthe"Eoiae"isextantatthebeginningof
the"ShieldofHeracles",whichmaybementionedhere.The"supplement"
(ll.57480)isnominallyHeraclesandCycnus,butthegreaterpart
istakenupwithaninferiordescriptionoftheshieldofHeracles,in
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imitationoftheHomericshieldofAchilles("Iliad"xviii.478ff.).
Nothingshowsmoreclearlythecollapseoftheprinciplesofthe
HesiodicschoolthanthisultimateserviledependenceuponHomeric
models.
Atthecloseofthe"Shield"HeraclesgoesontoTrachistothehouse
ofCeyx,andthiswarningsuggeststhatthe"MarriageofCeyx"mayhave
comeimmediatelyafterthe'Orsuchaswas'ofAlcmenainthe"Eoiae":
possiblyHalcyone,thewifeofCeyx,wasoneoftheheroinessungin
thepoem,andtheoriginalsectionwas'developed'intothe"Marriage",
althoughwhatformthepoemtookisunknown.
Nexttothe"Eoiae"andthepoemswhichseemedtohavebeendeveloped
fromit,itisnaturaltoplacethe"GreatEoiae".This,again,aswe
knowfromfragments,wasalistofheroineswhobarechildrentothe
gods:fromthetitlewemustsupposeittohavebeenmuchlongerthat
thesimple"Eoiae",butitsextentisunknown.Lehmann,remarkingthat
theheroinesareallBoeotianandThessalian(whiletheheroinesof
the"Catalogues"belongtoallpartsoftheGreekworld),believesthe
authortohavebeeneitheraBoeotianorThessalian.
TwootherpoemsareascribedtoHesiod.Ofthesethe"Aegimius"(also
ascribedbyAthenaeustoCercopsofMiletus),isthoughtbyValckenaer
todealwiththewarofAegimusagainsttheLapithaeandtheaid
furnishedtohimbyHeracles,andwiththehistoryofAegimiusand
hissons.OttoMullersuggeststhattheintroductionofThetisandof
Phrixus(frags.12)istobeconnectedwithnoticesofthealliesof
theLapithaefromPhthiotisandIolchus,andthatthestoryofIowas
incidentaltoanarrativeofHeracles'expeditionagainstEuboea.The
remainingpoem,the"Melampodia",wasaworkinthreebooks,whoseplan
itisimpossibletorecover.Itssubject,however,seemstohavebeen
thehistoriesoffamousseerslikeMopsus,Calchas,andTeiresias,and
itprobablytookitsnamefromMelampus,themostfamousofthemall.

DateoftheHesiodicPoems
Thereisnodoubtthatthe"WorksandDays"istheoldest,asitisthe
mostoriginal,oftheHesiodicpoems.Itseemstobedistinctlyearlier
thanthe"Theogony",whichreferstoit,apparently,asapoemalready
renowned.Twoconsiderationshelpustofixarelativedateforthe
"Works".1)Indiction,dialectandstyleitisobviouslydependent
uponHomer,andisthereforeconsiderablylaterthanthe"Iliad"and
"Odyssey":moreover,aswehaveseen,itisinrevoltagainstthe
romanticschool,alreadygrowndecadent,andwhilethedigammaisstill
living,itisobviouslygrowingweak,andisbynomeansuniformly
effective.
2)OntheotherhandwhiletraditionsteadilyputstheCyclicpoets
atvariousdatesfrom776B.C.downwards,itisequallyconsistentin
regardingHomerandHesiodas'prehistoric'.Herodotusindeedputsboth
poets400yearsbeforehisowntime;thatis,atabout830820B.C.,and
theevidencestatedabovepointstothemiddleoftheninthcentury
astheprobabledateforthe"WorksandDays".The"Theogony"mightbe
tentativelyplacedacenturylater;andthe"Catalogues"and"Eoiae"are
againlater,butnotgreatlylater,thanthe"Theogony":the"Shieldof
Heracles"maybeascribedtothelaterhalfoftheseventhcentury,but
thereisnotevidenceenoughtoshowwhethertheother'developed'poems
aretoberegardedasofadatesolowasthis.

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LiteraryValueofHomer
Quintillian's[1111]judgmentonHesiodthat'herarelyrisestogreat
heights...andtohimisgiventhepalminthemiddleclassofspeech'
isjust,butisliabletogiveawrongimpression.Hesiodhasnothing
thatremotelyapproachessuchscenesasthatbetweenPriamandAchilles,
orthepathosofAndromache'spreparationsforHector'sreturn,evenas
hewasfallingbeforethewallsofTroy;butinmattersthatcome
withintherangeofordinaryexperience,herarelyfailstorisetothe
appropriatelevel.Take,forinstance,thedescriptionoftheIron
Age("WorksandDays",182ff.)withitscatalogueofwrongdoingsand
violenceeverincreasinguntilAidosandNemesisareforcedtoleave
mankindwhothenceforwardshallhave'noremedyagainstevil'.Such
occasions,however,rarelyoccurandareperhapsnotcharacteristicof
Hesiod'sgenius:ifwewouldseeHesiodathisbest,inhismostnatural
vein,wemustturntosuchapassageasthatwhichhehimselfaccording
tothecompilerofthe"ContestofHesiodandHomer"selectedasbest
inallhiswork,'WhenthePleiades,Atlas'daughters,begintorise...'
("WorksandDays,"383ff.).Thevalueofsuchapassagecannotbe
analysed:itcanonlybesaidthatgivensuchasubject,thisaloneis
therightmethodoftreatment.
Hesiod'sdictionisinthemainHomeric,butoneofhischarmsisthe
useofquaintallusivephrasesderived,perhaps,fromapreHesiodic
peasantpoetry:thustheseasonwhenBoreasblowsisthetimewhen'the
BonelessOnegnawshisfootbyhisfirelesshearthinhischeerless
house';tocutone'snailsis'toseverthewitheredfromthequick
uponthatwhichhasfivebranches';similarlytheburglaristhe
'daysleeper',andtheserpentisthe'hairlessone'.Verysimilaris
hisreferencetoseasonsthroughwhathappensorisdoneinthatseason:
'whentheHousecarrier,fleeingthePleiades,climbsuptheplantsfrom
theearth',istheseasonforharvesting;or'whentheartichokeflowers
andtheclickinggrasshopper,seatedinatree,poursdownhisshrill
song',isthetimeforrest.
Hesiod'scharmliesinhischildlikeandsincerenaivete,inhis
unaffectedinterestinandpicturesqueviewofnatureandallthat
happensinnature.Thesequalities,itistrue,arethosepreeminently
ofthe"WorksandDays":theliteraryvaluesofthe"Theogony"areofa
moretechnicalcharacter,skillinorderinganddisposinglonglistsof
names,surejudgmentinseasoningamonotonoussubjectwithmarvellous
incidentsorepisodes,andnomeanimaginationindepictingtheawful,
asisshowninthedescriptionofTartarus(ll.736745).Yetitremains
truethatHesiod'sdistinctivetitletoahighplaceinGreekliterature
liesintheveryfactofhisfreedomfromclassicform,andhisgrave,
andyetchildlike,outlookuponhisworld.

TheIonicSchool
TheIonicSchoolofEpicpoetrywas,aswehaveseen,dominatedby
theHomerictradition,andwhilethestyleandmethodoftreatmentare
Homeric,itisnaturalthattheIonicpoetsrefrainedfromcultivating
thegroundtilledbyHomer,andchosefortreatmentlegendswhichlay
beyondtherangeofthe"Iliad"and"Odyssey".Equallynaturalitis
thattheyshouldhaveparticularlyselectedvariousphasesofthe
taleofTroywhichprecededorfollowedtheactionofthe"Iliad"or
"Odyssey".Inthisway,withoutanypreconceivedintention,abodyof
epicpoetrywasbuiltupbyvariouswriterswhichcoveredthewhole
Trojanstory.Buttheentirerangeofheroiclegendwasopentothese
poets,andotherclustersofepicsgrewupdealingparticularlywiththe
famousstoryofThebes,whileothersdealtwiththebeginningsofthe
worldandthewarsofheaven.Intheendthereexistedakindofepic
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historyoftheworld,asknowntotheGreeks,downtothedeathof
Odysseus,whentheheroicageended.IntheAlexandrianAgethese
poemswerearrangedinchronologicalorder,apparentlybyZenodotusof
Ephesus,atthebeginningofthe3rdcenturyB.C.Atalatertimethe
term"Cycle",'round'or'course',wasgiventothiscollection.
Ofallthismassofepicpoetryonlythescantiestfragmentssurvive;
buthappilyPhotiushaspreservedtousanabridgmentofthesynopsis
madeofeachpoemofthe"TrojanCycle"byProclus,i.e.Eutychius
ProclusofSicca.
ThepreTrojanpoemsoftheCyclemaybenoticedfirst.The
"Titanomachy",ascribedbothtoEumelusofCorinthandtoArctinusof
Miletus,beganwithakindofTheogonywhichtoldoftheunionofHeaven
andEarthandoftheiroffspringtheCyclopesandtheHundredhanded
Giants.Howthepoemproceededwehavenomeansofknowing,butwemay
supposethatincharacteritwasnotunliketheshortaccountofthe
TitanWarfoundintheHesiodic"Theogony"(617ff.).
Whatlinksboundthe"Titanomachy"totheThebenCycleisnotclear.
Thislattergroupwasformedofthreepoems,the"StoryofOedipus",the
"Thebais",andthe"Epigoni".Ofthe"Oedipodea"practicallynothingis
known,thoughontheassuranceofAthenaeus(vii.277E)thatSophocles
followedtheEpicCyclecloselyintheplotsofhisplays,wemay
supposethatinoutlinethestorycorrespondedcloselytothehistoryof
Oedipusasitisfoundinthe"OedipusTyrannus".The"Thebais"seems
tohavebegunwiththeoriginofthefatalquarrelbetweenEteoclesand
Polyneicesinthecursecalleddownuponthembytheirfatherinhis
misery.Thestorywasthencecarrieddowntotheendoftheexpedition
underPolyneices,AdrastusandAmphiarusagainstThebes.The"Epigoni"
(ascribedtoAntimachusofTeos)recountedtheexpeditionofthe
'AfterBorn'againstThebes,andthesackofthecity.

TheTrojanCycle
Sixepicswiththe"Iliad"andthe"Odyssey"madeuptheTrojan
CycleThe"CyprianLays",the"Iliad",the"Aethiopis",the"Little
Iliad",the"SackofTroy",the"Returns",the"Odyssey",andthe
"Telegony".
IthasbeenassumedintheforegoingpagesthatthepoemsoftheTrojan
CyclearelaterthantheHomericpoems;but,astheoppositeview
hasbeenheld,thereasonsforthisassumptionmustnowbegiven.1)
TraditionputsHomerandtheHomericpoemsproperbackintheages
beforechronologicalhistorybegan,andatthesametimeassignsthe
purelyCyclicpoemstodefiniteauthorswhoaredatedfromthe
firstOlympiad(776B.C.)downwards.Thistraditioncannotbepurely
arbitrary.2)TheCyclicpoets(aswecanseefromtheabstractof
Proclus)werecarefulnottotrespassupongroundalreadyoccupiedby
Homer.Thus,whenwefindthatinthe"Returns"alltheprominentGreek
heroesexceptOdysseusareaccountedfor,weareforcedtobelievethat
theauthorofthispoemknewthe"Odyssey"andjudgeditunnecessaryto
dealinfullwiththathero'sadventures.[1112]Inaword,theCyclic
poemsare'writtenround'the"Iliad"andthe"Odyssey".3)Thegeneral
structureoftheseepicsisclearlyimitative.AsM.M.Croisetremark,
theabusiveThersitesinthe"Aethiopis"isclearlycopiedfromthe
Thersitesofthe"Iliad";inthesamepoemAntilochus,slainbyMemnon
andavengedbyAchilles,isobviouslymodelledonPatroclus.4)The
geographicalknowledgeofapoemlikethe"Returns"isfarwiderand
moreprecisethanthatofthe"Odyssey".5)Moreover,intheCyclic
poemsepicisclearlydegeneratingmorallyiftheexpressionmaybe
used.Thechiefgreatnessofthe"Iliad"isinthecharacterofthe
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heroesAchillesandHectorratherthanintheactualeventswhichtake
place:intheCyclicwritersfactsratherthancharacteraretheobjects
ofinterest,andeventsaresopackedtogetherastoleavenospacefor
anyexhibitionoftheplayofmoralforces.Allthesereasonsjustify
theviewthatthepoemswithwhichwenowhavetodealwerelaterthan
the"Iliad"and"Odyssey",andifwemustrecognizethepossibilityof
someconventionalityinthereceiveddating,wemayfeelconfidentthat
itisatleastapproximatelyjust.
TheearliestofthepostHomericepicsofTroyareapparentlythe
"Aethiopis"andthe"SackofIlium",bothascribedtoArctinusof
MiletuswhoissaidtohaveflourishedinthefirstOlympiad(776B.C.).
HesethimselftofinishthetaleofTroy,which,sofaraseventswere
concerned,hadbeenlefthalftoldbyHomer,bytracingthecourseof
eventsafterthecloseofthe"Iliad".The"Aethiopis"thusincludedthe
comingoftheAmazonPenthesileatohelptheTrojansafterthefallof
Hectorandherdeath,thesimilararrivalandfalloftheAethiopian
Memnon,thedeathofAchillesunderthearrowofParis,andthedispute
betweenOdysseusandAiasforthearmsofAchilles.The"SackofIlium"
[1113]asanalysedbyProcluswasverysimilartoVergil'sversionin
"Aeneid"ii,comprisingtheepisodesofthewoodenhorse,ofLaocoon,of
Sinon,thereturnoftheAchaeansfromTenedos,theactualSackofTroy,
thedivisionofspoilsandtheburningofthecity.
LeschesorLescheos(asPausaniascallshim)ofPyrrhaorMityleneis
datedatabout660B.C.Inhis"LittleIliad"heundertooktoelaborate
the"Sack"asrelatedbyArctinus.Hisworkincludedtheadjudgmentof
thearmsofAchillestoOdysseus,themadnessofAias,thebringing
ofPhiloctetesfromLemnosandhiscure,thecomingtothewarof
NeoptolemuswhoslaysEurypylus,sonofTelephus,themakingofthe
woodenhorse,thespyingofOdysseusandhistheft,alongwithDiomedes,
ofthePalladium:theanalysisconcludeswiththeadmissionofthe
woodenhorseintoTroybytheTrojans.Itisknown,however(Aristotle,
"Poetics",xxiii;Pausanias,x,2527),thatthe"LittleIliad"also
containedadescriptionofthesackofTroy.Itisprobablethatthis
andothersuperfluousincidentsdisappearedaftertheAlexandrian
arrangementofthepoemsintheCycle,eitherastheresultofsome
laterrecension,ormerelythroughdisuse.OrProclusmayhavethought
itunnecessarytogivetheaccountsbyLeschesandArctinusofthesame
incident.
The"CyprianLays",ascribedtoStasinusofCyprus[1114](butalsoto
HegesinusofSalamis)wasdesignedtodofortheeventsprecedingthe
actionofthe"Iliad"whatArctinushaddoneforthelaterphasesofthe
TrojanWar.The"Cypria"beginswiththefirstcausesofthewar,the
purposeofZeustorelievetheoverburdenedearth,theappleof
discord,therapeofHelen.Thenfollowtheincidentsconnectedwiththe
gatheringoftheAchaeansandtheirultimatelandinginTroy;andthe
storyofthewarisdetaileduptothequarrelbetweenAchillesand
Agamemnonwithwhichthe"Iliad"begins.
Thesefourpoemsroundedoffthestoryofthe"Iliad",anditonly
remainedtoconnectthisenlargedversionwiththe"Odyssey".Thiswas
donebymeansofthe"Returns",apoeminfivebooksascribedtoAgias
orHegiasofTroezen,whichbeginswherethe"SackofTroy"ends.It
toldofthedisputebetweenAgamemnonandMenelaus,thedeparturefrom
TroyofMenelaus,thefortunesofthelesserheroes,thereturnand
tragicdeathofAgamemnon,andthevengeanceofOrestesonAegisthus.
ThestoryendswiththereturnhomeofMenelaus,whichbringsthe
generalnarrativeuptothebeginningofthe"Odyssey".
Butthe"Odyssey"itselfleftmuchuntold:what,forexample,happened
inIthacaaftertheslayingofthesuitors,andwhatwastheultimate
fateofOdysseus?Theanswertothesequestionswassuppliedbythe
"Telegony",apoemintwobooksbyEugammonofCyrene(fl.568B.C.).
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IttoldoftheadventuresofOdysseusinThesprotisafterthekilling
oftheSuitors,ofhisreturntoIthaca,andhisdeathatthehands
ofTelegonus,hissonbyCirce.Theepicendedbydisposingofthe
survivingpersonagesinadoublemarriage,TelemachusweddingCirce,and
TelegonusPenelope.
TheendoftheCyclemarksalsotheendoftheHeroicAge.

TheHomericHymns
ThecollectionofthirtythreeHymns,ascribedtoHomer,isthelast
considerableworkoftheEpicSchool,andseems,onthewhole,tobe
laterthantheCyclicpoems.Itcannotbedefinitelyassignedeither
totheIonianorContinentalschools,forwhiletheromanticelementis
verystrong,thereisadistinctgenealogicalinterest;andinmatters
ofdictionandstyletheinfluencesofbothHesiodandHomerare
wellmarked.Thedateoftheformationofthecollectionassuchis
unknown.DiodorusSiculus(temp.Augustus)isthefirsttomention
suchabodyofpoetry,anditislikelyenoughthatthisis,atleast
substantially,theonewhichhascomedowntous.Thucydidesquotesthe
Delian"HymntoApollo",anditispossiblethattheHomericcorpusof
hisdayalsocontainedotherofthemoreimportanthymns.Conceivably
thecollectionwasarrangedintheAlexandrineperiod.
Thucydides,inquotingthe"HymntoApollo",callsitPROOIMION,which
ordinarilymeansa'prelude'chantedbyarhapsodebeforerecitationof
alayfromHomer,andsuchhymnsasNos.vi,xxxi,xxxii,are
clearlypreludesinthestrictsense;inNo.xxxi,forexample,after
celebratingHelios,thepoetdeclareshewillnextsingofthe'raceof
mortalmen,thedemigods'.Butitmayfairlybedoubtedwhether
suchHymnsasthoseto"Demeter"(ii),"Apollo"(iii),"Hermes"(iv),
"Aphrodite"(v),canhavebeenrealpreludes,inspiteoftheclosing
formula'andnowIwillpassontoanotherhymn'.Theviewtakenby
AllenandSikes,amongstotherscholars,isdoubtlessright,that
theselongerhymnsareonlytechnicallypreludesandshowtowhat
disproportionatelengthsasimpleliteracyformcanbedeveloped.
TheHymnsto"Pan"(xix),to"Dionysus"(xxvi),to"HestiaandHermes"
(xxix),seemtohavebeendesignedforuseatdefinitereligious
festivals,apartfromrecitations.Withtheexceptionperhapsofthe
"HymntoAres"(viii),noiteminthecollectioncanberegardedas
eitherdevotionalorliturgical.
TheHymnisdoubtlessaveryancientform;butifnoexampleofextreme
antiquitysurvivethismustbeputdowntothefactthatuntiltheage
ofliteraryconsciousness,suchthingsarenotpreserved.
First,apparently,inthecollectionstoodthe"HymntoDionysus",of
whichonlytwofragmentsnowsurvive.Whileitappearstohavebeena
hymnofthelongertype[1115],wehavenoevidencetoshoweitherits
scopeordate.
The"HymntoDemeter",extantonlyintheMS.discoveredbyMatthiae
atMoscow,describestheseizureofPersephonebyHades,thegrief
ofDemeter,herstayatEleusis,andhervengeanceongodsandmenby
causingfamine.IntheendZeusisforcedtobringPersephonebackfrom
thelowerworld;butthegoddess,bythecontrivingofHades,still
remainspartlyadeityofthelowerworld.Inmemoryofhersorrows
DemeterestablishestheEleusinianmysteries(which,however,were
purelyagrarianinorigin).
Thishymn,asaliterarywork,isoneofthefinestinthecollection.
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ItissurelyAtticorEleusinianinorigin.Canweinanywayfixits
date?Firstly,itiscertainlynotlaterthanthebeginningofthesixth
century,foritmakesnomentionofIacchus,andtheDionysiac
elementwasintroducedatEleusisataboutthatperiod.Further,
theinsignificanceofTriptolemusandEumolpuspointtoconsiderable
antiquity,andthedigammaisstillactive.Alltheseconsiderations
pointtotheseventhcenturyastheprobabledateofthehymn.
The"HymntoApollo"consistsoftwoparts,whichbeyondanydoubtwere
originallydistinct,aDelianhymnandaPythianhymn.
TheDelianhymndescribeshowLeto,intravailwithApollo,soughtout
aplaceinwhichtobearherson,andhowApollo,borninDelos,atonce
claimedforhimselfthelyre,thebow,andprophecy.Thispartofthe
existinghymnendswithanencomiumoftheDelianfestivalofApolloand
oftheDelianchoirs.ThesecondpartcelebratesthefoundingofPytho
(Delphi)astheoracularseatofApollo.Aftervariouswanderingsthe
godcomestoTelphus,nearHaliartus,butisdissuadedbythenymphof
theplacefromsettlingthereandurgedtogoontoPythowhere,after
slayingtheshedragonwhonursedTyphaon,hebuildshistemple.After
thepunishmentofTelphusaforherdeceitingivinghimnowarningof
thedragonessatPytho,Apollo,intheformofadolphin,bringscertain
CretanshipmentoDelphitobehispriests;andthehymnendswitha
chargetothesementobehaveorderlyandrighteously.
TheDelianpartisexclusivelyIonianandinsularbothinstyleand
sympathy;DelosandnootherisApollo'schosenseat:butthesecond
partisasdefinitelycontinental;DelosisignoredandDelphialoneis
theimportantcentreofApollo'sworship.Fromthisitisclearthat
thetwopartsneednotbeofonedateThefirst,indeed,isascribed
(ScholiastonPindar"Nem".ii,2)toCynaethusofChios(fl.504B.C.),
adatewhichisobviouslyfartoolow;generalconsiderationspoint
rathertotheeighthcentury.Thesecondpartisnotlaterthan600
B.C.;for1)thechariotracesatPytho,whichcommencedin586B.C.,
areunknowntothewriterofthehymn,2)thetemplebuiltbyTrophonius
andAgamedesforApollo(ll.294299)seemstohavebeenstillstanding
whenthehymnwaswritten,andthistemplewasburnedin548.Wemayat
leastbesurethatthefirstpartisaChianwork,andthatthesecond
wascomposedbyacontinentalpoetfamiliarwithDelphi.
The"HymntoHermes"differsfromothersinitsburlesque,quasicomic
character,anditisalsothebestknownoftheHymnstoEnglishreaders
inconsequenceofShelley'stranslation.
AfterabriefnarrativeofthebirthofHermes,theauthorgoesonto
showhowhewonaplaceamongthegods.Firstthenewbornchildfounda
tortoiseandfromitsshellcontrivedthelyre;next,withmuchcunning
circumstance,hestoleApollo'scattleand,whenchargedwiththetheft
byApollo,forcedthatgodtoappearinundignifiedguisebeforethe
tribunalofZeus.Zeusseekstoreconcilethepair,andHermesby
thegiftofthelyrewinsApollo'sfriendshipandpurchasesvarious
prerogatives,ashareindivination,thelordshipofherdsandanimals,
andtheofficeofmessengerfromthegodstoHades.
TheHymnishardtodate.Hermes'lyrehassevenstringsandthe
inventionofthesevenstringedlyreisascribedtoTerpander(flor.
676B.C.).Thehymnmustthereforebelaterthanthatdate,though
Terpander,accordingtoWeirSmyth[1116],mayhaveonlymodifiedthe
scaleofthelyre;yetwhiletheburlesquecharacterprecludesanearly
date,thisfeatureisfarremoved,asAllenandSikesremark,fromthe
sillinessofthe"BattleoftheFrogsandMice",sothatadateinthe
earlierpartofthesixthcenturyismostprobable.
The"HymntoAphrodite"isnottheleastremarkable,fromaliterary
pointofview,ofthewholecollection,exhibitingasitdoesin
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amasterlymanneradivinebeingastheunwillingvictimofan
irresistibleforce.Ittellshowallcreatures,andeventhegods
themselves,aresubjecttothewillofAphrodite,savingonlyArtemis,
Athena,andHestia;howZeustohumbleherprideofpowercausedherto
loveamortal,Anchises;andhowthegoddessvisitedtheherouponMt.
Ida.AcomparisonofthisworkwiththeLayofDemodocus("Odyssey"
viii,266ff.),whichissuperficiallysimilar,willshowhowfar
superioristheformerinwhichthegoddessisbutavictimtoforces
strongerthanherself.Thelines(247255)inwhichAphroditetellsof
herhumiliationandgriefarespeciallynoteworthy.
Thereareonlygeneralindicationsofdate.TheinfluenceofHesiodis
clear,andthehymnhasalmostcertainlybeenusedbytheauthorofthe
"HymntoDemeter",sothatthedatemustliebetweenthesetwoperiods,
andtheseventhcenturyseemstobethelatestdatepossible.
The"HymntoDionysus"relateshowthegodwasseizedbypiratesandhow
withmanymanifestationsofpowerheavengedhimselfonthembyturning
themintodolphins.Thedateiswidelydisputed,forwhileLudwich
believesittobeaworkofthefourthorthirdcentury,AllenandSikes
considerasixthorseventhcenturydatetobepossible.Thestoryis
figuredinadifferentformonthereliefsfromthechoragicmonumentof
Lysicrates,nowintheBritishMuseum[1117].
Verydifferentincharacteristhe"HymntoAres",whichisOrphic
incharacter.Thewriter,afterlaudingthegodbydetailinghis
attributes,praystobedeliveredfromfeeblenessandweaknessofsoul,
asalsofromimpulsestowantonandbrutalviolence.
Theonlyotherconsiderablehymnisthatto"Pan",whichdescribeshow
heroamshuntingamongthemountainsandthicketsandstreams,howhe
makesmusicatduskwhilereturningfromthechase,andhowhejoinsin
dancingwiththenymphswhosingthestoryofhisbirth.This,beyond
mostworksofGreekliterature,isremarkableforitsfreshand
spontaneousloveofwildnaturalscenes.
Theremaininghymnsaremostlyofthebriefestcompass,merelyhailing
thegodtobecelebratedandmentioninghischiefattributes.TheHymns
to"Hermes"(xviii),tothe"Dioscuri"(xvii),andto"Demeter"(xiii)
aremereabstractsofthelongerhymnsiv,xxxiii,andii.

TheEpigramsofHomer
The"EpigramsofHomer"arederivedfromthepseudoHerodotean"Lifeof
Homer",butmanyofthemoccurinotherdocumentssuchasthe"Contest
ofHomerandHesiod",orarequotedbyvariousancientauthors.These
poeticfragmentsclearlyantedatethe"Life"itself,whichseemstohave
beensowrittenroundthemastosupplyappropriateoccasionsfortheir
composition.EpigramiiionMidasofLarissawasotherwiseattributedto
CleobulusofLindus,oneoftheSevenSages;theaddresstoGlaucus(xi)
ispurelyHesiodic;xiii,accordingtoMM.Croiset,isafragmentfroma
gnomicpoem.Epigramxivisacuriouspoemattributedonnoveryobvious
groundstoHesiodbyJuliusPollox.InitthepoetinvokesAthenato
protectcertainpottersandtheircraft,iftheywill,accordingto
promise,givehimarewardforhissong;iftheyprovefalse,malignant
gnomesareinvokedtowreckthekilnandhurtthepotters.

TheBurlesquePoems
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ToHomerwerepopularlyascribedcertainburlesquepoemsinwhich
Aristotle("Poetics"iv)sawthegermofcomedy.Mostinterestingof
these,wereitextant,wouldbethe"Margites".Theherooftheepicis
atoncesciolistandsimpleton,'knowingmanythings,butknowingthem
allbadly'.Itisunfortunatelyimpossibletotracetheplanof
thepoem,whichpresumablydetailedtheadventuresofthisunheroic
character:themetreusedwasacuriousmixtureofhexametricandiambic
lines.Thedateofsuchaworkcannotbehigh:Croisetthinksitmay
belongtotheperiodofArchilochus(c.650B.C.),butitmaywellbe
somewhatlater.
Anotherpoem,ofwhichweknowevenless,isthe"Cercopes".These
Cercopes('MonkeyMen')wereapairofmalignantdwarfswhowentabout
theworldmischiefmaking.TheirpunishmentbyHeraclesisrepresented
ononeoftheearliermetopesfromSelinus.Itwouldbeidleto
speculateastothedateofthiswork.
Finallythereisthe"BattleoftheFrogsandMice".Hereistoldthe
storyofthequarrelwhicharosebetweenthetwotribes,andhowthey
fought,untilZeussentcrabstobreakupthebattle.Itisaparody
ofthewarlikeepic,buthaslittleinitthatisreallycomicorof
literarymerit,exceptperhapsthelistofquaintarmsassumedbythe
warriors.Thetextofthepoemisinachaoticcondition,andthereare
manyinterpolations,someofByzantinedate.
ThoughpopularlyascribedtoHomer,itsrealauthorissaidbySuidas
tohavebeenPigres,aCarian,brotherofArtemisia,'wifeofMausonis',
whodistinguishedherselfatthebattleofSalamis.
SuidasisconfusingthetwoArtemisias,buthemayberightin
attributingthepoemtoabout480B.C.

TheContestofHomerandHesiod
Thiscuriousworkdatesinitspresentformfromthelifetimeorshortly
afterthedeathofHadrian,butseemstobebasedinpartonanearlier
versionbythesophistAlcidamas(c.400B.C.).Plutarch("Conviv.Sept.
Sap.",40)usesanearlier(oratleastashorter)versionthanthat
whichwepossess[1118].Theextant"Contest",however,hasclearly
combinedwiththeoriginaldocumentmuchotherilldigestedmatteron
thelifeanddescentofHomer,probablydrawingonthesamegeneral
sourcesasdoestheHerodotean"LifeofHomer".Itsscopeisasfollows:
1)thedescent(asvariouslyreported)andrelativedatesofHomerand
Hesiod;2)theirpoeticalcontestatChalcis;3)thedeathofHesiod;
4)thewanderingsandfortunesofHomer,withbriefnoticesofthe
circumstancesunderwhichhisreputedworkswerecomposed,downtothe
timeofhisdeath.
Thewholetractis,ofcourse,mereromance;itsonlyvaluesare1)
theinsightitgiveintoancientspeculationsaboutHomer;2)acertain
amountofdefiniteinformationabouttheCyclicpoems;and3)theepic
fragmentsincludedinthestichomythiaofthe"Contest"proper,manyof
whichdidwepossessthecluewouldhavetobereferredtopoemsof
theEpicCycle.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
HESIOD.TheclassificationandnumerationsofMSS.herefollowedis
thatofRzach(1913).Itisonlynecessarytoaddthatonthewhole
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therecoveryofHesiodicpapyrigoestoconfirmtheauthorityofthe
mediaevalMSS.Atthesametimethesefragmentshaveproducedmuchthat
isinterestingandvaluable,suchasthenewlines,"WorksandDays"
169ad,andtheimprovedreadingsib.278,"Theogony"91,93.Our
chiefgainsfrompapyriarethenumerousandexcellentfragmentsofthe
Catalogueswhichhavebeenrecovered.
"WorksandDays":
SOxyrhynchusPapyri1090.
AVienna,RainerPapyriL.P.219(4thcent.).
BGeneva,NavillePapyriPap.94(6thcent.).
CParis,Bibl.Nat.2771(11thcent.).
DFlorence,Laur.xxxi39(12thcent.).
EMessina,Univ.Lib.Preexistens11(12th13thcent.).
FRome,Vatican38(14thcent.).
GVenice,Marc.ix6(14thcent.).
HFlorence,Laur.xxxi37(14thcent.).
IFlorence,Laur.xxxii16(13thcent.).
KFlorence,Laur.xxxii2(14thcent.).
LMilan,Ambros.G32sup.(14thcent.).
MFlorence,Bibl.Riccardiana71(15thcent.).
NMilan,Ambros.J15sup.(15thcent.).
OParis,Bibl.Nat.2773(14thcent.).
PCambridge,TrinityCollege(GaleMS.),O.9.27(13th14th
cent.).
QRome,Vatican1332(14thcent.).
TheseMSS.aredividedbyRzachintothefollowingfamilies,
issuingfromacommonoriginal:
{Omega}a=C
{Omega}b=F,G,H
{Psi}a=D
{Psi}b=I,K,L,M
{Phi}a=E
{Phi}b=N,O,P,Q
"Theogony":
NManchester,RylandsGK.PapyriNo.54(1stcent.B.C.1st
cent.A.D.).
OOxyrhynchusPapyri873(3rdcent.).
AParis,Bibl.Nat.Suppl.Graec.(papyrus)1099(4th5th
cent.).
BLondon,BritishMuseamclix(4thcent.).
RVienna,RainerPapyriL.P.219(4thcent.).
CParis,Bibl.Nat.Suppl.Graec.663(12thcent.).
DFlorence,Laur.xxxii16(13thcent.).
EFlorence,Laur.,Conv.suppr.158(14thcent.).
FParis,Bibl.Nat.2833(15thcent.).
GRome,Vatican915(14thcent.).
HParis,Bibl.Nat.2772(14thcent.).
IFlorence,Laur.xxxi32(15thcent.).
KVenice,Marc.ix6(15thcent.).
LParis,Bibl.Nat.2708(15thcent.).
TheseMSS.aredividedintotwofamilies:
{Omega}a=C,D
{Omega}b=E,F
{Omega}c=G,H,I
{Psi}=K,L
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"ShieldofHeracles":
POxyrhynchusPapyri689(2ndcent.).
AVienna,RainerPapyriL.P.2129(4thcent.).
QBerlinPapyri,9774(1stcent.).
BParis,Bibl.Nat.,Suppl.Graec.663(12thcent.).
CParis,Bibl.Nat.,Suppl.Graec.663(12thcent.).
DMilan,Ambros.C222(13thcent.).
EFlorence,Laur.xxxii16(13thcent.).
FParis,Bibl.Nat.2773(14thcent.).
GParis,Bibl.Nat.2772(14thcent.).
HFlorence,Laur.xxxi32(15thcent.).
ILondon,BritishMuseaumHarleianus(14thcent.).
KRome,Bibl.Casanat.356(14thcent.)
LFlorence,Laur.Conv.suppr.158(14thcent.).
MParis,Bibl.Nat.2833(15thcent.).
TheseMSS.belongtotwofamilies:
{Omega}a=B,C,D,F
{Omega}b=G,H,I
{Psi}a=E
{Psi}b=K,L,M
TothesemustbeaddedtwoMSS.ofmixedfamily:
NVenice,Marc.ix6(14thcent.).
OParis,Bibl.Nat.2708(15thcent.).
EditionsofHesiod:
DemetriusChalcondyles,Milan(?)1493(?)("editioprinceps",
containing,however,onlythe"WorksandDays").
AldusManutius(Aldineedition),Venice,1495(completeworks).
JuntineEditions,1515and1540.
Trincavelli,Venice,1537(withscholia).
Ofmoderneditions,thefollowingmaybenoticed:
Gaisford,Oxford,18141820;Leipzig,1823(withscholia:in
Poett.Graec.MinnII).
Goettling,Gotha,1831(3rdedition.Leipzig,1878).
DidotEdition,Paris,1840.
Schomann,1869.
KoechlyandKinkel,Leipzig,1870.
Flach,Leipzig,18748.
Rzach,Leipzig,1902(largeredition),1913(smalleredition).
OntheHesiodicpoemsgenerallytheordinaryHistoriesofGreek
Literaturemaybeconsulted,butespeciallythe"Hist.delaLitterature
Grecque"Ipp.459ff.ofMM.Croiset.ThesummaryaccountinProf.
Murray's"Anc.Gk.Lit."iswrittenwithastrongscepticalbias.Very
valuableistheappendixtoMair'stranslation(Oxford,1908)on"The
Farmer'sYearinHesiod".RecentworkontheHesiodicpoemsisreviewed
infullbyRzachinBursian's"Jahresberichte"vols.100(1899)and152
(1911).
Forthe"Fragments"ofHesiodicpoemstheworkofMarkscheffel,"Hesiodi
Fragmenta"(Leipzig,1840),ismostvaluable:importantalsoisKinkel's
"EpicorumGraecorumFragmenta"I(Leipzig,1877)andtheeditionsof
Rzachnoticedabove.Forrecentlydiscoveredpapyrusfragmentssee
Wilamowitz,"NeueBruchstucked.HesiodKatalog"(Sitzungsb.derk.
preuss.Akad.furWissenschaft,1900,pp.839851).Alistofpapyri
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belongingtolostHesiodicworksmayherebeadded:allarethe
"Catalogues".
1)BerlinPapyri7497[1201](2ndcent.).Frag.7.
2)OxyrhynchusPapyri421(2ndcent.).Frag.7.
3)"PetriePapyri"iii3.Frag.14.
4)"Papirigrecielatine",No.130(2nd3rdcent.).Frag.
14.
5)StrassburgPapyri,55(2ndcent.).Frag.58.
6)BerlinPapyri9739(2ndcent.).Frag.58.
7)BerlinPapyri10560(3rdcent.).Frag.58.
8)BerlinPapyri9777(4thcent.).Frag.98.
9)"Papirigrecielatine",No.131(2nd3rdcent.).Frag.
99.
10)OxyrhynchusPapyri13589.
TheHomericHymns:ThetextoftheHomerichymnsisdistinctlybadin
condition,afactwhichmaybeattributedtothegeneralneglectunder
whichtheyseemtohavelabouredatallperiodspreviouslytothe
RevivalofLearning.Verymanydefectshavebeencorrectedbythe
variouseditionsoftheHymns,butaconsiderablenumberstilldefyall
efforts;andespeciallyanabnormalnumberofundoubtedlacunadisfigure
thetext.UnfortunatelynopapyrusfragmentoftheHymnshasyet
emerged,thoughonesuchfragment("Berl.Klassikertexte"v.1.pp.7
ff.)containsaparaphraseofapoemverycloselyparalleltothe"Hymn
toDemeter".
ThemediaevalMSS.[1202]arethusenumeratedbyDr.T.W.Allen:
AParis,Bibl.Nat.2763.
AtAthos,Vatopedi587.
BParis,Bibl.Nat.2765.
CParis,Bibl.Nat.2833.
{Gamma}Brussels,Bibl.Royale1137711380(16thcent.).
DMilan,Amrbos.B98sup.
EModena,EstenseiiiE11.
GRome,Vatican,Regina91(16thcent.).
HLondon,BritishMus.Harley1752.
JModena,Estense,iiB14.
KFlorence,Laur.31,32.
LFlorence,Laur.32,45.
L2Florence,Laur.70,35.
L3Florence,Laur.32,4.
MLeyden(theMoscowMS.)33H(14thcent.).
Mon.Munich,RoyalLib.333c.
NLeyden,74c.
OMilan,Ambros.C10inf.
PRome,VaticanPal.graec.179.
{Pi}Paris,Bibl.Nat.Suppl.graec.1095.
QMilan,Ambros.S31sup.
R1Florence,Bibl.Riccard.53Kii13.
R2Florence,Bibl.Riccard.52Kii14.
SRome,Vatican,Vaticanigraec.1880.
TMadrid,PublicLibrary24.
VVenice,Marc.456.
ThesamescholarhastracedalltheMSS.backtoacommonparentfrom
whichthreemainfamiliesarederived(Mhadaseparatedescentandis
notincludedinanyfamily):
x1=E,T
x2=L,{Pi},(andmoreremotely)At,D,S,H,J,K.
y=E,L,{Pi},T(marginalreadings).
p=A,B,C,{Gamma},G,L2,L3,N,O,P,Q,R1,R2,V,Mon.
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EditionsoftheHomericHymns,&c.:
DemetriusChalcondyles,Florence,1488(withthe"Epigrams"and
the"BattleoftheFrogsandMice"inthe"ed.pr."of
Homer).
AldineEdition,Venice,1504.
JuntineEdition,1537.
Stephanus,Paris,1566and1588.
Moremoderneditionsorcriticalworksofvalueare:
Martin(VariarumLectionumlibb.iv),Paris,1605.
Barnes,Cambridge,1711.
Ruhnken,Leyden,1782(Epist.Crit.and"HymntoDemeter").
Ilgen,Halle,1796(with"Epigrams"andthe"BattleoftheFrogs
andMice").
Matthiae,Leipzig,1806(withthe"BattleoftheFrogsand
Mice").
Hermann,Berling,1806(with"Epigrams").
Franke,Leipzig,1828(with"Epigrams"andthe"Battleofthe
FrogsandMice").
Dindorff(Didotedition),Paris,1837.
Baumeister("BattleoftheFrogsandMice"),Gottingen,1852.
Baumeister("Hymns"),Leipzig,1860.
Gemoll,Leipzig,1886.
Goodwin,Oxford,1893.
Ludwich("BattleoftheFrogsandMice"),1896.
AllenandSikes,London,1904.
Allen(HomeriOperav),Oxford,1912.
OftheseeditionsthatofMessrsAllenandSikesisbyfarthebest:
notonlyisthetextpurgedoftheloadofconjecturesforwhichthe
frequentobscuritiesoftheHymnsofferaspecialopening,butthe
IntroductionandtheNotesthroughoutareofthehighestvalue.Fora
fulldiscussionoftheMSS.andtextualproblems,referencemustbemade
tothisedition,asalsotoDr.T.W.Allen'sseriesofarticlesinthe
"JournalofHellenicStudies"vols.xvff.Amongtranslationsthoseof
J.Edgar(Edinburgh),1891)andofAndrewLang(London,1899)maybe
mentioned.
TheEpicCycle:
ThefragmentsoftheEpicCycle,beingdrawnfromavarietyofauthors,
nolistofMSS.canbegiven.Thefollowingcollectionsandeditionsmay
bementioned:
Muller,Leipzig,1829.
Dindorff(DidoteditionofHomer),Paris,183756.
Kinkel(EpicorumGraecorumFragmentai),Leipzig,1877.
Allen(HomeriOperav),Oxford,1912.
Thefullestdiscussionoftheproblemsandfragmentsoftheepiccycle
isF.G.Welcker's"derepischeCyclus"(Bonn,vol.i,1835:vol.ii,
1849:vol.i,2ndedition,1865).TheAppendixtoMonro's"Homer's
Odyssey"xiixxiv(pp.340ff.)dealswiththeCyclicpoetsinrelation
toHomer,andaclearandreasonablediscussionofthesubjectistobe
foundinCroiset's"Hist.delaLitteratureGrecque",vol.i.
OnHesiod,theHesiodicpoemsandtheproblemswhichtheseoffer
seeRzach'smostimportantarticle"Hesiodos"inPaulyWissowa,
"RealEncyclopadie"xv(1912).
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AdiscussionoftheevidenceforthedateofHesiodistobefoundin
"Journ.Hell.Stud."xxxv,85ff.(T.W.Allen).
OftranslationsofHesiodthefollowingmaybenoticed:"TheGeorgicks
ofHesiod",byGeorgeChapman,London,1618;"TheWorksofHesiod
translatedfromtheGreek",byThomasCoocke,London,1728;"TheRemains
ofHesiodtranslatedfromtheGreekintoEnglishVerse",byCharles
AbrahamElton;"TheWorksofHesiod,Callimachus,andTheognis",bythe
Rev.J.Banks,M.A.;"Hesiod",byProf.JamesMair,Oxford,1908[1203].

THEWORKSOFHESIOD
WORKSANDDAYS(832lines)
(ll.110)MusesofPieriawhogiveglorythroughsong,comehither,
tellofZeusyourfatherandchanthispraise.Throughhimmortalmen
arefamedorunfamed,sungorunsungalike,asgreatZeuswills.For
easilyhemakesstrong,andeasilyhebringsthestrongmanlow;easily
hehumblestheproudandraisestheobscure,andeasilyhestraightens
thecrookedandblaststheproud,Zeuswhothundersaloftandhashis
dwellingmosthigh.
Attendthouwitheyeandear,andmakejudgementsstraightwith
righteousness.AndI,Perses,wouldtelloftruethings.
(ll.1124)So,afterall,therewasnotonekindofStrifealone,but
allovertheearththerearetwo.Asfortheone,amanwouldpraiseher
whenhecametounderstandher;buttheotherisblameworthy:andthey
arewhollydifferentinnature.Foronefostersevilwarandbattle,
beingcruel:hernomanloves;butperforce,throughthewillofthe
deathlessgods,menpayharshStrifeherhonourdue.Buttheotheris
theelderdaughterofdarkNight,andthesonofCronoswhositsabove
anddwellsintheaether,setherintherootsoftheearth:andsheis
farkindertomen.Shestirsupeventheshiftlesstotoil;foraman
growseagertoworkwhenheconsidershisneighbour,arichmanwho
hastenstoploughandplantandputhishouseingoodorder;and
neighbourvieswithhisneighbourashehurriesafterwealth.This
Strifeiswholesomeformen.Andpotterisangrywithpotter,and
craftsmanwithcraftsman,andbeggarisjealousofbeggar,andminstrel
ofminstrel.
(ll.2541)Perses,layupthesethingsinyourheart,anddonotlet
thatStrifewhodelightsinmischiefholdyourheartbackfromwork,
whileyoupeepandpeerandlistentothewranglesofthecourthouse.
Littleconcernhashewithquarrelsandcourtswhohasnotayear's
victualslaidupbetimes,eventhatwhichtheearthbears,Demeter's
grain.Whenyouhavegotplentyofthat,youcanraisedisputesand
strivetogetanother'sgoods.Butyoushallhavenosecondchanceto
dealsoagain:nay,letussettleourdisputeherewithtruejudgement
dividedourinheritance,butyouseizedthegreatershareandcarriedit
off,greatlyswellingthegloryofourbribeswallowinglordswholove
tojudgesuchacauseasthis.Fools!Theyknownothowmuchmorethe
halfisthanthewhole,norwhatgreatadvantagethereisinmallowand
asphodel[1301].
(ll.4253)Forthegodskeephiddenfrommenthemeansoflife.Else
youwouldeasilydoworkenoughinadaytosupplyyouforafullyear
evenwithoutworking;soonwouldyouputawayyourrudderoverthe
smoke,andthefieldsworkedbyoxandsturdymulewouldruntowaste.
ButZeusintheangerofhishearthidit,becausePrometheusthecrafty
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deceivedhim;thereforeheplannedsorrowandmischiefagainstmen.He
hidfire;butthatthenoblesonofIapetusstoleagainformenfrom
Zeusthecounsellorinahollowfennelstalk,sothatZeuswhodelights
inthunderdidnotseeit.ButafterwardsZeuswhogatherstheclouds
saidtohiminanger:
(ll.5459)'SonofIapetus,surpassingallincunning,youareglad
thatyouhaveoutwittedmeandstolenfireagreatplaguetoyou
yourselfandtomenthatshallbe.ButIwillgivemenasthepricefor
fireanevilthinginwhichtheymayallbegladofheartwhilethey
embracetheirowndestruction.'
(ll.6068)Sosaidthefatherofmenandgods,andlaughedaloud.And
hebadefamousHephaestusmakehasteandmixearthwithwaterandtoput
initthevoiceandstrengthofhumankind,andfashionasweet,lovely
maidenshape,liketotheimmortalgoddessesinface;andAtheneto
teachherneedleworkandtheweavingofthevariedweb;andgolden
Aphroditetoshedgraceuponherheadandcruellongingandcaresthat
wearythelimbs.AndhechargedHermestheguide,theSlayerofArgus,
toputinherashamelessmindandadeceitfulnature.
(ll.6982)Soheordered.AndtheyobeyedthelordZeusthesonof
Cronos.ForthwiththefamousLameGodmouldedclayinthelikenessofa
modestmaid,asthesonofCronospurposed.Andthegoddessbrighteyed
Athenegirdedandclothedher,andthedivineGracesandqueenly
Persuasionputnecklacesofgolduponher,andtherichhairedHours
crownedherheadwithspringflowers.AndPallasAthenebedeckedher
formwithallmannersoffinery.AlsotheGuide,theSlayerofArgus,
contrivedwithinherliesandcraftywordsandadeceitfulnatureatthe
willofloudthunderingZeus,andtheHeraldofthegodsputspeechin
her.AndhecalledthiswomanPandora[1302],becausealltheywhodwelt
onOlympusgaveeachagift,aplaguetomenwhoeatbread.
(ll.8389)Butwhenhehadfinishedthesheer,hopelesssnare,the
FathersentgloriousArgosSlayer,theswiftmessengerofthegods,to
takeittoEpimetheusasagift.AndEpimetheusdidnotthinkonwhat
Prometheushadsaidtohim,biddinghimnevertakeagiftofOlympian
Zeus,buttosenditbackforfearitmightprovetobesomething
harmfultomen.Buthetookthegift,andafterwards,whentheevil
thingwasalreadyhis,heunderstood.
(ll.90105)Forerethisthetribesofmenlivedonearthremoteand
freefromillsandhardtoilandheavysicknesswhichbringtheFates
uponmen;forinmiserymengrowoldquickly.Butthewomantookoffthe
greatlidofthejar[1303]withherhandsandscatteredalltheseand
herthoughtcausedsorrowandmischieftomen.OnlyHoperemainedthere
inanunbreakablehomewithinundertherimofthegreatjar,anddid
notflyoutatthedoor;forerethat,thelidofthejarstoppedher,
bythewillofAegisholdingZeuswhogatherstheclouds.Buttherest,
countlessplagues,wanderamongstmen;forearthisfullofevilsand
theseaisfull.Ofthemselvesdiseasescomeuponmencontinuallybyday
andbynight,bringingmischieftomortalssilently;forwiseZeustook
awayspeechfromthem.SoistherenowaytoescapethewillofZeus.
(ll.106108)Orifyouwill,Iwillsumyouupanothertalewelland
skilfullyanddoyoulayitupinyourheart,howthegodsandmortal
mensprangfromonesource.
(ll.109120)FirstofallthedeathlessgodswhodwellonOlympusmade
agoldenraceofmortalmenwholivedinthetimeofCronoswhenhewas
reigninginheaven.Andtheylivedlikegodswithoutsorrowofheart,
remoteandfreefromtoilandgrief:miserableagerestednotonthem;
butwithlegsandarmsneverfailingtheymademerrywithfeasting
beyondthereachofallevils.Whentheydied,itwasasthoughthey
wereovercomewithsleep,andtheyhadallgoodthings;forthefruitful
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earthunforcedbarethemfruitabundantlyandwithoutstint.Theydwelt
ineaseandpeaceupontheirlandswithmanygoodthings,richinflocks
andlovedbytheblessedgods.
(ll.121139)Butafterearthhadcoveredthisgenerationtheyare
calledpurespiritsdwellingontheearth,andarekindly,delivering
fromharm,andguardiansofmortalmen;fortheyroameverywhereover
theearth,clothedinmistandkeepwatchonjudgementsandcrueldeeds,
giversofwealth;forthisroyalrightalsotheyreceived;thenthey
whodwellonOlympusmadeasecondgenerationwhichwasofsilverand
lessnoblebyfar.Itwaslikethegoldenraceneitherinbodynorin
spirit.Achildwasbroughtupathisgoodmother'ssideanhundred
years,anuttersimpleton,playingchildishlyinhisownhome.Butwhen
theywerefullgrownandwerecometothefullmeasureoftheirprime,
theylivedonlyalittletimeinsorrowbecauseoftheirfoolishness,
fortheycouldnotkeepfromsinningandfromwrongingoneanother,nor
wouldtheyservetheimmortals,norsacrificeontheholyaltarsofthe
blessedonesasitisrightformentodowherevertheydwell.ThenZeus
thesonofCronoswasangryandputthemaway,becausetheywouldnot
givehonourtotheblessedgodswholiveonOlympus.
(ll.140155)Butwhenearthhadcoveredthisgenerationalsotheyare
calledblessedspiritsoftheunderworldbymen,and,thoughtheyareof
secondorder,yethonourattendsthemalsoZeustheFathermadeathird
generationofmortalmen,abrazenrace,sprungfromashtrees[1304];
anditwasinnowayequaltothesilverage,butwasterribleand
strong.TheylovedthelamentableworksofAresanddeedsofviolence;
theyatenobread,butwerehardofheartlikeadamant,fearfulmen.
Greatwastheirstrengthandunconquerablethearmswhichgrewfrom
theirshouldersontheirstronglimbs.Theirarmourwasofbronze,and
theirhousesofbronze,andofbronzeweretheirimplements:therewas
noblackiron.Theseweredestroyedbytheirownhandsandpassedtothe
dankhouseofchillHades,andleftnoname:terriblethoughtheywere,
blackDeathseizedthem,andtheyleftthebrightlightofthesun.
(ll.156169b)Butwhenearthhadcoveredthisgenerationalso,Zeus
thesonofCronosmadeyetanother,thefourth,uponthefruitfulearth,
whichwasnoblerandmorerighteous,agodlikeraceofheromenwho
arecalleddemigods,theracebeforeourown,throughouttheboundless
earth.Grimwaranddreadbattledestroyedapartofthem,someinthe
landofCadmusatsevengatedThebewhentheyfoughtfortheflocksof
Oedipus,andsome,whenithadbroughttheminshipsoverthegreatsea
gulftoTroyforrichhairedHelen'ssake:theredeath'sendenshrouded
apartofthem.ButtotheothersfatherZeusthesonofCronosgavea
livingandanabodeapartfrommen,andmadethemdwellattheendsof
earth.Andtheyliveuntouchedbysorrowintheislandsoftheblessed
alongtheshoreofdeepswirlingOcean,happyheroesforwhomthe
graingivingearthbearshoneysweetfruitflourishingthriceayear,
farfromthedeathlessgods,andCronosrulesoverthem[1305];for
thefatherofmenandgodsreleasedhimfromhisbonds.Andtheselast
equallyhavehonourandglory.
(ll.169c169d)AndagainfarseeingZeusmadeyetanothergeneration,
thefifth,ofmenwhoareuponthebounteousearth.
(ll.170201)Thereafter,wouldthatIwerenotamongthemenofthe
fifthgeneration,buteitherhaddiedbeforeorbeenbornafterwards.
Fornowtrulyisaraceofiron,andmenneverrestfromlabourand
sorrowbyday,andfromperishingbynight;andthegodsshalllaysore
troubleuponthem.But,notwithstanding,eventheseshallhavesomegood
mingledwiththeirevils.AndZeuswilldestroythisraceofmortal
menalsowhentheycometohavegreyhaironthetemplesattheirbirth
[1306].Thefatherwillnotagreewithhischildren,northechildren
withtheirfather,norguestwithhishost,norcomradewithcomrade;
norwillbrotherbedeartobrotherasaforetime.Menwilldishonour
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theirparentsastheygrowquicklyold,andwillcarpatthem,chiding
themwithbitterwords,hardheartedthey,notknowingthefearofthe
gods.Theywillnotrepaytheiragedparentsthecosttheirnurture,for
mightshallbetheirright:andonemanwillsackanother'scity.There
willbenofavourforthemanwhokeepshisoathorforthejustor
forthegood;butrathermenwillpraisetheevildoerandhisviolent
dealing.Strengthwillberightandreverencewillceasetobe;andthe
wickedwillhurttheworthyman,speakingfalsewordsagainsthim,and
willswearanoathuponthem.Envy,foulmouthed,delightinginevil,
withscowlingface,willgoalongwithwretchedmenoneandall.And
thenAidosandNemesis[1307],withtheirsweetformswrappedinwhite
robes,willgofromthewidepathedearthandforsakemankindtojoin
thecompanyofthedeathlessgods:andbittersorrowswillbeleftfor
mortalmen,andtherewillbenohelpagainstevil.
(ll.202211)AndnowIwilltellafableforprinceswhothemselves
understand.Thussaidthehawktothenightingalewithspeckledneck,
whilehecarriedherhighupamongtheclouds,grippedfastinhis
talons,andshe,piercedbyhiscrookedtalons,criedpitifully.Toher
hespokedisdainfully:'Miserablething,whydoyoucryout?Onefar
strongerthanyounowholdsyoufast,andyoumustgowhereverItake
you,songstressasyouare.AndifIpleaseIwillmakemymealofyou,
orletyougo.Heisafoolwhotriestowithstandthestronger,forhe
doesnotgetthemasteryandsufferspainbesideshisshame.'Sosaid
theswiftlyflyinghawk,thelongwingedbird.
(ll.212224)Butyou,Perses,listentorightanddonotfoster
violence;forviolenceisbadforapoorman.Eventheprosperouscannot
easilybearitsburden,butisweigheddownunderitwhenhehasfallen
intodelusion.Thebetterpathistogobyontheothersidetowards
justice;forJusticebeatsOutragewhenshecomesatlengthtotheend
oftherace.Butonlywhenhehassuffereddoesthefoollearnthis.For
Oathkeepspacewithwrongjudgements.ThereisanoisewhenJusticeis
beingdraggedinthewaywherethosewhodevourbribesandgivesentence
withcrookedjudgements,takeher.Andshe,wrappedinmist,follows
tothecityandhauntsofthepeople,weeping,andbringingmischief
tomen,eventosuchashavedrivenherforthinthattheydidnotdeal
straightlywithher.
(ll.225237)Buttheywhogivestraightjudgementstostrangersand
tothemenoftheland,andgonotasidefromwhatisjust,theircity
flourishes,andthepeopleprosperinit:Peace,thenurseofchildren,
isabroadintheirland,andallseeingZeusneverdecreescruelwar
againstthem.Neitherfaminenordisastereverhauntmenwhodotrue
justice;butlightheartedlytheytendthefieldswhicharealltheir
care.Theearthbearsthemvictualinplenty,andonthemountainsthe
oakbearsacornsuponthetopandbeesinthemidst.Theirwoollysheep
areladenwithfleeces;theirwomenbearchildrenliketheirparents.
Theyflourishcontinuallywithgoodthings,anddonottravelonships,
forthegraingivingearthbearsthemfruit.
(ll.238247)Butforthosewhopractiseviolenceandcrueldeeds
farseeingZeus,thesonofCronos,ordainsapunishment.Ofteneven
awholecitysuffersforabadmanwhosinsanddevisespresumptuous
deeds,andthesonofCronoslaysgreattroubleuponthepeople,famine
andplaguetogether,sothatthemenperishaway,andtheirwomendonot
bearchildren,andtheirhousesbecomefew,throughthecontrivingof
OlympianZeus.Andagain,atanothertime,thesonofCronoseither
destroystheirwidearmy,ortheirwalls,orelsemakesanendoftheir
shipsonthesea.
(ll.248264)Youprinces,markwellthispunishmentyoualso;forthe
deathlessgodsarenearamongmenandmarkallthosewhooppresstheir
fellowswithcrookedjudgements,andrecknottheangerofthegods.For
uponthebounteousearthZeushasthricetenthousandspirits,watchers
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ofmortalmen,andthesekeepwatchonjudgementsanddeedsofwrong
astheyroam,clothedinmist,allovertheearth.Andthereisvirgin
Justice,thedaughterofZeus,whoishonouredandreverencedamong
thegodswhodwellonOlympus,andwheneveranyonehurtsherwithlying
slander,shesitsbesideherfather,ZeusthesonofCronos,andtells
himofmen'swickedheart,untilthepeoplepayforthemadfollyof
theirprinceswho,evillyminded,pervertjudgementandgivesentence
crookedly.Keepwatchagainstthis,youprinces,andmakestraightyour
judgements,youwhodevourbribes;putcrookedjudgementsaltogether
fromyourthoughts.
(ll.265266)Hedoesmischieftohimselfwhodoesmischieftoanother,
andevilplannedharmstheplottermost.
(ll.267273)TheeyeofZeus,seeingallandunderstandingall,beholds
thesethingstoo,ifsohewill,andfailsnottomarkwhatsortof
justiceisthisthatthecitykeepswithinit.Now,therefore,may
neitherImyselfberighteousamongmen,normysonforthenitis
abadthingtoberighteousifindeedtheunrighteousshallhavethe
greaterright.ButIthinkthatallwiseZeuswillnotyetbringthatto
pass.
(ll.274285)Butyou,Perses,layupthesethingswithinyourheartand
listennowtoright,ceasingaltogethertothinkofviolence.Forthe
sonofCronoshasordainedthislawformen,thatfishesandbeastsand
wingedfowlsshoulddevouroneanother,forrightisnotinthem;butto
mankindhegaverightwhichprovesfarthebest.Forwhoeverknowsthe
rightandisreadytospeakit,farseeingZeusgiveshimprosperity;
butwhoeverdeliberatelyliesinhiswitnessandforswearshimself,and
sohurtsJusticeandsinsbeyondrepair,thatman'sgenerationisleft
obscurethereafter.Butthegenerationofthemanwhoswearstrulyis
betterthenceforward.
(ll.286292)Toyou,foolishPerses,Iwillspeakgoodsense.Badness
canbegoteasilyandinshoals:theroadtoherissmooth,andshe
livesverynearus.ButbetweenusandGoodnessthegodshaveplacedthe
sweatofourbrows:longandsteepisthepaththatleadstoher,andit
isroughatthefirst;butwhenamanhasreachedthetop,thenisshe
easytoreach,thoughbeforethatshewashard.
(ll.293319)Thatmanisaltogetherbestwhoconsidersallthings
himselfandmarkswhatwillbebetterafterwardsandattheend;andhe,
again,isgoodwholistenstoagoodadviser;butwhoeverneither
thinksforhimselfnorkeepsinmindwhatanothertellshim,heisan
unprofitableman.Butdoyouatanyrate,alwaysrememberingmycharge,
work,highbornPerses,thatHungermayhateyou,andvenerableDemeter
richlycrownedmayloveyouandfillyourbarnwithfood;forHungeris
altogetherameetcomradeforthesluggard.Bothgodsandmenareangry
withamanwholivesidle,forinnatureheislikethestinglessdrones
whowastethelabourofthebees,eatingwithoutworking;butletit
beyourcaretoorderyourworkproperly,thatintherightseasonyour
barnsmaybefullofvictual.Throughworkmengrowrichinflocks
andsubstance,andworkingtheyaremuchbetterlovedbytheimmortals
[1308].Workisnodisgrace:itisidlenesswhichisadisgrace.But
ifyouwork,theidlewillsoonenvyyouasyougrowrich,forfameand
renownattendonwealth.Andwhateverbeyourlot,workisbestforyou,
ifyouturnyourmisguidedmindawayfromothermen'spropertytoyour
workandattendtoyourlivelihoodasIbidyou.Anevilshameisthe
needyman'scompanion,shamewhichbothgreatlyharmsandprospersmen:
shameiswithpoverty,butconfidencewithwealth.
(ll.320341)Wealthshouldnotbeseized:godgivenwealthismuch
better;forifamantakegreatwealthviolentlyandperforce,orifhe
stealitthroughhistongue,asoftenhappenswhengaindeceivesmen's
senseanddishonourtramplesdownhonour,thegodssoonblothimout
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andmakethatman'shouselow,andwealthattendshimonlyforalittle
time.Alikewithhimwhodoeswrongtoasuppliantoraguest,orwho
goesuptohisbrother'sbedandcommitsunnaturalsininlyingwith
hiswife,orwhoinfatuatelyoffendsagainstfatherlesschildren,orwho
abuseshisoldfatheratthecheerlessthresholdofoldageandattacks
himwithharshwords,trulyZeushimselfisangry,andatthelast
laysonhimaheavyrequittalforhisevildoing.Butdoyouturnyour
foolishheartaltogetherawayfromthesethings,and,asfarasyouare
able,sacrificetothedeathlessgodspurelyandcleanly,andburn
richmeatsalso,andatothertimespropitiatethemwithlibationsand
incense,bothwhenyougotobedandwhentheholylighthascomeback,
thattheymaybegracioustoyouinheartandspirit,andsoyoumaybuy
another'sholdingandnotanotheryours.
(ll.342351)Callyourfriendtoafeast;butleaveyourenemyalone;
andespeciallycallhimwholivesnearyou:forifanymischief
happenintheplace,neighbourscomeungirt,butkinsmenstaytogird
themselves[1309].Abadneighbourisasgreataplagueasagoodone
isagreatblessing;hewhoenjoysagoodneighbourhasaprecious
possession.Notevenanoxwoulddiebutforabadneighbour.Take
fairmeasurefromyourneighbourandpayhimbackfairlywiththesame
measure,orbetter,ifyoucan;sothatifyouareinneedafterwards,
youmayfindhimsure.
(ll.352369)Donotgetbasegain:basegainisasbadasruin.Be
friendswiththefriendly,andvisithimwhovisitsyou.Givetoone
whogives,butdonotgivetoonewhodoesnotgive.Amangivestothe
freehanded,butnoonegivestotheclosefisted.Giveisagoodgirl,
butTakeisbadandshebringsdeath.Forthemanwhogiveswillingly,
eventhoughhegivesagreatthing,rejoicesinhisgiftandisglad
inheart;butwhoevergiveswaytoshamelessnessandtakessomething
himself,eventhoughitbeasmallthing,itfreezeshisheart.Hewho
addstowhathehas,willkeepoffbrighteyedhunger;forifyouadd
onlyalittletoalittleanddothisoften,soonthatlittlewill
becomegreat.Whatamanhasbyhimathomedoesnottroublehim:itis
bettertohaveyourstuffathome,forwhateverisabroadmaymeanloss.
Itisagoodthingtodrawonwhatyouhave;butitgrievesyourheart
toneedsomethingandnottohaveit,andIbidyoumarkthis.Take
yourfillwhenthecaskisfirstopenedandwhenitisnearlyspent,but
midwaysbesparing:itispoorsavingwhenyoucometothelees.
(ll.370372)Letthewagepromisedtoafriendbefixed;evenwithyour
brothersmileandgetawitness;fortrustandmistrust,alikeruin
men.
(ll.373375)Donotletaflauntingwomancoaxandcozenanddeceive
you:sheisafteryourbarn.Themanwhotrustswomankindtrusts
deceivers.
(ll.376380)Thereshouldbeanonlyson,tofeedhisfather'shouse,
forsowealthwillincreaseinthehome;butifyouleaveasecondson
youshoulddieold.YetZeuscaneasilygivegreatwealthtoagreater
number.Morehandsmeanmoreworkandmoreincrease.
(ll.381382)Ifyourheartwithinyoudesireswealth,dothesethings
andworkwithworkuponwork.
(ll.383404)WhenthePleiades,daughtersofAtlas,arerising[1310],
beginyourharvest,andyourploughingwhentheyaregoingtoset
[1311].Fortynightsanddaystheyarehiddenandappearagainasthe
yearmovesround,whenfirstyousharpenyoursickle.Thisisthelaw
oftheplains,andofthosewholivenearthesea,andwhoinhabitrich
country,theglensanddinglesfarfromthetossingsea,stripto
sowandstriptoploughandstriptoreap,ifyouwishtogetinall
Demeter'sfruitsindueseason,andthateachkindmaygrowinits
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season.Else,afterwards,youmaychancetobeinwant,andgobegging
toothermen'shouses,butwithoutavail;asyouhavealreadycometo
me.ButIwillgiveyounomorenorgiveyoufurthermeasure.Foolish
Perses!Worktheworkwhichthegodsordainedformen,lestinbitter
anguishofspirityouwithyourwifeandchildrenseekyourlivelihood
amongstyourneighbours,andtheydonotheedyou.Twoorthreetimes,
maybe,youwillsucceed,butifyoutroublethemfurther,itwill
notavailyou,andallyourtalkwillbeinvain,andyourwordplay
unprofitable.Nay,Ibidyoufindawaytopayyourdebtsandavoid
hunger.
(ll.405413)Firstofall,getahouse,andawomanandanoxforthe
ploughaslavewomanandnotawife,tofollowtheoxenaswelland
makeeverythingreadyathome,sothatyoumaynothavetoaskof
another,andherefusesyou,andso,becauseyouareinlack,theseason
passbyandyourworkcometonothing.Donotputyourworkofftill
tomorrowandthedayafter;forasluggishworkerdoesnotfillhis
barn,noronewhoputsoffhiswork:industrymakesworkgowell,buta
manwhoputsoffworkisalwaysathandgripswithruin.
(ll.414447)Whenthepiercingpowerandsultryheatofthesunabate,
andalmightyZeussendstheautumnrains[1312],andmen'sfleshcomes
tofeelfareasier,forthenthestarSiriuspassesovertheheads
ofmen,whoareborntomisery,onlyalittlewhilebydayandtakes
greatershareofnight,then,whenitshowersitsleavestotheground
andstopssprouting,thewoodyoucutwithyouraxeisleastliableto
worm.Thenremembertohewyourtimber:itistheseasonforthatwork.
Cutamortar[1313]threefeetwideandapestlethreecubitslong,and
anaxleofsevenfeet,foritwilldoverywellso;butifyoumake
iteightfeetlong,youcancutabeetle[1314]fromitaswell.Cut
afelloethreespansacrossforawaggonoftenpalms'width.Hewalso
manybenttimbers,andbringhomeaploughtreewhenyouhavefoundit,
andlookoutonthemountainorinthefieldforoneofholmoak;for
thisisthestrongestforoxentoploughwithwhenoneofAthena's
handmenhasfixedinthesharebeamandfastenedittothepolewith
dowels.Gettwoploughsreadyworkonthemathome,oneallofapiece,
andtheotherjointed.Itisfarbettertodothis,forifyoushould
breakoneofthem,youcanputtheoxentotheother.Polesoflaurelor
elmaremostfreefromworms,andasharebeamofoakandaploughtree
ofholmoak.Gettwooxen,bullsofnineyears;fortheirstrengthis
unspentandtheyareintheprimeoftheirage:theyarebestforwork.
Theywillnotfightinthefurrowandbreaktheploughandthenleave
theworkundone.Letabriskfellowoffortyyearsfollowthem,witha
loafoffourquarters[1315]andeightslices[1316]forhisdinner,one
whowillattendtohisworkanddriveastraightfurrowandispastthe
ageforgapingafterhisfellows,butwillkeephismindonhiswork.No
youngermanwillbebetterthanheatscatteringtheseedandavoiding
doublesowing;foramanlessstaidgetsdisturbed,hankeringafterhis
fellows.
(ll.448457)Mark,whenyouhearthevoiceofthecrane[1317]who
criesyearbyyearfromthecloudsabove,forshegivethesignalfor
ploughingandshowstheseasonofrainywinter;butshevexestheheart
ofthemanwhohasnooxen.Thenisthetimetofeedupyourhorned
oxeninthebyre;foritiseasytosay:'Givemeayokeofoxenanda
waggon,'anditiseasytorefuse:'Ihaveworkformyoxen.'Theman
whoisrichinfancythinkshiswaggonasgoodasbuiltalreadythe
fool!Hedoesnotknowthatthereareahundredtimberstoawaggon.
Takecaretolaytheseupbeforehandathome.
(ll.458464)Sosoonasthetimeforploughingisproclaimedtomen,
thenmakehaste,youandyourslavesalike,inwetandindry,toplough
intheseasonforploughing,andbestiryourselfearlyinthemorningso
thatyourfieldsmaybefull.Ploughinthespring;butfallowbrokenup
inthesummerwillnotbelieyourhopes.Sowfallowlandwhenthe
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soilisstillgettinglight:fallowlandisadefenderfromharmanda
sootherofchildren.
(ll.465478)PraytoZeusoftheEarthandtopureDemetertomake
Demeter'sholygrainsoundandheavy,whenfirstyoubeginploughing,
whenyouholdinyourhandtheendoftheploughtailandbringdown
yourstickonthebacksoftheoxenastheydrawonthepolebarbythe
yokestraps.Letaslavefollowalittlebehindwithamattockandmake
troubleforthebirdsbyhidingtheseed;forgoodmanagementisthe
bestformortalmenasbadmanagementistheworst.Inthiswayyour
cornearswillbowtothegroundwithfullnessiftheOlympianhimself
givesagoodresultatthelast,andyouwillsweepthecobwebsfrom
yourbinsandyouwillbeglad,Iween,asyoutakeofyourgarnered
substance.Andsoyouwillhaveplentytillyoucometogrey[1318]
springtime,andwillnotlookwistfullytoothers,butanothershallbe
inneedofyourhelp.
(ll.479492)Butifyouploughthegoodgroundatthesolstice[1319],
youwillreapsitting,graspingathincropinyourhand,bindingthe
sheavesawry,dustcovered,notgladatall;soyouwillbringallhome
inabasketandnotmanywilladmireyou.YetthewillofZeuswhoholds
theaegisisdifferentatdifferenttimes;anditishardformortal
mentotellit;forifyoushouldploughlate,youmayfindthis
remedywhenthecuckoofirstcalls[1320]intheleavesoftheoakand
makesmengladallovertheboundlessearth,ifZeusshouldsendrain
onthethirddayandnotceaseuntilitrisesneitheraboveanox'shoof
norfallsshortofit,thenthelateplougherwillviewiththeearly.
Keepallthiswellinmind,andfailnottomarkgreyspringasitcomes
andtheseasonofrain.
(ll493501)Passbythesmithyanditscrowdedloungeinwintertime
whenthecoldkeepsmenfromfieldwork,forthenanindustriousman
cangreatlyprosperhishouselestbitterwintercatchyouhelplessand
poorandyouchafeaswollenfootwithashrunkhand.Theidleman
whowaitsonemptyhope,lackingalivelihood,laystoheart
mischiefmaking;itisnotanwholesomehopethataccompaniesaneedman
wholollsateasewhilehehasnosurelivelihood.
(ll.502503)Whileitisyetmidsummercommandyourslaves:'Itwill
notalwaysbesummer,buildbarns.'
(ll.504535)AvoidthemonthLenaeon[1321],wretcheddays,allofthem
fittoskinanox,andthefrostswhicharecruelwhenBoreasblowsover
theearth.HeblowsacrosshorsebreedingThraceuponthewideseaand
stirsitup,whileearthandtheforesthowl.Onmanyahighleafed
oakandthickpinehefallsandbringsthemtothebounteousearthin
mountainglens:thenalltheimmensewoodroarsandthebeastsshudder
andputtheirtailsbetweentheirlegs,eventhosewhosehideiscovered
withfur;forwithhisbitterblastheblowseventhroughthemalthough
theyareshaggybreasted.Hegoeseventhroughanox'shide;itdoesnot
stophim.Alsoheblowsthroughthegoat'sfinehair.Butthroughthe
fleecesofsheep,becausetheirwoolisabundant,thekeenwindBoreas
piercesnotatall;butitmakestheoldmancurvedasawheel.Andit
doesnotblowthroughthetendermaidenwhostaysindoorswithher
dearmother,unlearnedasyetintheworksofgoldenAphrodite,andwho
washeshersoftbodyandanointsherselfwithoilandliesdowninan
innerroomwithinthehouse,onawinter'sdaywhentheBonelessOne
[1322]gnawshisfootinhisfirelesshouseandwretchedhome;forthe
sunshowshimnopasturestomakefor,butgoestoandfroovertheland
andcityofduskymen[1323],andshinesmoresluggishlyuponthewhole
raceoftheHellenes.Thenthehornedandunhorneddenizensofthewood,
withteethchatteringpitifully,fleethroughthecopsesandglades,and
all,astheyseekshelter,havethisonecare,togainthickcovertsor
somehollowrock.Then,liketheThreeleggedOne[1324]whosebackis
brokenandwhoseheadlooksdownupontheground,likehim,Isay,they
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wandertoescapethewhitesnow.
(ll.536563)Thenputon,asIbidyou,asoftcoatandatunictothe
feettoshieldyourbody,andyoushouldweavethickwoofonthinwarp.
Inthisclotheyourselfsothatyourhairmaykeepstillandnotbristle
andstanduponendalloveryourbody.
Laceonyourfeetclosefittingbootsofthehideofaslaughteredox,
thicklylinedwithfeltinside.Andwhentheseasonoffrostcomeson,
stitchtogetherskinsoffirstlingkidswithoxsinew,toputoveryour
backandtokeepofftherain.Onyourheadabovewearashapedcap
offelttokeepyourearsfromgettingwet,forthedawnischillwhen
Boreashasoncemadehisonslaught,andatdawnafruitfulmistis
spreadovertheearthfromstarryheavenuponthefieldsofblessedmen:
itisdrawnfromtheeverflowingriversandisraisedhighabovethe
earthbywindstorm,andsometimesitturnstoraintowardsevening,and
sometimestowindwhenThracianBoreashuddlesthethickclouds.Finish
yourworkandreturnhomeaheadofhim,anddonotletthedarkcloud
fromheavenwraproundyouandmakeyourbodyclammyandsoakyour
clothes.Avoidit;forthisisthehardestmonth,wintry,hardforsheep
andhardformen.Inthisseasonletyouroxenhavehalftheirusual
food,butletyourmanhavemore;forthehelpfulnightsarelong.
Observeallthisuntiltheyearisendedandyouhavenightsanddays
ofequallength,andEarth,themotherofall,bearsagainhervarious
fruit.
(ll.564570)WhenZeushasfinishedsixtywintrydaysafterthe
solstice,thenthestarArcturus[1325]leavestheholystreamof
Oceanandfirstrisesbrilliantatdusk.Afterhimtheshrillywailing
daughterofPandion,theswallow,appearstomenwhenspringisjust
beginning.Beforeshecomes,prunethevines,foritisbestso.
(ll.571581)ButwhentheHousecarrier[1326]climbsuptheplants
fromtheearthtoescapethePleiades,thenitisnolongertheseason
fordiggingvineyards,buttowhetyoursicklesandrouseupyour
slaves.Avoidshadyseatsandsleepinguntildawnintheharvestseason,
whenthesunscorchesthebody.Thenbebusy,andbringhomeyour
fruits,gettingupearlytomakeyourlivelihoodsure.Fordawntakes
awayathirdpartofyourwork,dawnadvancesamanonhisjourneyand
advanceshiminhiswork,dawnwhichappearsandsetsmanymenontheir
road,andputsyokesonmanyoxen.
(ll.582596)Butwhentheartichokeflowers[1327],andthechirping
grasshoppersitsinatreeandpoursdownhisshrillsongcontinually
fromunderhiswingsintheseasonofwearisomeheat,thengoatsare
plumpestandwinesweetest;womenaremostwanton,butmenarefeeblest,
becauseSiriusparchesheadandkneesandtheskinisdrythroughheat.
ButatthattimeletmehaveashadyrockandwineofBiblis,aclotof
curdsandmilkofdrainedgoatswiththefleshofanheiferfedinthe
woods,thathasnevercalved,andoffirstlingkids;thenalsoletme
drinkbrightwine,sittingintheshade,whenmyheartissatisfied
withfood,andso,turningmyheadtofacethefreshZephyr,fromthe
everflowingspringwhichpoursdownunfouledthricepouranofferingof
water,butmakeafourthlibationofwine.
(ll.597608)SetyourslavestowinnowDemeter'sholygrain,when
strongOrion[1328]firstappears,onasmooththreshingfloorinan
airyplace.Thenmeasureitandstoreitinjars.Andsosoonasyou
havesafelystoredallyourstuffindoors,Ibidyouputyourbondman
outofdoorsandlookoutforaservantgirlwithnochildren;fora
servantwithachildtonurseistroublesome.Andlookafterthe
dogwithjaggedteeth;donotgrudgehimhisfood,orsometimethe
Daysleeper[1329]maytakeyourstuff.Bringinfodderandlitterso
astohaveenoughforyouroxenandmules.Afterthat,letyourmenrest
theirpoorkneesandunyokeyourpairofoxen.
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(ll.609617)ButwhenOrionandSiriusarecomeintomidheaven,
androsyfingeredDawnseesArcturus[1330],thencutoffallthe
grapeclusters,Perses,andbringthemhome.Showthemtothesunten
daysandtennights:thencoverthemoverforfive,andonthesixth
daydrawoffintovesselsthegiftsofjoyfulDionysus.Butwhenthe
PleiadesandHyadesandstrongOrionbegintoset[1331],thenremember
toploughinseason:andsothecompletedyear[1332]willfitlypass
beneaththeearth.
(ll.618640)Butifdesireforuncomfortableseafaringseizeyou;when
thePleiadesplungeintothemistysea[1333]toescapeOrion'srude
strength,thentrulygalesofallkindsrage.Thenkeepshipsnolonger
onthesparklingsea,butbethinkyoutotillthelandasIbidyou.
Haulupyourshipuponthelandandpackitcloselywithstonesall
roundtokeepoffthepowerofthewindswhichblowdamply,anddrawout
thebilgeplugsothattherainofheavenmaynotrotit.Putaway
allthetackleandfittingsinyourhouse,andstowthewingsofthe
seagoingshipneatly,andhangupthewellshapedrudderoverthe
smoke.Youyourselfwaituntiltheseasonforsailingiscome,andthen
haulyourswiftshipdowntotheseaandstowaconvenientcargoinit,
sothatyoumaybringhomeprofit,evenasyourfatherandmine,
foolishPerses,usedtosailonshipboardbecausehelackedsufficient
livelihood.Andonedayhecametothisveryplacecrossingovera
greatstretchofsea;heleftAeolianCymeandfled,notfromrichesand
substance,butfromwretchedpovertywhichZeuslaysuponmen,and
hesettlednearHeliconinamiserablehamlet,Ascra,whichisbadin
winter,sultryinsummer,andgoodatnotime.
(ll.641645)Butyou,Perses,rememberallworksintheirseasonbut
sailingespecially.Admireasmallship,butputyourfreightinalarge
one;forthegreaterthelading,thegreaterwillbeyourpiledgain,if
onlythewindswillkeepbacktheirharmfulgales.
(ll.646662)Ifeveryouturnyourmisguidedhearttotradingandwith
toescapefromdebtandjoylesshunger,Iwillshowyouthemeasuresof
theloudroaringsea,thoughIhavenoskillinseafaringnorinships;
forneveryethaveIsailedbyshipoverthewidesea,butonlyto
EuboeafromAuliswheretheAchaeansoncestayedthroughmuchstormwhen
theyhadgatheredagreathostfromdivineHellasforTroy,theland
offairwomen.ThenIcrossedovertoChalcis,tothegamesofwise
Amphidamaswherethesonsofthegreatheartedheroproclaimedand
appointedprizes.AndthereIboastthatIgainedthevictorywitha
songandcarriedoffanhandledtripodwhichIdedicatedtotheMusesof
Helicon,intheplacewheretheyfirstsetmeinthewayofclearsong.
Suchisallmyexperienceofmanypeggedships;neverthelessIwilltell
youthewillofZeuswhoholdstheaegis;fortheMuseshavetaughtme
tosinginmarvelloussong.
(ll.663677)Fiftydaysafterthesolstice[1334],whentheseason
ofwearisomeheatiscometoanend,istherighttimeformetogo
sailing.Thenyouwillnotwreckyourship,norwilltheseadestroythe
sailors,unlessPoseidontheEarthShakerbesetuponit,orZeus,the
kingofthedeathlessgods,wishtoslaythem;fortheissuesofgood
andevilalikearewiththem.Atthattimethewindsaresteady,and
theseaisharmless.Thentrustinthewindswithoutcare,andhaulyour
swiftshipdowntotheseaandputallthefreightonboard;butmake
allhasteyoucantoreturnhomeagainanddonotwaittillthetimeof
thenewwineandautumnrainandoncomingstormswiththefiercegales
ofNotuswhoaccompaniestheheavyautumnrainofZeusandstirsupthe
seaandmakesthedeepdangerous.
(ll.678694)Anothertimeformentogosailingisinspringwhena
manfirstseesleavesonthetopmostshootofafigtreeaslargeasthe
footprintthatacowmakes;thentheseaispassable,andthisisthe
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springsailingtime.FormypartIdonotpraiseit,formyheartdoes
notlikeit.Suchasailingissnatched,andyouwillhardlyavoid
mischief.Yetintheirignorancemendoeventhis,forwealthmeanslife
topoormortals;butitisfearfultodieamongthewaves.ButIbidyou
considerallthesethingsinyourheartasIsay.Donotputallyour
goodsinhallowships;leavethegreaterpartbehind,andputthelesser
partonboard;foritisabadbusinesstomeetwithdisasteramong
thewavesofthesea,asitisbadifyouputtoogreataloadonyour
waggonandbreaktheaxle,andyourgoodsarespoiled.Observedue
measure:andproportionisbestinallthings.
(ll.695705)Bringhomeawifetoyourhousewhenyouareoftheright
age,whileyouarenotfarshortofthirtyyearsnormuchabove;thisis
therightageformarriage.Letyourwifehavebeengrownupfouryears,
andmarryherinthefifth.Marryamaiden,sothatyoucanteachher
carefulways,andespeciallymarryonewholivesnearyou,butlook
wellaboutyouandseethatyourmarriagewillnotbeajoketoyour
neighbours.Foramanwinsnothingbetterthanagoodwife,and,again,
nothingworsethanabadone,agreedysoulwhoroastshermanwithout
fire,strongthoughhemaybe,andbringshimtoaraw[1335]oldage.
(ll.706714)Becarefultoavoidtheangerofthedeathlessgods.Do
notmakeafriendequaltoabrother;butifyoudo,donotwronghim
first,anddonotlietopleasethetongue.Butifhewrongsyoufirst,
offendingeitherinwordorindeed,remembertorepayhimdouble;
butifheaskyoutobehisfriendagainandbereadytogiveyou
satisfaction,welcomehim.Heisaworthlessmanwhomakesnowoneand
nowanotherhisfriend;butasforyou,donotletyourfaceputyour
hearttoshame[1336].
(ll.715716)Donotgetanameeitheraslavishoraschurlish;asa
friendofroguesorasaslandererofgoodmen.
(ll.717721)Neverdaretotauntamanwithdeadlypovertywhicheats
outtheheart;itissentbythedeathlessgods.Thebesttreasureaman
canhaveisasparingtongue,andthegreatestpleasure,onethatmoves
orderly;forifyouspeakevil,youyourselfwillsoonbeworsespoken
of.
(ll.722723)Donotbeboorishatacommonfeastwheretherearemany
guests;thepleasureisgreatestandtheexpenseisleast[1337].
(ll.724726)NeverpouralibationofsparklingwinetoZeusafterdawn
withunwashenhands,nortoothersofthedeathlessgods;elsetheydo
nothearyourprayersbutspitthemback.
(ll.727732)Donotstanduprightfacingthesunwhenyoumakewater,
butremembertodothiswhenhehassettowardshisrising.Anddonot
makewaterasyougo,whetherontheroadorofftheroad,anddonot
uncoveryourself:thenightsbelongtotheblessedgods.Ascrupulous
manwhohasawiseheartsitsdownorgoestothewallofanenclosed
court.
(ll.733736)Donotexposeyourselfbefouledbythefiresideinyour
house,butavoidthis.Donotbegetchildrenwhenyouarecomebackfrom
illomenedburial,butafterafestivalofthegods.
(ll.737741)Nevercrossthesweetflowingwaterofeverrollingrivers
afootuntilyouhaveprayed,gazingintothesoftflood,andwashedyour
handsintheclear,lovelywater.Whoevercrossesariverwithhands
unwashedofwickedness,thegodsareangrywithhimandbringtrouble
uponhimafterwards.
(ll.742743)Atacheerfulfestivalofthegodsdonotcutthewithered
fromthequickuponthatwhichhasfivebranches[1338]withbright
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steel.
(ll.744745)Neverputtheladleuponthemixingbowlatawineparty,
formalignantillluckisattachedtothat.
(ll.746747)Whenyouarebuildingahouse,donotleaveitroughhewn,
oracawingcrowmaysettleonitandcroak.
(ll.748749)Takenothingtoeatortowashwithfromuncharmedpots,
forinthemthereismischief.
(ll.750759)Donotletaboyoftwelveyearssitonthingswhichmay
notbemoved[1339],forthatisbad,andmakesamanunmanly;noryet
achildoftwelvemonths,forthathasthesameeffect.Amanshould
notcleanhisbodywithwaterinwhichawomanhaswashed,forthereis
bittermischiefinthatalsoforatime.Whenyoucomeuponaburning
sacrifice,donotmakeamockofmysteries,forHeavenisangryatthis
also.Nevermakewaterinthemouthsofriverswhichflowtothesea,
noryetinsprings;butbecarefultoavoidthis.Anddonotease
yourselfinthem:itisnotwelltodothis.
(ll.760763)Sodo:andavoidthetalkofmen.ForTalkismischievous,
light,andeasilyraised,buthardtobearanddifficulttoberidof.
Talkneverwhollydiesawaywhenmanypeoplevoiceher:evenTalkisin
somewaysdivine.
(ll.765767)MarkthedayswhichcomefromZeus,dulytellingyour
slavesofthem,andthatthethirtiethdayofthemonthisbestforone
tolookovertheworkandtodealoutsupplies.
(ll.769768)[1340]ForthesearedayswhichcomefromZeusthe
allwise,whenmendiscernaright.
(ll.770779)Tobeginwith,thefirst,thefourth,andtheseventhon
whichLetobareApollowiththebladeofgoldeachisaholyday.The
eighthandtheninth,twodaysatleastofthewaxingmonth[1341],are
speciallygoodfortheworksofman.Alsotheeleventhandtwelfthare
bothexcellent,alikeforshearingsheepandforreapingthekindly
fruits;butthetwelfthismuchbetterthantheeleventh,foronitthe
airyswingingspiderspinsitswebinfullday,andthentheWiseOne
[1342],gathersherpile.Onthatdaywomanshouldsetupherloomand
getforwardwithherwork.
(ll.780781)Avoidthethirteenthofthewaxingmonthforbeginningto
sow:yetitisthebestdayforsettingplants.
(ll.782789)Thesixthofthemidmonthisveryunfavourablefor
plants,butisgoodforthebirthofmales,thoughunfavourablefora
girleithertobebornatallortobemarried.Noristhefirstsixth
afitdayforagirltobeborn,butakindlyforgeldingkidsandsheep
andforfencinginasheepcote.Itisfavourableforthebirthofa
boy,butsuchwillbefondofsharpspeech,lies,andcunningwords,and
stealthyconverse.
(ll.790791)Ontheeighthofthemonthgeldtheboarand
loudbellowingbull,buthardworkingmulesonthetwelfth.
(ll.792799)Onthegreattwentieth,infullday,awisemanshouldbe
born.Suchanoneisverysoundwitted.Thetenthisfavourablefora
maletobeborn;but,foragirl,thefourthdayofthemidmonth.On
thatdaytamesheepandshambling,hornedoxen,andthesharpfanged
dogandhardymulestothetouchofthehand.Buttakecaretoavoid
troubleswhicheatouttheheartonthefourthofthebeginningand
endingofthemonth;itisadayveryfraughtwithfate.
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(ll.800801)Onthefourthofthemonthbringhomeyourbride,but
choosetheomenswhicharebestforthisbusiness.
(ll.802804)Avoidfifthdays:theyareunkindlyandterrible.Ona
fifthday,theysay,theErinyesassistedatthebirthofHorcus(Oath)
whomEris(Strife)baretotroubletheforsworn.{[09]}(ll.805809)
LookaboutyouverycarefullyandthrowoutDemeter'sholygrainupon
thewellrolled[1343]threshingfloorontheseventhofthemidmonth.
Letthewoodmancutbeamsforhousebuildingandplentyofships'
timbers,suchasaresuitableforships.Onthefourthdaybeginto
buildnarrowships.
(ll.810813)Theninthofthemidmonthimprovestowardsevening;but
thefirstninthofallisquiteharmlessformen.Itisagooddayon
whichtobegetortobebornbothforamaleandafemale:itisnever
anwhollyevilday.
(ll.814818)Again,fewknowthatthetwentyseventhofthemonthis
bestforopeningawinejar,andputtingyokesonthenecksofoxen
andmulesandswiftfootedhorses,andforhaulingaswiftshipofmany
thwartsdowntothesparklingsea;fewcallitbyitsrightname.
(ll.819821)Onthefourthdayopenajar.Thefourthofthemidmonth
isadayholyaboveall.Andagain,fewmenknowthatthefourthday
afterthetwentiethisbestwhileitismorning:towardseveningitis
lessgood.
(ll.822828)Thesedaysareagreatblessingtomenonearth;butthe
restarechangeable,luckless,andbringnothing.Everyonepraises
adifferentdaybutfewknowtheirnature.Sometimesadayisa
stepmother,sometimesamother.Thatmanishappyandluckyinthemwho
knowsallthesethingsanddoeshisworkwithoutoffendingthedeathless
gods,whodiscernstheomensofbirdsandavoidstransgressions.

THEDIVINATIONBYBIRDS(fragments)
ProclusonWorksandDays,828:Somemakethe"DivinationbyBirds",
whichApolloniusofRhodesrejectsasspurious,followthisverse
("WorksandDays",828).

THEASTRONOMY(fragments)
Fragment#1Athenaeusxi,p.491d:Andtheauthorof"TheAstronomy",
whichisattributedforsoothtoHesiod,alwayscallsthem(thePleiades)
Peleiades:'butmortalscallthemPeleiades';andagain,'thestormy
Peleiadesgodown';andagain,'thenthePeleiadeshideaway....'
ScholiastonPindar,Nem.ii.16:ThePleiades....whosestarsare
these:'LovelyTeygata,anddarkfacedElectra,andAlcyone,and
brightAsterope,andCelaeno,andMaia,andMerope,whomgloriousAtlas
begot....'((LACUNA))'InthemountainsofCylleneshe(Maia)bare
Hermes,theheraldofthegods.'
Fragment#2ScholiastonAratus254:ButZeusmadethem(thesistersof
Hyas)intothestarswhicharecalledHyades.HesiodinhisBookabout
Starstellsustheirnamesasfollows:'NymphsliketheGraces[1401],
PhaesyleandCoronisandrichcrownedCleeiaandlovelyPhacoand
longrobedEudora,whomthetribesofmenupontheearthcallHyades.'
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Fragment#3PseudoEratosthenesCatast.frag.1:[1402]TheGreat
Bear.]Hesiodsaysshe(Callisto)wasthedaughterofLycaonand
livedinArcadia.Shechosetooccupyherselfwithwildbeastsinthe
mountainstogetherwithArtemis,and,whenshewasseducedbyZeus,
continuedsometimeundetectedbythegoddess,butafterwards,whenshe
wasalreadywithchild,wasseenbyherbathingandsodiscovered.Upon
this,thegoddesswasenragedandchangedherintoabeast.Thusshe
becameabearandgavebirthtoasoncalledArcas.Butwhileshewasin
themountains,shewashuntedbysomegoatherdsandgivenupwith
herbabetoLycaon.Somewhileafter,shethoughtfittogointothe
forbiddenprecinctofZeus,notknowingthelaw,andbeingpursuedby
herownsonandtheArcadians,wasabouttobekilledbecauseofthe
saidlaw;butZeusdeliveredherbecauseofherconnectionwithhim
andputheramongthestars,givingherthenameBearbecauseofthe
misfortunewhichhadbefallenher.
Comm.Supplem.onAratus,p.547M.8:OfBootes,alsocalledthe
Bearwarden.ThestorygoesthatheisArcasthesonofCallistoand
Zeus,andhelivedinthecountryaboutLycaeum.AfterZeushadseduced
Callisto,Lycaon,pretendingnottoknowofthematter,entertained
Zeus,asHesiodsays,andsetbeforehimonthetablethebabewhichhe
hadcutup.
Fragment#4PseudoEratosthenes,Catast.fr.xxxii:Orion.]Hesiod
saysthathewasthesonofEuryale,thedaughterofMinos,andof
Poseidon,andthattherewasgivenhimasagiftthepowerofwalking
uponthewavesasthoughuponland.WhenhewascometoChios,he
outragedMerope,thedaughterofOenopion,beingdrunken;butOenopion
whenhelearnedofitwasgreatlyvexedattheoutrageandblindedhim
andcasthimoutofthecountry.ThenhecametoLemnosasabeggarand
theremetHephaestuswhotookpityonhimandgavehimCedalionhisown
servanttoguidehim.SoOriontookCedalionuponhisshouldersandused
tocarryhimaboutwhilehepointedouttheroads.Thenhecametothe
eastandappearstohavemetHelius(theSun)andtohavebeenhealed,
andsoreturnedbackagaintoOenopiontopunishhim;butOenopionwas
hiddenawaybyhispeopleunderground.Beingdisappointed,then,inhis
searchfortheking,OrionwentawaytoCreteandspenthistimehunting
incompanywithArtemisandLeto.Itseemsthathethreatenedtokill
everybeasttherewasonearth;whereupon,inheranger,Earthsentup
againsthimascorpionofverygreatsizebywhichhewasstungandso
perished.AfterthisZeus,atoneprayerofArtemisandLeto,puthim
amongthestars,becauseofhismanliness,andthescorpionalsoasa
memorialofhimandofwhathadoccurred.
Fragment#5Diodorusiv.85:Somesaythatgreatearthquakesoccurred,
whichbrokethroughtheneckoflandandformedthestraits[1403],the
seapartingthemainlandfromtheisland.ButHesiod,thepoet,says
justtheopposite:thattheseawasopen,butOrionpiledupthe
promontorybyPeloris,andfoundedthecloseofPoseidonwhichis
especiallyesteemedbythepeoplethereabouts.Whenhehadfinished
this,hewentawaytoEuboeaandsettledthere,andbecauseofhis
renownwastakenintothenumberofthestarsinheaven,andwonundying
remembrance.

THEPRECEPTSOFCHIRON(fragments)
Fragment#1ScholiastonPindar,Pyth.vi.19:'Andnow,pray,mark
allthesethingswellinawiseheart.First,wheneveryoucometoyour
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house,offergoodsacrificestotheeternalgods.'
Fragment#2PlutarchMor.1034E:'Decidenosuituntilyouhaveheard
bothsidesspeak.'
Fragment#3PlutarchdeOrac.defectuii.415C:'Achatteringcrow
livesoutninegenerationsofagedmen,butastag'slifeisfourtimes
acrow's,andaraven'slifemakesthreestagsold,whilethephoenix
outlivesnineravens,butwe,therichhairedNymphs,daughtersofZeus
theaegisholder,outlivetenphoenixes.'
Fragment#4Quintilian,i.15:Someconsiderthatchildrenunderthe
ageofsevenshouldnotreceivealiteraryeducation...ThatHesiod
wasofthisopinionverymanywritersaffirmwhowereearlierthanthe
criticAristophanes;forhewasthefirsttorejectthe"Precepts",in
whichbookthismaximoccurs,asaworkofthatpoet.

THEGREATWORKS(fragments)
Fragment#1Comm.onAristotle,NicomacheanEthics.v.8:Theverse,
however(theslayingofRhadamanthys),isinHesiodinthe"GreatWorks"
andisasfollows:'Ifamansowevil,heshallreapevilincrease;if
mendotohimashehasdone,itwillbetruejustice.'
Fragment#2ProclusonHesiod,WorksandDays,126:Somebelievethat
theSilverRace(istobeattributedto)theearth,declaringthatin
the"GreatWorks"HesiodmakessilvertobeofthefamilyofEarth.

THEIDAEANDACTYLS(fragments)
Fragment#1Pliny,NaturalHistoryvii.56,197:Hesiodsaysthatthose
whoarecalledtheIdaeanDactylstaughtthesmeltingandtemperingof
ironinCrete.
Fragment#2Clement,Stromateisi.16.75:Celmis,again,and
Damnameneus,thefirstoftheIdaeanDactyls,discoveredironinCyprus;
butbronzesmeltingwasdiscoveredbyDelas,anotherIdaean,though
HesiodcallshimScythes[1501].

THETHEOGONY(1,041lines)
(ll.125)FromtheHeliconianMusesletusbegintosing,whohold
thegreatandholymountofHelicon,anddanceonsoftfeetaboutthe
deepbluespringandthealtarofthealmightysonofCronos,and,when
theyhavewashedtheirtenderbodiesinPermessusorintheHorse's
SpringorOlmeius,maketheirfair,lovelydancesuponhighestHelicon
andmovewithvigorousfeet.Thencetheyariseandgoabroadbynight,
veiledinthickmist,anduttertheirsongwithlovelyvoice,praising
ZeustheaegisholderandqueenlyHeraofArgoswhowalksongolden
sandalsandthedaughterofZeustheaegisholderbrighteyedAthene,
andPhoebusApollo,andArtemiswhodelightsinarrows,andPoseidon
theearthholderwhoshakestheearth,andreverendThemisand
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quickglancing[1601]Aphrodite,andHebewiththecrownofgold,and
fairDione,Leto,Iapetus,andCronosthecraftycounsellor,Eosand
greatHeliusandbrightSelene,Earthtoo,andgreatOceanus,anddark
Night,andtheholyraceofalltheotherdeathlessonesthatare
forever.AndonedaytheytaughtHesiodglorioussongwhilehewas
shepherdinghislambsunderholyHelicon,andthiswordfirstthe
goddessessaidtometheMusesofOlympus,daughtersofZeuswhoholds
theaegis:
(ll.2628)'Shepherdsofthewilderness,wretchedthingsofshame,
merebellies,weknowhowtospeakmanyfalsethingsasthoughtheywere
true;butweknow,whenwewill,touttertruethings.'
(ll.2935)SosaidthereadyvoiceddaughtersofgreatZeus,andthey
pluckedandgavemearod,ashootofsturdylaurel,amarvellousthing,
andbreathedintomeadivinevoicetocelebratethingsthatshallbe
andthingstherewereaforetime;andtheybademesingoftheraceof
theblessedgodsthatareeternally,butevertosingofthemselvesboth
firstandlast.Butwhyallthisaboutoakorstone?[1602]
(ll.3652)Comethou,letusbeginwiththeMuseswhogladdenthegreat
spiritoftheirfatherZeusinOlympuswiththeirsongs,telling
ofthingsthatareandthatshallbeandthatwereaforetimewith
consentingvoice.Unwearyingflowsthesweetsoundfromtheirlips,
andthehouseoftheirfatherZeustheloudthundererisgladatthe
lilylikevoiceofthegoddessesasitspreadabroad,andthepeaksof
snowyOlympusresound,andthehomesoftheimmortals.Andtheyuttering
theirimmortalvoice,celebrateinsongfirstofallthereverendrace
ofthegodsfromthebeginning,thosewhomEarthandwideHeavenbegot,
andthegodssprungofthese,giversofgoodthings.Then,next,the
goddessessingofZeus,thefatherofgodsandmen,astheybeginand
endtheirstrain,howmuchheisthemostexcellentamongthegods
andsupremeinpower.Andagain,theychanttheraceofmenandstrong
giants,andgladdentheheartofZeuswithinOlympus,theOlympian
Muses,daughtersofZeustheaegisholder.
(ll.5374)TheminPieriadidMnemosyne(Memory),whoreignsoverthe
hillsofEleuther,bearofunionwiththefather,thesonofCronos,a
forgettingofillsandarestfromsorrow.ForninenightsdidwiseZeus
liewithher,enteringherholybedremotefromtheimmortals.Andwhen
ayearwaspassedandtheseasonscameroundasthemonthswaned,and
manydayswereaccomplished,shebareninedaughters,allofonemind,
whoseheartsaresetuponsongandtheirspiritfreefromcare,alittle
wayfromthetopmostpeakofsnowyOlympus.Therearetheirbright
dancingplacesandbeautifulhomes,andbesidethemtheGracesand
Himerus(Desire)liveindelight.Andthey,utteringthroughtheir
lipsalovelyvoice,singthelawsofallandthegoodlywaysofthe
immortals,utteringtheirlovelyvoice.ThenwenttheytoOlympus,
delightingintheirsweetvoice,withheavenlysong,andthedarkearth
resoundedaboutthemastheychanted,andalovelysoundroseupbeneath
theirfeetastheywenttotheirfather.Andhewasreigninginheaven,
himselfholdingthelightningandglowingthunderbolt,whenhehad
overcomebymighthisfatherCronos;andhedistributedfairlytothe
immortalstheirportionsanddeclaredtheirprivileges.
(ll.75103)Thesethings,then,theMusessangwhodwellonOlympus,
ninedaughtersbegottenbygreatZeus,CleioandEuterpe,Thaleia,
MelpomeneandTerpsichore,andEratoandPolyhymniaandUraniaand
Calliope[1603],whoisthechiefestofthemall,forsheattendson
worshipfulprinces:whomsoeverofheavennourishedprincesthedaughters
ofgreatZeushonour,andbeholdhimathisbirth,theypoursweetdew
uponhistongue,andfromhislipsflowgraciouswords.Allthepeople
looktowardshimwhilehesettlescauseswithtruejudgements:andhe,
speakingsurely,wouldsoonmakewiseendevenofagreatquarrel;for
thereforearethereprinceswiseinheart,becausewhenthepeopleare
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beingmisguidedintheirassembly,theysetrightthematteragainwith
ease,persuadingthemwithgentlewords.Andwhenhepassesthrough
agathering,theygreethimasagodwithgentlereverence,andheis
conspicuousamongsttheassembled:suchistheholygiftoftheMusesto
men.ForitisthroughtheMusesandfarshootingApollothatthereare
singersandharpersupontheearth;butprincesareofZeus,andhappy
ishewhomtheMuseslove:sweetflowsspeechfromhismouth.Forthough
amanhavesorrowandgriefinhisnewlytroubledsoulandliveindread
becausehisheartisdistressed,yet,whenasinger,theservantofthe
Muses,chantsthegloriousdeedsofmenofoldandtheblessedgodswho
inhabitOlympus,atonceheforgetshisheavinessandremembersnothis
sorrowsatall;butthegiftsofthegoddessessoonturnhimawayfrom
these.
(ll.104115)Hail,childrenofZeus!Grantlovelysongandcelebrate
theholyraceofthedeathlessgodswhoareforever,thosethatwere
bornofEarthandstarryHeavenandgloomyNightandthemthatbrinySea
didrear.Tellhowatthefirstgodsandearthcametobe,andrivers,
andtheboundlessseawithitsragingswell,andthegleamingstars,
andthewideheavenabove,andthegodswhowerebornofthem,givers
ofgoodthings,andhowtheydividedtheirwealth,andhowthey
sharedtheirhonoursamongstthem,andalsohowatthefirsttheytook
manyfoldedOlympus.Thesethingsdeclaretomefromthebeginning,ye
MuseswhodwellinthehouseofOlympus,andtellmewhichofthemfirst
cametobe.
(ll.116138)VerilyatthefirstChaoscametobe,butnext
widebosomedEarth,theeversurefoundationsofall[1604]the
deathlessoneswhoholdthepeaksofsnowyOlympus,anddimTartarusin
thedepthofthewidepathedEarth,andEros(Love),fairestamongthe
deathlessgods,whounnervesthelimbsandovercomesthemindandwise
counselsofallgodsandallmenwithinthem.FromChaoscameforth
ErebusandblackNight;butofNightwerebornAether[1605]andDay,
whomsheconceivedandbarefromunioninlovewithErebus.AndEarth
firstbarestarryHeaven,equaltoherself,tocoverheroneveryside,
andtobeaneversureabidingplacefortheblessedgods.Andshe
broughtforthlongHills,gracefulhauntsofthegoddessNymphswho
dwellamongsttheglensofthehills.Shebarealsothefruitless
deepwithhisragingswell,Pontus,withoutsweetunionoflove.But
afterwardsshelaywithHeavenandbaredeepswirlingOceanus,Coeusand
CriusandHyperionandIapetus,TheiaandRhea,ThemisandMnemosyneand
goldcrownedPhoebeandlovelyTethys.AfterthemwasbornCronosthe
wily,youngestandmostterribleofherchildren,andhehatedhislusty
sire.
(ll.139146)Andagain,shebaretheCyclopes,overbearinginspirit,
Brontes,andSteropesandstubbornheartedArges[1606],whogaveZeus
thethunderandmadethethunderbolt:inallelsetheywerelikethe
gods,butoneeyeonlywassetinthemidstoftheirforeheads.And
theyweresurnamedCyclopes(Orbeyed)becauseoneorbedeyewassetin
theirforeheads.Strengthandmightandcraftwereintheirworks.
(ll.147163)Andagain,threeothersonswerebornofEarthand
Heaven,greatanddoughtybeyondtelling,CottusandBriareosandGyes,
presumptuouschildren.Fromtheirshouldersspranganhundredarms,not
tobeapproached,andeachhadfiftyheadsuponhisshouldersontheir
stronglimbs,andirresistiblewasthestubbornstrengththatwasin
theirgreatforms.ForofallthechildrenthatwerebornofEarthand
Heaven,thesewerethemostterrible,andtheywerehatedbytheirown
fatherfromthefirst.
AndheusedtohidethemallawayinasecretplaceofEarthsosoonas
eachwasborn,andwouldnotsufferthemtocomeupintothelight:and
Heavenrejoicedinhisevildoing.ButvastEarthgroanedwithin,being
straitened,andshemadetheelementofgreyflintandshapedagreat
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sickle,andtoldherplantoherdearsons.Andshespoke,cheering
them,whileshewasvexedinherdearheart:
(ll.164166)'Mychildren,gottenofasinfulfather,ifyouwill
obeyme,weshouldpunishthevileoutrageofyourfather;forhefirst
thoughtofdoingshamefulthings.'
(ll.167169)Soshesaid;butfearseizedthemall,andnoneofthem
utteredaword.ButgreatCronosthewilytookcourageandansweredhis
dearmother:
(ll.170172)'Mother,Iwillundertaketodothisdeed,forIreverence
notourfatherofevilname,forhefirstthoughtofdoingshameful
things.'
(ll.173175)Sohesaid:andvastEarthrejoicedgreatlyinspirit,and
setandhidhiminanambush,andputinhishandsajaggedsickle,and
revealedtohimthewholeplot.
(ll.176206)AndHeavencame,bringingonnightandlongingforlove,
andhelayaboutEarthspreadinghimselffulluponher[1607].
Thenthesonfromhisambushstretchedforthhislefthandandinhis
righttookthegreatlongsicklewithjaggedteeth,andswiftlylopped
offhisownfather'smembersandcastthemawaytofallbehindhim.And
notvainlydidtheyfallfromhishand;forallthebloodydropsthat
gushedforthEarthreceived,andastheseasonsmovedroundshebarethe
strongErinyesandthegreatGiantswithgleamingarmour,holdinglong
spearsintheirhandsandtheNymphswhomtheycallMeliae[1608]all
overtheboundlessearth.Andsosoonashehadcutoffthememberswith
flintandcastthemfromthelandintothesurgingsea,theywereswept
awayoverthemainalongtime:andawhitefoamspreadaroundthemfrom
theimmortalflesh,andinittheregrewamaiden.Firstshedrewnear
holyCythera,andfromthere,afterwards,shecametoseagirtCyprus,
andcameforthanawfulandlovelygoddess,andgrassgrewupabout
herbeneathhershapelyfeet.HergodsandmencallAphrodite,andthe
foamborngoddessandrichcrownedCytherea,becauseshegrewamidthe
foam,andCythereabecauseshereachedCythera,andCyprogenesbecause
shewasborninbillowyCyprus,andPhilommedes[1609]becausesprang
fromthemembers.AndwithherwentEros,andcomelyDesirefollowedher
atherbirthatthefirstandasshewentintotheassemblyofthegods.
Thishonourshehasfromthebeginning,andthisistheportionallotted
toheramongstmenandundyinggods,thewhisperingsofmaidensand
smilesanddeceitswithsweetdelightandloveandgraciousness.
(ll.207210)ButthesesonswhomhebegothimselfgreatHeavenusedto
callTitans(Strainers)inreproach,forhesaidthattheystrainedand
didpresumptuouslyafearfuldeed,andthatvengeanceforitwouldcome
afterwards.
(ll.211225)AndNightbarehatefulDoomandblackFateandDeath,
andshebareSleepandthetribeofDreams.Andagainthegoddessmurky
Night,thoughshelaywithnone,bareBlameandpainfulWoe,andthe
Hesperideswhoguardtherich,goldenapplesandthetreesbearingfruit
beyondgloriousOcean.AlsoshebaretheDestiniesandruthlessavenging
Fates,ClothoandLachesisandAtropos[1610],whogivemenattheir
birthbothevilandgoodtohave,andtheypursuethetransgressionsof
menandofgods:andthesegoddessesneverceasefromtheirdreadanger
untiltheypunishthesinnerwithasorepenalty.AlsodeadlyNightbare
Nemesis(Indignation)toafflictmortalmen,andafterher,Deceitand
FriendshipandhatefulAgeandhardheartedStrife.
(ll.226232)ButabhorredStrifebarepainfulToilandForgetfulness
andFamineandtearfulSorrows,Fightingsalso,Battles,Murders,
Manslaughters,Quarrels,LyingWords,Disputes,LawlessnessandRuin,
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allofonenature,andOathwhomosttroublesmenuponearthwhenanyone
wilfullyswearsafalseoath.
(ll.233239)AndSeabegatNereus,theeldestofhischildren,whois
trueandliesnot:andmencallhimtheOldManbecauseheistrustyand
gentleanddoesnotforgetthelawsofrighteousness,butthinksjust
andkindlythoughts.AndyetagainhegotgreatThaumasandproud
Phorcys,beingmatedwithEarth,andfaircheekedCetoandEurybiawho
hasaheartofflintwithinher.
(ll.240264)AndofNereusandrichhairedDoris,daughterofOcean
theperfectriver,werebornchildren[1611],passinglovelyamongst
goddesses,Ploto,Eucrante,Sao,andAmphitrite,andEudora,andThetis,
GaleneandGlauce,Cymothoe,Speo,ThoeandlovelyHalie,andPasithea,
andErato,androsyarmedEunice,andgraciousMelite,andEulimene,and
Agaue,Doto,Proto,Pherusa,andDynamene,andNisaea,andActaea,and
Protomedea,Doris,Panopea,andcomelyGalatea,andlovelyHippothoe,
androsyarmedHipponoe,andCymodocewhowithCymatolege[1612]and
Amphitriteeasilycalmsthewavesuponthemistyseaandtheblasts
ofragingwinds,andCymo,andEione,andrichcrownedAlimede,and
Glauconome,fondoflaughter,andPontoporea,Leagore,Euagore,and
Laomedea,andPolynoe,andAutonoe,andLysianassa,andEuarne,lovely
ofshapeandwithoutblemishofform,andPsamatheofcharmingfigure
anddivineMenippe,Neso,Eupompe,Themisto,Pronoe,andNemertes[1613]
whohasthenatureofherdeathlessfather.Thesefiftydaughterssprang
fromblamelessNereus,skilledinexcellentcrafts.
(ll.265269)AndThaumasweddedElectrathedaughterofdeepflowing
Ocean,andshebarehimswiftIrisandthelonghairedHarpies,Aello
(Stormswift)andOcypetes(Swiftflier)whoontheirswiftwingskeep
pacewiththeblastsofthewindsandthebirds;forquickastimethey
dartalong.
(ll270294)Andagain,CetobaretoPhorcysthefaircheekedGraiae,
sistersgreyfromtheirbirth:andbothdeathlessgodsandmenwhowalk
onearthcallthemGraiae,Pemphredowellclad,andsaffronrobedEnyo,
andtheGorgonswhodwellbeyondgloriousOceaninthefrontierland
towardsNightwherearetheclearvoicedHesperides,Sthenno,and
Euryale,andMedusawhosufferedawoefulfate:shewasmortal,but
thetwowereundyingandgrewnotold.WithherlaytheDarkhairedOne
[1614]inasoftmeadowamidspringflowers.AndwhenPerseuscutoff
herhead,theresprangforthgreatChrysaorandthehorsePegasuswho
issocalledbecausehewasbornnearthesprings(pegae)ofOcean;
andthatother,becauseheheldagoldenblade(aor)inhishands.Now
Pegasusflewawayandlefttheearth,themotherofflocks,andcame
tothedeathlessgods:andhedwellsinthehouseofZeusandbringsto
wiseZeusthethunderandlightning.ButChrysaorwasjoinedinlove
toCallirrhoe,thedaughterofgloriousOcean,andbegotthreeheaded
Geryones.HimmightyHeraclesslewinseagirtErytheabyhisshambling
oxenonthatdaywhenhedrovethewidebrowedoxentoholyTiryns,
andhadcrossedthefordofOceanandkilledOrthusandEurytionthe
herdsmaninthedimsteadoutbeyondgloriousOcean.
(ll.295305)Andinahollowcaveshebareanothermonster,
irresistible,innowiselikeeithertomortalmenortotheundying
gods,eventhegoddessfierceEchidnawhoishalfanymphwithglancing
eyesandfaircheeks,andhalfagainahugesnake,greatandawful,with
speckledskin,eatingrawfleshbeneaththesecretpartsoftheholy
earth.Andthereshehasacavedeepdownunderahollowrockfarfrom
thedeathlessgodsandmortalmen.There,then,didthegodsappointher
aglorioushousetodwellin:andshekeepsguardinArimabeneaththe
earth,grimEchidna,anymphwhodiesnotnorgrowsoldallherdays.
(ll.306332)MensaythatTyphaontheterrible,outrageousandlawless,
wasjoinedinlovetoher,themaidwithglancingeyes.Sosheconceived
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andbroughtforthfierceoffspring;firstshebareOrthusthehoundof
Geryones,andthenagainshebareasecond,amonsternottobe
overcomeandthatmaynotbedescribed,Cerberuswhoeatsrawflesh,the
brazenvoicedhoundofHades,fiftyheaded,relentlessandstrong.
Andagainsheboreathird,theevilmindedHydraofLerna,whomthe
goddess,whitearmedHeranourished,beingangrybeyondmeasurewith
themightyHeracles.AndherHeracles,thesonofZeus,ofthehouseof
Amphitryon,togetherwithwarlikeIolaus,destroyedwiththeunpitying
swordthroughtheplansofAthenethespoildriver.Shewasthemother
ofChimaerawhobreathedragingfire,acreaturefearful,great,
swiftfootedandstrong,whohadthreeheads,oneofagrimeyedlion;
inherhinderpart,adragon;andinhermiddle,agoat,breathingforth
afearfulblastofblazingfire.HerdidPegasusandnobleBellerophon
slay;butEchidnawassubjectinlovetoOrthusandbroughtforththe
deadlySphinxwhichdestroyedtheCadmeans,andtheNemeanlion,which
Hera,thegoodwifeofZeus,broughtupandmadetohauntthehills
ofNemea,aplaguetomen.Therehepreyeduponthetribesofherown
peopleandhadpoweroverTretusofNemeaandApesas:yetthestrength
ofstoutHeraclesovercamehim.
(ll.333336)AndCetowasjoinedinlovetoPhorcysandbareher
youngest,theawfulsnakewhoguardstheapplesallofgoldinthe
secretplacesofthedarkearthatitsgreatbounds.Thisisthe
offspringofCetoandPhorcys.
(ll.334345)AndTethysbaretoOceaneddyingrivers,Nilus,and
Alpheus,anddeepswirlingEridanus,Strymon,andMeander,andthe
fairstreamofIster,andPhasis,andRhesus,andthesilvereddiesof
Achelous,Nessus,andRhodius,Haliacmon,andHeptaporus,Granicus,
andAesepus,andholySimois,andPeneus,andHermus,andCaicusfair
stream,andgreatSangarius,Ladon,Parthenius,Euenus,Ardescus,and
divineScamander.
(ll.346370)Alsoshebroughtforthaholycompanyofdaughters[1615]
whowiththelordApolloandtheRivershaveyouthsintheirkeepingto
thischargeZeusappointedthemPeitho,andAdmete,andIanthe,and
Electra,andDoris,andPrymno,andUraniadivineinform,Hippo,
Clymene,Rhodea,andCallirrhoe,ZeuxoandClytie,andIdyia,and
Pasithoe,Plexaura,andGalaxaura,andlovelyDione,MelobosisandThoe
andhandsomePolydora,Cerceislovelyofform,andsofteyedPluto,
Perseis,Ianeira,Acaste,Xanthe,Petraeathefair,Menestho,and
Europa,Metis,andEurynome,andTelestosaffronclad,ChryseisandAsia
andcharmingCalypso,Eudora,andTyche,Amphirho,andOcyrrhoe,and
Styxwhoisthechiefestofthemall.Thesearetheeldestdaughters
thatsprangfromOceanandTethys;buttherearemanybesides.Forthere
arethreethousandneatankleddaughtersofOceanwhoaredispersedfar
andwide,andineveryplacealikeservetheearthandthedeepwaters,
childrenwhoaregloriousamonggoddesses.Andasmanyotherriversare
there,babblingastheyflow,sonsofOcean,whomqueenlyTethysbare,
buttheirnamesitishardforamortalmantotell,butpeopleknow
thosebywhichtheyseverallydwell.
(ll.371374)AndTheiawassubjectinlovetoHyperionandbaregreat
Helius(Sun)andclearSelene(Moon)andEos(Dawn)whoshinesupon
allthatareonearthanduponthedeathlessGodswholiveinthewide
heaven.
(ll.375377)AndEurybia,brightgoddess,wasjoinedinlovetoCrius
andbaregreatAstraeus,andPallas,andPerseswhoalsowaseminent
amongallmeninwisdom.
(ll.378382)AndEosbaretoAstraeusthestrongheartedwinds,
brighteningZephyrus,andBoreas,headlonginhiscourse,andNotus,a
goddessmatinginlovewithagod.AndaftertheseErigenia[1616]bare
thestarEosphorus(Dawnbringer),andthegleamingstarswithwhich
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heaveniscrowned.
(ll.383403)AndStyxthedaughterofOceanwasjoinedtoPallasand
bareZelus(Emulation)andtrimankledNike(Victory)inthehouse.Also
shebroughtforthCratos(Strength)andBia(Force),wonderfulchildren.
ThesehavenohouseapartfromZeus,noranydwellingnorpathexcept
thatwhereinGodleadsthem,buttheydwellalwayswithZeusthe
loudthunderer.ForsodidStyxthedeathlessdaughterofOceanplanon
thatdaywhentheOlympianLightenercalledallthedeathlessgodsto
greatOlympus,andsaidthatwhosoeverofthegodswouldfightwithhim
againsttheTitans,hewouldnotcasthimoutfromhisrights,buteach
shouldhavetheofficewhichhehadbeforeamongstthedeathlessgods.
AndhedeclaredthathewhowaswithoutofficeandrightsunderCronos,
shouldberaisedtobothofficeandrightsasisjust.So
deathlessStyxcamefirsttoOlympuswithherchildrenthroughthe
witofherdearfather.AndZeushonouredher,andgaveherverygreat
gifts,forherheappointedtobethegreatoathofthegods,andher
childrentolivewithhimalways.Andashepromised,soheperformed
fullyuntothemall.Buthehimselfmightilyreignsandrules.
(ll.404452)Again,PhoebecametothedesiredembraceofCoeus.
Thenthegoddessthroughtheloveofthegodconceivedandbroughtforth
darkgownedLeto,alwaysmild,kindtomenandtothedeathlessgods,
mildfromthebeginning,gentlestinallOlympus.AlsoshebareAsteria
ofhappyname,whomPersesonceledtohisgreathousetobecalledhis
dearwife.AndsheconceivedandbareHecatewhomZeusthesonofCronos
honouredaboveall.Hegavehersplendidgifts,tohaveashareofthe
earthandtheunfruitfulsea.Shereceivedhonouralsoinstarryheaven,
andishonouredexceedinglybythedeathlessgods.Fortothisday,
wheneveranyoneofmenonearthoffersrichsacrificesandpraysfor
favouraccordingtocustom,hecallsuponHecate.Greathonourcomes
fulleasilytohimwhoseprayersthegoddessreceivesfavourably,and
shebestowswealthuponhim;forthepowersurelyiswithher.Foras
manyaswerebornofEarthandOceanamongstalltheseshehasherdue
portion.ThesonofCronosdidhernowrongnortookanythingawayof
allthatwasherportionamongtheformerTitangods:butsheholds,
asthedivisionwasatthefirstfromthebeginning,privilegebothin
earth,andinheaven,andinsea.Also,becausesheisanonlychild,
thegoddessreceivesnotlesshonour,butmuchmorestill,forZeus
honoursher.Whomshewillshegreatlyaidsandadvances:shesitsby
worshipfulkingsinjudgement,andintheassemblywhomshewillis
distinguishedamongthepeople.Andwhenmenarmthemselvesforthe
battlethatdestroysmen,thenthegoddessisathandtogivevictory
andgrantgloryreadilytowhomshewill.Goodisshealsowhenmen
contendatthegames,fortheretoothegoddessiswiththemandprofits
them:andhewhobymightandstrengthgetsthevictorywinstherich
prizeeasilywithjoy,andbringsglorytohisparents.Andsheisgood
tostandbyhorsemen,whomshewill:andtothosewhosebusinessis
inthegreydiscomfortablesea,andwhopraytoHecateandthe
loudcrashingEarthShaker,easilythegloriousgoddessgivesgreat
catch,andeasilyshetakesitawayassoonasseen,ifsoshewill.
SheisgoodinthebyrewithHermestoincreasethestock.Thedroves
ofkineandwideherdsofgoatsandflocksoffleecysheep,ifshewill,
sheincreasesfromafew,ormakesmanytobeless.So,then.albeither
mother'sonlychild[1617],sheishonouredamongstallthedeathless
gods.AndthesonofCronosmadeheranurseoftheyoungwhoafter
thatdaysawwiththeireyesthelightofallseeingDawn.Sofromthe
beginningsheisanurseoftheyoung,andtheseareherhonours.
(ll.453491)ButRheawassubjectinlovetoCronosandbaresplendid
children,Hestia[1618],Demeter,andgoldshodHeraandstrongHades,
pitilessinheart,whodwellsundertheearth,andtheloudcrashing
EarthShaker,andwiseZeus,fatherofgodsandmen,bywhosethunder
thewideearthisshaken.ThesegreatCronosswallowedaseachcame
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forthfromthewombtohismother'skneeswiththisintent,thatno
otheroftheproudsonsofHeavenshouldholdthekinglyofficeamongst
thedeathlessgods.ForhelearnedfromEarthandstarryHeaventhat
hewasdestinedtobeovercomebyhisownson,strongthoughhewas,
throughthecontrivingofgreatZeus[1619].Thereforehekeptnoblind
outlook,butwatchedandswalloweddownhischildren:andunceasing
griefseizedRhea.ButwhenshewasabouttobearZeus,thefatherof
godsandmen,thenshebesoughtherowndearparents,Earthandstarry
Heaven,todevisesomeplanwithherthatthebirthofherdearchild
mightbeconcealed,andthatretributionmightovertakegreat,crafty
Cronosforhisownfatherandalsoforthechildrenwhomhehad
swalloweddown.Andtheyreadilyheardandobeyedtheirdeardaughter,
andtoldherallthatwasdestinedtohappentouchingCronostheking
andhisstoutheartedson.SotheysenthertoLyetus,totherichland
ofCrete,whenshewasreadytobeargreatZeus,theyoungestofher
children.HimdidvastEarthreceivefromRheainwideCretetonourish
andtobringup.ThithercameEarthcarryinghimswiftlythroughthe
blacknighttoLyctusfirst,andtookhiminherarmsandhidhimina
remotecavebeneaththesecretplacesoftheholyearthonthickwooded
MountAegeum;buttothemightilyrulingsonofHeaven,theearlierking
ofthegods,shegaveagreatstonewrappedinswaddlingclothes.Then
hetookitinhishandsandthrustitdownintohisbelly:wretch!
heknewnotinhisheartthatinplaceofthestonehissonwasleft
behind,unconqueredanduntroubled,andthathewassoontoovercomehim
byforceandmightanddrivehimfromhishonours,himselftoreignover
thedeathlessgods.
(ll.492506)Afterthat,thestrengthandgloriouslimbsoftheprince
increasedquickly,andastheyearsrolledon,greatCronosthewily
wasbeguiledbythedeepsuggestionsofEarth,andbroughtupagain
hisoffspring,vanquishedbytheartsandmightofhisownson,andhe
vomitedupfirstthestonewhichhehadswallowedlast.AndZeusset
itfastinthewidepathedearthatgoodlyPythoundertheglensof
Parnassus,tobeasignthenceforthandamarveltomortalmen[1620].
Andhesetfreefromtheirdeadlybondsthebrothersofhisfather,
sonsofHeavenwhomhisfatherinhisfoolishnesshadbound.Andthey
rememberedtobegratefultohimforhiskindness,andgavehimthunder
andtheglowingthunderboltandlightening:forbeforethat,huge
Earthhadhiddenthese.Inthemhetrustsandrulesovermortalsand
immortals.
(ll.507543)NowIapetustooktowifetheneatankledmadClymene,
daughterofOcean,andwentupwithherintoonebed.Andshebarehim
astoutheartedson,Atlas:alsoshebareverygloriousMenoetiusand
cleverPrometheus,fullofvariouswiles,andscatterbrainedEpimetheus
whofromthefirstwasamischieftomenwhoeatbread;foritwashe
whofirsttookofZeusthewoman,themaidenwhomhehadformed.But
Menoetiuswasoutrageous,andfarseeingZeusstruckhimwithalurid
thunderboltandsenthimdowntoErebusbecauseofhismadpresumption
andexceedingpride.AndAtlasthroughhardconstraintupholdsthewide
heavenwithunwearyingheadandarms,standingatthebordersof
theearthbeforetheclearvoicedHesperides;forthislotwiseZeus
assignedtohim.AndreadywittedPrometheusheboundwithinextricable
bonds,cruelchains,anddroveashaftthroughhismiddle,andseton
himalongwingedeagle,whichusedtoeathisimmortalliver;butby
nightthelivergrewasmuchagaineverywayasthelongwingedbird
devouredinthewholeday.ThatbirdHeracles,thevaliantsonof
shapelyankledAlcmene,slew;anddeliveredthesonofIapetusfromthe
cruelplague,andreleasedhimfromhisafflictionnotwithoutthe
willofOlympianZeuswhoreignsonhigh,thatthegloryofHeraclesthe
Thebanbornmightbeyetgreaterthanitwasbeforeovertheplenteous
earth.This,then,heregarded,andhonouredhisfamousson;though
hewasangry,heceasedfromthewrathwhichhehadbeforebecause
PrometheusmatchedhimselfinwitwiththealmightysonofCronos.
ForwhenthegodsandmortalmenhadadisputeatMecone,eventhen
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Prometheuswasforwardtocutupagreatoxandsetportionsbefore
them,tryingtobefoolthemindofZeus.Beforetheresthesetflesh
andinnerpartsthickwithfatuponthehide,coveringthemwithanox
paunch;butforZeusheputthewhitebonesdressedupwithcunningart
andcoveredwithshiningfat.Thenthefatherofmenandofgodssaidto
him:
(ll.543544)'SonofIapetus,mostgloriousofalllords,goodsir,how
unfairlyyouhavedividedtheportions!'
(ll.545547)SosaidZeuswhosewisdomiseverlasting,rebukinghim.
ButwilyPrometheusansweredhim,smilingsoftlyandnotforgettinghis
cunningtrick:
(ll.548558)'Zeus,mostgloriousandgreatestoftheeternalgods,
takewhicheveroftheseportionsyourheartwithinyoubids.'Sohe
said,thinkingtrickery.ButZeus,whosewisdomiseverlasting,sawand
failednottoperceivethetrick,andinhishearthethoughtmischief
againstmortalmenwhichalsowastobefulfilled.Withbothhandshe
tookupthewhitefatandwasangryatheart,andwrathcametohis
spiritwhenhesawthewhiteoxbonescraftilytrickedout:andbecause
ofthisthetribesofmenuponearthburnwhitebonestothedeathless
godsuponfragrantaltars.ButZeuswhodrivesthecloudswasgreatly
vexedandsaidtohim:
(ll.559560)'SonofIapetus,cleveraboveall!So,sir,youhavenot
yetforgottenyourcunningarts!'
(ll.561584)SospakeZeusinanger,whosewisdomiseverlasting;and
fromthattimehewasalwaysmindfulofthetrick,andwouldnotgive
thepowerofunwearyingfiretotheMelian[1621]raceofmortalmenwho
liveontheearth.ButthenoblesonofIapetusoutwittedhimandstole
thefarseengleamofunwearyingfireinahollowfennelstalk.AndZeus
whothundersonhighwasstunginspirit,andhisdearheartwasangered
whenhesawamongstmenthefarseenrayoffire.Forthwithhemadean
evilthingformenasthepriceoffire;fortheveryfamousLimping
GodformedofearththelikenessofashymaidenasthesonofCronos
willed.AndthegoddessbrighteyedAthenegirdedandclothedherwith
silveryraiment,anddownfromherheadshespreadwithherhandsa
broideredveil,awondertosee;andshe,PallasAthene,putabouther
headlovelygarlands,flowersofnewgrownherbs.Alsosheputuponher
headacrownofgoldwhichtheveryfamousLimpingGodmadehimselfand
workedwithhisownhandsasafavourtoZeushisfather.Onitwasmuch
curiouswork,wonderfultosee;forofthemanycreatureswhichthe
landandsearearup,heputmostuponit,wonderfulthings,likeliving
beingswithvoices:andgreatbeautyshoneoutfromit.
(ll.585589)Butwhenhehadmadethebeautifuleviltobetheprice
fortheblessing,hebroughtherout,delightinginthefinerywhich
thebrighteyeddaughterofamightyfatherhadgivenher,totheplace
wheretheothergodsandmenwere.Andwondertookholdofthedeathless
godsandmortalmenwhentheysawthatwhichwassheerguile,nottobe
withstoodbymen.
(ll.590612)Forfromheristheraceofwomenandfemalekind:ofher
isthedeadlyraceandtribeofwomenwholiveamongstmortalmen
totheirgreattrouble,nohelpmeetsinhatefulpoverty,butonlyin
wealth.Andasinthatchedhivesbeesfeedthedroneswhosenatureisto
domischiefbydayandthroughoutthedayuntilthesungoesdownthe
beesarebusyandlaythewhitecombs,whilethedronesstayathome
inthecoveredskepsandreapthetoilofothersintotheirown
belliesevensoZeuswhothundersonhighmadewomentobeanevilto
mortalmen,withanaturetodoevil.Andhegavethemasecondevil
tobethepriceforthegoodtheyhad:whoeveravoidsmarriageand
thesorrowsthatwomencause,andwillnotwed,reachesdeadlyoldage
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withoutanyonetotendhisyears,andthoughheatleasthasnolackof
livelihoodwhilehelives,yet,whenheisdead,hiskinsfolkdivide
hispossessionsamongstthem.Andasforthemanwhochoosesthelot
ofmarriageandtakesagoodwifesuitedtohismind,evilcontinually
contendswithgood;forwhoeverhappenstohavemischievouschildren,
livesalwayswithunceasinggriefinhisspiritandheartwithinhim;
andthisevilcannotbehealed.
(ll.613616)Soitisnotpossibletodeceiveorgobeyondthewillof
Zeus;fornoteventhesonofIapetus,kindlyPrometheus,escapedhis
heavyanger,butofnecessitystrongbandsconfinedhim,althoughhe
knewmanyawile.
(ll.617643)Butwhenfirsttheirfatherwasvexedinhisheartwith
ObriareusandCottusandGyes,heboundthemincruelbonds,becausehe
wasjealousoftheirexceedingmanhoodandcomelinessandgreatsize:
andhemadethemlivebeneaththewidepathedearth,wheretheywere
afflicted,beingsettodwellundertheground,attheendoftheearth,
atitsgreatborders,inbitteranguishforalongtimeandwithgreat
griefatheart.ButthesonofCronosandtheotherdeathlessgodswhom
richhairedRheabarefromunionwithCronos,broughtthemupagainto
thelightatEarth'sadvising.Forsheherselfrecountedallthings
tothegodsfully,howthatwiththesetheywouldgainvictoryanda
gloriouscausetovauntthemselves.FortheTitangodsandasmanyas
sprangfromCronoshadlongbeenfightingtogetherinstubbornwarwith
heartgrievingtoil,thelordlyTitansfromhighOthyrs,butthegods,
giversofgood,whomrichhairedRheabareinunionwithCronos,from
Olympus.Sothey,withbitterwrath,werefightingcontinuallywith
oneanotheratthattimefortenfullyears,andthehardstrifehad
nocloseorendforeitherside,andtheissueofthewarhungevenly
balanced.Butwhenhehadprovidedthosethreewithallthingsfitting,
nectarandambrosiawhichthegodsthemselveseat,andwhentheir
proudspiritrevivedwithinthemallaftertheyhadfedonnectarand
deliciousambrosia,thenitwasthatthefatherofmenandgodsspoke
amongstthem:
(ll.644653)'Hearme,brightchildrenofEarthandHeaven,thatI
maysaywhatmyheartwithinmebids.Alongwhilenowhavewe,whoare
sprungfromCronosandtheTitangods,foughtwitheachotherevery
daytogetvictoryandtoprevail.Butdoyoushowyourgreatmight
andunconquerablestrength,andfacetheTitansinbitterstrife;for
rememberourfriendlykindness,andfromwhatsufferingsyouarecome
backtothelightfromyourcruelbondageundermistygloomthroughour
counsels.'
(ll.654663)Sohesaid.AndblamelessCottusansweredhimagain:
'Divineone,youspeakthatwhichweknowwell:nay,evenofourselves
weknowthatyourwisdomandunderstandingisexceeding,andthatyou
becameadefenderofthedeathlessonesfromchilldoom.Andthrough
yourdevisingwearecomebackagainfromthemurkygloomandfromour
mercilessbonds,enjoyingwhatwelookednotfor,Olord,sonofCronos.
Andsonowwithfixedpurposeanddeliberatecounselwewillaidyour
powerindreadfulstrifeandwillfightagainsttheTitansinhard
battle.'
(ll.664686)Sohesaid:andthegods,giversofgoodthings,applauded
whentheyheardhisword,andtheirspiritlongedforwarevenmorethan
before,andtheyall,bothmaleandfemale,stirreduphatedbattle
thatday,theTitangods,andallthatwerebornofCronostogetherwith
thosedread,mightyonesofoverwhelmingstrengthwhomZeusbroughtup
tothelightfromErebusbeneaththeearth.Anhundredarmssprangfrom
theshouldersofallalike,andeachhadfiftyheadsgrowinguponhis
shouldersuponstoutlimbs.These,then,stoodagainsttheTitansin
grimstrife,holdinghugerocksintheirstronghands.Andontheother
parttheTitanseagerlystrengthenedtheirranks,andbothsidesatone
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timeshowedtheworkoftheirhandsandtheirmight.Theboundlesssea
rangterriblyaround,andtheearthcrashedloudly:wideHeavenwas
shakenandgroaned,andhighOlympusreeledfromitsfoundationunder
thechargeoftheundyinggods,andaheavyquakingreacheddimTartarus
andthedeepsoundoftheirfeetinthefearfulonsetandoftheir
hardmissiles.So,then,theylaunchedtheirgrievousshaftsuponone
another,andthecryofbotharmiesastheyshoutedreachedtostarry
heaven;andtheymettogetherwithagreatbattlecry.
(ll.687712)ThenZeusnolongerheldbackhismight;butstraighthis
heartwasfilledwithfuryandheshowedforthallhisstrength.From
HeavenandfromOlympushecameforthwith,hurlinghislightning:the
boltsflewthickandfastfromhisstronghandtogetherwiththunder
andlightning,whirlinganawesomeflame.Thelifegivingearthcrashed
aroundinburning,andthevastwoodcrackledloudwithfireallabout.
Allthelandseethed,andOcean'sstreamsandtheunfruitfulsea.The
hotvapourlappedroundtheearthbornTitans:flameunspeakablerose
tothebrightupperair:theflashingglareofthethunderstoneand
lightningblindedtheireyesforallthattherewerestrong.Astounding
heatseizedChaos:andtoseewitheyesandtohearthesoundwithears
itseemedevenasifEarthandwideHeavenabovecametogether;forsuch
amightycrashwouldhavearisenifEarthwerebeinghurledtoruin,and
Heavenfromonhighwerehurlingherdown;sogreatacrashwasthere
whilethegodsweremeetingtogetherinstrife.Alsothewindsbrought
rumblingearthquakeandduststorm,thunderandlightningandthe
luridthunderbolt,whicharetheshaftsofgreatZeus,andcarriedthe
clangourandthewarcryintothemidstofthetwohosts.Anhorrible
uproarofterriblestrifearose:mightydeedswereshownandthe
battleinclined.Butuntilthen,theykeptatoneanotherandfought
continuallyincruelwar.
(ll.713735)AndamongsttheforemostCottusandBriareosandGyes
insatiateforwarraisedfiercefighting:threehundredrocks,oneupon
another,theylaunchedfromtheirstronghandsandovershadowedthe
Titanswiththeirmissiles,andburiedthembeneaththewidepathed
earth,andboundtheminbitterchainswhentheyhadconqueredthemby
theirstrengthforalltheirgreatspirit,asfarbeneaththeearthto
Tartarus.Forabrazenanvilfallingdownfromheavenninenightsand
dayswouldreachtheearthuponthetenth:andagain,abrazenanvil
fallingfromearthninenightsanddayswouldreachTartarusuponthe
tenth.Rounditrunsafenceofbronze,andnightspreadsintriple
lineallaboutitlikeaneckcirclet,whileabovegrowtherootsofthe
earthandunfruitfulsea.TherebythecounselofZeuswhodrivesthe
cloudstheTitangodsarehiddenundermistygloom,inadankplace
wherearetheendsofthehugeearth.Andtheymaynotgoout;for
Poseidonfixedgatesofbronzeuponit,andawallrunsallroundit
oneveryside.ThereGyesandCottusandgreatsouledObriareuslive,
trustywardersofZeuswhoholdstheaegis.
(ll.736744)Andthere,allintheirorder,arethesourcesandends
ofgloomyearthandmistyTartarusandtheunfruitfulseaandstarry
heaven,loathsomeanddank,whicheventhegodsabhor.
Itisagreatgulf,andifonceamanwerewithinthegates,hewould
notreachtheflooruntilawholeyearhadreacheditsend,butcruel
blastuponblastwouldcarryhimthiswayandthat.Andthismarvelis
awfuleventothedeathlessgods.
(ll.744757)TherestandstheawfulhomeofmurkyNightwrappedin
darkclouds.InfrontofitthesonofIapetus[1622]standsimmovably
upholdingthewideheavenuponhisheadandunwearyinghands,where
NightandDaydrawnearandgreetoneanotherastheypassthegreat
thresholdofbronze:andwhiletheoneisabouttogodownintothe
house,theothercomesoutatthedoor.
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Andthehouseneverholdsthembothwithin;butalwaysoneiswithout
thehousepassingovertheearth,whiletheotherstaysathome
andwaitsuntilthetimeforherjourneyingcome;andtheoneholds
allseeinglightforthemonearth,buttheotherholdsinherarms
SleepthebrotherofDeath,evenevilNight,wrappedinavaporous
cloud.
(ll.758766)AndtherethechildrenofdarkNighthavetheirdwellings,
SleepandDeath,awfulgods.TheglowingSunneverlooksuponthemwith
hisbeams,neitherashegoesupintoheaven,norashecomesdownfrom
heaven.Andtheformerofthemroamspeacefullyovertheearthandthe
sea'sbroadbackandiskindlytomen;buttheotherhasaheartof
iron,andhisspiritwithinhimispitilessasbronze:whomsoeverof
menhehasonceseizedheholdsfast:andheishatefuleventothe
deathlessgods.
(ll.767774)There,infront,standtheechoinghallsofthegodof
thelowerworld,strongHades,andofawfulPersephone.Afearfulhound
guardsthehouseinfront,pitiless,andhehasacrueltrick.Onthose
whogoinhefawnswithhistailandbothhisears,butsuffersthemnot
togooutbackagain,butkeepswatchanddevourswhomsoeverhecatches
goingoutofthegatesofstrongHadesandawfulPersephone.
(ll.775806)Andtheredwellsthegoddessloathedbythedeathless
gods,terribleStyx,eldestdaughterofbackflowing[1623]Ocean.She
livesapartfromthegodsinherglorioushousevaultedoverwithgreat
rocksandproppeduptoheavenallroundwithsilverpillars.Rarely
doesthedaughterofThaumas,swiftfootedIris,cometoherwitha
messageoverthesea'swideback.
Butwhenstrifeandquarrelariseamongthedeathlessgods,andwhenany
ofthemwholiveinthehouseofOlympuslies,thenZeussendsIris
tobringinagoldenjugthegreatoathofthegodsfromfaraway,the
famouscoldwaterwhichtricklesdownfromahighandbeetlingrock.Far
underthewidepathedearthabranchofOceanusflowsthroughthedark
nightoutoftheholystream,andatenthpartofhiswaterisallotted
toher.Withninesilverswirlingstreamshewindsabouttheearthand
thesea'swideback,andthenfallsintothemain[1624];butthetenth
flowsoutfromarock,asoretroubletothegods.Forwhoeverofthe
deathlessgodsthatholdthepeaksofsnowyOlympuspoursalibationof
herwaterisforsworn,liesbreathlessuntilafullyeariscompleted,
andnevercomesneartotasteambrosiaandnectar,butliesspiritless
andvoicelessonastrewnbed:andaheavytranceovershadowshim.But
whenhehasspentalongyearinhissickness,anotherpenanceandan
harderfollowsafterthefirst.Fornineyearsheiscutofffromthe
eternalgodsandneverjoinstheircouncilsoftheirfeasts,ninefull
years.Butinthetenthyearhecomesagaintojointheassembliesof
thedeathlessgodswholiveinthehouseofOlympus.Suchanoath,then,
didthegodsappointtheeternalandprimaevalwaterofStyxtobe:and
itspoutsthrougharuggedplace.
(ll.807819)Andthere,allintheirorder,arethesourcesandends
ofthedarkearthandmistyTartarusandtheunfruitfulseaandstarry
heaven,loathsomeanddank,whicheventhegodsabhor.
Andthereareshininggatesandanimmoveablethresholdofbronzehaving
unendingrootsanditisgrownofitself[1625].Andbeyond,awayfrom
allthegods,livetheTitans,beyondgloomyChaos.Buttheglorious
alliesofloudcrashingZeushavetheirdwellinguponOcean's
foundations,evenCottusandGyes;butBriareos,beinggoodly,the
deeproaringEarthShakermadehissoninlaw,givinghimCymopoleahis
daughtertowed.
(ll.820868)ButwhenZeushaddriventheTitansfromheaven,huge
EarthbareheryoungestchildTyphoeusoftheloveofTartarus,bythe
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aidofgoldenAphrodite.Strengthwaswithhishandsinallthathedid
andthefeetofthestronggodwereuntiring.Fromhisshouldersgrew
anhundredheadsofasnake,afearfuldragon,withdark,flickering
tongues,andfromunderthebrowsofhiseyesinhismarvellousheads
flashedfire,andfireburnedfromhisheadsasheglared.Andthere
werevoicesinallhisdreadfulheadswhichutteredeverykindof
soundunspeakable;foratonetimetheymadesoundssuchthatthegods
understood,butatanother,thenoiseofabullbellowingaloudinproud
ungovernablefury;andatanother,thesoundofalion,relentlessof
heart;andatanother,soundslikewhelps,wonderfultohear;andagain,
atanother,hewouldhiss,sothatthehighmountainsreechoed.And
trulyathingpasthelpwouldhavehappenedonthatday,andhewould
havecometoreignovermortalsandimmortals,hadnotthefatherofmen
andgodsbeenquicktoperceiveit.Buthethunderedhardandmightily:
andtheeartharoundresoundedterriblyandthewideheavenabove,and
theseaandOcean'sstreamsandthenetherpartsoftheearth.Great
Olympusreeledbeneaththedivinefeetofthekingashearoseand
earthgroanedthereat.Andthroughthetwoofthemheattookholdonthe
darkbluesea,throughthethunderandlightning,andthroughthefire
fromthemonster,andthescorchingwindsandblazingthunderbolt.The
wholeearthseethed,andskyandsea:andthelongwavesragedalongthe
beachesroundandabout,attherushofthedeathlessgods:andthere
aroseanendlessshaking.Hadestrembledwhereherulesoverthedead
below,andtheTitansunderTartaruswholivewithCronos,becauseof
theunendingclamourandthefearfulstrife.SowhenZeushadraised
uphismightandseizedhisarms,thunderandlightningandlurid
thunderbolt,heleapedfromOlympusandstruckhim,andburnedallthe
marvellousheadsofthemonsterabouthim.ButwhenZeushadconquered
himandlashedhimwithstrokes,Typhoeuswashurleddown,amaimed
wreck,sothatthehugeearthgroaned.Andflameshotforthfromthe
thunderstrickenlordinthedimruggedglensofthemount[1626],when
hewassmitten.Agreatpartofhugeearthwasscorchedbytheterrible
vapourandmeltedastinmeltswhenheatedbymen'sartinchannelled
[1627]crucibles;orasiron,whichishardestofallthings,is
softenedbyglowingfireinmountainglensandmeltsinthedivineearth
throughthestrengthofHephaestus[1628].Evenso,then,theearth
meltedintheglowoftheblazingfire.Andinthebitternessofhis
angerZeuscasthimintowideTartarus.
(ll.869880)AndfromTyphoeuscomeboisterouswindswhichblowdamply,
exceptNotusandBoreasandclearZephyr.Theseareagodsentkind,
andagreatblessingtomen;buttheothersblowfitfullyupontheseas.
Somerushuponthemistyseaandworkgreathavocamongmenwiththeir
evil,ragingblasts;forvaryingwiththeseasontheyblow,scattering
shipsanddestroyingsailors.Andmenwhomeettheseupontheseahave
nohelpagainstthemischief.Othersagainovertheboundless,flowering
earthspoilthefairfieldsofmenwhodwellbelow,fillingthemwith
dustandcrueluproar.
(ll.881885)Butwhentheblessedgodshadfinishedtheirtoil,and
settledbyforcetheirstruggleforhonourswiththeTitans,they
pressedfarseeingOlympianZeustoreignandtoruleoverthem,by
Earth'sprompting.Sohedividedtheirdignitiesamongstthem.
(ll.886900)NowZeus,kingofthegods,madeMetishiswifefirst,
andshewaswisestamonggodsandmortalmen.Butwhenshewasaboutto
bringforththegoddessbrighteyedAthene,Zeuscraftilydeceivedher
withcunningwordsandputherinhisownbelly,asEarthandstarry
Heavenadvised.Fortheyadvisedhimso,totheendthatnoothershould
holdroyalswayovertheeternalgodsinplaceofZeus;forverywise
childrenweredestinedtobebornofher,firstthemaidenbrighteyed
Tritogeneia,equaltoherfatherinstrengthandinwiseunderstanding;
butafterwardsshewastobearasonofoverbearingspirit,kingofgods
andmen.ButZeusputherintohisownbellyfirst,thatthegoddess
mightdeviseforhimbothgoodandevil.
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(ll.901906)NexthemarriedbrightThemiswhobaretheHorae(Hours),
andEunomia(Order),Dike(Justice),andbloomingEirene(Peace),who
mindtheworksofmortalmen,andtheMoerae(Fates)towhomwiseZeus
gavethegreatesthonour,Clotho,andLachesis,andAtroposwhogive
mortalmenevilandgoodtohave.
(ll.907911)AndEurynome,thedaughterofOcean,beautifulinform,
barehimthreefaircheekedCharites(Graces),Aglaea,andEuphrosyne,
andlovelyThaleia,fromwhoseeyesastheyglancedflowedlovethat
unnervesthelimbs:andbeautifulistheirglancebeneaththeirbrows.
(ll.912914)AlsohecametothebedofallnourishingDemeter,andshe
barewhitearmedPersephonewhomAidoneuscarriedofffromhermother;
butwiseZeusgavehertohim.
(ll.915917)Andagain,helovedMnemosynewiththebeautifulhair:and
ofhertheninegoldcrownedMuseswerebornwhodelightinfeastsand
thepleasuresofsong.
(ll.918920)AndLetowasjoinedinlovewithZeuswhoholdstheaegis,
andbareApolloandArtemisdelightinginarrows,childrenlovelyabove
allthesonsofHeaven.
(ll.921923)Lastly,hemadeHerahisbloomingwife:andshewasjoined
inlovewiththekingofgodsandmen,andbroughtforthHebeandAres
andEileithyia.
(ll.924929)ButZeushimselfgavebirthfromhisownheadto
brighteyedTritogeneia[1629],theawful,thestrifestirring,the
hostleader,theunwearying,thequeen,whodelightsintumultsandwars
andbattles.ButHerawithoutunionwithZeusforshewasveryangry
andquarrelledwithhermatebarefamousHephaestus,whoisskilledin
craftsmorethanallthesonsofHeaven.
(ll.929a929t)[1630]ButHerawasveryangryandquarrelledwithher
mate.AndbecauseofthisstrifeshebarewithoutunionwithZeuswho
holdstheaegisagloriousson,Hephaestus,whoexcelledallthesonsof
Heavenincrafts.ButZeuslaywiththefaircheekeddaughterofOcean
andTethysapartfromHera....((LACUNA))....deceivingMetis(Thought)
althoughshewasfullwise.Butheseizedherwithhishandsandput
herinhisbelly,forfearthatshemightbringforthsomethingstronger
thanhisthunderbolt:thereforedidZeus,whositsonhighanddwells
intheaether,swallowherdownsuddenly.Butshestraightwayconceived
PallasAthene:andthefatherofmenandgodsgaveherbirthbyway
ofhisheadonthebanksoftheriverTrito.Andsheremainedhidden
beneaththeinwardpartsofZeus,evenMetis,Athena'smother,workerof
righteousness,whowaswiserthangodsandmortalmen.Therethegoddess
(Athena)receivedthat[1631]wherebysheexcelledinstrengthall
thedeathlessoneswhodwellinOlympus,shewhomadethehostscaring
weaponofAthena.Andwithit(Zeus)gaveherbirth,arrayedinarmsof
war.
(ll.930933)AndofAmphitriteandtheloudroaringEarthShakerwas
borngreat,widerulingTriton,andheownsthedepthsofthesea,
livingwithhisdearmotherandthelordhisfatherintheirgolden
house,anawfulgod.
(ll.933937)AlsoCythereabaretoArestheshieldpiercerPanicand
Fear,terriblegodswhodriveindisorderthecloseranksofmenin
numbingwar,withthehelpofAres,sackeroftowns:andHarmoniawhom
highspiritedCadmusmadehiswife.
(ll.938939)AndMaia,thedaughterofAtlas,baretoZeusglorious
Hermes,theheraldofthedeathlessgods,forshewentupintohisholy
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bed.
(ll.940942)AndSemele,daughterofCadmuswasjoinedwithhimin
loveandbarehimasplendidson,joyousDionysus,amortalwomanan
immortalson.Andnowtheybotharegods.
(ll.943944)AndAlcmenawasjoinedinlovewithZeuswhodrivesthe
cloudsandbaremightyHeracles.
(ll.945946)AndHephaestus,thefamousLameOne,madeAglaea,youngest
oftheGraces,hisbuxomwife.
(ll.947949)AndgoldenhairedDionysusmadebrownhairedAriadne,
thedaughterofMinos,hisbuxomwife:andthesonofCronosmadeher
deathlessandunageingforhim.
(ll.950955)AndmightyHeracles,thevaliantsonofneatankled
Alcmena,whenhehadfinishedhisgrievoustoils,madeHebethechildof
greatZeusandgoldshodHerahisshywifeinsnowyOlympus.Happyhe!
Forhehasfinishedhisgreatworksandlivesamongsttheundyinggods,
untroubledandunageingallhisdays.
(ll.956962)AndPerseis,thedaughterofOcean,baretounwearying
HeliosCirceandAeetestheking.AndAeetes,thesonofHelioswho
showslighttomen,tooktowifefaircheekedIdyia,daughterofOcean
theperfectstream,bythewillofthegods:andshewassubjecttohim
inlovethroughgoldenAphroditeandbarehimneatankledMedea.
(ll.963968)Andnowfarewell,youdwellersonOlympusandyouislands
andcontinentsandthoubrinyseawithin.Nowsingthecompanyof
goddesses,sweetvoicedMusesofOlympus,daughterofZeuswhoholds
theaegis,eventhosedeathlessonewholaywithmortalmenandbare
childrenlikeuntogods.
(ll.969974)Demeter,brightgoddess,wasjoinedinsweetlovewiththe
heroIasioninathriceploughedfallowintherichlandofCrete,and
barePlutus,akindlygodwhogoeseverywhereoverlandandthesea's
wideback,andhimwhofindshimandintowhosehandshecomeshemakes
rich,bestowinggreatwealthuponhim.
(ll.975978)AndHarmonia,thedaughterofgoldenAphrodite,bare
toCadmusInoandSemeleandfaircheekedAgaveandAutonoewhomlong
hairedAristaeuswedded,andPolydorusalsoinrichcrownedThebe.
(ll.979983)AndthedaughterofOcean,Callirrhoewasjoinedinthe
loveofrichAphroditewithstoutheartedChrysaorandbareasonwho
wasthestrongestofallmen,Geryones,whommightyHeracleskilledin
seagirtErytheaforthesakeofhisshamblingoxen.
(ll.984991)AndEosbaretoTithonusbrazencrestedMemnon,king
oftheEthiopians,andtheLordEmathion.AndtoCephalusshebarea
splendidson,strongPhaethon,amanlikethegods,whom,whenhewasa
youngboyinthetenderflowerofgloriousyouthwithchildishthoughts,
laughterlovingAphroditeseizedandcaughtupandmadeakeeperofher
shrinebynight,adivinespirit.
(ll.9931002)AndthesonofAesonbythewillofthegodsledaway
fromAeetesthedaughterofAeetestheheavennurturedking,whenhehad
finishedthemanygrievouslabourswhichthegreatking,overbearing
Pelias,thatoutrageousandpresumptuousdoerofviolence,putuponhim.
ButwhenthesonofAesonhadfinishedthem,hecametoIolcusafter
longtoilbringingthecoyeyedgirlwithhimonhisswiftship,and
madeherhisbuxomwife.AndshewassubjecttoIason,shepherdofthe
people,andbareasonMedeuswhomCheironthesonofPhilyrabroughtup
inthemountains.AndthewillofgreatZeuswasfulfilled.
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(ll.10031007)ButofthedaughtersofNereus,theOldmanoftheSea,
Psamathethefairgoddess,waslovedbyAeacusthroughgoldenAphrodite
andbarePhocus.AndthesilvershodgoddessThetiswassubjectto
PeleusandbroughtforthlionheartedAchilles,thedestroyerofmen.
(ll.10081010)AndCythereawiththebeautifulcrownwasjoinedin
sweetlovewiththeheroAnchisesandbareAeneasonthepeaksofIda
withitsmanywoodedglens.
(ll.10111016)AndCircethedaughterofHelius,Hyperion'sson,loved
steadfastOdysseusandbareAgriusandLatinuswhowasfaultless
andstrong:alsoshebroughtforthTelegonusbythewillofgolden
Aphrodite.AndtheyruledoverthefamousTyrenians,veryfaroffina
recessoftheholyislands.
(ll.10171018)AndthebrightgoddessCalypsowasjoinedtoOdysseusin
sweetlove,andbarehimNausithousandNausinous.
(ll.10191020)Thesearetheimmortalgoddesseswholaywithmortalmen
andbarethemchildrenlikeuntogods.
(ll.10211022)Butnow,sweetvoicedMusesofOlympus,daughtersof
Zeuswhoholdstheaegis,singofthecompanyofwomen.

THECATALOGUESOFWOMENANDEOIAE(fragments)[1701]
Fragment#1ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iii.1086:That
DeucalionwasthesonofPrometheusandPronoea,Hesiodstatesinthe
first"Catalogue",asalsothatHellenwasthesonofDeucalionand
Pyrrha.
Fragment#2IoannesLydus[1702],deMens.i.13:Theycametocall
thosewhofollowedlocalmannersLatins,butthosewhofollowedHellenic
customsGreeks,afterthebrothersLatinusandGraecus;asHesiodsays:
'AndinthepalacePandorathedaughterofnobleDeucalionwasjoinedin
lovewithfatherZeus,leaderofallthegods,andbareGraecus,staunch
inbattle.'
Fragment#3ConstantinusPorphyrogenitus[1703],deThem.2p.48B:The
districtMacedoniatookitsnamefromMacedonthesonofZeusandThyia,
Deucalion'sdaughter,asHesiodsays:'Andsheconceivedandbareto
Zeuswhodelightsinthethunderbolttwosons,MagnesandMacedon,
rejoicinginhorses,whodwellroundaboutPieriaandOlympus....
((LACUNA))....AndMagnesagain(begot)DictysandgodlikePolydectes.'
Fragment#4Plutarch,Mor.p.747;Schol.onPindarPyth.iv.263:
'AndfromHellenthewarlovingkingsprangDorusandXuthusandAeolus
delightinginhorses.AndthesonsofAeolus,kingsdealingjustice,
wereCretheus,andAthamas,andcleverSisyphus,andwickedSalmoneus
andoverboldPerieres.'
Fragment#5ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.266:Thosewho
weredescendedfromDeucalionusedtoruleoverThessalyasHecataeus
andHesiodsay.
Fragment#6ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.482:Aloiadae.
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HesiodsaidthattheyweresonsofAloeus,calledsoafterhim,andof
Iphimedea,butinrealitysonsofPoseidonandIphimedea,andthatAlus
acityofAetoliawasfoundedbytheirfather.
Fragment#7BerlinPapyri,No.7497;OxyrhynchusPapyri,421[1704]:
(ll.124)'....EurynomethedaughterofNisus,Pandion'sson,towhom
PallasAthenetaughtallherart,bothwitandwisdomtoo;forshewas
aswiseasthegods.Amarvellousscentrosefromhersilvernraiment
asshemoved,andbeautywaswaftedfromhereyes.Her,then,Glaucus
soughttowinbyAthena'sadvising,andhedroveoxen[1705]forher.
ButheknewnotatalltheintentofZeuswhoholdstheaegis.So
Glaucuscameseekinghertowifewithgifts;butclouddrivingZeus,
kingofthedeathlessgods,benthisheadinoaththatthe....sonof
Sisyphusshouldneverhavechildrenbornofonefather[1706].Soshe
layinthearmsofPoseidonandbareinthehouseofGlaucusblameless
Bellerophon,surpassingallmenin....overtheboundlesssea.Andwhen
hebegantoroam,hisfathergavehimPegasuswhowouldbearhimmost
swiftlyonhiswings,andflewunwearyingeverywhereovertheearth,for
likethegaleshewouldcoursealong.WithhimBellerophoncaughtand
slewthefirebreathingChimera.Andheweddedthedearchildofthe
greatheartedIobates,theworshipfulking....lord(of)....andshe
bare....'
Fragment#8ScholiastonApolloniusRhodes,Arg.iv.57:Hesiodsays
thatEndymionwasthesonofAethliusthesonofZeusandCalyee,and
receivedthegiftfromZeus:'(Tobe)keeperofdeathforhisownself
whenhewasreadytodie.'
Fragment#9ScholiastVen.onHomer,Il.xi.750:ThetwosonsofActor
andMolione...Hesiodhasgiventheirdescentbycallingthemafter
ActorandMolione;buttheirfatherwasPoseidon.
Porphyrius[1707],Quaest.Hom.adIliad.pert.,265:ButAristarchusis
informedthattheyweretwins,not....suchasweretheDioscuri,but,
onHesiod'stestimony,doubleinformandwithtwobodiesandjoinedto
oneanother.
Fragment#10ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.156:ButHesiod
saysthathechangedhimselfinoneofhiswontedshapesandperchedon
theyokebossofHeracles'horses,meaningtofightwiththehero;but
thatHeracles,secretlyinstructedbyAthena,woundedhimmortallywith
anarrow.Andhesaysasfollows:'...andlordlyPericlymenus.Happyhe!
ForearthshakingPoseidongavehimallmannerofgifts.Atonetimehe
wouldappearamongbirds,aneagle;andagainatanotherhewouldbe
anant,amarveltosee;andthenashiningswarmofbees;andagainat
anothertimeadreadrelentlesssnake.Andhepossessedallmannerof
giftswhichcannotbetold,andthesethenensnaredhimthroughthe
devisingofAthene.'
Fragment#11StephanusofByzantium[1708],s.v.:'(Heracles)slewthe
noblesonsofsteadfastNeleus,elevenofthem;butthetwelfth,the
horsemenGerenianNestorchancedtobestayingwiththehorsetaming
Gerenians.((LACUNA))NestoraloneescapedinfloweryGerenon.'
Fragment#12Eustathius[1709],Hom.1796.39:'Sowellgirded
Polycaste,theyoungestdaughterofNestor,Neleus'son,wasjoinedin
lovewithTelemachusthroughgoldenAphroditeandbarePersepolis.'

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Fragment#13ScholiastonHomer,Od.xii.69:Tyrothedaughterof
Salmoneus,havingtwosonsbyPoseidon,NeleusandPelias,married
Cretheus,andhadbyhimthreesons,Aeson,PheresandAmythaon.And
ofAesonandPolymede,accordingtoHesiod,Iasonwasborn:'Aeson,who
begotasonIason,shepherdofthepeople,whomChironbroughtupin
woodyPelion.'
Fragment#14PetriePapyri(ed.Mahaffy),Pl.III.3:'....ofthe
gloriouslord....fairAtalanta,swiftoffoot,thedaughterof
Schoeneus,whohadthebeamingeyesoftheGraces,thoughshewasripe
forwedlockrejectedthecompanyofherequalsandsoughttoavoid
marriagewithmenwhoeatbread.'
ScholiastonHomer,Iliadxxiii.683:Hesiodisthereforelaterindate
thanHomersinceherepresentsHippomenesasstrippedwhencontending
withAtalanta[1710].
Papirigrecielatini,ii.No.130(2nd3rdcentury)[1711]:(ll.17)
'Thenstraightwaythereroseupagainsthimthetrimankledmaiden
(Atalanta),peerlessinbeauty:agreatthrongstoodroundaboutheras
shegazedfiercely,andwonderheldallmenastheylookeduponher.As
shemoved,thebreathofthewestwindstirredtheshininggarmentabout
hertenderbosom;butHippomenesstoodwherehewas:andmuchpeoplewas
gatheredtogether.Allthesekeptsilence;butSchoeneuscriedandsaid:
(ll.820)'"Hearmeall,bothyoungandold,whileIspeakasmyspirit
withinmybreastbidsme.Hippomenesseeksmycoyeyeddaughtertowife;
butlethimnowhearmywholesomespeech.Heshallnotwinherwithout
contest;yet,ifhebevictoriousandescapedeath,andifthedeathless
godswhodwellonOlympusgranthimtowinrenown,verilyheshall
returntohisdearnativeland,andIwillgivehimmydearchildand
strong,swiftfootedhorsesbesideswhichheshallleadhometobe
cherishedpossessions;andmayherejoiceinheartpossessingthese,and
everrememberwithgladnessthepainfulcontest.Maythefatherofmen
andofgods(grantthatsplendidchildrenmaybeborntohim)'[1712]
((LACUNA))
(ll.2127)'ontheright....andhe,rushinguponher,....drawingback
slightlytowardstheleft.Andonthemwaslaidanunenviablestruggle:
forshe,evenfair,swiftfootedAtalanta,ranscorningthegiftsof
goldenAphrodite;butwithhimtheracewasforhislife,eithertofind
hisdoom,ortoescapeit.Thereforewiththoughtsofguilehesaidto
her:
(ll.2829)'"OdaughterofSchoeneus,pitilessinheart,receivethese
gloriousgiftsofthegoddess,goldenAphrodite...'
((LACUNA))
(ll.3036)'Buthe,followinglightlyonhisfeet,castthefirstapple
[1713]:and,swiftlyasaHarpy,sheturnedbackandsnatchedit.
Thenhecastthesecondtothegroundwithhishand.Andnowfair,
swiftfootedAtalantahadtwoapplesandwasnearthegoal;but
Hippomenescastthethirdappletotheground,andtherewithescaped
deathandblackfate.Andhestoodpantingand...'
Fragment#15Strabo[1714],i.p.42:'AndthedaughterofArabus,whom
worthyHermaonbegatwithThronia,daughterofthelordBelus.'
Fragment#16Eustathius,Hom.461.2:'ArgoswhichwaswaterlessDanaus
madewellwatered.'
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Fragment#17Hecataeus[1715]inScholiastonEuripides,Orestes,
872:AegyptushimselfdidnotgotoArgos,butsenthissons,fiftyin
number,asHesiodrepresented.
Fragment#18[1716]Strabo,viii.p.370:AndApollodorussaysthat
HesiodalreadyknewthatthewholepeoplewerecalledbothHellenes
andPanhellenes,aswhenhesaysofthedaughtersofProetusthatthe
Panhellenessoughttheminmarriage.
Apollodorus,ii.2.1.4:AcrisiuswaskingofArgosandProetusof
Tiryns.AndAcrisiushadbyEurydicethedaughterofLacedemon,Danae;
andProetusbyStheneboea'LysippeandIphinoeandIphianassa'.And
thesefellmad,asHesiodstates,becausetheywouldnotreceivethe
ritesofDionysus.
Probus[1717]onVergil,Ecloguevi.48:These(thedaughtersof
Proetus),becausetheyhadscornedthedivinityofJuno,wereovercome
withmadness,suchthattheybelievedtheyhadbeenturnedinto
cows,andleftArgostheirowncountry.Afterwardstheywerecuredby
Melampus,thesonofAmythaon.
Suidas,s.v.:[1718]'Becauseoftheirhideouswantonnesstheylost
theirtenderbeauty....'
Eustathius,Hom.1746.7:'....Forheshedupontheirheadsafearful
itch:andleprosycoveredalltheirflesh,andtheirhairdroppedfrom
theirheads,andtheirfairscalpsweremadebare.'
Fragment#19A[1719]OxyrhynchusPapyri1358fr.1(3rdcent.A.D.):
[1720](ll.132)'....Soshe(Europa)crossedthebrinywaterfromafar
toCrete,beguiledbythewilesofZeus.SecretlydidtheFather
snatchherawayandgaveheragift,thegoldennecklace,thetoy
whichHephaestusthefamedcraftsmanoncemadebyhiscunningskilland
broughtandgaveittohisfatherforapossession.AndZeusreceived
thegift,andgaveitinturntothedaughterofproudPhoenix.But
whentheFatherofmenandofgodshadmatedsofaroffwithtrimankled
Europa,thenhedepartedbackagainfromtherichhairedgirl.Soshe
baresonstothealmightySonofCronos,gloriousleadersofwealthy
menMinostheruler,andjustRhadamanthysandnobleSarpedonthe
blamelessandstrong.TothesedidwiseZeusgiveeachashareofhis
honour.VerilySarpedonreignedmightilyoverwideLyciaandruledvery
manycitiesfilledwithpeople,wieldingthesceptreofZeus:and
greathonourfollowedhim,whichhisfathergavehim,thegreathearted
shepherdofthepeople.ForwiseZeusordainedthatheshouldlivefor
threegenerationsofmortalmenandnotwasteawaywitholdage.Hesent
himtoTroy;andSarpedongatheredagreathost,menchosenoutofLycia
tobealliestotheTrojans.ThesemendidSarpedonlead,skilledin
bitterwar.AndZeus,whosewisdomiseverlasting,senthimforthfrom
heavenastar,showingtokensforthereturnofhisdearson........for
wellhe(Sarpedon)knewinhisheartthatthesignwasindeedfromZeus.
VerygreatlydidheexcelinwartogetherwithmanslayingHectorand
brakedownthewall,bringingwoesupontheDanaans.Butsosoonas
PatroclushadinspiredtheArgiveswithhardcourage....'
Fragment#19ScholiastonHomer,Il.xii.292:ZeussawEuropathe
daughterofPhoenixgatheringflowersinameadowwithsomenymphsand
fellinlovewithher.Sohecamedownandchangedhimselfintoabull
andbreathedfromhismouthacrocus[1721].Inthiswayhedeceived
Europa,carriedheroffandcrossedtheseatoCretewherehehad
intercoursewithher.Theninthisconditionhemadeherlivewith
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AsterionthekingoftheCretans.Theresheconceivedandborethree
sons,Minos,SarpedonandRhadamanthys.ThetaleisinHesiodand
Bacchylides.
Fragment#20ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.178:But
accordingtoHesiod(Phineus)wasthesonofPhoenix,Agenor'ssonand
Cassiopea.
Fragment#21Apollodorus[1722],iii.14.4.1:ButHesiodsaysthathe
(Adonis)wasthesonofPhoenixandAlphesiboea.
Fragment#22Porphyrius,Quaest.Hom.adIliad.pert.p.189:Asit
issaidinHesiodinthe"CatalogueofWomen"concerningDemodocethe
daughterofAgenor:'Demodocewhomverymanyofmenonearth,mighty
princes,wooed,promisingsplendidgifts,becauseofherexceeding
beauty.'
Fragment#23Apollodorus,iii.5.6.2:Hesiodsaysthat(thechildrenof
AmphionandNiobe)weretensonsandtendaughters.
Aelian[1723],Var.Hist.xii.36:ButHesiodsaystheywerenineboys
andtengirls;unlessafteralltheversesarenotHesiodbutare
falselyascribedtohimasaremanyothers.
Fragment#24ScholiastonHomer,Il.xxiii.679:AndHesiodsaysthat
whenOedipushaddiedatThebes,ArgeathedaughterofAdrastuscame
withotherstothefuneralofOedipus.
Fragment#25Herodian[1724]inEtymologicumMagnum,p.60,40:Tityos
thesonofElara.
Fragment#26[1725]Argument:Pindar,Ol.xiv:Cephisusisariverin
OrchomenuswherealsotheGracesareworshipped.Eteoclusthesonofthe
riverCephisusfirstsacrificedtothem,asHesiodsays.
ScholiastonHomer,Il.ii.522:'whichfromLilaeaspoutsforthits
sweetflowingwater....'
Strabo,ix.424:'....AndwhichflowsonbyPanopeusandthroughfenced
GlechonandthroughOrchomenus,windinglikeasnake.'
Fragment#27ScholiastonHomer,Il.vii.9:Forthefatherof
Menesthius,AreithouswasaBoeotianlivingatArnae;andthisisin
Boeotia,asalsoHesiodsays.
Fragment#28StephanusofByzantium:Onchestus:agrove[1726].Itis
situateinthecountryofHaliartusandwasfoundedbyOnchestusthe
Boeotian,asHesiodsays.
Fragment#29StephanusofByzantium:ThereisalsoaplainofAega
borderingonCirrha,accordingtoHesiod.
Fragment#30Apollodorus,ii.1.1.5:ButHesiodsaysthatPelasguswas
autochthonous.
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Fragment#31Strabo,v.p.221:Thatthistribe(thePelasgi)werefrom
Arcadia,EphorusstatesontheauthorityofHesiod;forhesays:'Sons
wereborntogodlikeLycaonwhomPelasgusoncebegot.'
Fragment#32StephanusofByzantium:Pallantium.AcityofArcadia,so
namedafterPallas,oneofLycaon'ssons,accordingtoHesiod.
Fragment#33(Unknown):'FamousMeliboeabarePhellusthegood
spearman.'
Fragment#34Herodian,OnPeculiarDiction,p.18:InHesiodinthe
secondCatalogue:'Whooncehidthetorch[1727]within.'
Fragment#35Herodian,OnPeculiarDiction,p.42:Hesiodinthethird
Cataloguewrites:'Andaresoundingthudoffeetroseup.'
Fragment#36ApolloniusDyscolus[1728],OnthePronoun,p.125:'Anda
greattroubletothemselves.'
Fragment#37ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.45:NeitherHomer
norHesiodspeakofIphiclusasamongsttheArgonauts.
Fragment#38'Eratosthenes'[1729],Catast.xix.p.124:The
Ram.]ThisitwasthattransportedPhrixusandHelle.Itwasimmortal
andwasgiventhembytheirmotherNephele,andhadagoldenfleece,as
HesiodandPherecydessay.
Fragment#39ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.181:Hesiodin
the"GreatEoiae"saysthatPhineuswasblindedbecauseherevealedto
Phrixustheroad;butinthethird"Catalogue",becausehepreferred
longlifetosight.
Hesiodsayshehadtwosons,ThynusandMariandynus.
Ephorus[1730]inStrabo,vii.302:Hesiod,inthesocalledJourney
roundtheEarth,saysthatPhineuswasbroughtbytheHarpies'tothe
landofmilkfeeders[1731]whohavewaggonsforhouses.'
Fragment#40A(Cp.Fr.43and44)OxyrhynchusPapyri1358fr.2(3rd
cent.A.D.):[1732]((LACUNASlightremainsof7lines))
(ll.835)'(TheSonsofBoreaspursuedtheHarpies)tothelandsofthe
MassagetaeandoftheproudHalfDogmen,oftheUndergroundfolkandof
thefeeblePygmies;andtothetribesoftheboundlessBlackskins
andtheLibyans.HugeEarthbarethesetoEpaphussoothsaying
people,knowingseercraftbythewillofZeusthelordoforacles,but
deceivers,totheendthatmenwhosethoughtpassestheirutterance
[1733]mightbesubjecttothegodsandsufferharmAethiopiansand
LibyansandmaremilkingScythians.ForverilyEpaphuswasthechildof
thealmightySonofCronos,andfromhimsprangthedarkLibyans,and
highsouledAethiopians,andtheUndergroundfolkandfeeblePygmies.
Allthesearetheoffspringofthelord,theLoudthunderer.Roundabout
allthese(theSonsofBoreas)spedindartingflight........ofthe
wellhorsedHyperboreanswhomEarththeallnourishingbarefaroffby
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thetumblingstreamsofdeepflowingEridanus........ofamber,feeding
herwidescatteredoffspringandaboutthesteepFawnmountainand
ruggedEtnatotheisleOrtygiaandthepeoplesprungfromLaestrygon
whowasthesonofwidereigningPoseidon.TwicerangedtheSonsof
Boreasalongthiscoastandwheeledroundandaboutyearningtocatch
theHarpies,whiletheystrovetoescapeandavoidthem.Andtheysped
tothetribeofthehaughtyCephallenians,thepeopleofpatientsouled
OdysseuswhominaftertimeCalypsothequeenlynymphdetained
forPoseidon.Thentheycametothelandofthelordthesonof
Ares........theyheard.Yetstill(theSonsofBoreas)everpursuedthem
withinstantfeet.Sothey(theHarpies)spedovertheseaandthrough
thefruitlessair...'
Fragment#40Strabo,vii.p.300:'TheAethiopiansandLiguriansand
maremilkingScythians.'
Fragment#41Apollodorus,i.9.21.6:Astheywerebeingpursued,one
oftheHarpiesfellintotheriverTigris,inPeloponnesuswhichis
nowcalledHarpysafterher.SomecallthisoneNicothoe,andothers
Aellopus.TheotherwhowascalledOcypete,orassomesayOcythoe
(thoughHesiodcallsherOcypus),fleddownthePropontisandreached
asfarastotheEchinadesislandswhicharenowcalledbecauseofher,
Strophades(TurningIslands).
Fragment#42ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.297:Hesiodalso
saysthatthosewithZetes[1734]turnedandprayedtoZeus:'Therethey
prayedtothelordofAenoswhoreignsonhigh.'
ApolloniusindeedsaysitwasIriswhomadeZetesandhisfollowingturn
away,butHesiodsaysHermes.
ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.296:Otherssay(theislands)
werecalledStrophades,becausetheyturnedthereandprayedZeusto
seizetheHarpies.ButaccordingtoHesiod...theywerenotkilled.
Fragment#43Philodemus[1735],OnPiety,10:Norletanyonemockat
Hesiodwhomentions....oreventheTroglodytesandthePygmies.
Fragment#44Strabo,i.p.43:NoonewouldaccuseHesiodofignorance
thoughhespeaksoftheHalfdogpeopleandtheGreatHeadedpeopleand
thePygmies.
Fragment#45ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.284:ButHesiod
saysthey(theArgonauts)hadsailedinthroughthePhasis.
ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.259:ButHesiod(says)....
theycamethroughtheOceantoLibya,andso,carryingtheArgo,reached
oursea.
Fragment#46ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iii.311:
Apollonius,followingHesiod,saysthatCircecametotheislandover
againstTyrrheniaonthechariotoftheSun.AndhecalleditHesperian,
becauseitliestowardthewest.
Fragment#47ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.892:He
(Apollonius)followedHesiodwhothusnamestheislandoftheSirens:
'TotheislandAnthemoessa(Flowery)whichthesonofCronosgavethem.'
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AndtheirnamesareThelxiopeorThelxinoe,MolpeandAglaophonus
[1736].
ScholiastonHomer,Od.xii.168:HenceHesiodsaidthattheycharmed
eventhewinds.
Fragment#48ScholiastonHomer,Od.i.85:HesiodsaysthatOgygia
iswithintowardsthewest,butOgygialiesoveragainstCrete:'...the
Ogygianseaand......theislandOgygia.'
Fragment#49ScholiastonHomer,Od.vii.54:HesiodregardedAreteas
thesisterofAlcinous.
Fragment#50ScholiastonPindar,Ol.x.46:HerHippostratus(did
wed),ascionofAres,thesplendidsonofPhyetes,ofthelineof
Amarynces,leaderoftheEpeians.
Fragment#51Apollodorus,i.8.4.1:WhenAltheawasdead,Oeneus
marriedPeriboea,thedaughterofHipponous.Hesiodsaysthatshe
wasseducedbyHippostratusthesonofAmaryncesandthatherfather
HipponoussentherfromOlenusinAchaeatoOeneusbecausehewasfar
awayfromHellas,biddinghimkillher.
'SheusedtodwellonthecliffofOlenusbythebanksofwidePeirus.'
Fragment#52Diodorus[1737]v.81:MacareuswasasonofCrinacusthe
sonofZeusasHesiodsays...anddweltinOlenusinthecountrythen
calledIonian,butnowAchaean.
Fragment#53ScholiastonPindar,Nem.ii.21:ConcerningtheMyrmidons
Hesiodspeaksthus:'AndsheconceivedandbareAeacus,delightingin
horses.Nowwhenhecametothefullmeasureofdesiredyouth,hechafed
atbeingalone.Andthefatherofmenandgodsmadealltheantsthat
wereinthelovelyisleintomenandwidegirdledwomen.Thesewerethe
firstwhofittedwiththwartsshipswithcurvedsides,andthefirstwho
usedsails,thewingsofaseagoingship.'
Fragment#54Polybius,v.2:'ThesonsofAeacuswhorejoicedinbattle
asthoughafeast.'
Fragment#55Porphyrius,Quaest.Hom.adIliad.pertin.p.93:He
hasindicatedtheshamefuldeedbrieflybythephrase'toliewithher
againstherwill',andnotlikeHesiodwhorecountsatlengththestory
ofPeleusandthewifeofAcastus.
Fragment#56ScholiastonPindar,Nem.iv.95:'Andthisseemedtohim
(Acastus)inhismindthebestplan;tokeepbackhimself,buttohide
beyondguessingthebeautifulknifewhichtheveryfamousLameOnehad
madeforhim,thatinseekingitaloneoversteepPelion,he(Peleus)
mightbeslainforthwithbythemountainbredCentaurs.'
Fragment#57Voll.Herculan.(PapyrifromHerculaneum),2ndCollection,
viii.105:Theauthorofthe"Cypria"[1738]saysthatThetisavoided
wedlockwithZeustopleaseHera;butthatZeuswasangryandsworethat
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sheshouldmatewithamortal.Hesiodalsohasthelikeaccount.
Fragment#58StrassburgGreekPapyri55(2ndcenturyA.D.):(ll.113)
'PeleusthesonofAeacus,deartothedeathlessgods,cametoPhthia
themotherofflocks,bringinggreatpossessionsfromspaciousIolcus.
Andallthepeopleenviedhimintheirheartsseeinghowhehadsacked
thewellbuiltcity,andaccomplishedhisjoyousmarriage;andtheyall
spakethisword:"Thrice,yea,fourtimesblessedsonofAeacus,happy
Peleus!ForfarseeingOlympianZeushasgivenyouawifewithmany
giftsandtheblessedgodshavebroughtyourmarriagefullytopass,and
inthesehallsyougouptotheholybedofadaughterofNereus.Truly
thefather,thesonofCronos,madeyouverypreeminentamongheroes
andhonouredaboveothermenwhoeatbreadandconsumethefruitofthe
ground."'
Fragment#59[1739]Origen,AgainstCelsus,iv.79:'Forincommonthen
werethebanquets,andincommontheseatsofdeathlessgodsandmortal
men.'
Fragment#60ScholiastonHomer,Il.xvi.175:...whereasHesiodand
therestcallher(Peleus'daughter)Polydora.
Fragment#61Eustathius,Hom.112.44sq:Itshouldbeobservedthat
theancientnarrativehandsdowntheaccountthatPatrocluswaseven
akinsmanofAchilles;forHesiodsaysthatMenoethiusthefatherof
Patroclus,wasabrotherofPeleus,sothatinthatcasetheywerefirst
cousins.
Fragment#62ScholiastonPindar,Ol.x.83:Somewrite'Serustheson
ofHalirrhothius',whomHesiodmentions:'He(begot)SerusandAlazygus,
goodlysons.'AndSeruswasthesonofHalirrhothiusPerieres'son,and
ofAlcyone.
Fragment#63Pausanias[1740],ii.26.7:Thisoraclemostclearly
provesthatAsclepiuswasnotthesonofArsinoe,butthatHesiodorone
ofHesiod'sinterpolatorscomposedtheversestopleasetheMessenians.
ScholiastonPindar,Pyth.iii.14:Somesay(Asclepius)wasthesonof
Arsinoe,othersofCoronis.ButAsclepiadessaysthatArsinoewas
thedaughterofLeucippus,Perieres'son,andthattoherandApollo
Asclepiusandadaughter,Eriopis,wereborn:'Andshebareinthe
palaceAsclepius,leaderofmen,andEriopiswiththelovelyhair,being
subjectinlovetoPhoebus.'
AndofArsinoelikewise:'AndArsinoewasjoinedwiththesonofZeus
andLetoandbareasonAsclepius,blamelessandstrong.'[1741]
Fragment#67ScholiastonEuripides,Orestes249:Steischorussaysthat
whilesacrificingtothegodsTyndareusforgotAphroditeandthat
thegoddesswasangryandmadehisdaughterstwiceandthricewedand
desertersoftheirhusbands....AndHesiodalsosays:
(ll.17)'AndlaughterlovingAphroditefeltjealouswhenshelookedon
themandcastthemintoevilreport.ThenTimandradesertedEchemus
andwentandcametoPhyleus,deartothedeathlessgods;andevenso
ClytaemnestradesertedgodlikeAgamemnonandlaywithAegisthus
andchoseaworsemate;andevensoHelendishonouredthecouchof
goldenhairedMenelaus.'
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Fragment#68[1742]BerlinPapyri,No.9739:(ll.110)
'....Philoctetessoughther,aleaderofspearmen,....mostfamousof
allmenatshootingfromafarandwiththesharpspear.Andhecame
toTyndareus'brightcityforthesakeoftheArgivemaidwhohadthe
beautyofgoldenAphrodite,andthesparklingeyesoftheGraces;and
thedarkfaceddaughterofOcean,verylovelyofform,bareherwhen
shehadsharedtheembracesofZeusandthekingTyndareusinthebright
palace....(And....soughthertowifeofferingasgifts)
((LACUNA))
(ll.1115)....andasmanywomenskilledinblamelessarts,eachholding
agoldenbowlinherhands.AndtrulyCastorandstrongPolydeuces
wouldhavemadehim[1743]theirbrotherperforce,butAgamemnon,being
soninlawtoTyndareus,wooedherforhisbrotherMenelaus.
(ll.1619)AndthetwosonsofAmphiarausthelord,Oecleus'son,
soughthertowifefromArgosverynearathand;yet....fearofthe
blessedgodsandtheindignationofmencausedthemalsotofail.
((LACUNA))
(l.20)...buttherewasnodeceitfuldealinginthesonsofTyndareus.
(ll.2127)AndfromIthacathesacredmightofOdysseus,Laertesson,
whoknewmanyfashionedwiles,soughthertowife.Heneversentgifts
forthesakeoftheneatankledmaid,forheknewinhisheartthat
goldenhairedMenelauswouldwin,sincehewasgreatestoftheAchaeans
inpossessionsandwaseversendingmessages[1744]tohorsetaming
CastorandprizewinningPolydeuces.
(ll.2830)And....on'ssonsoughthertowife(andbrought)
....bridalgifts........cauldrons....
((LACUNA))
(ll.3133)...tohorsetamingCastorandprizewinningPolydeuces,
desiringtobethehusbandofrichhairedHelen,thoughhehadnever
seenherbeauty,butbecauseheheardthereportofothers.
(ll.3441)AndfromPhylacetwomenofexceedingworthsoughtherto
wife,PodarcessonofIphiclus,Phylacus'son,andActor'snoble
son,overbearingProtesilaus.Bothofthemkeptsendingmessagesto
Lacedaemon,tothehouseofwiseTyndareus,Oebalus'son,andthey
offeredmanybridalgifts,forgreatwasthegirl'srenown,brazen....
....golden....
((LACUNA))
(l.42)...(desiring)tobethehusbandofrichhairedHelen.
(ll.4349)FromAthensthesonofPeteous,Menestheus,soughtherto
wife,andofferedmanybridalgifts;forhepossessedverymanystored
treasures,goldandcauldronsandtripods,finethingswhichlayhidin
thehouseofthelordPeteous,andwiththemhishearturgedhimtowin
hisbridebygivingmoregiftsthananyother;forhethoughtthatno
oneofalltheheroeswouldsurpasshiminpossessionsandgifts.
(ll.5051)TherecamealsobyshipfromCretetothehouseoftheson
ofOebalusstrongLycomedesforrichhairedHelen'ssake.
BerlinPapyri,No.10560:(ll.5254)...soughthertowife.Andafter
goldenhairedMenelausheofferedthegreatestgiftsofallthesuitors,
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andverymuchhedesiredinhishearttobethehusbandofArgiveHelen
withtherichhair.
(ll.5562)AndfromSalamisAias,blamelesswarrior,soughtherto
wife,andofferedfittinggifts,evenwonderfuldeeds;forhesaidthat
hewoulddrivetogetherandgivetheshamblingoxenandstrongsheepof
allthosewholivedinTroezenandEpidaurusnearthesea,andinthe
islandofAeginaandinMases,sonsoftheAchaeans,andshadowyMegara
andfrowningCorinthus,andHermioneandAsinewhichliealongthesea;
forhewasfamouswiththelongspear.
(ll.6366)ButfromEuboeaElephenor,leaderofmen,thesonof
Chalcodon,princeoftheboldAbantes,soughthertowife.Andhe
offeredverymanygifts,andgreatlyhedesiredinhishearttobethe
husbandofrichhairedHelen.
(ll.6774)AndfromCretethemightyIdomeneussoughthertowife,
Deucalion'sson,offspringofrenownedMinos.Hesentnoonetowooher
inhisplace,butcamehimselfinhisblackshipofmanythwartsover
theOgygianseaacrossthedarkwavetothehomeofwiseTyndareus,to
seeArgiveHelenandthatnooneelseshouldbringbackforhimthegirl
whoserenownspreadallovertheholyearth.
(l.75)AndatthepromptingofZeustheallwisecame.
((LACUNAThirteenlineslost.))
(ll.89100)Butofallwhocameforthemaid'ssake,thelordTyndareus
sentnoneaway,noryetreceivedthegiftofany,butaskedofallthe
suitorssureoaths,andbadethemswearandvowwithunmixedlibations
thatnooneelsehenceforthshoulddoaughtapartfromhimastouching
themarriageofthemaidwithshapelyarms;butifanymanshouldcast
offfearandreverenceandtakeherbyforce,hebadealltheothers
togetherfollowafterandmakehimpaythepenalty.Andthey,eachof
themhopingtoaccomplishhismarriage,obeyedhimwithoutwavering.
ButwarlikeMenelaus,thesonofAtreus,prevailedagainstthemall
together,becausehegavethegreatestgifts.
(ll.100106)ButChironwastendingthesonofPeleus,swiftfooted
Achilles,preeminentamongmen,onwoodyPelion;forhewasstilla
boy.ForneitherwarlikeMenelausnoranyotherofmenonearthwould
haveprevailedinsuitforHelen,iffleetAchilleshadfoundherunwed.
But,asitwas,warlikeMenelauswonherbefore.
II.[1745]
(ll.12)Andshe(Helen)bareneatankledHermioneinthepalace,a
childunlookedfor.
(ll.213)Nowallthegodsweredividedthroughstrife;foratthat
verytimeZeuswhothundersonhighwasmeditatingmarvellousdeeds,
eventominglestormandtempestovertheboundlessearth,andalready
hewashasteningtomakeanutterendoftheraceofmortalmen,
declaringthathewoulddestroythelivesofthedemigods,thatthe
childrenofthegodsshouldnotmatewithwretchedmortals,seeingtheir
fatewiththeirowneyes;butthattheblessedgodshenceforthevenas
aforetimeshouldhavetheirlivingandtheirhabitationsapartfrommen.
ButonthosewhowerebornofimmortalsandofmankindverilyZeuslaid
toilandsorrowuponsorrow.
((LACUNATwolinesmissing.))
(ll.1630)....noranyoneofmen........shouldgouponblackships....
....tobestrongestinthemightofhishands........ofmortalmen
declaringtoallthosethingsthatwere,andthosethatare,andthose
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thatshallbe,hebringstopassandglorifiesthecounselsofhis
fatherZeuswhodrivestheclouds.Fornoone,eitheroftheblessed
godsorofmortalmen,knewsurelythathewouldcontrivethroughthe
swordtosendtoHadesfullmanyaoneofheroesfalleninstrife.But
atthattimeheknewnotasyettheintentofhisfather'smind,andhow
mendelightinprotectingtheirchildrenfromdoom.Andhedelightedin
thedesireofhismightyfather'sheartwhorulespowerfullyovermen.
(ll.3143)Fromstatelytreesthefairleavesfellinabundance
flutteringdowntotheground,andthefruitfelltothegroundbecause
BoreasblewveryfiercelyatthebehestofZeus;thedeepseethedand
allthingstrembledathisblast:thestrengthofmankindconsumedaway
andthefruitfailedintheseasonofspring,atthattimewhenthe
HairlessOne[1746]inasecretplaceinthemountainsgetsthreeyoung
everythreeyears.Inspringhedwellsuponthemountainamongtangled
thicketsandbrushwood,keepingafarfromandhatingthepathofmen,
intheglensandwoodedglades.Butwhenwintercomeson,heliesina
closecavebeneaththeearthandcovershimselfwithpilesofluxuriant
leaves,adreadserpentwhosebackisspeckledwithawfulspots.
(ll.4450)Butwhenhebecomesviolentandfierceunspeakably,the
arrowsofZeuslayhimlow....Onlyhissoulisleftontheholy
earth,andthatfitsgibberingaboutasmallunformedden.Andit
comesenfeebledtosacrificesbeneaththebroadpathedearth....andit
lies....'
((LACUNATracesof37followinglines.))
Fragment#69Tzetzes[1747],Exeg.Iliad.68.19H:Agamemnonand
MenelauslikewiseaccordingtoHesiodandAeschylusareregardedasthe
sonsofPleisthenes,Atreus'son.AndaccordingtoHesiod,Pleisthenes
wasasonofAtreusandAerope,andAgamemnon,MenelausandAnaxibia
werethechildrenofPleisthenesandCleollathedaughterofDias.
Fragment#70LaurentianScholiastonSophocles'Electra,539:'And
she(Helen)baretoMenelaus,famouswiththespear,Hermioneandher
youngestborn,Nicostratus,ascionofAres.'
Fragment#71Pausanias,i.43.1:IknowthatHesiodinthe"Catalogue
ofWomen"representedthatIphigeneiawasnotkilledbut,bythewillof
Artemis,becameHecate[1748].
Fragment#72Eustathius,Hom.13.44.sq:Butes,itissaid,wasason
ofPoseidon:soHesiodinthe"Catalogue".
Fragment#73Pausanias,ii.6.5:HesiodrepresentedSicyonastheson
ofErechtheus.
Fragment#74Plato,Minos,p.320.D:'(Minos)whowasmostkinglyof
mortalkingsandreignedoververymanypeopledwellingroundabout,
holdingthesceptreofZeuswherewithheruledmany.'
Fragment#75Hesychius[1749]:Theathleticcontestinmemoryof
EurygyesMelesagorussaysthatAndrogeosthesonofMinoswascalled
Eurygyes,andthatacontestinhishonourisheldnearhistombat
AthensintheCeramicus.AndHesiodwrites:'AndEurygyes[1750],while
yetaladinholyAthens...'
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Fragment#76Plutarch,Theseus20:Therearemanytales....about
Ariadne....,howthatshewasdesertedbyTheseuaforloveofanother
woman:'ForstrongloveforAeglethedaughterofPanopeusoverpowered
him.'ForHereasofMegarasaysthatPeisistratusremovedthisverse
fromtheworksofHesiod.
Athenaeus[1751],xiii.557A:ButHesiodsaysthatTheseusweddedboth
HippeandAeglelawfully.
Fragment#77Strabo,ix.p.393:ThesnakeofCychreus:Hesiodsays
thatitwasbroughtupbyCychreus,andwasdrivenoutbyEurylochusas
defilingtheisland,butthatDemeterreceiveditintoEleusis,andthat
itbecameherattendant.
Fragment#78ArgumentI.totheShieldofHeracles:ButApolloniusof
Rhodessaysthatit(the"ShieldofHeracles")isHesiod'sbothfromthe
generalcharacteroftheworkandfromthefactthatinthe"Catalogue"
weagainfindIolausascharioteerofHeracles.
Fragment#79ScholiastonSoph.Trach.,266:(ll.16)'And
fairgirdledStratonicaconceivedandbareinthepalaceEurytusher
welllovedson.Ofhimsprangsons,DidaeonandClytiusandgodlike
ToxeusandIphitus,ascionofAres.AndaftertheseAntiopethe
queen,daughteroftheagedsonofNauboius,bareheryoungestchild,
goldenhairedIolea.'
Fragment#80HerodianinEtymologicumMagnum:'WhobareAutolycusand
Philammon,famousinspeech....Allthingsthathe(Autolyeus)tookin
hishands,hemadetodisappear.'
Fragment#81Apollonius,Hom.Lexicon:'Aepytusagain,begotTlesenor
andPeirithous.'
Fragment#82Strabo,vii.p.322:'ForLocrustrulywasleaderofthe
Lelegianpeople,whomZeustheSonofCronos,whosewisdomisunfailing,
gavetoDeucalion,stonesgatheredoutoftheearth.Sooutofstones
mortalmenweremade,andtheywerecalledpeople.'[1752]
Fragment#83Tzetzes,Schol.inExeg.Iliad.126:'...Ileuswhomthe
lordApollo,sonofZeus,loved.Andhenamedhimbyhisname,because
hefoundanymphcomplaisant[1753]andwasjoinedwithherinsweet
love,onthatdaywhenPoseidonandApolloraisedhighthewallofthe
wellbuiltcity.'
Fragment#84ScholiastonHomer,Od.xi.326:Clymenethedaughterof
MinyasthesonofPoseidonandofEuryanassa,Hyperphas'daughter,was
weddedtoPhylacusthesonofDeion,andbareIphiclus,aboyfleetof
foot.Itissaidofhimthatthroughhispowerofrunninghecouldrace
thewindsandcouldmovealongupontheearsofcorn[1754]....Thetale
isinHesiod:'Hewouldrunoverthefruitoftheasphodelandnotbreak
it;nay,hewouldrunwithhisfeetuponwheatenearsandnothurtthe
fruit.'
Fragment#85Choeroboscus[1755],i.123,22H:'Andshebareason
Thoas.'
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Fragment#86Eustathius,Hom.1623.44:Maro[1756],whosefather,it
issaid,HesiodrelatestohavebeenEuanthesthesonofOenopion,the
sonofDionysus.
Fragment#87Athenaeus,x.428B,C:'SuchgiftsasDionysusgaveto
men,ajoyandasorrowboth.Whoeverdrinkstofullness,inhimwine
becomesviolentandbindstogetherhishandsandfeet,histonguealso
andhiswitswithfettersunspeakable:andsoftsleepembraceshim.'
Fragment#88Strabo,ix.p.442:'Orlikeher(Coronis)wholivedby
theholyTwinHillsintheplainofDotiumoveragainstAmyrusrichin
grapes,andwashedherfeetintheBoebianlake,amaidunwed.'
Fragment#89ScholiastonPindar,Pyth.iii.48:'Tohim,then,there
cameamessengerfromthesacredfeasttogoodlyPytho,acrow[1757],
andhetoldunshornPhoebusofsecretdeeds,thatIschyssonofElatus
hadweddedCoronisthedaughterofPhlegyasofbirthdivine.
Fragment#90Athenagoras[1758],PetitionfortheChristians,29:
ConcerningAsclepiusHesiodsays:'Andthefatherofmenandgods
waswrath,andfromOlympushesmotethesonofLetowithalurid
thunderboltandkilledhim,arousingtheangerofPhoebus.'
Fragment#91Philodemus,OnPiety,34:ButHesiod(saysthatApollo)
wouldhavebeencastbyZeusintoTartarus[1759];butLetointerceded
forhim,andhebecamebondmantoamortal.
Fragment#92ScholiastonPindar,Pyth.ix.6:'Orlikeher,beautiful
Cyrene,whodweltinPhthiabythewaterofPeneusandhadthebeautyof
theGraces.'
Fragment#93ServiusonVergil,Georg.i.14:HeinvokedAristaeus,
thatis,thesonofApolloandCyrene,whomHesiodcalls'theshepherd
Apollo.'[1760]
Fragment#94ScholiastonVergil,Georg.iv.361:'Butthewaterstood
allroundhim,bowedintothesemblanceofamountain.'Thisversehe
hastakenoverfromHesiod's"CatalogueofWomen".
Fragment#95ScholiastonHomer,Iliadii.469:'Orlikeher(Antiope)
whomBoeotianHyrianurturedasamaid.'
Fragment#96Palaephatus[1761],c.42:OfZethusandAmphion.Hesiod
andsomeothersrelatethattheybuiltthewallsofThebesbyplayingon
thelyre.
Fragment#97ScholiastonSoph.Trach.,1167:(ll.111)'Thereisa
landEllopiawithmuchglebeandrichmeadows,andrichinflocksand
shamblingkine.Theredwellmenwhohavemanysheepandmanyoxen,and
theyareinnumberpasttelling,tribesofmortalmen.Andthere
uponitsborderisbuiltacity,Dodona[1762];andZeusloveditand
(appointed)ittobehisoracle,reverencedbymen........Andthey(the
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doves)livedinthehollowofanoak.Fromthemmenofearthcarryaway
allkindsofprophecy,whosoeverfarestothatspotandquestionsthe
deathlessgod,andcomesbringinggiftswithgoodomens.'
Fragment#98BerlinPapyri,No.9777:[1763](ll.122)'....strife....
Ofmortalswhowouldhavedaredtofighthimwiththespearandcharge
againsthim,saveonlyHeracles,thegreatheartedoffspringofAlcaeus?
Suchanonewas(?)strongMeleagerlovedofAres,thegoldenhaired,
dearsonofOeneusandAlthaea.Fromhisfierceeyesthereshoneforth
portentousfire:andonceinhighCalydonheslewthedestroyingbeast,
thefiercewildboarwithgleamingtusks.Inwarandindreadstrifeno
manoftheheroesdaredtofacehimandtoapproachandfightwithhim
whenheappearedintheforefront.Buthewasslainbythehandsand
arrowsofApollo[1764],whilehewasfightingwiththeCuretesfor
pleasantCalydon.Andtheseothers(Althaea)baretoOeneus,Porthaon's
son;horsetamingPheres,andAgelaussurpassingallothers,Toxeusand
ClymenusandgodlikePeriphas,andrichhairedGorgaandwiseDeianeira,
whowassubjectinlovetomightyHeraclesandbarehimHyllusand
GlenusandCtesippusandOdites.Theseshebareandinignoranceshedid
afearfulthing:when(shehadreceived)....thepoisonedrobethatheld
blackdoom....'
Fragment#99AScholiastonHomer,Iliad.xxiii.679:AndyetHesiod
saysthatafterhehaddiedinThebes,ArgeiathedaughterofAdrastus
togetherwithothers(cp.frag.99)cametothelamentationover
Oedipus.
Fragment#99[1765]Papyrigrecielatine,No.131(2nd3rdcentury):
[1766](ll.110)'And(Eriphyle)bareinthepalaceAlcmaon[1767],
shepherdofthepeople,toAmphiaraus.Him(Amphiaraus)didtheCadmean
(Theban)womenwithtrailingrobesadmirewhentheysawfacetoface
hiseyesandwellgrownframe,ashewasbusiedabouttheburyingof
Oedipus,themanofmanywoes.....OncetheDanai,servantsofAres,
followedhimtoThebes,towinrenown........forPolynices.But,
thoughwellheknewfromZeusallthingsordained,theearthyawned
andswallowedhimupwithhishorsesandjointedchariot,farfrom
deepeddyingAlpheus.
(ll.1120)ButElectyronmarriedtheallbeauteousdaughterofPelops
and,goingupintoonebedwithher,thesonofPersesbegat........and
PhylonomusandCelaeneusandAmphimachusand........andEurybiusand
famous....AllthesetheTaphians,famousshipmen,slewinfightfor
oxenwithshamblinghoofs,........inshipsacrossthesea'swideback.
SoAlcmenaalonewaslefttodelightherparents........andthedaughter
ofElectryon....
((LACUNA))
(l.21)....whowassubjectinlovetothedarkcloudedsonofCronosand
bare(famousHeracles).'
Fragment#100ArgumenttotheShieldofHeracles,i:Thebeginning
ofthe"Shield"asfarasthe56thverseiscurrentinthefourth
"Catalogue".
Fragment#101(UNCERTAINPOSITION)OxyrhynchusPapyri1359fr.1(early
3rdcent.A.D.):((LACUNASlightremainsof3lines))
(ll.417)'...ifindeedhe(Teuthras)delayed,andifhefearedtoobey
thewordoftheimmortalswhothenappearedplainlytothem.Buther
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(Auge)hereceivedandbroughtupwell,andcherishedinthepalace,
honouringherevenashisowndaughters.
AndAugebareTelephusofthestockofAreas,kingoftheMysians,being
joinedinlovewiththemightyHeracleswhenhewasjourneyinginquest
ofthehorsesofproudLaomedonhorsesthefleetestoffootthat
theAsianlandnourished,anddestroyedinbattlethetribeofthe
dauntlessAmazonsanddrovethemforthfromallthatland.ButTelephus
routedthespearmenofthebronzecladAchaeansandmadethemembark
upontheirblackships.Yetwhenhehadbroughtdownmanytotheground
whichnourishesmen,hisownmightanddeadlinesswerebroughtlow....'
Fragment#102(UNCERTAINPOSITION)OxyrhynchusPapyri1359fr.2(early
3rdcent.A.D.):((LACUNARemainsof4lines))
(ll.516)'....Electra....wassubjecttothedarkcloudedSonof
CronosandbareDardanus....andEetion....whooncegreatlyloved
richhairedDemeter.AndcloudgatheringZeuswaswrothandsmotehim,
Eetion,andlaidhimlowwithaflamingthunderbolt,becausehesought
tolayhandsuponrichhairedDemeter.ButDardanuscametothecoastof
themainlandfromhimErichthoniusandthereafterTrosweresprung,
andIlus,andAssaracus,andgodlikeGanymede,whenhehadleftholy
Samothraceinhismanybenchedship.
((LACUNA))
OxyrhynchusPapyri1359fr.3(early3rdcent.A.D.):(ll.1724)
[1768]....Cleopatra....thedaughterof........Butaneaglecaught
upGanymedeforZeusbecauseheviedwiththeimmortalsin
beauty........richtressedDiomede;andshebareHyacinthus,the
blamelessoneandstrong........whom,onatimePhoebushimselfslew
unwittinglywitharuthlessdisk....

THESHIELDOFHERACLES(480lines)
(ll.127)OrlikeherwholefthomeandcountryandcametoThebes,
followingwarlikeAmphitryon,evenAlcmena,thedaughterofElectyron,
gathererofthepeople.Shesurpassedthetribeofwomankindinbeauty
andinheight;andinwisdomnoneviedwithherofthosewhommortal
womenbareofunionwithmortalmen.Herfaceandherdarkeyeswafted
suchcharmascomesfromgoldenAphrodite.Andshesohonouredher
husbandinherheartasnoneofwomankinddidbeforeher.Verilyhehad
slainhernoblefatherviolentlywhenhewasangryaboutoxen;so
helefthisowncountryandcametoThebesandwassupplianttothe
shieldcarryingmenofCadmus.Therehedweltwithhismodestwife
withoutthejoysoflove,normighthegoinuntotheneatankled
daughterofElectyronuntilhehadavengedthedeathofhiswife's
greatheartedbrothersandutterlyburnedwithblazingfirethevillages
oftheheroes,theTaphiansandTeleboans;forthisthingwaslaidupon
him,andthegodswerewitnessestoit.Andhefearedtheiranger,and
hastenedtoperformthegreattasktowhichZeushadboundhim.Withhim
wentthehorsedrivingBoeotians,breathingabovetheirshields,andthe
Locrianswhofighthandtohand,andthegallantPhocianseagerfor
warandbattle.AndthenoblesonofAlcaeusledthem,rejoicinginhis
host.
(ll.2755)Butthefatherofmenandgodswasforminganotherschemein
hisheart,tobegetonetodefendagainstdestructiongodsandmenwho
eatbread.SohearosefromOlympusbynightponderingguileinthedeep
ofhisheart,andyearnedfortheloveofthewellgirdedwoman.Quickly
hecametoTyphaonium,andfromthereagainwiseZeuswentonandtrod
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thehighestpeakofPhicium[1801]:therehesatandplannedmarvellous
thingsinhisheart.SoinonenightZeussharedthebedandloveofthe
neatankleddaughterofElectyronandfulfilledhisdesire;andinthe
samenightAmphitryon,gathererofthepeople,theglorioushero,came
tohishousewhenhehadendedhisgreattask.Hehastenednottogoto
hisbondmenandshepherdsafield,butfirstwentinuntohiswife:such
desiretookholdontheshepherdofthepeople.Andasamanwhohas
escapedjoyfullyfrommisery,whetherofsorediseaseorcruelbondage,
sothendidAmphitryon,whenhehadwoundupallhisheavytask,come
gladandwelcometohishome.Andallnightlonghelaywithhismodest
wife,delightinginthegiftsofgoldenAphrodite.Andshe,being
subjectinlovetoagodandtoamanexceedinggoodly,broughtforth
twinsonsinsevengatedThebe.Thoughtheywerebrothers,thesewere
notofonespirit;foronewasweakerbuttheotherafarbetterman,
oneterribleandstrong,themightyHeracles.Himshebarethrough
theembraceofthesonofCronoslordofdarkcloudsandtheother,
Iphiclus,ofAmphitryonthespearwielderoffspringdistinct,thisone
ofunionwithamortalman,butthatotherofunionwithZeus,leaderof
allthegods.
(ll.5777)AndheslewCycnus,thegallantsonofAres.Forhefound
himinthecloseoffarshootingApollo,himandhisfatherAres,never
satedwithwar.Theirarmourshonelikeaflameofblazingfireasthey
twostoodintheircar:theirswifthorsesstrucktheearthandpawed
itwiththeirhoofs,andthedustroselikesmokeaboutthem,pounded
bythechariotwheelsandthehorses'hoofs,whilethewellmadechariot
anditsrailsrattledaroundthemasthehorsesplunged.Andblameless
Cycnuswasglad,forhelookedtoslaythewarlikesonofZeusandhis
charioteerwiththesword,andtostripofftheirsplendidarmour.
ButPhoebusApollowouldnotlistentohisvaunts,forhehimselfhad
stirredupmightyHeraclesagainsthim.Andallthegroveandaltar
ofPagasaeanApolloflamedbecauseofthedreadgodandbecauseofhis
arms;forhiseyesflashedaswithfire.Whatmortalmenwouldhave
daredtomeethimfacetofacesaveHeraclesandgloriousIolaus?For
greatwastheirstrengthandunconquerablewerethearmswhichgrew
fromtheirshouldersontheirstronglimbs.ThenHeraclesspaketohis
charioteerstrongIolaus:
(ll.7894)'OheroIolaus,bestbelovedofallmen,trulyAmphitryon
sinneddeeplyagainsttheblessedgodswhodwellonOlympuswhenhecame
tosweetcrownedThebeandleftTiryns,thewellbuiltcitadel,because
heslewElectryonforthesakeofhiswidebrownedoxen.Thenhecameto
CreonandlongrobedEniocha,whoreceivedhimkindlyandgavehim
allfittingthings,asisduetosuppliants,andhonouredhimintheir
heartsevenmore.Andhelivedjoyfullywithhiswifetheneatankled
daughterofElectyron:andpresently,whiletheyearsrolledon,wewere
born,unlikeinbodyasinmind,evenyourfatherandI.FromhimZeus
tookawaysense,sothathelefthishomeandhisparentsandwentto
dohonourtothewickedEurystheusunhappyman!Deeplyindeeddidhe
grieveafterwardsinbearingtheburdenofhisownmadfolly;butthat
cannotbetakenback.Butonmefatelaidheavytasks.
(ll.95101)'Yet,come,friend,quicklytakethereddyedreinsofthe
swifthorsesandraisehighcourageinyourheartandguidetheswift
chariotandstrongfleetfootedhorsesstraighton.Havenosecretfear
atthenoiseofmanslayingAreswhonowragesshoutingabouttheholy
groveofPhoebusApollo,thelordwhoshootsformafar.Surely,strong
thoughhebe,heshallhaveenoughofwar.'
(ll.102114)AndblamelessIolausansweredhimagain:'Goodfriend,
trulythefatherofmenandgodsgreatlyhonoursyourheadandthe
bulllikeEarthShakeralso,whokeepsThebe'sveilofwallsandguards
thecity,sogreatandstrongisthisfellowtheybringintoyourhands
thatyoumaywingreatglory.Butcome,putonyourarmsofwarthat
withallspeedwemaybringthecarofAresandourowntogetherand
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fight;forheshallnotfrightenthedauntlesssonofZeus,noryetthe
sonofIphiclus:rather,Ithinkhewillfleebeforethetwosonsof
blamelessAlcideswhoarenearhimandeagertoraisethewarcryfor
battle;forthistheylovebetterthanafeast.'
(ll.115117)Sohesaid.AndmightyHeracleswasgladinheartand
smiled,fortheother'swordspleasedhimwell,andheansweredhimwith
wingedwords:
(ll.118121)'OheroIolaus,heavensprung,nowisroughbattlehard
athand.But,asyouhaveshownyourskillatothertimes,sonowalso
wheelthegreatblackmanedhorseArionabouteveryway,andhelpmeas
youmaybeable.'
(ll.122138)Sohesaid,andputuponhislegsgreavesofshining
bronze,thesplendidgiftofHephaestus.Nexthefastenedabouthis
breastafinegoldenbreastplate,curiouslywrought,whichPallas
AthenethedaughterofZeushadgivenhimwhenfirsthewasabouttoset
outuponhisgrievouslabours.Overhisshouldersthefiercewarrior
putthesteelthatsavesmenfromdoom,andacrosshisbreastheslung
behindhimahollowquiver.Withinitweremanychillingarrows,dealers
ofdeathwhichmakesspeechforgotten:infronttheyhaddeath,and
trickledwithtears;theirshaftsweresmoothandverylong;andtheir
buttswerecoveredwithfeathersofabrowneagle.Andhetookhis
strongspear,pointedwithshiningbronze,andonhisvaliantheadset
awellmadehelmofadamant,cunninglywrought,whichfittedcloselyon
thetemples;andthatguardedtheheadofgodlikeHeracles.
(ll.139153)Inhishandshetookhisshield,allglittering:noone
everbrokeitwithabloworcrushedit.Andawonderitwastosee;for
itswholeorbwasashimmerwithenamelandwhiteivoryandelectrum,
anditglowedwithshininggold;andtherewerezonesofcyanus[1802]
drawnuponit.InthecentrewasFearworkedinadamant,unspeakable,
staringbackwardswitheyesthatglowedwithfire.Hismouthwasfull
ofteethinawhiterow,fearfulanddaunting,anduponhisgrimbrow
hoveredfrightfulStrifewhoarraysthethrongofmen:pitilessshe,for
shetookawaythemindandsensesofpoorwretcheswhomadewaragainst
thesonofZeus.Theirsoulspassedbeneaththeearthandwentdowninto
thehouseofHades;buttheirbones,whentheskinisrottedaboutthem,
crumbleawayonthedarkearthunderparchingSirius.
(ll.154160)UpontheshieldPursuitandFlightwerewrought,and
Tumult,andPanic,andSlaughter.Strifealso,andUproarwerehurrying
about,anddeadlyFatewasthereholdingonemannewlywounded,and
anotherunwounded;andone,whowasdead,shewasdraggingbythefeet
throughthetumult.Shehadonhershouldersagarmentredwiththe
bloodofmen,andterriblysheglaredandgnashedherteeth.
(ll.160167)Andtherewereheadsofsnakesunspeakablyfrightful,
twelveofthem;andtheyusedtofrightenthetribesofmenonearth
whosoevermadewaragainstthesonofZeus;fortheywouldclashtheir
teethwhenAmphitryon'ssonwasfighting:andbrightlyshonethese
wonderfulworks.Anditwasasthoughtherewerespotsuponthe
frightfulsnakes:andtheirbacksweredarkblueandtheirjawswere
black.
(ll.168177)Alsotherewereupontheshielddrovesofboarsandlions
whoglaredateachother,beingfuriousandeager:therowsofthem
movedontogether,andneithersidetrembledbutbothbristleduptheir
manes.Foralreadyagreatlionlaybetweenthemandtwoboars,oneon
eitherside,bereftoflife,andtheirdarkbloodwasdrippingdown
upontheground;theylaydeadwithnecksoutstretchedbeneaththegrim
lions.Andbothsideswererousedstillmoretofightbecausetheywere
angry,thefierceboarsandthebrighteyedlions.
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(ll.178190)AndtherewasthestrifeoftheLapithspearmengathered
roundtheprinceCaeneusandDryasandPeirithous,withHopleus,
Exadius,Phalereus,andProlochus,MopsusthesonofAmpyceof
Titaresia,ascionofAres,andTheseus,thesonofAegeus,likeunto
thedeathlessgods.Thesewereofsilver,andhadarmourofgoldupon
theirbodies.AndtheCentaursweregatheredagainstthemontheother
sidewithPetraeusandAsbolusthediviner,Arctus,andUreus,and
blackhairedMimas,andthetwosonsofsilver,andtheyhadpinetrees
ofgoldintheirhands,andtheywererushingtogetherasthoughthey
werealiveandstrikingatoneanotherhandtohandwithspearsandwith
pines.
(ll.191196)Andontheshieldstoodthefleetfootedhorsesofgrim
Aresmadegold,anddeadlyAresthespoilwinnerhimself.Hehelda
spearinhishandsandwasurgingonthefootmen:hewasredwithblood
asifhewereslayinglivingmen,andhestoodinhischariot.Beside
himstoodFearandFlight,eagertoplungeamidstthefightingmen.
(ll.197200)There,too,wasthedaughterofZeus,Tritogeneiawho
drivesthespoil[1803].Shewaslikeasifshewouldarrayabattle,
withaspearinherhand,andagoldenhelmet,andtheaegisabouther
shoulders.Andshewasgoingtowardstheawfulstrife.
(ll.201206)Andtherewastheholycompanyofthedeathlessgods:and
inthemidstthesonofZeusandLetoplayedsweetlyonagoldenlyre.
Therealsowastheabodeofthegods,pureOlympus,andtheirassembly,
andinfinitericheswerespreadaroundinthegathering,theMusesof
Pieriawerebeginningasonglikeclearvoicedsingers.
(ll.207215)Andontheshieldwasaharbourwithasafehavenfromthe
irresistiblesea,madeofrefinedtinwroughtinacircle,anditseemed
toheavewithwaves.Inthemiddleofitweremanydolphinsrushingthis
wayandthat,fishing:andtheyseemedtobeswimming.Twodolphinsof
silverwerespoutinganddevouringthemutefishes.Andbeneaththem
fishesofbronzeweretrembling.Andontheshoresatafisherman
watching:inhishandsheheldacastingnetforfish,andseemedasif
abouttocastitforth.
(ll.216237)There,too,wasthesonofrichhairedDanae,thehorseman
Perseus:hisfeetdidnottouchtheshieldandyetwerenotfarfrom
itverymarvelloustoremark,sincehewasnotsupportedanywhere;for
sodidthefamousLameOnefashionhimofgoldwithhishands.Onhis
feethehadwingedsandals,andhisblacksheathedswordwasslung
acrosshisshouldersbyacrossbeltofbronze.Hewasflyingswiftas
thought.Theheadofadreadfulmonster,theGorgon,coveredthebroad
ofhisback,andabagofsilveramarveltoseecontainedit:and
fromthebagbrighttasselsofgoldhungdown.Upontheheadofthehero
laythedreadcap[1804]ofHadeswhichhadtheawfulgloomofnight.
Perseushimself,thesonofDanae,wasatfullstretch,likeonewho
hurriesandshudderswithhorror.AndafterhimrushedtheGorgons,
unapproachableandunspeakable,longingtoseizehim:astheytrodupon
thepaleadamant,theshieldrangsharpandclearwithaloudclanging.
Twoserpentshungdownattheirgirdleswithheadscurvedforward:their
tongueswereflickering,andtheirteethgnashingwithfury,andtheir
eyesglaringfiercely.AndupontheawfulheadsoftheGorgonsgreat
Fearwasquaking.
(ll.237270)Andbeyondthesethereweremenfightinginwarlike
harness,somedefendingtheirowntownandparentsfromdestruction,
andotherseagertosackit;manylaydead,butthegreaternumberstill
stroveandfought.Thewomenonwellbuilttowersofbronzewerecrying
shrillyandtearingtheircheekslikelivingbeingstheworkoffamous
Hephaestus.Andthemenwhowereeldersandonwhomagehadlaidhold
werealltogetheroutsidethegates,andwereholdinguptheirhands
totheblessedgods,fearingfortheirownsons.Buttheseagainwere
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engagedinbattle:andbehindthemtheduskyFates,gnashingtheirwhite
fangs,lowering,grim,bloody,andunapproachable,struggledforthose
whowerefalling,fortheyallwerelongingtodrinkdarkblood.Sosoon
astheycaughtamanoverthrownorfallingnewlywounded,oneofthem
wouldclasphergreatclawsabouthim,andhissoulwouldgodownto
HadestochillyTartarus.Andwhentheyhadsatisfiedtheirsoulswith
humanblood,theywouldcastthatonebehindthem,andrushbackagain
intothetumultandthefray.ClothoandLachesiswereoverthemand
Atroposlesstallthanthey,agoddessofnogreatframe,yetsuperior
totheothersandtheeldestofthem.Andtheyallmadeafiercefight
overonepoorwretch,glaringevillyatoneanotherwithfuriouseyes
andfightingequallywithclawsandhands.BythemstoodDarknessof
Death,mournfulandfearful,pale,shrivelled,shrunkwithhunger,
swollenkneed.Longnailstippedherhands,andshedribbledatthe
nose,andfromhercheeksblooddrippeddowntotheground.She
stoodleeringhideously,andmuchdustsoddenwithtearslayuponher
shoulders.
(ll.270285)Next,therewasacityofmenwithgoodlytowers;and
sevengatesofgold,fittedtothelintels,guardedit.Themenwere
makingmerrywithfestivitiesanddances;somewerebringinghome
abridetoherhusbandonawellwheeledcar,whilethebridalsong
swelledhigh,andtheglowofblazingtorchesheldbyhandmaidens
rolledinwavesafar.Andthesemaidenswentbefore,delightinginthe
festival;andafterthemcamefrolicsomechoirs,theyouthssinging
softmouthedtothesoundofshrillpipes,whiletheechowasshivered
aroundthem,andthegirlsledonthelovelydancetothesoundof
lyres.Thenagainontheothersidewasaroutofyoungmenrevelling,
withflutesplaying;somefrolickingwithdanceandsong,andothers
weregoingforwardintimewithafluteplayerandlaughing.Thewhole
townwasfilledwithmirthanddanceandfestivity.
(ll.285304)Othersagainweremountedonhorsebackandgalloping
beforethetown.Andtherewereploughmenbreakingupthegoodsoil,
clothedintunicsgirtup.Alsotherewasawidecornlandandsomemen
werereapingwithsharphooksthestalkswhichbendedwiththeweightof
thecarsasiftheywerereapingDemeter'sgrain:otherswerebinding
thesheaveswithbandsandwerespreadingthethreshingfloor.Andsome
heldreapinghooksandweregatheringthevintage,whileotherswere
takingfromthereapersintobasketswhiteandblackclustersfromthe
longrowsofvineswhichwereheavywithleavesandtendrilsofsilver.
Othersagainweregatheringthemintobaskets.Besidethemwasarowof
vinesingold,thesplendidworkofcunningHephaestus:ithadshivering
leavesandstakesofsilverandwasladenwithgrapeswhichturnedblack
[1805].Andtherewerementreadingoutthegrapesandothersdrawing
offliquor.Alsothereweremenboxingandwrestling,andhuntsmen
chasingswifthareswithaleashofsharptootheddogsbeforethem,they
eagertocatchthehares,andthehareseagertoescape.
(ll305313)Nexttothemwerehorsemenhardset,andtheycontendedand
labouredforaprize.Thecharioteersstandingontheirwellwovencars,
urgedontheirswifthorseswithlooserein;thejointedcarsflewalong
clatteringandthenavesofthewheelsshriekedloudly.Sotheywere
engagedinanunendingtoil,andtheendwithvictorycameneverto
them,andthecontestwaseverunwon.Andtherewassetoutforthem
withinthecourseagreattripodofgold,thesplendidworkofcunning
Hephaestus.
(ll.314317)AndroundtherimOceanwasflowing,withafullstream
asitseemed,andenclosedallthecunningworkoftheshield.Overit
swansweresoaringandcallingloudly,andmanyotherswereswimming
uponthesurfaceofthewater;andnearthemwereshoalsoffish.
(ll.318326)Awonderfulthingthegreatstrongshieldwastoseeeven
forZeustheloudthunderer,bywhosewillHephaestusmadeitandfitted
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itwithhishands.ThisshieldthevaliantsonofZeuswieldedmasterly,
andleapeduponhishorsechariotlikethelightningofhisfatherZeus
whoholdstheaegis,movinglithely.Andhischarioteer,strongIolaus,
standinguponthecar,guidedthecurvedchariot.
(ll.327337)ThenthegoddessgreyeyedAthenecamenearthemandspoke
wingedwords,encouragingthem:'Hail,offspringoffarfamedLynceus!
EvennowZeuswhoreignsovertheblessedgodsgivesyoupowerto
slayCycnusandtostripoffhissplendidarmour.YetIwilltellyou
somethingbesides,mightiestofthepeople.Whenyouhaverobbed
Cycnusofsweetlife,thenleavehimthereandhisarmouralso,andyou
yourselfwatchmanslayingAresnarrowlyasheattacks,andwhereveryou
shallseehimuncoveredbelowhiscunninglywroughtshield,therewound
himwithyoursharpspear.Thendrawback;foritisnotordainedthat
youshouldtakehishorsesorhissplendidarmour.'
(ll.338349)Sosaidthebrighteyedgoddessandswiftlygotupinto
thecarwithvictoryandrenowninherhands.Thenheavennurtured
Iolauscalledterriblytothehorses,andathiscrytheyswiftly
whirledthefleetchariotalong,raisingdustfromtheplain;forthe
goddessbrighteyedAtheneputmettleintothembyshakingheraegis.
Andtheearthgroanedallroundthem.
Andthey,horsetamingCycnusandAres,insatiableinwar,cameon
togetherlikefireorwhirlwind.Thentheirhorsesneighedshrilly,face
toface;andtheechowasshiveredallroundthem.AndmightyHeracles
spokefirstandsaidtothatother:
(ll.350367)'Cycnus,goodsir!Why,pray,doyousetyourswifthorses
atus,menwhoaretriedinlabourandpain?Nay,guideyourfleetcar
asideandyieldandgooutofthepath.ItistoTrachisIamdriving
on,toCeyxtheking,whoisthefirstinTrachisforpowerandfor
honour,andthatyouyourselfknowwell,foryouhavehisdaughter
darkeyedThemistinoetowife.Fool!ForAresshallnotdeliveryoufrom
theendofdeath,ifwetwomeettogetherinbattle.Anothertimeere
thisIdeclarehehasmadetrialofmyspear,whenhedefendedsandy
Pylosandstoodagainstme,fiercelylongingforfight.Thricewashe
strickenbymyspearanddashedtoearth,andhisshieldwaspierced;
butthefourthtimeIstruckhisthigh,layingonwithallmystrength,
andtaredeepintohisflesh.Andhefellheadlonginthedustuponthe
groundthroughtheforceofmyspearthrust;thentrulyhewouldhave
beendisgracedamongthedeathlessgods,ifbymyhandshehadleft
behindhisbloodyspoils.'
(ll.368385)Sosaidhe.ButCycnusthestoutspearmancarednotto
obeyhimandtopullupthehorsesthatdrewhischariot.Thenitwas
thatfromtheirwellwovencarstheybothleapedstraighttotheground,
thesonofZeusandthesonoftheLordofWar.Thecharioteersdrove
nearbytheirhorseswithbeautifulmanes,andthewideearthrangwith
thebeatoftheirhoofsastheyrushedalong.Aswhenrocksleapforth
fromthehighpeakofagreatmountain,andfallononeanother,and
manytoweringoaksandpinesandlongrootedpoplarsarebrokenbythem
astheywhirlswiftlydownuntiltheyreachtheplain;sodidtheyfall
ononeanotherwithagreatshout:andallthetownoftheMyrmidons,
andfamousIolcus,andArne,andHelice,andgrassyAntheaechoedloudly
atthevoiceofthetwo.Withanawfulcrytheyclosed:andwiseZeus
thunderedloudlyandraineddowndropsofblood,givingthesignalfor
battletohisdauntlessson.
(ll.386401)Asatuskedboar,thatisfearfulforamantoseebefore
himintheglensofamountain,resolvestofightwiththehuntsmenand
whitetusks,turningsideways,whilefoamflowsallroundhismouthas
hegnashes,andhiseyesarelikeglowingfire,andhebristlesthehair
onhismaneandaroundhisnecklikehimthesonofZeusleapedfrom
hishorsechariot.Andwhenthedarkwingedwhirringgrasshopper,
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perchedonagreenshoot,beginstosingofsummertomenhisfood
anddrinkisthedaintydewandalldaylongfromdawnpoursforthhis
voiceinthedeadliestheat,whenSiriusscorchestheflesh(thenthe
beardgrowsuponthemilletwhichmensowinsummer),whenthecrude
grapeswhichDionysusgavetomenajoyandasorrowbothbeginto
colour,inthatseasontheyfoughtandloudrosetheclamour.
(ll.402412)Astwolions[1806]oneithersideofaslaindeerspring
atoneanotherinfury,andthereisafearfulsnarlingandaclashing
alsoofteethlikevultureswithcrookedtalonsandhookedbeakthat
fightandscreamaloudonahighrockoveramountaingoatorfat
wilddeerwhichsomeactivemanhasshotwithanarrowfromthestring,
andhimselfhaswanderedawayelsewhere,notknowingtheplace;butthey
quicklymarkitandvehementlydokeenbattleaboutitlikethesethey
tworushedupononeanotherwithashout.
(ll.413423)ThenCycnus,eagertokillthesonofalmightyZeus,
struckuponhisshieldwithabrazenspear,butdidnotbreak
thebronze;andthegiftofthegodsavedhisfoe.Butthesonof
Amphitryon,mightyHeracles,withhislongspearstruckCycnusviolently
intheneckbeneaththechin,whereitwasunguardedbetweenhelmand
shield.Andthedeadlyspearcutthroughthetwosinews;forthehero's
fullstrengthlightedonhisfoe.AndCycnusfellasanoakfallsora
loftypinethatisstrickenbytheluridthunderboltofZeus;evensohe
fell,andhisarmouradornedwithbronzeclashedabouthim.
(ll.424442)ThenthestoutheartedsonofZeuslethimbe,andhimself
watchedfortheonsetofmanslayingAres:fiercelyhestared,likea
lionwhohascomeuponabodyandfulleagerlyripsthehidewithhis
strongclawsandtakesawaythesweetlifewithallspeed:hisdark
heartisfilledwithrageandhiseyesglarefiercely,whilehetears
uptheearthwithhispawsandlasheshisflanksandshoulderswithhis
tailsothatnoonedarestofacehimandgoneartogivebattle.Even
so,thesonofAmphitryon,unsatedofbattle,stoodeagerlyfacetoface
withAres,nursingcourageinhisheart.AndAresdrewnearhimwith
griefinhisheart;andtheybothsprangatoneanotherwithacry.As
itiswhenarockshootsoutfromagreatcliffandwhirlsdownwith
longbounds,careeringeagerlywitharoar,andahighcragclasheswith
itandkeepsittherewheretheystriketogether;withnolessclamour
diddeadlyAres,thechariotborne,rushshoutingatHeracles.Andhe
quicklyreceivedtheattack.
(ll.443449)ButAthenethedaughterofaegisbearingZeuscametomeet
Ares,wearingthedarkaegis,andshelookedathimwithanangry
frownandspokewingedwordstohim.'Ares,checkyourfierceangerand
matchlesshands;foritisnotordainedthatyoushouldkillHeracles,
theboldheartedsonofZeus,andstripoffhisricharmour.Come,then,
ceasefightinganddonotwithstandme.'
(ll.450466)Sosaidshe,butdidnotmovethecourageousspiritof
Ares.Butheutteredagreatshoutandwavinghisspearslikefire,he
rushedheadlongatstrongHeracles,longingtokillhim,andhurleda
brazenspearuponthegreatshield,forhewasfuriouslyangrybecause
ofhisdeadson;butbrighteyedAthenereachedoutfromthecarand
turnedasidetheforceofthespear.
ThenbittergriefseizedAresandhedrewhiskeenswordandleapedupon
boldheartedHeracles.Butashecameon,thesonofAmphitryon,unsated
offiercebattle,shrewdlywoundedhisthighwhereitwasexposed
underhisrichlywroughtshield,andtaredeepintohisfleshwiththe
spearthrustandcasthimflatupontheground.AndPanicandDread
quicklydrovehissmoothwheeledchariotandhorsesnearhimandlifted
himfromthewidepathedearthintohisrichlywroughtcar,andthen
straightlashedthehorsesandcametohighOlympus.
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(ll.467471)ButthesonofAlcmenaandgloriousIolausstrippedthe
finearmouroffCycnus'shouldersandwent,andtheirswifthorses
carriedthemstraighttothecityofTrachis.AndbrighteyedAthene
wentthencetogreatOlympusandherfather'shouse.
(ll.472480)AsforCycnus,Ceyxburiedhimandthecountlesspeople
wholivednearthecityofthegloriousking,inAntheandthecityof
theMyrmidons,andfamousIolcus,andArne,andHelice:andmuchpeople
weregathereddoinghonourtoCeyx,thefriendoftheblessedgods.But
Anaurus,swelledbyarainstorm,blottedoutthegraveandmemorial
ofCycnus;forsoApollo,Leto'sson,commandedhim,becauseheusedto
watchforandviolentlydespoiltherichhecatombsthatanymightbring
toPytho.

THEMARRIAGEOFCEYX(fragments)
Fragment#1ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.128:Hesiodin
the"MarriageofCeyx"saysthathe(Heracles)landed(fromtheArgo)
tolookforwaterandwasleftbehindinMagnesianeartheplacecalled
Aphetaebecauseofhisdesertionthere.
Fragment#2Zenobius[1901],ii.19:Hesiodusedtheproverbinthe
followingway:Heraclesisrepresentedashavingconstantlyvisitedthe
houseofCeyxofTrachisandspokenthus:'Oftheirownselvesthegood
makeforthefeastsofgood.'
Fragment#3ScholiastonHomer,Il.xiv.119:'AndhorsedrivingCeyx
beholding...'
Fragment#4Athenaeus,ii.p.49b:Hesiodinthe"Marriageof
Ceyx"forthoughgrammarschoolboysalienateitfromthepoet,yetI
considerthepoemancientcallsthetablestripods.
Fragment#5GregoryofCorinth,OnFormsofSpeech(Rhett.Gr.vii.
776):'Butwhentheyhaddonewithdesirefortheequalsharedfeast,
eventhentheybroughtfromtheforestthemotherofamother(sc.
wood),dryandparched,tobeslainbyherownchildren'(sc.tobe
burntintheflames).

THEGREATEOIAE(fragments)
Fragment#1Pausanius,ii.26.3:Epidaurus.Accordingtotheopinion
oftheArgivesandtheepicpoem,the"GreatEoiae",Argosthesonof
ZeuswasfatherofEpidaurus.
Fragment#2AnonymousComment.onAristotle,NicomacheanEthics,iii.
7:And,theysay,HesiodissufficienttoprovethatthewordPONEROS
(bad)hasthesamesenseas'laborious'or'illfated';forinthe
"GreatEoiae"herepresentsAlcmeneassayingtoHeracles:'Myson,
trulyZeusyourfatherbegotyoutobethemosttoilfulasthemost
excellent...';andagain:'TheFates(made)youthemosttoilfulandthe
mostexcellent...'

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Fragment#3ScholiastonPindar,Isthm.v.53:Thestoryhasbeen
takenfromthe"GreatEoiae";fortherewefindHeraclesentertainedby
Telamon,standingdressedinhislionskinandpraying,andtherealso
wefindtheeaglesentbyZeus,fromwhichAiastookhisname[2001].
Fragment#4Pausanias,iv.2.1:ButIknowthatthesocalled"Great
Eoiae"saythatPolycaonthesonofButesmarriedEuaechme,daughterof
Hyllus,Heracles'son.
Fragment#5Pausanias,ix.40.6:'AndPhylasweddedLeipephilethe
daughteroffamousIolaus:andshewasliketheOlympiansinbeauty.She
barehimasonHippotadesinthepalace,andcomelyTherowhowaslike
thebeamsofthemoon.AndTherolayintheembraceofApolloandbare
horsetamingChaeronofhardystrength.'
Fragment#6ScholiastonPindar,Pyth.iv.35:'OrlikeherinHyria,
carefulmindedMecionice,whowasjoinedintheloveofgoldenAphrodite
withtheEarthholderandEarthShaker,andbareEuphemus.'
Fragment#7Pausanias,ix.36.7:'AndHyettuskilledMolurusthedear
sonofAristasinhishousebecausehelaywithhiswife.Thenhe
lefthishomeandfledfromhorserearingArgosandcametoMinyan
Orchomenus.Andtheheroreceivedhimandgavehimaportionofhis
goods,aswasfitting.'
Fragment#8Pausanias,ii.2.3:Butinthe"GreatEoiae"Peireneis
representedtobethedaughterofOebalius.
Fragment#9Pausanias,ii.16.4:Theepicpoem,whichtheGreekcall
the"GreatEoiae",saysthatshe(Mycene)wasthedaughterofInachus
andwifeofArestor:fromher,then,itissaid,thecityreceivedits
name.
Fragment#10Pausanias,vi.21.10:Accordingtothepoemthe"Great
Eoiae",thesewerekilledbyOenomaus[2002]:Alcathousthesonof
PorthaonnextafterMarmax,andafterAlcathous,Euryalus,Eurymachus
andCrotalus.Themankillednextafterthem,Aerias,weshouldjudge
tohavebeenaLacedemonianandfounderofAeria.AndafterAcrias,
theysay,CapetuswasdonetodeathbyOenomaus,andLycurgus,Lasius,
ChalcodonandTricolonus....AndafterTricolonusfateovertook
AristomachusandPriasonthecourse,asalsoPelagonandAeoliusand
Cronius.
Fragment#11ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.57:Inthe
"GreatEoiae"itissaidthatEndymionwastransportedbyZeusinto
heaven,butwhenhefellinlovewithHera,wasbefooledwithashapeof
cloud,andwascastoutandwentdownintoHades.
Fragment#12ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.118:Inthe
"GreatEoiae"itisrelatedthatMelampus,whowasverydearto
Apollo,wentabroadandstayedwithPolyphantes.Butwhenthekinghad
sacrificedanox,aserpentcreptuptothesacrificeanddestroyed
hisservants.Atthisthekingwasangryandkilledtheserpent,but
Melampustookandburiedit.Anditsoffspring,broughtupbyhim,used
tolickhisearsandinspirehimwithprophecy.Andso,whenhewas
caughtwhiletryingtostealthecowsofIphiclusandtakenboundtothe
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cityofAegina,andwhenthehouse,inwhichIphicluswas,wasabout
tofall,hetoldanoldwoman,oneoftheservantsofIphiclus,andin
returnwasreleased.
Fragment#13ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.828:Inthe
"GreatEoiae"ScyllaisthedaughterofPhoebusandHecate.
Fragment#14ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.181:Hesiodin
the"GreatEoiae"saysthatPhineuswasblindedbecausehetoldPhrixus
theway[2003].
Fragment#15ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.ii.1122:Argus.
ThisisoneofthechildrenofPhrixus.These........Hesiodinthe
"GreatEoiae"sayswerebornofIophossathedaughterofAeetes.Andhe
saystherewerefourofthem,Argus,Phrontis,Melas,andCytisorus.
Fragment#16AntoninusLiberalis,xxiii:Battus.Hesiodtellsthestory
inthe"GreatEoiae"........MagneswasthesonofArgus,thesonof
PhrixusandPerimele,Admetus'daughter,andlivedintheregionof
Thessaly,inthelandwhichmencalledafterhimMagnesia.Hehadason
ofremarkablebeauty,Hymenaeus.AndwhenApollosawtheboy,hewas
seizedwithloveforhim,andwouldnotleavethehouseofMagnes.Then
HermesmadedesignsonApollo'sherdofcattlewhichweregrazinginthe
sameplaceasthecattleofAdmetus.Firsthecastuponthedogswhich
wereguardingthemastuporandstrangles,sothatthedogsforgotthe
cowsandlostthepowerofbarking.Thenhedroveawaytwelveheifers
andahundredcowsneveryoked,andthebullwhomountedthecows,
fasteningtothetailofeachonebrushwoodtowipeoutthefootmarksof
thecows.
HedrovethemthroughthecountryofthePelasgi,andAchaeaintheland
ofPhthia,andthroughLocris,andBoeotiaandMegaris,andthenceinto
PeloponnesusbywayofCorinthandLarissa,untilhebroughtthemto
Tegea.FromtherehewentonbytheLycaeanmountains,andpastMaenalus
andwhatarecalledthewatchpostsofBattus.NowthisBattususedto
liveonthetopoftherockandwhenheheardthevoiceoftheheifers
astheywerebeingdrivenpast,hecameoutfromhisownplace,andknew
thatthecattlewerestolen.Soheaskedforarewardtotellnoone
aboutthem.Hermespromisedtogiveithimontheseterms,andBattus
sworetosaynothingtoanyoneaboutthecattle.ButwhenHermeshad
hiddentheminthecliffbyCoryphasium,andhaddriventhemintoacave
facingtowardsItalyandSicily,hechangedhimselfandcameagainto
Battusandtriedwhetherhewouldbetruetohimashehadvowed.So,
offeringhimarobeasareward,heaskedofhimwhetherhehadnoticed
stolencattlebeingdrivenpast.AndBattustooktherobeandtoldhim
aboutthecattle.ButHermeswasangrybecausehewasdoubletongued,
andstruckhimwithhisstaffandchangedhimintoarock.Andeither
frostorheatneverleaveshim[2004].

THEMELAMPODIA(fragments)
Fragment#1Strabo,xiv.p.642:ItissaidthatCalchistheseer
returnedfromTroywithAmphilochusthesonofAmphiarausandcameon
foottothisplace[2101].ButhappeningtofindnearClarusaseer
greaterthanhimself,Mopsus,thesonofManto,Teiresias'daughter,
hediedofvexation.Hesiod,indeed,worksupthestoryinsomeformas
this:CalchassetMopsusthefollowingproblem:
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'Iamfilledwithwonderatthequantityoffigsthiswildfigtree
bearsthoughitissosmall.Canyoutelltheirnumber?'
AndMopsusanswered:'Tenthousandistheirnumber,andtheirmeasureis
abushel:onefigisleftover,whichyouwouldnotbeabletoputinto
themeasure.'
Sosaidhe;andtheyfoundthereckoningofthemeasuretrue.Thendid
theendofdeathshroudCalchas.
Fragment#2TzetzesonLycophron,682:Butnowheisspeakingof
Teiresias,sinceitissaidthathelivedsevengenerationsthough
otherssaynine.HelivedfromthetimesofCadmusdowntothoseof
EteoclesandPolyneices,astheauthorof"Melampodia"alsosays:forhe
introducesTeiresiasspeakingthus:
'FatherZeus,wouldthatyouhadgivenmeashorterspanoflifeto
bemineandwisdomofheartlikethatofmortalmen!Butnowyouhave
honouredmenotevenalittle,thoughyouordainedmetohavealong
spanoflife,andtolivethroughsevengenerationsofmortalkind.'
Fragment#3ScholiastonHomer,Odyssey,x.494:Theysaythat
TeiresiassawtwosnakesmatingonCithaeronandthat,whenhekilled
thefemale,hewaschangedintoawoman,andagain,whenhekilledthe
male,tookagainhisownnature.ThissameTeiresiaswaschosenbyZeus
andHeratodecidethequestionwhetherthemaleorthefemalehasmost
pleasureinintercourse.Andhesaid:
'Oftenpartsamanenjoysonlyone;butawoman'ssenseenjoysallten
infull.'
ForthisHerawasangryandblindedhim,butZeusgavehimtheseer's
power.
Fragment#4[2102]Athenaeus,ii.p.40:'Forpleasantitisatafeast
andrichbanquettotelldelightfultales,whenmenhavehadenoughof
feasting;...'
ClementofAlexandria,Stromateisvi.226:'...andpleasantalsoit
istoknowacleartokenofillorgoodamidallthesignsthatthe
deathlessoneshavegiventomortalmen.'
Fragment#5Athenaeus,xi.498.A:'AndMares,swiftmessenger,cameto
himthroughthehouseandbroughtasilvergobletwhichhehadfilled,
andgaveittothelord.'
Fragment#6Athenaeus,xi.498.B:'AndthenMantestookinhishands
theox'shalterandIphicluslashedhimupontheback.Andbehind
him,withacupinonehandandaraisedsceptreintheother,walked
Phylacusandspakeamongstthebondmen.'
Fragment#7Athenaeus,xiii.p.609e:Hesiodinthethirdbookofthe
"Melampodia"calledChalcisinEuboea'thelandoffairwomen'.
Fragment#8Strabo,xiv.p.676:ButHesiodsaysthatAmphilochuswas
killedbyApolloatSoli.

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Fragment#9ClementofAlexandria,Stromateis,v.p.259:'Andnow
thereisnoseeramongmortalmensuchaswouldknowthemindofZeus
whoholdstheaegis.'

AEGIMIUS(fragments)
Fragment#1ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iii.587:Butthe
authorofthe"Aegimius"saysthathe(Phrixus)wasreceivedwithout
intermediarybecauseofthefleece[2201].Hesaysthatafterthe
sacrificehepurifiedthefleeceandso:'Holdingthefleecehewalked
intothehallsofAeetes.'
Fragment#2ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.iv.816:Theauthor
ofthe"Aegimius"saysinthesecondbookthatThetisusedtothrowthe
childrenshehadbyPeleusintoacauldronofwater,becauseshewished
tolearnwheretheyweremortal........Andthataftermanyhadperished
Peleuswasannoyed,andpreventedherfromthrowingAchillesintothe
cauldron.
Fragment#3Apollodorus,ii.1.3.1:HesiodandAcusilaussaythatshe
(Io)wasthedaughterofPeiren.Whileshewasholdingtheofficeof
priestessofHera,Zeusseducedher,andbeingdiscoveredbyHera,
touchedthegirlandchangedherintoawhitecow,whilehesworethat
hehadnointercoursewithher.AndsoHesiodsaysthatoathstouching
thematteroflovedonotdrawdownangerfromthegods:'Andthereafter
heordainedthatanoathconcerningthesecretdeedsoftheCyprian
shouldbewithoutpenaltyformen.'
Fragment#4HerodianinStephanusofByzantium:'(ZeuschangedIo)in
thefairislandAbantis,whichthegods,whoareeternally,usedtocall
Abantisaforetime,butZeusthencalleditEuboeaafterthecow.'[2202]
Fragment#5ScholiastonEuripides,Phoen.1116:'And(Hera)seta
watcheruponher(Io),greatandstrongArgus,whowithfoureyeslooks
everyway.Andthegoddessstirredinhimunwearyingstrength:sleep
neverfelluponhiseyes;buthekeptsurewatchalways.'
Fragment#6ScholiastonHomer,Il.xxiv.24:'SlayerofArgus'.
AccordingtoHesiod'stalehe(Hermes)slew(Argus)theherdsmanofIo.
Fragment#7Athenaeus,xi.p.503:Andtheauthorofthe"Aegimius",
whetherheisHesiodorCercopsofMiletus(says):'There,someday,
shallbemyplaceofrefreshment,Oleaderofthepeople.'
Fragment#8Etym.Gen.:Hesiod(saysthereweresocalled)because
theysettledinthreegroups:'AndtheyallwerecalledtheThreefold
people,becausetheydividedinthreethelandfarfromtheircountry.'
For(hesays)thatthreeHellenictribessettledinCrete,thePelasgi,
AchaeansandDorians.AndthesehavebeencalledThreefoldPeople.

FRAGMENTSOFUNKNOWNPOSITION
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Fragment#1DiogenesLaertius,viii.1.26:[2301]'SoUraniabare
Linus,averylovelyson:andhimallmenwhoaresingersandharpersdo
bewailatfeastsanddances,andastheybeginandastheyendtheycall
onLinus....'
ClementofAlexandria,Strom.i.p.121:'....whowasskilledinall
mannerofwisdom.'
Fragment#2ScholiastonHomer,Odyssey,iv.232:'UnlessPhoebus
Apolloshouldsavehimfromdeath,orPaeanhimselfwhoknowsthe
remediesforallthings.'
Fragment#3ClementofAlexandria,Protrept,c.vii.p.21:'Forhe
aloneiskingandlordofalltheundyinggods,andnoothervieswith
himinpower.'
Fragment#4Anecd.Oxon(Cramer),i.p.148:'(Tocause?)thegiftsof
theblessedgodstocomeneartoearth.'
Fragment#5ClementofAlexandria,Strom.i.p.123:'OftheMuseswho
makeamanverywise,marvellousinutterance.'
Fragment#6Strabo,x.p.471:'Butofthem(sc.thedaughtersof
Hecaterus)werebornthedivinemountainNymphsandthetribeof
worthless,helplessSatyrs,andthedivineCuretes,sportivedancers.'
Fragment#7ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.824:'Beseeching
theoffspringofgloriousCleodaeus.'
Fragment#8Suidas,s.v.:'FortheOlympiangavemighttothesonsof
Aeacus,andwisdomtothesonsofAmythaon,andwealthtothesonsof
Atreus.'
Fragment#9ScholiastonHomer,Iliad,xiii.155:'Forthroughhislack
ofwoodthetimberoftheshipsrotted.'
Fragment#10EtymologicumMagnum:'Nolongerdotheywalkwithdelicate
feet.'
Fragment#11ScholiastonHomer,Iliad,xxiv.624:'Firstofallthey
roasted(piecesofmeat),anddrewthemcarefullyoffthespits.'
Fragment#12Chrysippus,Fragg.ii.254.11:'Forhisspiritincreased
inhisdearbreast.'
Fragment#13Chrysippus,Fragg.ii.254.15:'Withsuchheartgrieving
angerinherbreast.'
Fragment#14Strabo,vii.p.327:'HewenttoDodonaandtheoakgrove,
thedwellingplaceofthePelasgi.'

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Fragment#15Anecd.Oxon(Cramer),iii.p.318.not.:'Withthe
pitilesssmokeofblackpitchandofcedar.'
Fragment#16ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.757:'Buthe
himselfintheswellingtideoftherainswollenriver.'
Fragment#17StephanusofByzantium:(Theriver)Parthenius,'Flowing
assoftlyasadaintymaidengoes.'
Fragment#18ScholiastonTheocritus,xi.75:'Foolishthemanwho
leaveswhathehas,andfollowsafterwhathehasnot.'
Fragment#19Harpocration:'Thedeedsoftheyoung,thecounselsofthe
middleaged,andtheprayersoftheaged.'
Fragment#20Porphyr,OnAbstinence,ii.18.p.134:'Howsoeverthe
citydoessacrifice,theancientcustomisbest.'
Fragment#21ScholiastonNicander,Theriaca,452:'Butyoushouldbe
gentletowardsyourfather.'
Fragment#22Plato,Epist.xi.358:'AndifIsaidthis,itwouldseem
apoorthingandhardtounderstand.'
Fragment#23Bacchylides,v.1913:ThusspaketheBoeotian,even
Hesiod[2302],servantofthesweetMuses:'whomsoevertheimmortals
honour,thegoodreportofmortalsalsofollowethhim.'

DOUBTFULFRAGMENTS
Fragment#1Galen,deplac.Hipp.etPlat.i.266:'Andthenitwas
ZeustookawaysensefromtheheartofAthamas.'
Fragment#2ScholiastonHomer,Od.vii.104:'Theygrindtheyellow
grainatthemill.'
Fragment#3ScholiastonPindar,Nem.ii.1:'ThenfirstinDelosdid
IandHomer,singersboth,raiseourstrainstitchingsonginnew
hymnsPhoebusApollowiththegoldensword,whomLetobare.'
Fragment#4Julian,Misopogon,p.369:'Butstarvationonahandfulis
acruelthing.'
Fragment#5ServiusonVergil,Aen.iv.484:Hesiodsaysthatthese
Hesperides........daughtersofNight,guardedthegoldenapplesbeyond
Ocean:'AegleandErytheaandoxeyedHesperethusa.'[2401]
Fragment#6Plato,Republic,iii.390E:'Giftsmovethegods,gifts
moveworshipfulprinces.'
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Fragment#7[2402]ClementofAlexandria,Strom.v.p.256:'Onthe
seventhdayagainthebrightlightofthesun....'
Fragment#8Apollonius,Lex.Hom.:'Hebroughtpurewaterandmixedit
withOcean'sstreams.'
Fragment#9StephanusofByzantium:'AspledonandClymenusandgodlike
Amphidocus.'(sonsofOrchomenus).
Fragment#10ScholiastonPindar,Nem.iii.64:'Telemonneversated
withbattlefirstbroughtlighttoourcomradesbyslayingblameless
Melanippe,destroyerofmen,ownsisterofthegoldengirdledqueen.'

WORKSATTRIBUTEDTOHOMER

THEHOMERICHYMNS

I.TODIONYSUS(21lines)[2501]
((LACUNA))
(ll.19)Forsomesay,atDracanum;andsome,onwindyIcarus;
andsome,inNaxos,OHeavenborn,Insewn[2502];andothersbythe
deepeddyingriverAlpheusthatpregnantSemelebareyoutoZeusthe
thunderlover.Andothersyet,lord,sayyouwereborninThebes;but
alltheselie.TheFatherofmenandgodsgaveyoubirthremotefrommen
andsecretlyfromwhitearmedHera.ThereisacertainNysa,amountain
mosthighandrichlygrownwithwoods,faroffinPhoenice,nearthe
streamsofAegyptus.
((LACUNA))
(ll.1012)'...andmenwilllayupforher[2503]manyofferingsin
hershrines.Andasthesethingsarethree[2504],soshallmortalsever
sacrificeperfecthecatombstoyouatyourfeastseachthreeyears.'
(ll.1316)TheSonofCronosspokeandnoddedwithhisdarkbrows.And
thedivinelocksofthekingflowedforwardfromhisimmortalhead,and
hemadegreatOlympusreel.SospakewiseZeusandordaineditwitha
nod.
(ll.1721)Befavourable,OInsewn,Inspireroffrenziedwomen!
wesingerssingofyouaswebeginandasweendastrain,andnone
forgettingyoumaycallholysongtomind.Andso,farewell,Dionysus,
Insewn,withyourmotherSemelewhommencallThyone.

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(ll.13)IbegintosingofrichhairedDemeter,awfulgoddessofher
andhertrimankleddaughterwhomAidoneusraptaway,giventohimby
allseeingZeustheloudthunderer.
(ll.418)ApartfromDemeter,ladyofthegoldenswordandglorious
fruits,shewasplayingwiththedeepbosomeddaughtersofOceanusand
gatheringflowersoverasoftmeadow,rosesandcrocusesandbeautiful
violets,irisesalsoandhyacinthsandthenarcissus,whichEarthmade
togrowatthewillofZeusandtopleasetheHostofMany,tobea
snareforthebloomlikegirlamarvellous,radiantflower.Itwasa
thingofawewhetherfordeathlessgodsormortalmentosee:fromits
rootgrewahundredblooms,anditsmelledmostsweetly,sothatall
wideheavenaboveandthewholeearthandthesea'ssaltswelllaughed
forjoy.Andthegirlwasamazedandreachedoutwithbothhandstotake
thelovelytoy;butthewidepathedearthyawnedthereintheplainof
Nysa,andthelord,HostofMany,withhisimmortalhorsessprangout
uponhertheSonofCronos,Hewhohasmanynames[2505].
(ll.1932)Hecaughtherupreluctantonhisgoldencarandbareher
awaylamenting.Thenshecriedoutshrillywithhervoice,callingupon
herfather,theSonofCronos,whoismosthighandexcellent.Butno
one,eitherofthedeathlessgodsorofmortalmen,heardhervoice,
noryettheolivetreesbearingrichfruit:onlytenderheartedHecate,
brightcoiffed,thedaughterofPersaeus,heardthegirlfromhercave,
andthelordHelios,Hyperion'sbrightson,asshecriedtoherfather,
theSonofCronos.Buthewassittingaloof,apartfromthegods,inhis
templewheremanypray,andreceivingsweetofferingsfrommortalmen.
Sohe,thatSonofCronos,ofmanynames,whoisRulerofManyand
HostofMany,wasbearingherawaybyleaveofZeusonhisimmortal
chariothisownbrother'schildandallunwilling.
(ll.3339)Andsolongasshe,thegoddess,yetbeheldearthandstarry
heavenandthestrongflowingseawherefishesshoal,andtheraysof
thesun,andstillhopedtoseeherdearmotherandthetribesof
theeternalgods,solonghopecalmedhergreatheartforallher
trouble....((LACUNA))....andtheheightsofthemountainsandthe
depthsofthesearangwithherimmortalvoice:andherqueenlymother
heardher.
(ll.4053)Bitterpainseizedherheart,andsherentthecoveringupon
herdivinehairwithherdearhands:herdarkcloakshecastdownfrom
bothhershouldersandsped,likeawildbird,overthefirmlandand
yieldingsea,seekingherchild.Butnoonewouldtellherthetruth,
neithergodnormortalmen;andofthebirdsofomennonecamewithtrue
newsforher.ThenforninedaysqueenlyDeowanderedovertheearth
withflamingtorchesinherhands,sogrievedthatshenevertasted
ambrosiaandthesweetdraughtofnectar,norsprinkledherbodywith
water.Butwhenthetenthenlighteningdawnhadcome,Hecate,witha
torchinherhands,mether,andspoketoherandtoldhernews:
(ll.5458)'QueenlyDemeter,bringerofseasonsandgiverofgood
gifts,whatgodofheavenorwhatmortalmanhasraptawayPersephone
andpiercedwithsorrowyourdearheart?ForIheardhervoice,yet
sawnotwithmyeyeswhoitwas.ButItellyoutrulyandshortlyallI
know.'
(ll.5973)So,then,saidHecate.AndthedaughterofrichhairedRhea
answeredhernot,butspedswiftlywithher,holdingflamingtorchesin
herhands.SotheycametoHelios,whoiswatchmanofbothgodsandmen,
andstoodinfrontofhishorses:andthebrightgoddessenquiredof
him:'Helios,doyouatleastregardme,goddessasIam,ifeverby
wordordeedofmineIhavecheeredyourheartandspirit.Throughthe
fruitlessairIheardthethrillingcryofmydaughterwhomIbare,
sweetscionofmybodyandlovelyinform,asofoneseizedviolently;
thoughwithmyeyesIsawnothing.Butyouforwithyourbeamsyoulook
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downfromthebrightupperairOveralltheearthandseatellmetruly
ofmydearchild,ifyouhaveseenheranywhere,whatgodormortalman
hasviolentlyseizedheragainstherwillandmine,andsomadeoff.'
(ll.7487)Sosaidshe.AndtheSonofHyperionansweredher:'Queen
Demeter,daughterofrichhairedRhea,Iwilltellyouthetruth;for
Igreatlyreverenceandpityyouinyourgriefforyourtrimankled
daughter.Noneotherofthedeathlessgodsistoblame,butonly
cloudgatheringZeuswhogavehertoHades,herfather'sbrother,tobe
calledhisbuxomwife.AndHadesseizedherandtookherloudlycrying
inhischariotdowntohisrealmofmistandgloom.Yet,goddess,cease
yourloudlamentandkeepnotvainangerunrelentingly:Aidoneus,the
RulerofMany,isnounfittinghusbandamongthedeathlessgodsfor
yourchild,beingyourownbrotherandbornofthesamestock:also,for
honour,hehasthatthirdsharewhichhereceivedwhendivisionwasmade
atthefirst,andisappointedlordofthoseamongwhomhedwells.'
(ll.8889)Sohespake,andcalledtohishorses:andathischiding
theyquicklywhirledtheswiftchariotalong,likelongwingedbirds.
(ll.90112)Butgriefyetmoreterribleandsavagecameintotheheart
ofDemeter,andthereaftershewassoangeredwiththedarkcloudedSon
ofCronosthatsheavoidedthegatheringofthegodsandhighOlympus,
andwenttothetownsandrichfieldsofmen,disfiguringherforma
longwhile.Andnooneofmenordeepbosomedwomenknewherwhenthey
sawher,untilshecametothehouseofwiseCeleuswhothenwaslordof
fragrantEleusis.Vexedinherdearheart,shesatnearthewaysideby
theMaidenWell,fromwhichthewomenoftheplacewereusedtodraw
water,inashadyplaceoverwhichgrewanoliveshrub.Andshewas
likeanancientwomanwhoiscutofffromchildbearingandthegiftsof
garlandlovingAphrodite,likethenursesofking'schildrenwhodeal
justice,orlikethehousekeepersintheirechoinghalls.Therethe
daughtersofCeleus,sonofEleusis,sawher,astheywerecoming
foreasydrawnwater,tocarryitinpitchersofbronzetotheirdear
father'shouse:fourweretheyandlikegoddessesinthefloweroftheir
girlhood,CallidiceandCleisidiceandlovelyDemoandCallithoewhowas
theeldestofthemall.Theyknewhernot,forthegodsarenoteasily
discernedbymortalsbutstandingnearbyherspokewingedwords:
(ll.113117)'Oldmother,whenceandwhoareyouoffolkbornlongago?
Whyareyougoneawayfromthecityanddonotdrawnearthehouses?For
thereintheshadyhallsarewomenofjustsuchageasyou,andothers
younger;andtheywouldwelcomeyoubothbywordandbydeed.'
(ll.118144)Thustheysaid.Andshe,thatqueenamonggoddesses
answeredthemsaying:'Hail,dearchildren,whosoeveryouareof
womankind.Iwilltellyoumystory;foritisnotunseemlythatI
shouldtellyoutrulywhatyouask.Dosoismyname,formystately
mothergaveitme.AndnowIamcomefromCreteoverthesea'swide
back,notwillingly;butpiratesbroughtmethencebyforceofstrength
againstmyliking.Afterwardstheyputinwiththeirswiftcraftto
Thoricus,andtherethewomenlandedontheshoreinfullthrongandthe
menlikewise,andtheybegantomakereadyamealbythesterncables
oftheship.Butmyheartcravednotpleasantfood,andIfledsecretly
acrossthedarkcountryandescapedmymasters,thattheyshouldnot
takemeunpurchasedacrossthesea,theretowinapriceforme.Andso
Iwanderedandamcomehere:andIknownotatallwhatlandthisisor
whatpeopleareinit.ButmayallthosewhodwellonOlympusgiveyou
husbandsandbirthofchildrenasparentsdesire,soyoutakepityon
me,maidens,andshowmethisclearlythatImaylearn,dearchildren,
tothehouseofwhatmanandwomanImaygo,toworkforthemcheerfully
atsuchtasksasbelongtoawomanofmyage.WellcouldInurseanew
bornchild,holdinghiminmyarms,orkeephouse,orspreadmymasters'
bedinarecessofthewellbuiltchamber,orteachthewomentheir
work.'
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(ll.145146)Sosaidthegoddess.Andstraightwaytheunwedmaiden
Callidice,goodliestinformofthedaughtersofCeleus,answeredher
andsaid:
(ll.147168)'Mother,whatthegodssendus,wemortalsbearperforce,
althoughwesuffer;fortheyaremuchstrongerthanwe.ButnowIwill
teachyouclearly,tellingyouthenamesofmenwhohavegreatpowerand
honourhereandarechiefamongthepeople,guardingourcity'scoifof
towersbytheirwisdomandtruejudgements:thereiswiseTriptolemus
andDioclusandPolyxeinusandblamelessEumolpusandDolichusandour
ownbravefather.Allthesehavewiveswhomanageinthehouse,andno
oneofthem,sosoonasshehasseenyou,woulddishonouryouand
turnyoufromthehouse,buttheywillwelcomeyou;forindeedyouare
godlike.Butifyouwill,stayhere;andwewillgotoourfather's
houseandtellMetaneira,ourdeepbosomedmother,allthismatter
fully,thatshemaybidyourathercometoourhomethansearchafter
thehousesofothers.Shehasanonlyson,lateborn,whoisbeing
nursedinourwellbuilthouse,achildofmanyprayersandwelcome:if
youcouldbringhimupuntilhereachedthefullmeasureofyouth,any
oneofwomankindwhoshouldseeyouwouldstraightwayenvyyou,such
giftswouldourmothergiveforhisupbringing.'
(ll.169183)Soshespake:andthegoddessbowedherheadinassent.
Andtheyfilledtheirshiningvesselswithwaterandcarriedthem
offrejoicing.Quicklytheycametotheirfather'sgreathouseand
straightwaytoldtheirmotheraccordingastheyhadheardandseen.Then
shebadethemgowithallspeedandinvitethestrangertocomefora
measurelesshire.Ashindsorheifersinspringtime,whensatedwith
pasture,boundaboutameadow,sothey,holdingupthefoldsoftheir
lovelygarments,darteddownthehollowpath,andtheirhairlikea
crocusflowerstreamedabouttheirshoulders.Andtheyfoundthegood
goddessnearthewaysidewheretheyhadleftherbefore,andledherto
thehouseoftheirdearfather.Andshewalkedbehind,distressedinher
dearheart,withherheadveiledandwearingadarkcloakwhichwaved
abouttheslenderfeetofthegoddess.
(ll.184211)SoontheycametothehouseofheavennurturedCeleusand
wentthroughtheporticotowheretheirqueenlymothersatbyapillar
oftheclosefittedroof,holdingherson,atenderscion,inherbosom.
Andthegirlsrantoher.Butthegoddesswalkedtothethreshold:and
herheadreachedtheroofandshefilledthedoorwaywithaheavenly
radiance.ThenaweandreverenceandpalefeartookholdofMetaneira,
andsheroseupfromhercouchbeforeDemeter,andbadeherbeseated.
ButDemeter,bringerofseasonsandgiverofperfectgifts,wouldnot
situponthebrightcouch,butstayedsilentwithlovelyeyescastdown
untilcarefulIambeplacedajointedseatforherandthrewoverita
silveryfleece.Thenshesatdownandheldherveilinherhandsbefore
herface.Alongtimeshesatuponthestool[2506]withoutspeaking
becauseofhersorrow,andgreetednoonebywordorbysign,but
rested,neversmiling,andtastingneitherfoodnordrink,because
shepinedwithlongingforherdeepbosomeddaughter,untilcareful
Iambewhopleasedhermoodsinaftertimealsomovedtheholylady
withmanyaquipandjesttosmileandlaughandcheerherheart.Then
Metaneirafilledacupwithsweetwineandofferedittoher;butshe
refusedit,forshesaiditwasnotlawfulforhertodrinkredwine,
butbadethemmixmealandwaterwithsoftmintandgivehertodrink.
AndMetaneiramixedthedraughtandgaveittothegoddessasshebade.
SothegreatqueenDeoreceivedittoobservethesacrament....[2507]
((LACUNA))
(ll.212223)Andofthemall,wellgirdedMetaneirafirstbeganto
speak:'Hail,lady!ForIthinkyouarenotmeanlybutnoblyborn;truly
dignityandgraceareconspicuousuponyoureyesasintheeyesofkings
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thatdealjustice.Yetwemortalsbearperforcewhatthegodssendus,
thoughwebegrieved;forayokeissetuponournecks.Butnow,since
youarecomehere,youshallhavewhatIcanbestow:andnursemethis
childwhomthegodsgavemeinmyoldageandbeyondmyhope,asonmuch
prayedfor.Ifyoushouldbringhimupuntilhereachthefullmeasure
ofyouth,anyoneofwomankindthatseesyouwillstraightwayenvyyou,
sogreatrewardwouldIgiveforhisupbringing.'
(ll.224230)ThenrichhairedDemeteransweredher:'Andtoyou,also,
lady,allhail,andmaythegodsgiveyougood!GladlywillItakethe
boytomybreast,asyoubidme,andwillnursehim.Never,Iween,
throughanyheedlessnessofhisnurseshallwitchcrafthurthimnor
yettheUndercutter[2508]:forIknowacharmfarstrongerthan
theWoodcutter,andIknowanexcellentsafeguardagainstwoeful
witchcraft.'
(ll.231247)Whenshehadsospoken,shetookthechildinherfragrant
bosomwithherdivinehands:andhismotherwasgladinherheart.So
thegoddessnursedinthepalaceDemophoon,wiseCeleus'goodlysonwhom
wellgirdedMetaneirabare.Andthechildgrewlikesomeimmortalbeing,
notfedwithfoodnornourishedatthebreast:forbydayrichcrowned
Demeterwouldanointhimwithambrosiaasifheweretheoffspringof
agodandbreathesweetlyuponhimassheheldhiminherbosom.Butat
nightshewouldhidehimlikeabrandintheheartofthefire,unknown
tohisdearparents.Anditwroughtgreatwonderinthesethathegrew
beyondhisage;forhewaslikethegodsfacetoface.Andshewould
havemadehimdeathlessandunageing,hadnotwellgirdedMetaneirain
herheedlessnesskeptwatchbynightfromhersweetsmellingchamberand
spied.Butshewailedandsmotehertwohips,becauseshefearedforher
sonandwasgreatlydistraughtinherheart;soshelamentedanduttered
wingedwords:
(ll.248249)'Demophoon,myson,thestrangewomanburiesyoudeepin
fireandworksgriefandbittersorrowforme.'
(ll.250255)Thusshespoke,mourning.Andthebrightgoddess,
lovelycrownedDemeter,heardher,andwaswrothwithher.Sowithher
divinehandsshesnatchedfromthefirethedearsonwhomMetaneirahad
bornunhopedforinthepalace,andcasthimfromhertotheground;for
shewasterriblyangryinherheart.Forthwithshesaidtowellgirded
Metaneira:
(ll.256274)'Witlessareyoumortalsanddulltoforeseeyour
lot,whetherofgoodorevil,thatcomesuponyou.Fornowinyour
heedlessnessyouhavewroughtfollypasthealing;forbewitnessthe
oathofthegods,therelentlesswaterofStyxIwouldhavemadeyour
dearsondeathlessandunageingallhisdaysandwouldhavebestowedon
himeverlastinghonour,butnowhecaninnowayescapedeathandthe
fates.Yetshallunfailinghonouralwaysrestuponhim,becausehelay
uponmykneesandsleptinmyarms.But,astheyearsmoveroundand
whenheisinhisprime,thesonsoftheEleusiniansshalleverwagewar
anddreadstrifewithoneanothercontinually.Lo!IamthatDemeter
whohasshareofhonourandisthegreatesthelpandcauseofjoyto
theundyinggodsandmortalmen.Butnow,letallthepeoplebuildme
agreattempleandanaltarbelowitandbeneaththecityanditssheer
walluponarisinghillockaboveCallichorus.AndImyselfwillteach
myrites,thathereafteryoumayreverentlyperformthemandsowinthe
favourofmyheart.'
(ll.275281)Whenshehadsosaid,thegoddesschangedherstatureand
herlooks,thrustingoldageawayfromher:beautyspreadroundabout
herandalovelyfragrancewaswaftedfromhersweetsmellingrobes,
andfromthedivinebodyofthegoddessalightshoneafar,whilegolden
tressesspreaddownoverhershoulders,sothatthestronghousewas
filledwithbrightnessaswithlightning.Andsoshewentoutfromthe
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palace.
(ll.281291)AndstraightwayMetaneira'skneeswereloosedandshe
remainedspeechlessforalongwhileanddidnotremembertotakeupher
latebornsonfromtheground.Buthissistersheardhispitifulwailing
andsprangdownfromtheirwellspreadbeds:oneofthemtookupthe
childinherarmsandlaidhiminherbosom,whileanotherrevivedthe
fire,andathirdrushedwithsoftfeettobringtheirmotherfrom
herfragrantchamber.Andtheygatheredaboutthestrugglingchildand
washedhim,embracinghimlovingly;buthewasnotcomforted,because
nursesandhandmaidsmuchlessskilfulwereholdinghimnow.
(ll.292300)Allnightlongtheysoughttoappeasetheglorious
goddess,quakingwithfear.But,assoonasdawnbegantoshow,they
toldpowerfulCeleusallthingswithoutfail,asthelovelycrowned
goddessDemeterchargedthem.SoCeleuscalledthecountlesspeopleto
anassemblyandbadethemmakeagoodlytempleforrichhairedDemeter
andanaltarupontherisinghillock.Andtheyobeyedhimrightspeedily
andharkenedtohisvoice,doingashecommanded.Asforthechild,he
grewlikeanimmortalbeing.
(ll.301320)Nowwhentheyhadfinishedbuildingandhaddrawnback
fromtheirtoil,theywenteverymantohishouse.Butgoldenhaired
Demetersatthereapartfromalltheblessedgodsandstayed,wasting
withyearningforherdeepbosomeddaughter.Thenshecausedamost
dreadfulandcruelyearformankindovertheallnourishingearth:the
groundwouldnotmaketheseedsprout,forrichcrownedDemeterkeptit
hid.Inthefieldstheoxendrewmanyacurvedploughinvain,andmuch
whitebarleywascastuponthelandwithoutavail.Soshewouldhave
destroyedthewholeraceofmanwithcruelfamineandhaverobbedthem
whodwellonOlympusoftheirgloriousrightofgiftsandsacrifices,
hadnotZeusperceivedandmarkedthisinhisheart.Firsthesent
goldenwingedIristocallrichhairedDemeter,lovelyinform.Sohe
commanded.AndsheobeyedthedarkcloudedSonofCronos,andsped
withswiftfeetacrossthespacebetween.Shecametothestrongholdof
fragrantEleusis,andtherefindingdarkcloakedDemeterinhertemple,
spaketoherandutteredwingedwords:
(ll.321323)'Demeter,fatherZeus,whosewisdomiseverlasting,calls
youtocomejointhetribesoftheeternalgods:cometherefore,andlet
notthemessageIbringfromZeuspassunobeyed.'
(ll.324333)ThussaidIrisimploringher.ButDemeter'sheartwasnot
moved.Thenagainthefathersentforthalltheblessedandeternalgods
besides:andtheycame,oneaftertheother,andkeptcallingherand
offeringmanyverybeautifulgiftsandwhateverrightshemightbe
pleasedtochooseamongthedeathlessgods.Yetnoonewasableto
persuadehermindandwill,sowrathwassheinherheart;butshe
stubbornlyrejectedalltheirwords:forshevowedthatshewouldnever
setfootonfragrantOlympusnorletfruitspringoutoftheground,
untilshebeheldwithhereyesherownfairfaceddaughter.
(ll.334346)NowwhenallseeingZeustheloudthundererheardthis,he
senttheSlayerofArguswhosewandisofgoldtoErebus,sothathaving
wonoverHadeswithsoftwords,hemightleadforthchastePersephone
tothelightfromthemistygloomtojointhegods,andthathermother
mightseeherwithhereyesandceasefromheranger.AndHermesobeyed,
andleavingthehouseofOlympus,straightwaysprangdownwithspeedto
thehiddenplacesoftheearth.AndhefoundthelordHadesinhishouse
seateduponacouch,andhisshymatewithhim,muchreluctant,because
sheyearnedforhermother.Butshewasafaroff,broodingonherfell
designbecauseofthedeedsoftheblessedgods.AndthestrongSlayer
ofArgusdrewnearandsaid:
(ll.347356)'DarkhairedHades,ruleroverthedeparted,fatherZeus
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bidsmebringnoblePersephoneforthfromErebusuntothegods,thather
mothermayseeherwithhereyesandceasefromherdreadangerwiththe
immortals;fornowsheplansanawfuldeed,todestroytheweaklytribes
ofearthbornmenbykeepingseedhiddenbeneaththeearth,andsoshe
makesanendofthehonoursoftheundyinggods.Forshekeepsfearful
angeranddoesnotconsortwiththegods,butsitsaloofinherfragrant
temple,dwellingintherockyholdofEleusis.'
(ll.357359)Sohesaid.AndAidoneus,ruleroverthedead,smiled
grimlyandobeyedthebehestofZeustheking.Forhestraightwayurged
wisePersephone,saying:
(ll.360369)'Gonow,Persephone,toyourdarkrobedmother,go,and
feelkindlyinyourhearttowardsme:benotsoexceedinglycastdown;
forIshallbenounfittinghusbandforyouamongthedeathlessgods,
thatamownbrothertofatherZeus.Andwhileyouarehere,youshall
ruleallthatlivesandmovesandshallhavethegreatestrightsamong
thedeathlessgods:thosewhodefraudyouanddonotappeaseyourpower
withofferings,reverentlyperformingritesandpayingfitgifts,shall
bepunishedforevermore.'
(ll.370383)Whenhesaidthis,wisePersephonewasfilledwithjoy
andhastilysprangupforgladness.Butheonhispartsecretlygaveher
sweetpomegranateseedtoeat,takingcareforhimselfthatshemight
notremaincontinuallywithgrave,darkrobedDemeter.ThenAidoneusthe
RulerofManyopenlygotreadyhisdeathlesshorsesbeneaththegolden
chariot.Andshemountedonthechariot,andthestrongSlayerofArgos
tookreinsandwhipinhisdearhandsanddroveforthfromthehall,the
horsesspeedingreadily.Swiftlytheytraversedtheirlongcourse,and
neithertheseanorriverwatersnorgrassyglensnormountainpeaks
checkedthecareeroftheimmortalhorses,buttheyclavethedeepair
abovethemastheywent.AndHermesbroughtthemtotheplacewhere
richcrownedDemeterwasstayingandcheckedthembeforeherfragrant
temple.
(ll.384404)AndwhenDemetersawthem,sherushedforthasdoesa
Maenaddownsomethickwoodedmountain,whilePersephoneontheother
side,whenshesawhermother'ssweeteyes,leftthechariotandhorses,
andleapeddowntoruntoher,andfallinguponherneck,embracedher.
ButwhileDemeterwasstillholdingherdearchildinherarms,her
heartsuddenlymisgaveherforsomesnare,sothatshefearedgreatly
andceasedfondlingherdaughterandaskedofheratonce:'Mychild,
tellme,surelyyouhavenottastedanyfoodwhileyouwerebelow?Speak
outandhidenothing,butletusbothknow.Forifyouhavenot,you
shallcomebackfromloathlyHadesandlivewithmeandyourfather,the
darkcloudedSonofCronosandbehonouredbyallthedeathlessgods;
butifyouhavetastedfood,youmustgobackagainbeneaththesecret
placesoftheearth,theretodwellathirdpartoftheseasonsevery
year:yetforthetwopartsyoushallbewithmeandtheotherdeathless
gods.Butwhentheearthshallbloomwiththefragrantflowersofspring
ineverykind,thenfromtherealmofdarknessandgloomthoushaltcome
uponcemoretobeawonderforgodsandmortalmen.Andnowtellmehow
heraptyouawaytotherealmofdarknessandgloom,andbywhattrick
didthestrongHostofManybeguileyou?'
(ll.405433)ThenbeautifulPersephoneansweredherthus:'Mother,I
willtellyouallwithouterror.WhenluckbringingHermescame,swift
messengerfrommyfathertheSonofCronosandtheotherSonsofHeaven,
biddingmecomebackfromErebusthatyoumightseemewithyoureyes
andsoceasefromyourangerandfearfulwrathagainstthegods,I
sprangupatonceforjoy;buthesecretlyputinmymouthsweetfood,
apomegranateseed,andforcedmetotasteagainstmywill.AlsoIwill
tellhowheraptmeawaybythedeepplanofmyfathertheSonofCronos
andcarriedmeoffbeneaththedepthsoftheearth,andwillrelate
thewholematterasyouask.Allwewereplayinginalovelymeadow,
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Leucippe[2509]andPhaenoandElectraandIanthe,MelitaalsoandIache
withRhodeaandCallirhoeandMelobosisandTycheandOcyrhoe,fairas
aflower,Chryseis,Ianeira,AcasteandAdmeteandRhodopeandPluto
andcharmingCalypso;StyxtoowasthereandUraniaandlovelyGalaxaura
withPallaswhorousesbattlesandArtemisdelightinginarrows:wewere
playingandgatheringsweetflowersinourhands,softcrocusesmingled
withirisesandhyacinths,androsebloomsandlilies,marvellousto
see,andthenarcissuswhichthewideearthcausedtogrowyellowas
acrocus.ThatIpluckedinmyjoy;buttheearthpartedbeneath,and
therethestronglord,theHostofMany,sprangforthandinhisgolden
chariotheboremeaway,allunwilling,beneaththeearth:thenIcried
withashrillcry.Allthisistrue,sorethoughitgrievesmetotell
thetale.'
(ll.434437)Sodidtheyturn,withheartsatone,greatlycheereach
theother'ssoulandspiritwithmanyanembrace:theirhearthadrelief
fromtheirgriefswhileeachtookandgavebackjoyousness.
(ll.438440)ThenbrightcoiffedHecatecameneartothem,andoften
didsheembracethedaughterofholyDemeter:andfromthattimethe
ladyHecatewasministerandcompaniontoPersephone.
(ll.441459)AndallseeingZeussentamessengertothem,richhaired
Rhea,tobringdarkcloakedDemetertojointhefamiliesofthegods:
andhepromisedtogiveherwhatrightsheshouldchooseamongthe
deathlessgodsandagreedthatherdaughtershouldgodownforthethird
partofthecirclingyeartodarknessandgloom,butforthetwoparts
shouldlivewithhermotherandtheotherdeathlessgods.Thushe
commanded.AndthegoddessdidnotdisobeythemessageofZeus;swiftly
sherusheddownfromthepeaksofOlympusandcametotheplainof
Rharus,rich,fertilecornlandonce,buttheninnowisefruitful,for
itlayidleandutterlyleafless,becausethewhitegrainwashiddenby
designoftrimankledDemeter.Butafterwards,asspringtimewaxed,it
wassoontobewavingwithlongearsofcorn,anditsrichfurrowstobe
loadedwithgrainupontheground,whileotherswouldalreadybebound
insheaves.Therefirstshelandedfromthefruitlessupperair:and
gladwerethegoddessestoseeeachotherandcheeredinheart.Then
brightcoiffedRheasaidtoDemeter:
(ll.460469)'Come,mydaughter;forfarseeingZeustheloudthunderer
callsyoutojointhefamiliesofthegods,andhaspromisedtogiveyou
whatrightsyoupleaseamongthedeathlessgods,andhasagreedthat
forathirdpartofthecirclingyearyourdaughtershallgodownto
darknessandgloom,butforthetwopartsshallbewithyouandthe
otherdeathlessgods:sohashedeclareditshallbeandhasbowed
hisheadintoken.Butcome,mychild,obey,andbenottooangry
unrelentinglywiththedarkcloudedSonofCronos;butratherincrease
forthwithformenthefruitthatgivesthemlife.'
(ll.470482)SospakeRhea.AndrichcrownedDemeterdidnotrefuse
butstraightwaymadefruittospringupfromtherichlands,sothatthe
wholewideearthwasladenwithleavesandflowers.Thenshewent,
andtothekingswhodealjustice,TriptolemusandDiocles,the
horsedriver,andtodoughtyEumolpusandCeleus,leaderofthepeople,
sheshowedtheconductofherritesandtaughtthemallhermysteries,
toTriptolemusandPolyxeinusandDioclesalso,awfulmysterieswhich
noonemayinanywaytransgressorpryintoorutter,fordeepaweof
thegodschecksthevoice.Happyisheamongmenuponearthwhohasseen
thesemysteries;buthewhoisuninitiateandwhohasnopartinthem,
neverhaslotoflikegoodthingsonceheisdead,downinthedarkness
andgloom.
(ll.483489)Butwhenthebrightgoddesshadtaughtthemall,they
wenttoOlympustothegatheringoftheothergods.Andtheretheydwell
besideZeuswhodelightsinthunder,awfulandreverendgoddesses.Right
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blessedisheamongmenonearthwhomtheyfreelylove:soontheydo
sendPlutusasguesttohisgreathouse,Plutuswhogiveswealthto
mortalmen.
(ll.490495)Andnow,queenofthelandofsweetEleusisandseagirt
ParosandrockyAntron,lady,giverofgoodgifts,bringerofseasons,
queenDeo,begracious,youandyourdaughterallbeauteousPersephone,
andformysonggrantmeheartcheeringsubstance.AndnowIwill
rememberyouandanothersongalso.

III.TOAPOLLO(546lines)
TODELIANAPOLLO
(ll.118)IwillrememberandnotbeunmindfulofApollowhoshoots
afar.AshegoesthroughthehouseofZeus,thegodstremblebeforehim
andallspringupfromtheirseatswhenhedrawsnear,ashebendshis
brightbow.ButLetoalonestaysbythesideofZeuswhodelightsin
thunder;andthensheunstringshisbow,andcloseshisquiver,and
takeshisarcheryfromhisstrongshouldersinherhandsandhangsthem
onagoldenpegagainstapillarofhisfather'shouse.Thensheleads
himtoaseatandmakeshimsit:andtheFathergiveshimnectarina
goldencupwelcominghisdearson,whiletheothergodsmakehimsit
downthere,andqueenlyLetorejoicesbecauseshebareamightysonand
anarcher.Rejoice,blessedLeto,foryoubaregloriouschildren,the
lordApolloandArtemiswhodelightsinarrows;herinOrtygia,andhim
inrockyDelos,asyourestedagainstthegreatmassoftheCynthian
hillhardbyapalmtreebythestreamsofInopus.
(ll.1929)How,then,shallIsingofyouwhoinallwaysareaworthy
themeofsong?Foreverywhere,OPhoebus,thewholerangeofsongis
fallentoyou,bothoverthemainlandthatrearsheifersandoverthe
isles.Allmountainpeaksandhighheadlandsofloftyhillsandrivers
flowingouttothedeepandbeachesslopingseawardsandhavensofthe
seaareyourdelight.ShallIsinghowatthefirstLetobareyoutobe
thejoyofmen,assherestedagainstMountCynthusinthatrockyisle,
inseagirtDeloswhileoneitherhandadarkwaverolledonlandwards
drivenbyshrillwindswhencearisingyouruleoverallmortalmen?
(ll.3050)AmongthosewhoareinCrete,andinthetownshipofAthens,
andintheisleofAeginaandEuboea,famousforships,inAegaeand
EiresiaeandPeparethusnearthesea,inThracianAthosandPelion's
toweringheightsandThracianSamosandtheshadyhillsofIda,in
ScyrosandPhocaeaandthehighhillofAutocaneandfairlyingImbros
andsmoulderingLemnosandrichLesbos,homeofMacar,thesonof
Aeolus,andChios,brightestofalltheislesthatlieinthesea,and
craggyMimasandtheheightsofCorycusandgleamingClarosandthe
sheerhillofAesageaandwateredSamosandthesteepheightsofMycale,
inMiletusandCos,thecityofMeropianmen,andsteepCnidosandwindy
Carpathos,inNaxosandParosandrockyRhenaeasofarroamedLeto
intravailwiththegodwhoshootsafar,toseeifanylandwouldbe
willingtomakeadwellingforherson.Buttheygreatlytrembledand
feared,andnone,noteventherichestofthem,daredreceivePhoebus,
untilqueenlyLetosetfootonDelosandutteredwingedwordsandasked
her:
(ll.5161)'Delos,ifyouwouldbewillingtobetheabodeofmyson
PhoebusApolloandmakehimarichtemple;fornootherwilltouch
you,asyouwillfind:andIthinkyouwillneverberichinoxenand
sheep,norbearvintagenoryetproduceplantsabundantly.Butifyou
havethetempleoffarshootingApollo,allmenwillbringyouhecatombs
andgatherhere,andincessantsavourofrichsacrificewillalways
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arise,andyouwillfeedthosewhodwellinyoufromthehandof
strangers;fortrulyyourownsoilisnotrich.'
(ll.6282)SospakeLeto.AndDelosrejoicedandansweredandsaid:
'Leto,mostgloriousdaughterofgreatCoeus,joyfullywouldIreceive
yourchildthefarshootinglord;foritisalltootruethatIam
illspokenofamongmen,whereasthusIshouldbecomeverygreatly
honoured.ButthissayingIfear,andIwillnothideitfromyou,Leto.
TheysaythatApollowillbeonethatisveryhaughtyandwillgreatly
lorditamonggodsandmenalloverthefruitfulearth.Therefore,I
greatlyfearinheartandspiritthatassoonashesetsthelightof
thesun,hewillscornthisislandfortrulyIhavebutahard,rocky
soilandoverturnmeandthrustmedownwithhisfeetinthedepthsof
thesea;thenwillthegreatoceanwashdeepabovemyheadforever,and
hewillgotoanotherlandsuchaswillpleasehim,theretomakehis
templeandwoodedgroves.So,manyfootedcreaturesoftheseawillmake
theirlairsinmeandblacksealstheirdwellingsundisturbed,because
Ilackpeople.Yetifyouwillbutdaretoswareagreatoath,goddess,
thatherefirsthewillbuildaglorioustempletobeanoracleformen,
thenlethimafterwardsmaketemplesandwoodedgrovesamongstallmen;
forsurelyhewillbegreatlyrenowned.'
(ll.8388)SosaidDelos.AndLetoswarethegreatoathofthegods:
'Nowhearthis,EarthandwideHeavenabove,anddroppingwaterofStyx
(thisisthestrongestandmostawfuloathfortheblessedgods),surely
Phoebusshallhaveherehisfragrantaltarandprecinct,andyouhe
shallhonouraboveall.'
(ll.89101)NowwhenLetohadswornandendedheroath,Deloswasvery
gladatthebirthofthefarshootinglord.ButLetowasrackednine
daysandninenightswithpangsbeyondwont.Andtherewerewithherall
thechiefestofthegoddesses,DioneandRheaandIchnaeaandThemis
andloudmoaningAmphitriteandtheotherdeathlessgoddessessave
whitearmedHera,whosatinthehallsofcloudgatheringZeus.Only
Eilithyia,goddessofsoretravail,hadnotheardofLeto'strouble,
forshesatonthetopofOlympusbeneathgoldencloudsbywhitearmed
Hera'scontriving,whokeptherclosethroughenvy,becauseLetowith
thelovelytresseswassoontobearasonfaultlessandstrong.
(ll.102114)ButthegoddessessentoutIrisfromthewellsetisle
tobringEilithyia,promisingheragreatnecklacestrungwithgolden
threads,ninecubitslong.AndtheybadeIriscallherasidefrom
whitearmedHera,lestshemightafterwardsturnherfromcomingwith
herwords.WhenswiftIris,fleetoffootasthewind,hadheardall
this,shesettorun;andquicklyfinishingallthedistanceshecameto
thehomeofthegods,sheerOlympus,andforthwithcalledEilithyiaout
fromthehalltothedoorandspokewingedwordstoher,tellingherall
asthegoddesseswhodwellonOlympushadbiddenher.Soshemovedthe
heartofEilithyiainherdearbreast;andtheywenttheirway,likeshy
wilddovesintheirgoing.
(ll.115122)AndassoonasEilithyiathegoddessofsoretravailset
footonDelos,thepainsofbirthseizedLeto,andshelongedtobring
forth;soshecastherarmsaboutapalmtreeandkneeledonthesoft
meadowwhiletheearthlaughedforjoybeneath.Thenthechildleaped
forthtothelight,andallthegoddesseswashedyoupurelyandcleanly
withsweetwater,andswathedyouinawhitegarmentoffinetexture,
newwoven,andfastenedagoldenbandaboutyou.
(ll.123130)NowLetodidnotgiveApollo,bearerofthegoldenblade,
herbreast;butThemisdulypourednectarandambrosiawithherdivine
hands:andLetowasgladbecauseshehadborneastrongsonandan
archer.Butassoonasyouhadtastedthatdivineheavenlyfood,O
Phoebus,youcouldnolongerthenbeheldbygoldencordsnorconfined
withbands,butalltheirendswereundone.ForthwithPhoebusApollo
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spokeoutamongthedeathlessgoddesses:
(ll.131132)'Thelyreandthecurvedbowshalleverbedeartome,and
IwilldeclaretomentheunfailingwillofZeus.'
(ll.133139)SosaidPhoebus,thelonghairedgodwhoshootsafarand
begantowalkuponthewidepathedearth;andallgoddesseswereamazed
athim.ThenwithgoldallDeloswasladen,beholdingthechildofZeus
andLeto,forjoybecausethegodchoseherabovetheislandsandshore
tomakehisdwellinginher:andshelovedhimyetmoreinherheart,
andblossomedasdoesamountaintopwithwoodlandflowers.
(ll.140164)Andyou,OlordApollo,godofthesilverbow,shooting
afar,nowwalkedoncraggyCynthus,andnowkeptwanderingaboutthe
islandandthepeopleinthem.Manyareyourtemplesandwoodedgroves,
andallpeaksandtoweringbluffsofloftymountainsandriversflowing
totheseaaredeartoyou,Phoebus,yetinDelosdoyoumostdelight
yourheart;fortherethelongrobedIoniansgatherinyourhonourwith
theirchildrenandshywives:mindful,theydelightyouwithboxingand
dancingandsong,sooftenastheyholdtheirgathering.Amanwouldsay
thattheyweredeathlessandunageingifheshouldthencomeuponthe
Ionianssomettogether.Forhewouldseethegracesofthemall,and
wouldbepleasedinheartgazingatthemenandwellgirdedwomenwith
theirswiftshipsandgreatwealth.Andthereisthisgreatwonder
besidesanditsrenownshallneverperishthegirlsofDelos,
handmaidensoftheFarshooter;forwhentheyhavepraisedApollo
first,andalsoLetoandArtemiswhodelightsinarrows,theysinga
straintellingofmenandwomenofpastdays,andcharmthetribesof
men.Alsotheycanimitatethetonguesofallmenandtheirclattering
speech:eachwouldsaythathehimselfweresinging,soclosetotruth
istheirsweetsong.
(ll.165178)AndnowmayApollobefavourableandArtemis;andfarewell
allyoumaidens.Remembermeinaftertimewheneveranyoneofmenon
earth,astrangerwhohasseenandsufferedmuch,comeshereandasksof
you:'Whomthinkye,girls,isthesweetestsingerthatcomeshere,and
inwhomdoyoumostdelight?'Thenanswer,eachandall,withonevoice:
'Heisablindman,anddwellsinrockyChios:hislaysareevermore
supreme.'Asforme,IwillcarryyourrenownasfarasIroamoverthe
earthtothewellplacedthisthingistrue.AndIwillneverceaseto
praisefarshootingApollo,godofthesilverbow,whomrichhairedLeto
bare.
TOPYTHIANAPOLLO
(ll.179181)OLord,LyciaisyoursandlovelyMaeoniaandMiletus,
charmingcitybythesea,butoverwavegirtDelosyougreatlyreign
yourownself.
(ll.182206)Leto'sallglorioussongoestorockyPytho,playingupon
hishollowlyre,cladindivine,perfumedgarments;andatthetouchof
thegoldenkeyhislyresingssweet.Thence,swiftasthought,hespeeds
fromearthtoOlympus,tothehouseofZeus,tojointhegatheringof
theothergods:thenstraightwaytheundyinggodsthinkonlyofthelyre
andsong,andalltheMusestogether,voicesweetlyansweringvoice,
hymntheunendinggiftsthegodsenjoyandthesufferingsofmen,all
thattheyendureatthehandsofthedeathlessgods,andhowthey
livewitlessandhelplessandcannotfindhealingfordeathordefence
againstoldage.MeanwhiletherichtressedGracesandcheerfulSeasons
dancewithHarmoniaandHebeandAphrodite,daughterofZeus,holding
eachotherbythewrist.Andamongthemsingsone,notmeannorpuny,
buttalltolookuponandenviableinmien,Artemiswhodelightsin
arrows,sisterofApollo.AmongthemsportAresandthekeeneyedSlayer
ofArgus,whileApolloplayshislyresteppinghighandfeatlyanda
radianceshinesaroundhim,thegleamingofhisfeetandclosewoven
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vest.Andthey,evengoldtressedLetoandwiseZeus,rejoiceintheir
greatheartsastheywatchtheirdearsonplayingamongtheundying
gods.
(ll.207228)HowthenshallIsingofyouthoughinallwaysyouarea
worthythemeforsong?ShallIsingofyouaswooerandinthefields
oflove,howyouwentwooingthedaughterofAzanalongwithgodlike
IschysthesonofwellhorsedElatius,orwithPhorbassprung
fromTriops,orwithEreutheus,orwithLeucippusandthewifeof
Leucippus....((LACUNA))....youonfoot,hewithhischariot,yethe
fellnotshortofTriops.OrshallIsinghowatthefirstyouwent
abouttheearthseekingaplaceoforacleformen,Ofarshooting
Apollo?ToPieriafirstyouwentdownfromOlympusandpassedbysandy
LectusandEnienaeandthroughthelandofthePerrhaebi.Soonyoucame
toIolcusandsetfootonCenaeuminEuboea,famedforships:youstood
intheLelantineplain,butitpleasednotyourhearttomakea
templethereandwoodedgroves.FromthereyoucrossedtheEuripus,
farshootingApollo,andwentupthegreen,holyhills,goingonto
MycalessusandgrassybeddedTeumessus,andsocametothewoodclad
abodeofThebe;forasyetnomanlivedinholyThebe,norwerethere
tracksorwaysaboutThebe'swheatbearingplainasyet.
(ll.229238)Andfurtherstillyouwent,OfarshootingApollo,and
cametoOnchestus,Poseidon'sbrightgrove:therethenewbrokencolt
distressedwithdrawingthetrimchariotgetsspiritagain,andthe
skilleddriverspringsfromhiscarandgoesonhisway.Thenthehorses
forawhilerattletheemptycar,beingridofguidance;andifthey
breakthechariotinthewoodygrove,menlookafterthehorses,but
tiltthechariotandleaveitthere;forthiswastheritefromthevery
first.Andthedriverspraytothelordoftheshrine;butthechariot
fallstothelotofthegod.
(ll.239243)Furtheryetyouwent,OfarshootingApollo,andreached
nextCephissus'sweetstreamwhichpoursforthitssweetflowingwater
fromLilaea,andcrossingoverit,Oworkerfromafar,youpassed
manytoweredOcaleaandreachedgrassyHaliartus.
(ll.244253)ThenyouwenttowardsTelphusa:andtherethepleasant
placeseemedfitformakingatempleandwoodedgrove.Youcamevery
nearandspoketoher:'Telphusa,hereIammindedtomakeaglorious
temple,anoracleformen,andhithertheywillalwaysbringperfect
hecatombs,boththosewholiveinrichPeloponnesusandthoseofEurope
andallthewavewashedisles,comingtoseekoracles.AndIwill
delivertothemallcounselthatcannotfail,givinganswerinmyrich
temple.'
(ll.254276)SosaidPhoebusApollo,andlaidoutallthefoundations
throughout,wideandverylong.ButwhenTelphusasawthis,shewas
angryinheartandspoke,saying:'LordPhoebus,workerfromafar,I
willspeakawordofcounseltoyourheart,sinceyouaremindedtomake
hereaglorioustempletobeanoracleformenwhowillalwaysbring
hitherperfecthecatombsforyou;yetIwillspeakout,anddoyoulay
upmywordsinyourheart.Thetramplingofswifthorsesandthesound
ofmuleswateringatmysacredspringswillalwaysirkyou,andmenwill
likebettertogazeatthewellmadechariotsandstamping,swiftfooted
horsesthanatyourgreattempleandthemanytreasuresthatarewithin.
Butifyouwillbemovedbymeforyou,lord,arestrongerandmightier
thanI,andyourstrengthisverygreatbuildatCrisabelowtheglades
ofParnassus:therenobrightchariotwillclash,andtherewillbe
nonoiseofswiftfootedhorsesnearyourwellbuiltaltar.Butso
theglorioustribesofmenwillbringgiftstoyouasIepaeon
('HailHealer'),andyouwillreceivewithdelightrichsacrificesfrom
thepeopledwellingroundabout.'SosaidTelphusa,thatshealone,and
nottheFarShooter,shouldhaverenownthere;andshepersuadedthe
FarShooter.
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(ll.277286)Furtheryetyouwent,farshootingApollo,untilyoucame
tothetownofthepresumptuousPhlegyaewhodwellonthisearthina
lovelygladeneartheCephisianlake,caringnotforZeus.Andthence
youwentspeedingswiftlytothemountainridge,andcametoCrisa
beneathsnowyParnassus,afoothillturnedtowardsthewest:acliff
hangsoveritfromabove,andahollow,ruggedgladerunsunder.There
thelordPhoebusApolloresolvedtomakehislovelytemple,andthushe
said:
(ll.287293)'InthisplaceIammindedtobuildaglorioustempleto
beanoracleformen,andheretheywillalwaysbringperfecthecatombs,
boththeywhodwellinrichPeloponnesusandthemenofEuropeandfrom
allthewavewashedisles,comingtoquestionme.AndIwilldeliverto
themallcounselthatcannotfail,answeringtheminmyrichtemple.'
(ll.294299)Whenhehadsaidthis,PhoebusApollolaidoutallthe
foundationsthroughout,wideandverylong;anduponthesethesonsof
Erginus,TrophoniusandAgamedes,deartothedeathlessgods,laida
footingofstone.Andthecountlesstribesofmenbuiltthewholetemple
ofwroughtstones,tobesungofforever.
(ll.300310)Butnearbywasasweetflowingspring,andtherewith
hisstrongbowthelord,thesonofZeus,killedthebloated,great
shedragon,afiercemonsterwonttodogreatmischieftomenupon
earth,tomenthemselvesandtotheirthinshankedsheep;forshewasa
verybloodyplague.SheitwaswhooncereceivedfromgoldthronedHera
andbroughtupfell,cruelTyphaontobeaplaguetomen.Onceonatime
HerabarehimbecauseshewasangrywithfatherZeus,whentheSonof
CronosbareallgloriousAthenainhishead.ThereuponqueenlyHerawas
angryandspokethusamongtheassembledgods:
(ll.311330)'Hearfromme,allgodsandgoddesses,howcloudgathering
Zeusbeginstodishonourmewantonly,whenhehasmademehis
trueheartedwife.Seenow,apartfrommehehasgivenbirthto
brighteyedAthenawhoisforemostamongalltheblessedgods.Butmy
sonHephaestuswhomIbarewasweaklyamongalltheblessedgodsand
shrivelledoffoot,ashameanddisgracetomeinheaven,whomImyself
tookinmyhandsandcastoutsothathefellinthegreatsea.But
silvershodThetisthedaughterofNereustookandcaredforhimwith
hersisters:wouldthatshehaddoneotherservicetotheblessedgods!
Owickedoneandcrafty!Whatelsewillyounowdevise?Howdaredyouby
yourselfgivebirthtobrighteyedAthena?WouldnotIhaveborneyoua
childI,whowasatleastcalledyourwifeamongtheundyinggods
whoholdwideheaven.BewarenowlestIdevisesomeevilthingforyou
hereafter:yes,nowIwillcontrivethatasonbebornmetobeforemost
amongtheundyinggodsandthatwithoutcastingshameontheholybond
ofwedlockbetweenyouandme.AndIwillnotcometoyourbed,butwill
consortwiththeblessedgodsfarofffromyou.'
(ll.331333)Whenshehadsospoken,shewentapartfromthegods,
beingveryangry.ThenstraightwaylargeeyedqueenlyHeraprayed,
strikingthegroundflatwisewithherhand,andspeakingthus:
(ll.334362)'Hearnow,Ipray,EarthandwideHeavenabove,andyou
TitangodswhodwellbeneaththeearthaboutgreatTartarus,andfrom
whomaresprungbothgodsandmen!Harkenyounowtome,oneandall,
andgrantthatImaybearachildapartfromZeus,nowitlesser
thanhiminstrengthnay,lethimbeasmuchstrongerthanZeusas
allseeingZeusthanCronos.'Thusshecriedandlashedtheearthwith
herstronghand.Thenthelifegivingearthwasmoved:andwhenHerasaw
itshewasgladinheart,forshethoughtherprayerwouldbefulfilled.
AndthereaftershenevercametothebedofwiseZeusforafullyear,
nottositinhercarvedchairasaforetimetoplanwisecounselfor
him,butstayedinhertempleswheremanypray,anddelightedinher
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offerings,largeeyedqueenlyHera.Butwhenthemonthsanddayswere
fulfilledandtheseasonsdulycameonastheearthmovedround,she
bareoneneitherlikethegodsnormortalmen,fell,cruelTyphaon,to
beaplaguetomen.StraightwaylargeeyedqueenlyHeratookhimand
bringingoneevilthingtoanothersuch,gavehimtothedragoness;and
shereceivedhim.AndthisTyphaonusedtoworkgreatmischiefamongthe
famoustribesofmen.Whosoevermetthedragoness,thedayofdoomwould
sweephimaway,untilthelordApollo,whodealsdeathfromafar,shota
strongarrowather.Thenshe,rentwithbitterpangs,laydrawinggreat
gaspsforbreathandrollingaboutthatplace.Anawfulnoiseswelledup
unspeakableasshewrithedcontinuallythiswayandthatamidthewood:
andsosheleftherlife,breathingitforthinblood.ThenPhoebus
Apolloboastedoverher:
(ll.363369)'Nowrothereuponthesoilthatfeedsman!Youatleast
shalllivenomoretobeafellbanetomenwhoeatthefruitofthe
allnourishingearth,andwhowillbringhitherperfecthecatombs.
AgainstcrueldeathneitherTyphoeusshallavailyounorillfamed
Chimera,buthereshalltheEarthandshiningHyperionmakeyourot.'
(ll.370374)ThussaidPhoebus,exultingoverher:anddarknesscovered
hereyes.AndtheholystrengthofHeliosmadeherrotawaythere;
whereforetheplaceisnowcalledPytho,andmencallthelordApolloby
anothername,Pythian;becauseonthatspotthepowerofpiercingHelios
madethemonsterrotaway.
(ll.375378)ThenPhoebusApollosawthatthesweetflowingspringhad
beguiledhim,andhestartedoutinangeragainstTelphusa;andsoon
comingtoher,hestoodclosebyandspoketoher:
(ll.379381)'Telphusa,youwerenot,afterall,tokeeptoyourself
thislovelyplacebydeceivingmymind,andpourforthyourclear
flowingwater:heremyrenownshallalsobeandnotyoursalone?'
(ll.382387)Thusspokethelord,farworkingApollo,andpushedover
uponheracragwithashowerofrocks,hidingherstreams:andhemade
himselfanaltarinawoodedgroveveryneartheclearflowingstream.
InthatplaceallmenpraytothegreatonebythenameTelphusian,
becausehehumbledthestreamofholyTelphusa.
(ll.388439)ThenPhoebusApolloponderedinhisheartwhatmenhe
shouldbringintobehisministersinsacrificeandtoservehimin
rockyPytho.Andwhileheconsideredthis,hebecameawareofaswift
shipuponthewinelikeseainwhichweremanymenandgoodly,Cretans
fromCnossos[2510],thecityofMinos,theywhodosacrificetothe
princeandannouncehisdecrees,whatsoeverPhoebusApollo,bearerof
thegoldenblade,speaksinanswerfromhislaureltreebelowthedells
ofParnassus.Thesemenweresailingintheirblackshipfortrafficand
forprofittosandyPylosandtothemenofPylos.ButPhoebusApollo
metthem:intheopenseahesprangupontheirswiftship,likea
dolphininshape,andlaythere,agreatandawesomemonster,andnone
ofthemgaveheedsoastounderstand[2511];buttheysoughttocast
thedolphinoverboard.Buthekeptshakingtheblackshipeverywayand
makethetimbersquiver.Sotheysatsilentintheircraftforfear,and
didnotloosethesheetsthroughouttheblack,hollowship,norlowered
thesailoftheirdarkprowedvessel,butastheyhadsetitfirstof
allwithoxhideropes,sotheykeptsailingon;forarushingsouthwind
hurriedontheswiftshipfrombehind.FirsttheypassedbyMalea,and
thenalongtheLaconiancoasttheycametoTaenarum,seagarlandedtown
andcountryofHelioswhogladdensmen,wherethethickfleecedsheepof
thelordHeliosfeedcontinuallyandoccupyagladsomecountry.There
theywishedtoputtheirshiptoshore,andlandandcomprehendthe
greatmarvelandseewiththeireyeswhetherthemonsterwouldremain
uponthedeckofthehollowship,orspringbackintothebrinydeep
wherefishesshoal.Butthewellbuiltshipwouldnotobeythehelm,
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butwentonitswayallalongPeloponnesus:andthelord,farworking
Apollo,guidediteasilywiththebreathofthebreeze.Sotheshipran
onitscourseandcametoArenaandlovelyArgypheaandThryon,theford
ofAlpheus,andwellplacedAepyandsandyPylosandthemenofPylos;
pastCruniitwentandChalcisandpastDymeandfairElis,wherethe
Epeirule.AndatthetimewhenshewasmakingforPherae,exultingin
thebreezefromZeus,thereappearedtothembelowthecloudsthesteep
mountainofIthaca,andDulichiumandSameandwoodedZacynthus.But
whentheywerepassedbyallthecoastofPeloponnesus,then,towards
Crisa,thatvastgulfbegantoheaveinsightwhichthroughallits
lengthcutsofftherichisleofPelops.Therecameonthemastrong,
clearwestwindbyordinanceofZeusandblewfromheavenvehemently,
thatwithallspeedtheshipmightfinishcoursingoverthebrinywater
ofthesea.Sotheybeganagaintovoyagebacktowardsthedawnandthe
sun:andthelordApollo,sonofZeus,ledthemonuntiltheyreached
farseenCrisa,landofvines,andintohaven:theretheseacoursing
shipgroundedonthesands.
(ll.440451)Then,likeastaratnoonday,thelord,farworking
Apollo,leapedfromtheship:flashesoffireflewfromhimthickand
theirbrightnessreachedtoheaven.Heenteredintohisshrinebetween
pricelesstripods,andtheremadeaflametoflareupbright,showing
forththesplendourofhisshafts,sothattheirradiancefilledall
Crisa,andthewivesandwellgirdeddaughtersoftheCrisaeansraised
acryatthatoutburstofPhoebus;forhecastgreatfearuponthem
all.Fromhisshrinehesprangforthagain,swiftasathought,tospeed
againtotheship,bearingtheformofaman,briskandsturdy,inthe
primeofhisyouth,whilehisbroadshoulderswerecoveredwithhis
hair:andhespoketotheCretans,utteringwingedwords:
(ll.452461)'Strangers,whoareyou?Whencecomeyousailingalongthe
pathsofthesea?Areyoufortraffic,ordoyouwanderatrandom
overtheseaaspiratesdowhoputtheirownlivestohazardandbring
mischieftomenofforeignpartsastheyroam?Whyrestyousoandare
afraid,anddonotgoashorenorstowthegearofyourblackship?For
thatisthecustomofmenwholivebybread,whenevertheycometoland
intheirdarkshipsfromthemain,spentwithtoil;atoncedesirefor
sweetfoodcatchesthemabouttheheart.'
(ll.462473)Sospeaking,heputcourageintheirhearts,andthe
masteroftheCretansansweredhimandsaid:'Strangerthoughyouare
nothinglikemortalmeninshapeorstature,butareasthedeathless
godshailandallhappinesstoyou,andmaythegodsgiveyougood.Now
tellmetrulythatImaysurelyknowit:whatcountryisthis,andwhat
land,andwhatmenliveherein?Asforus,withthoughtssetotherwards,
weweresailingoverthegreatseatoPylosfromCrete(forfromthere
wedeclarethatwearesprung),butnowarecomeonshipboardtothis
placebynomeanswillinglyanotherwayandotherpathsandgladly
wouldwereturn.Butoneofthedeathlessgodsbroughtushereagainst
ourwill.'
(ll.474501)ThenfarworkingApolloansweredthenandsaid:'Strangers
whooncedweltaboutwoodedCnossosbutnowshallreturnnomoreeachto
hislovedcityandfairhouseanddearwife;hereshallyoukeepmyrich
templethatishonouredbymanymen.IamthesonofZeus;Apolloismy
name:butyouIbroughthereoverthewidegulfofthesea,meaning
younohurt;nay,hereyoushallkeepmyrichtemplethatisgreatly
honouredamongmen,andyoushallknowtheplansofthedeathlessgods,
andbytheirwillyoushallbehonouredcontinuallyforalltime.And
nowcome,makehasteanddoasIsay.Firstloosethesheetsandlower
thesail,andthendrawtheswiftshipupupontheland.Takeoutyour
goodsandthegearofthestraightship,andmakeanaltaruponthe
beachofthesea:lightfireuponitandmakeanofferingofwhitemeal.
Next,standsidebysidearoundthealtarandpray:andinasmuchasat
thefirstonthehazyseaIsprangupontheswiftshipintheformofa
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dolphin,praytomeasApolloDelphinius;alsothealtaritselfshall
becalledDelphiniusandoverlooking[2512]forever.Afterwards,sup
besideyourdarkshipandpouranofferingtotheblessedgodswhodwell
onOlympus.Butwhenyouhaveputawaycravingforsweetfood,come
withmesingingthehymnIePaean(Hail,Healer!),untilyoucometothe
placewhereyoushallkeepmyrichtemple.'
(ll.502523)SosaidApollo.Andtheyreadilyharkenedtohimand
obeyedhim.Firsttheyunfastenedthesheetsandletdownthesailand
loweredthemastbytheforestaysuponthemastrest.Then,landingupon
thebeachofthesea,theyhauleduptheshipfromthewatertodryland
andfixedlongstaysunderit.Alsotheymadeanaltaruponthebeachof
thesea,andwhentheyhadlitafire,madeanofferingofwhitemeal,
andprayedstandingaroundthealtarasApollohadbiddenthem.Then
theytooktheirmealbytheswift,blackship,andpouredanoffering
totheblessedgodswhodwellonOlympus.Andwhentheyhadputaway
cravingfordrinkandfood,theystartedoutwiththelordApollo,the
sonofZeus,toleadthem,holdingalyreinhishands,andplaying
sweetlyashesteppedhighandfeatly.SotheCretansfollowedhimto
Pytho,marchingintimeastheychantedtheIePaeanafterthemannerof
theCretanpaeansingersandofthoseinwhoseheartstheheavenlyMuse
hasputsweetvoicedsong.Withtirelessfeettheyapproachedtheridge
andstraightwaycametoParnassusandthelovelyplacewheretheywere
todwellhonouredbymanymen.ThereApollobroughtthemandshowedthem
hismostholysanctuaryandrichtemple.
(ll.524525)Buttheirspiritwasstirredintheirdearbreasts,and
themasteroftheCretansaskedhim,saying:
(ll.526530)'Lord,sinceyouhavebroughtusherefarfromourdear
onesandourfatherland,forsoitseemedgoodtoyourheart,tellus
nowhowweshalllive.Thatwewouldknowofyou.Thislandisnotto
bedesiredeitherforvineyardsorforpasturessothatwecanlivewell
thereonandalsoministertomen.'
(ll.531544)ThenApollo,thesonofZeus,smileduponthemandsaid:
'Foolishmortalsandpoordrudgesareyou,thatyouseekcaresandhard
toilsandstraits!EasilywillItellyouawordandsetitinyour
hearts.Thougheachoneofyouwithknifeinhandshouldslaughtersheep
continually,yetwouldyoualwayshaveabundantstore,evenallthatthe
glorioustribesofmenbringhereforme.Butguardyoumytempleand
receivethetribesofmenthatgathertothisplace,andespeciallyshow
mortalmenmywill,anddoyoukeeprighteousnessinyourheart.But
ifanyshallbedisobedientandpaynoheedtomywarning,orifthere
shallbeanyidlewordordeedandoutrageasiscommonamongmortal
men,thenothermenshallbeyourmastersandwithastronghandshall
makeyousubjectforever.Allhasbeentoldyou:doyoukeepitinyour
heart.'
(ll.545546)Andso,farewell,sonofZeusandLeto;butIwill
rememberyouandanotherhymnalso.

IV.TOHERMES(582lines)
(ll.129)Muse,singofHermes,thesonofZeusandMaia,lordof
CylleneandArcadiarichinflocks,theluckbringingmessengerofthe
immortalswhomMaiabare,therichtressednymph,whenshewasjoined
inlovewithZeus,ashygoddess,forsheavoidedthecompanyofthe
blessedgods,andlivedwithinadeep,shadycave.Therethesonof
Cronosusedtoliewiththerichtressednymph,unseenbydeathless
godsandmortalmen,atdeadofnightwhilesweetsleepshouldhold
whitearmedHerafast.AndwhenthepurposeofgreatZeuswasfixedin
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heaven,shewasdeliveredandanotablethingwascometopass.For
thenshebareason,ofmanyshifts,blandlycunning,arobber,acattle
driver,abringerofdreams,awatcherbynight,athiefatthegates,
onewhowassoontoshowforthwonderfuldeedsamongthedeathlessgods.
Bornwiththedawning,atmiddayheplayedonthelyre,andinthe
eveninghestolethecattleoffarshootingApolloonthefourthday
ofthemonth;foronthatdayqueenlyMaiabarehim.Sosoonashehad
leapedfromhismother'sheavenlywomb,helaynotlongwaitinginhis
holycradle,buthesprangupandsoughttheoxenofApollo.Butashe
steppedoverthethresholdofthehighroofedcave,hefoundatortoise
thereandgainedendlessdelight.ForitwasHermeswhofirstmadethe
tortoiseasinger.Thecreaturefellinhiswayatthecourtyardgate,
whereitwasfeedingontherichgrassbeforethedwelling,waddling
along.Whenhesawit,theluckbringingsonofZeuslaughedandsaid:
(ll.3038)'Anomenofgreatluckformesosoon!Idonotslightit.
Hail,comradeofthefeast,lovelyinshape,soundingatthedance!With
joyImeetyou!Wheregotyouthatrichgaudforcovering,thatspangled
shellatortoiselivinginthemountains?ButIwilltakeandcarryyou
within:youshallhelpmeandIwilldoyounodisgrace,thoughfirstof
allyoumustprofitme.Itisbettertobeathome:harmmaycomeout
ofdoors.Living,youshallbeaspellagainstmischievouswitchcraft
[2513];butifyoudie,thenyoushallmakesweetestsong.
(ll.3961)Thusspeaking,hetookupthetortoiseinbothhandsand
wentbackintothehousecarryinghischarmingtoy.Thenhecutoffits
limbsandscoopedoutthemarrowofthemountaintortoisewithascoop
ofgreyiron.Asaswiftthoughtdartsthroughtheheartofamanwhen
throngingcareshaunthim,orasbrightglancesflashfromtheeye,so
gloriousHermesplannedboththoughtanddeedatonce.Hecutstalksof
reedtomeasureandfixedthem,fasteningtheirendsacrossthebackand
throughtheshellofthetortoise,andthenstretchedoxhideallover
itbyhisskill.Alsoheputinthehornsandfittedacrosspieceupon
thetwoofthem,andstretchedsevenstringsofsheepgut.Butwhenhe
hadmadeitheprovedeachstringinturnwiththekey,asheheldthe
lovelything.Atthetouchofhishanditsoundedmarvellously;and,as
hetriedit,thegodsangsweetrandomsnatches,evenasyouthsbandy
tauntsatfestivals.HesangofZeusthesonofCronosandneatshod
Maia,theconversewhichtheyhadbeforeinthecomradeshipoflove,
tellingalltheglorioustaleofhisownbegetting.Hecelebrated,too,
thehandmaidsofthenymph,andherbrighthome,andthetripodsall
aboutthehouse,andtheabundantcauldrons.
(ll.6267)Butwhilehewassingingofallthese,hisheartwasbent
onothermatters.Andhetookthehollowlyreandlaiditinhissacred
cradle,andsprangfromthesweetsmellinghalltoawatchplace,
ponderingsheertrickeryinhisheartdeedssuchasknavishfolkpursue
inthedarknighttime;forhelongedtotasteflesh.
(ll.6886)TheSunwasgoingdownbeneaththeearthtowardsOcean
withhishorsesandchariotwhenHermescamehurryingtotheshadowy
mountainsofPieria,wherethedivinecattleoftheblessedgodshad
theirsteadsandgrazedthepleasant,unmownmeadows.OfthesetheSon
ofMaia,thesharpeyedslayerofArgusthencutofffromtheherdfifty
loudlowingkine,anddrovethemstragglingwiseacrossasandyplace,
turningtheirhoofprintsaside.Also,hebethoughthimofacraftyruse
andreversedthemarksoftheirhoofs,makingthefrontbehindandthe
hindbefore,whilehehimselfwalkedtheotherway[2514].Thenhe
wovesandalswithwickerworkbythesandofthesea,wonderful
things,unthoughtof,unimagined;forhemixedtogethertamariskand
myrtletwigs,fasteningtogetheranarmfuloftheirfresh,youngwood,
andtiedthem,leavesandallsecurelyunderhisfeetaslightsandals.
ThebrushwoodthegloriousSlayerofArguspluckedinPieriaashewas
preparingforhisjourney,makingshift[2515]asonemakinghastefora
longjourney.
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(ll.8789)Butanoldmantillinghisfloweringvineyardsawhimashe
washurryingdowntheplainthroughgrassyOnchestus.SotheSonofMaia
beganandsaidtohim:
(ll.9093)'Oldman,diggingaboutyourvineswithbowedshoulders,
surelyyoushallhavemuchwinewhenallthesebearfruit,ifyouobey
meandstrictlyremembernottohaveseenwhatyouhaveseen,andnotto
haveheardwhatyouhaveheard,andtokeepsilentwhennothingofyour
ownisharmed.'
(ll.94114)Whenhehadsaidthismuch,hehurriedthestrongcattleon
together:throughmanyshadowymountainsandechoinggorgesandflowery
plainsgloriousHermesdrovethem.Andnowthedivinenight,hisdark
ally,wasmostlypassed,anddawnthatsetsfolktoworkwasquickly
comingon,whilebrightSelene,daughterofthelordPallas,Megamedes'
son,hadjustclimbedherwatchpost,whenthestrongSonofZeusdrove
thewidebrowedcattleofPhoebusApollototheriverAlpheus.Andthey
cameunweariedtothehighroofedbyresandthedrinkingtroughs
thatwerebeforethenoblemeadow.Then,afterhehadwellfedthe
loudbellowingcattlewithfodderanddriventhemintothebyre,
closepackedandchewinglotusandbegantoseektheartoffire.
Hechoseastoutlaurelbranchandtrimmeditwiththeknife....
((LACUNA))[2516]....heldfirmlyinhishand:andthehotsmokerose
up.ForitwasHermeswhofirstinventedfiresticksandfire.Next
hetookmanydriedsticksandpiledthemthickandplentyina
sunkentrench:andflamebegantoglow,spreadingafartheblastof
fierceburningfire.
(ll.115137)AndwhilethestrengthofgloriousHephaestuswas
beginningtokindlethefire,hedraggedouttwolowing,hornedcows
closetothefire;forgreatstrengthwaswithhim.Hethrewthemboth
pantingupontheirbacksontheground,androlledthemontheirsides,
bendingtheirnecksover[2517],andpiercedtheirvitalchord.Thenhe
wentonfromtasktotask:firsthecutuptherich,fattedmeat,and
pierceditwithwoodenspits,androastedfleshandthehonourablechine
andthepaunchfullofdarkbloodalltogether.Helaidthemthereupon
theground,andspreadoutthehidesonaruggedrock:andsotheyare
stilltheremanyagesafterwards,along,longtimeafterallthis,and
arecontinually[2518].NextgladheartedHermesdraggedtherichmeats
hehadpreparedandputthemonasmooth,flatstone,anddividedthem
intotwelveportionsdistributedbylot,makingeachportionwholly
honourable.ThengloriousHermeslongedforthesacrificialmeat,for
thesweetsavourweariedhim,godthoughhewas;neverthelesshisproud
heartwasnotprevailedupontodevourtheflesh,althoughhegreatly
desired[2519].Butheputawaythefatandallthefleshinthe
highroofedbyre,placingthemhighuptobeatokenofhisyouthful
theft.Andafterthathegathereddrysticksandutterlydestroyedwith
fireallthehoofsandalltheheads.
(ll.138154)Andwhenthegodhaddulyfinishedall,hethrewhis
sandalsintodeepeddyingAlpheus,andquenchedtheembers,coveringthe
blackasheswithsand,andsospentthenightwhileSelene'ssoftlight
shonedown.Thenthegodwentstraightbackagainatdawntothebright
crestsofCyllene,andnoonemethimonthelongjourneyeitherof
theblessedgodsormortalmen,nordidanydogbark.Andluckbringing
Hermes,thesonofZeus,passededgewaysthroughthekeyholeofthe
hallliketheautumnbreeze,evenasmist:straightthroughthecavehe
wentandcametotherichinnerchamber,walkingsoftly,andmakingno
noiseasonemightuponthefloor.ThengloriousHermeswenthurriedly
tohiscradle,wrappinghisswaddlingclothesabouthisshouldersas
thoughhewereafeeblebabe,andlayplayingwiththecoveringabout
hisknees;butathislefthandhekeptclosehissweetlyre.
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(ll.155161)Butthegoddidnotpassunseenbythegoddesshismother;
butshesaidtohim:'Hownow,yourogue!Whencecomeyoubacksoat
nighttime,youthatwearshamelessnessasagarment?AndnowIsurely
believethesonofLetowillsoonhaveyouforthoutofdoorswith
unbreakablecordsaboutyourribs,oryouwilllivearogue'slifein
theglensrobbingbywhiles.Goto,then;yourfathergotyoutobea
greatworrytomortalmenanddeathlessgods.'
(ll.162181)ThenHermesansweredherwithcraftywords:'Mother,why
doyouseektofrightenmelikeafeeblechildwhoseheartknowsfew
wordsofblame,afearfulbabethatfearsitsmother'sscolding?
Nay,butIwilltrywhateverplanisbest,andsofeedmyselfandyou
continually.Wewillnotbecontenttoremainhere,asyoubid,alone
ofallthegodsunfee'dwithofferingsandprayers.Bettertolive
infellowshipwiththedeathlessgodscontinually,rich,wealthy,and
enjoyingstoriesofgrain,thantositalwaysinagloomycave:and,as
regardshonour,ItoowillenterupontheritethatApollohas.If
myfatherwillnotgiveittome,IwillseekandIamabletobea
princeofrobbers.AndifLeto'smostglorioussonshallseekmeout,I
thinkanotherandagreaterlosswillbefallhim.ForIwillgoto
Pythotobreakintohisgreathouse,andwillplundertherefromsplendid
tripods,andcauldrons,andgold,andplentyofbrightiron,andmuch
apparel;andyoushallseeitifyouwill.'
(ll.182189)Withsuchwordstheyspoketogether,thesonofZeuswho
holdstheaegis,andtheladyMaia.NowErostheearlybornwasrising
fromdeepflowingOcean,bringinglighttomen,whenApollo,ashewent,
cametoOnchestus,thelovelygroveandsacredplaceoftheloudroaring
HolderoftheEarth.Therehefoundanoldmangrazinghisbeastalong
thepathwayfromhiscourtyardfence,andtheallgloriousSonofLeto
beganandsaidtohim.
(ll.190200)'Oldman,weeder[2520]ofgrassyOnchestus,Iamcome
herefromPieriaseekingcattle,cowsallofthem,allwithcurving
horns,frommyherd.Theblackbullwasgrazingaloneawayfromthe
rest,butfierceeyedhoundsfollowedthecows,fourofthem,allofone
mind,likemen.Thesewereleftbehind,thedogsandthebullwhichis
greatmarvel;butthecowsstrayedoutofthesoftmeadow,awayfromthe
pasturewhenthesunwasjustgoingdown.Nowtellmethis,oldmanborn
longago:haveyouseenonepassingalongbehindthosecows?'
(ll.201211)Thentheoldmanansweredhimandsaid:'Myson,itis
hardtotellallthatone'seyessee;formanywayfarerspasstoandfro
thisway,somebentonmuchevil,andsomeongood:itisdifficultto
knoweachone.However,Iwasdiggingaboutmyplotofvineyardallday
longuntilthesunwentdown,andIthought,goodsir,butIdonotknow
forcertain,thatImarkedachild,whoeverthechildwas,thatfollowed
longhornedcattleaninfantwhohadastaffandkeptwalkingfrom
sidetoside:hewasdrivingthembackwardsway,withtheirheadstoward
him.'
(ll.212218)Sosaidtheoldman.AndwhenApolloheardthisreport,
hewentyetmorequicklyonhisway,andpresently,seeingalongwinged
bird,heknewatoncebythatomenthatthiefwasthechildofZeusthe
sonofCronos.SothelordApollo,sonofZeus,hurriedontogoodly
Pylosseekinghisshamblingoxen,andhehadhisbroadshoulderscovered
withadarkcloud.ButwhentheFarShooterperceivedthetracks,he
cried:
(ll.219226)'Oh,oh!Trulythisisagreatmarvelthatmyeyesbehold!
Theseareindeedthetracksofstraighthornedoxen,buttheyareturned
backwardstowardstheflowerymeadow.Buttheseothersarenotthe
footprintsofmanorwomanorgreywolvesorbearsorlions,nordoI
thinktheyarethetracksofaroughmanedCentaurwhoeveritbethat
withswiftfeetmakessuchmonstrousfootprints;wonderfularethe
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tracksonthissideoftheway,butyetmorewonderfullyarethoseon
that.'
(ll.227234)Whenhehadsosaid,thelordApollo,theSonofZeus
hastenedonandcametotheforestcladmountainofCylleneandthe
deepshadowedcaveintherockwherethedivinenymphbroughtforththe
childofZeuswhoisthesonofCronos.Asweetodourspreadoverthe
lovelyhill,andmanythinshankedsheepweregrazingonthegrass.
ThenfarshootingApollohimselfsteppeddowninhasteoverthestone
thresholdintotheduskycave.
(ll.235253)NowwhentheSonofZeusandMaiasawApolloinarage
abouthiscattle,hesnuggleddowninhisfragrantswaddlingclothes;
andaswoodashcoversoverthedeepembersoftreestumps,soHermes
cuddledhimselfupwhenhesawtheFarShooter.Hesqueezedheadand
handsandfeettogetherinasmallspace,likeanewbornchildseeking
sweetsleep,thoughintruthhewaswideawake,andhekepthislyre
underhisarmpit.ButtheSonofLetowasawareandfailednotto
perceivethebeautifulmountainnymphandherdearson,albeitalittle
childandswathedsocraftily.Hepeeredineverycornerofthegreat
dwellingand,takingabrightkey,heopenedthreeclosetsfullof
nectarandlovelyambrosia.Andmuchgoldandsilverwasstoredinthem,
andmanygarmentsofthenymph,somepurpleandsomesilverywhite,such
asarekeptinthesacredhousesoftheblessedgods.Then,afterthe
SonofLetohadsearchedouttherecessesofthegreathouse,hespake
togloriousHermes:
(ll.254259)'Child,lyinginthecradle,makehasteandtellmeofmy
cattle,orwetwowillsoonfalloutangrily.ForIwilltakeandcast
youintodustyTartarusandawfulhopelessdarkness,andneitheryour
mothernoryourfathershallfreeyouorbringyouupagaintothe
light,butyouwillwanderundertheearthandbetheleaderamongst
littlefolk.'[2521]
(ll.260277)ThenHermesansweredhimwithcraftywords:'SonofLeto,
whatharshwordsaretheseyouhavespoken?Andisitcattleofthe
fieldyouarecomeheretoseek?Ihavenotseenthem:Ihavenotheard
ofthem:noonehastoldmeofthem.Icannotgivenewsofthem,norwin
therewardfornews.AmIlikeacattlelifter,astalwartperson?This
isnotaskforme:ratherIcareforotherthings:Icareforsleep,and
milkofmymother'sbreast,andwrappingsroundmyshoulders,andwarm
baths.Letnoonehearthecauseofthisdispute;forthiswouldbea
greatmarvelindeedamongthedeathlessgods,thatachildnewlyborn
shouldpassinthroughtheforepartofthehousewithcattleofthe
field:hereinyouspeakextravagantly.Iwasbornyesterday,andmyfeet
aresoftandthegroundbeneathisrough;nevertheless,ifyouwill
haveitso,Iwillswearagreatoathbymyfather'sheadandvowthat
neitheramIguiltymyself,neitherhaveIseenanyotherwhostoleyour
cowswhatevercowsmaybe;forIknowthemonlybyhearsay.'
(ll.278280)So,then,saidHermes,shootingquickglancesfromhis
eyes:andhekeptraisinghisbrowsandlookingthiswayandthat,
whistlinglongandlisteningtoApollo'sstoryastoanidletale.
(ll.281292)ButfarworkingApollolaughedsoftlyandsaidtohim:
'Orogue,deceiver,craftyinheart,youtalksoinnocentlythatImost
surelybelievethatyouhavebrokenintomanyawellbuilthouseand
strippedmorethanonepoorwretchbarethisnight[2522],gatheringhis
goodstogetheralloverthehousewithoutnoise.Youwillplaguemany
alonelyherdsmaninmountainglades,whenyoucomeonherdsand
thickfleecedsheep,andhaveahankeringafterflesh.Butcomenow,if
youwouldnotsleepyourlastandlatestsleep,getoutofyourcradle,
youcomradeofdarknight.Surelyhereafterthisshallbeyour
titleamongstthedeathlessgods,tobecalledtheprinceofrobbers
continually.'
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(ll.293300)SosaidPhoebusApollo,andtookthechildandbeganto
carryhim.ButatthatmomentthestrongSlayerofArgushadhis
plan,and,whileApolloheldhiminhishands,sentforthanomen,a
hardworkedbellyserf,arudemessenger,andsneezeddirectlyafter.
AndwhenApolloheardit,hedroppedgloriousHermesoutofhishandson
theground:thensittingdownbeforehim,thoughhewaseagertogoon
hisway,hespokemockinglytoHermes:
(ll.301303)'Fearnot,littleswaddlingbaby,sonofZeusandMaia.
Ishallfindthestrongcattlepresentlybytheseomens,andyoushall
leadtheway.'
(ll.304306)WhenApollohadsosaid,CyllenianHermessprangup
quickly,startinginhaste.Withbothhandshepusheduptohisearsthe
coveringthathehadwrappedabouthisshoulders,andsaid:
(ll.307312)'Whereareyoucarryingme,FarWorker,hastiestofall
thegods?Isitbecauseofyourcattlethatyouaresoangryandharass
me?Odear,wouldthatallthesortofoxenmightperish;foritisnot
Iwhostoleyourcows,nordidIseeanotherstealthemwhatevercows
maybe,andofthatIhaveonlyheardreport.Nay,giverightandtake
itbeforeZeus,theSonofCronos.'
(ll.313326)SoHermestheshepherdandLeto'sglorioussonkept
stubbornlydisputingeacharticleoftheirquarrel:Apollo,speaking
truly....((LACUNA))....notfairlysoughttoseizegloriousHermes
becauseofthecows;buthe,theCyllenian,triedtodeceivetheGodof
theSilverBowwithtricksandcunningwords.Butwhen,thoughhehad
manywiles,hefoundtheotherhadasmanyshifts,hebegantowalk
acrossthesand,himselfinfront,whiletheSonofZeusandLetocame
behind.Soontheycame,theselovelychildrenofZeus,tothetopof
fragrantOlympus,totheirfather,theSonofCronos;fortherewerethe
scalesofjudgementsetforthemboth.
TherewasanassemblyonsnowyOlympus,andtheimmortalswhoperishnot
weregatheringafterthehourofgoldthronedDawn.
(ll.327329)ThenHermesandApollooftheSilverBowstoodatthe
kneesofZeus:andZeuswhothundersonhighspoketohisgloriousson
andaskedhim:
(ll.330332)'Phoebus,whencecomeyoudrivingthisgreatspoil,a
childnewbornthathasthelookofaherald?Thisisaweightymatter
thatiscomebeforethecouncilofthegods.'
(ll.333364)Thenthelord,farworkingApollo,answeredhim:'Omy
father,youshallsoonhearnotriflingtalethoughyoureproachmethat
Ialoneamfondofspoil.Hereisachild,aburglingrobber,whomI
foundafteralongjourneyinthehillsofCyllene:formypartIhave
neverseenonesoperteitheramongthegodsorallmenthatcatchfolk
unawaresthroughouttheworld.Hestoleawaymycowsfromtheirmeadow
anddrovethemoffintheeveningalongtheshoreoftheloudroaring
sea,makingstraightforPylos.Thereweredoubletracks,andwonderful
theywere,suchasonemightmarvelat,thedoingofacleversprite;
forasforthecows,thedarkdustkeptandshowedtheirfootprints
leadingtowardstheflowerymeadow;buthehimselfbewildering
creaturecrossedthesandygroundoutsidethepath,notonhisfeetnor
yetonhishands;but,furnishedwithsomeothermeanshetrudgedhis
waywonderofwonders!asthoughonewalkedonslenderoaktrees.Now
whilehefollowedthecattleacrosssandyground,allthetracksshowed
quiteclearlyinthedust;butwhenhehadfinishedthelongwayacross
thesand,presentlythecows'trackandhisowncouldnotbetraced
overthehardground.Butamortalmannoticedhimashedrovethe
widebrowedkinestraighttowardsPylos.Andassoonashehadshutthem
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upquietly,andhadgonehomebycraftyturnsandtwists,helaydownin
hiscradleinthegloomofadimcave,asstillasdarknight,sothat
notevenaneaglekeenlygazingwouldhavespiedhim.Muchherubbedhis
eyeswithhishandsashepreparedfalsehood,andhimselfstraightway
saidroundly:"Ihavenotseenthem:Ihavenotheardofthem:noman
hastoldmeofthem.Icouldnottellyouofthem,norwintherewardof
telling."'
(ll.365367)Whenhehadsospoken,PhoebusApollosatdown.ButHermes
onhispartansweredandsaid,pointingattheSonofCronos,thelord
ofallthegods:
(ll.368386)'Zeus,myfather,indeedIwillspeaktruthtoyou;forI
amtruthfulandIcannottellalie.Hecametoourhousetodaylooking
forhisshamblingcows,asthesunwasnewlyrising.Hebroughtno
witnesseswithhimnoranyoftheblessedgodswhohadseenthetheft,
butwithgreatviolenceorderedmetoconfess,threateningmuchtothrow
meintowideTartarus.Forhehastherichbloomofgloriousyouth,
whileIwasbornbutyesterdayashetooknowsnoramIlikea
cattlelifter,asturdyfellow.Believemytale(foryouclaimtobe
myownfather),thatIdidnotdrivehiscowstomyhousesomayI
prospernorcrossedthethreshold:thisIsaytruly.IreverenceHelios
greatlyandtheothergods,andyouIloveandhimIdread.Youyourself
knowthatIamnotguilty:andIwillswearagreatoathuponit:No!
bytheserichdeckedporticoesofthegods.AndsomedayIwillpunish
him,strongasheis,forthispitilessinquisition;butnowdoyouhelp
theyounger.'
(ll.387396)SospaketheCyllenian,theSlayerofArgus,whilehekept
shootingsidelongglancesandkepthisswaddlingclothesuponhis
arm,anddidnotcastthemaway.ButZeuslaughedoutloudtoseehis
evilplottingchildwellandcunninglydenyingguiltaboutthecattle.
Andhebadethembothtobeofonemindandsearchforthecattle,and
guidingHermestoleadthewayand,withoutmischievousnessofheart,to
showtheplacewherenowhehadhiddenthestrongcattle.ThentheSon
ofCronosbowedhishead:andgoodlyHermesobeyedhim;forthewillof
Zeuswhoholdstheaegiseasilyprevailedwithhim.
(ll.397404)ThenthetwoallgloriouschildrenofZeushastenedboth
tosandyPylos,andreachedthefordofAlpheus,andcametothefields
andthehighroofedbyrewherethebeastswerecherishedatnighttime.
NowwhileHermeswenttothecaveintherockandbegantodriveoutthe
strongcattle,thesonofLeto,lookingaside,sawthecowhidesonthe
sheerrock.AndheaskedgloriousHermesatonce:
(ll.405408)'Howwereyouable,youcraftyrogue,toflaytwocows,
newbornandbabyishasyouare?Formypart,Idreadthestrengththat
willbeyours:thereisnoneedyoushouldkeepgrowinglong,Cyllenian,
sonofMaia!'
(ll.409414)Sosaying,Apollotwistedstrongwitheswithhishands
meaningtobindHermeswithfirmbands;butthebandswouldnothold
him,andthewithesofosierfellfarfromhimandbegantogrowatonce
fromthegroundbeneaththeirfeetinthatveryplace.Andintertwining
withoneanother,theyquicklygrewandcoveredallthewildroving
cattlebythewillofthievishHermes,sothatApollowasastonishedas
hegazed.
(ll.414435)ThenthestrongslayerofArguslookedfurtivelyupon
thegroundwitheyesflashingfire....desiringtohide....((LACUNA))
....VeryeasilyhesoftenedthesonofallgloriousLetoashewould,
sternthoughtheFarshooterwas.Hetookthelyreuponhisleftarmand
triedeachstringinturnwiththekey,sothatitsoundedawesomelyat
histouch.AndPhoebusApollolaughedforjoy;forthesweetthrobof
themarvellousmusicwenttohisheart,andasoftlongingtookholdon
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hissoulashelistened.ThenthesonofMaia,harpingsweetlyuponhis
lyre,tookcourageandstoodatthelefthandofPhoebusApollo;and
soon,whileheplayedshrillyonhislyre,helifteduphisvoiceand
sang,andlovelywasthesoundofhisvoicethatfollowed.Hesangthe
storyofthedeathlessgodsandofthedarkearth,howatthefirstthey
cametobe,andhoweachonereceivedhisportion.Firstamongthegods
hehonouredMnemosyne,motheroftheMuses,inhissong;forthesonof
Maiawasofherfollowing.AndnextthegoodlysonofZeushymnedthe
restoftheimmortalsaccordingtotheirorderinage,andtoldhoweach
wasborn,mentioningallinorderashestruckthelyreuponhisarm.
ButApollowasseizedwithalongingnottobeallayed,andheopened
hismouthandspokewingedwordstoHermes:
(ll.436462)'Slayerofoxen,trickster,busyone,comradeofthe
feast,thissongofyoursisworthfiftycows,andIbelievethat
presentlyweshallsettleourquarrelpeacefully.Butcomenow,tellme
this,resourcefulsonofMaia:hasthismarvellousthingbeenwithyou
fromyourbirth,ordidsomegodormortalmangiveityouanoble
giftandteachyouheavenlysong?Forwonderfulisthisnewuttered
soundIhear,thelikeofwhichIvowthatnomannorgoddwellingon
Olympuseveryethasknownbutyou,OthievishsonofMaia.Whatskill
isthis?Whatsongfordesperatecares?Whatwayofsong?Forverily
herearethreethingstohandallatoncefromwhichtochoose,mirth,
andlove,andsweetsleep.AndthoughIamafolloweroftheOlympian
Museswholovedancesandthebrightpathofsongthefulltonedchant
andravishingthrillofflutesyetInevercaredforanyofthosefeats
ofskillatyoungmen'srevels,asIdonowforthis:Iamfilledwith
wonder,OsonofZeus,atyoursweetplaying.Butnow,sinceyou,though
little,havesuchgloriousskill,sitdown,dearboy,andrespectthe
wordsofyourelders.Fornowyoushallhaverenownamongthedeathless
gods,youandyourmotheralso.ThisIwilldeclaretoyouexactly:by
thisshaftofcornelwoodIwillsurelymakeyoualeaderrenownedamong
thedeathlessgods,andfortunate,andwillgiveyougloriousgiftsand
willnotdeceiveyoufromfirsttolast.'
(ll.463495)ThenHermesansweredhimwithartfulwords:'Youquestion
mecarefully,OFarworker;yetIamnotjealousthatyoushouldenter
uponmyart:thisdayyoushallknowit.ForIseektobefriendly
withyoubothinthoughtandword.Nowyouwellknowallthingsinyour
heart,sinceyousitforemostamongthedeathlessgods,OsonofZeus,
andaregoodlyandstrong.AndwiseZeuslovesyouasallrightis,and
hasgivenyousplendidgifts.Andtheysaythatfromtheutteranceof
Zeusyouhavelearnedboththehonoursduetothegods,OFarworker,
andoraclesfromZeus,evenallhisordinances.OfalltheseImyself
havealreadylearnedthatyouhavegreatwealth.Now,youarefreeto
learnwhateveryouplease;butsince,asitseems,yourheartisso
stronglysetonplayingthelyre,chant,andplayuponit,andgive
yourselftomerriment,takingthisasagiftfromme,anddoyou,my
friend,bestowgloryonme.Singwellwiththisclearvoicedcompanion
inyourhands;foryouareskilledingood,wellorderedutterance.
Fromnowonbringitconfidentlytotherichfeastandlovelydanceand
gloriousrevel,ajoybynightandbyday.Whosowithwitandwisdom
enquiresofitcunningly,himitteachesthroughitssoundallmanner
ofthingsthatdelightthemind,beingeasilyplayedwithgentle
familiarities,foritabhorstoilsomedrudgery;butwhosoin
ignoranceenquiresofitviolently,tohimitchattersmerevanityand
foolishness.Butyouareabletolearnwhateveryouplease.Sothen,I
willgiveyouthislyre,glorioussonofZeus,whileIformypart
willgrazedownwithwildrovingcattlethepasturesonhilland
horsefeedingplain:soshallthecowscoveredbythebullscalve
abundantlybothmalesandfemales.Andnowthereisnoneedforyou,
bargainerthoughyouare,tobefuriouslyangry.'
(ll.496502)WhenHermeshadsaidthis,heheldoutthelyre:and
PhoebusApollotookit,andreadilyputhisshiningwhipinHermes'
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hand,andordainedhimkeeperofherds.ThesonofMaiareceivedit
joyfully,whiletheglorioussonofLeto,thelordfarworkingApollo,
tookthelyreuponhisleftarmandtriedeachstringwiththekey.
Awesomelyitsoundedatthetouchofthegod,whilehesangsweetlyto
itsnote.
(ll.503512)Afterwardstheytwo,theallglorioussonsofZeusturned
thecowsbacktowardsthesacredmeadow,butthemselveshastenedbackto
snowyOlympus,delightinginthelyre.ThenwiseZeuswasgladandmade
thembothfriends.AndHermeslovedthesonofLetocontinually,evenas
hedoesnow,whenhehadgiventhelyreastokentotheFarshooter,
whoplayeditskilfully,holdingituponhisarm.ButforhimselfHermes
foundoutanothercunningartandmadehimselfthepipeswhosesoundis
heardafar.
(ll.513520)ThenthesonofLetosaidtoHermes:'SonofMaia,guide
andcunningone,Ifearyoumaystealformmethelyreandmycurvedbow
together;foryouhaveanofficefromZeus,toestablishdeedsofbarter
amongstmenthroughoutthefruitfulearth.Nowifyouwouldonlyswear
methegreatoathofthegods,eitherbynoddingyourhead,orbythe
potentwaterofStyx,youwoulddoallthatcanpleaseandeasemy
heart.'
(ll.521549)ThenMaia'ssonnoddedhisheadandpromisedthathewould
neverstealanythingofalltheFarshooterpossessed,andwouldnever
gonearhisstronghouse;butApollo,sonofLeto,sworetobefellow
andfriendtoHermes,vowingthathewouldlovenootheramongthe
immortals,neithergodnormansprungfromZeus,betterthanHermes:and
theFathersentforthaneagleinconfirmation.AndApolloswarealso:
'VerilyIwillmakeyouonlytobeanomenfortheimmortalsandall
alike,trustedandhonouredbymyheart.Moreover,Iwillgiveyoua
splendidstaffofrichesandwealth:itisofgold,withthreebranches,
andwillkeepyouscatheless,accomplishingeverytask,whetherofwords
ordeedsthataregood,whichIclaimtoknowthroughtheutteranceof
Zeus.Butasforsoothsaying,noble,heavenbornchild,ofwhichyou
ask,itisnotlawfulforyoutolearnit,norforanyotherofthe
deathlessgods:onlythemindofZeusknowsthat.Iampledgedandhave
vowedandswornastrongoaththatnootheroftheeternalgodssave
IshouldknowthewiseheartedcounselofZeus.Anddonotyou,my
brother,bearerofthegoldenwand,bidmetellthosedecreeswhich
allseeingZeusintends.Asformen,Iwillharmoneandprofitanother,
sorelyperplexingthetribesofunenviablemen.Whosoevershallcome
guidedbythecallandflightofbirdsofsureomen,thatmanshallhave
advantagethroughmyvoice,andIwillnotdeceivehim.Butwhososhall
trusttoidlychatteringbirdsandshallseektoinvokemyprophetic
artcontrarytomywill,andtounderstandmorethantheeternalgods,
Ideclarethatheshallcomeonanidlejourney;yethisgiftsIwould
take.
(ll.550568)'ButIwilltellyouanotherthing,Sonofallglorious
MaiaandZeuswhoholdstheaegis,luckbringinggeniusofthegods.
Therearecertainholyones,sistersbornthreevirgins[2523]gifted
withwings:theirheadsarebesprinkledwithwhitemeal,andtheydwell
underaridgeofParnassus.Theseareteachersofdivinationapartfrom
me,theartwhichIpractisedwhileyetaboyfollowingherds,thoughmy
fatherpaidnoheedtoit.Fromtheirhometheyflynowhere,nowthere,
feedingonhoneycombandbringingallthingstopass.Andwhentheyare
inspiredthrougheatingyellowhoney,theyarewillingtospeaktruth;
butiftheybedeprivedofthegods'sweetfood,thentheyspeak
falsely,astheyswarminandouttogether.These,then,Igiveyou;
enquireofthemstrictlyanddelightyourheart:andifyoushouldteach
anymortalsotodo,oftenwillhehearyourresponseifhehavegood
fortune.Takethese,SonofMaia,andtendthewildroving,hornedoxen
andhorsesandpatientmules.'
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(ll.568a573)Sohespake.AndfromheavenfatherZeushimselfgave
confirmationtohiswords,andcommandedthatgloriousHermesshouldbe
lordoverallbirdsofomenandgrimeyedlions,andboarswithgleaming
tusks,andoverdogsandallflocksthatthewideearthnourishes,and
overallsheep;alsothatheonlyshouldbetheappointedmessengerto
Hades,who,thoughhetakesnogift,shallgivehimnomeanprize.
(ll.574578)ThusthelordApolloshowedhiskindnessfortheSonof
Maiabyallmanneroffriendship:andtheSonofCronosgavehim
gracebesides.Heconsortswithallmortalsandimmortals:alittlehe
profits,butcontinuallythroughoutthedarknighthecozensthetribes
ofmortalmen.
(ll.579580)Andso,farewell,SonofZeusandMaia;butIwill
rememberyouandanothersongalso.

V.TOAPHRODITE(293lines)
(ll.16)Muse,tellmethedeedsofgoldenAphroditetheCyprian,who
stirsupsweetpassioninthegodsandsubduesthetribesofmortalmen
andbirdsthatflyinairandallthemanycreaturesthatthedry
landrears,andallthesea:alltheselovethedeedsofrichcrowned
Cytherea.
(ll.732)Yettherearethreeheartsthatshecannotbendnoryet
ensnare.FirstisthedaughterofZeuswhoholdstheaegis,brighteyed
Athene;forshehasnopleasureinthedeedsofgoldenAphrodite,but
delightsinwarsandintheworkofAres,instrifesandbattlesand
inpreparingfamouscrafts.Shefirsttaughtearthlycraftsmentomake
chariotsofwarandcarsvariouslywroughtwithbronze,andshe,too,
teachestendermaidensinthehouseandputsknowledgeofgoodlyarts
ineachone'smind.NordoeslaughterlovingAphroditeevertameinlove
Artemis,thehuntresswithshaftsofgold;forshelovesarcheryandthe
slayingofwildbeastsinthemountains,thelyrealsoanddancingand
thrillingcriesandshadywoodsandthecitiesofuprightmen.Nor
yetdoesthepuremaidenHestialoveAphrodite'sworks.Shewasthe
firstbornchildofwilyCronosandyoungesttoo[2524],bywillof
Zeuswhoholdstheaegis,aqueenlymaidwhombothPoseidonandApollo
soughttowed.Butshewaswhollyunwilling,nay,stubbornlyrefused;
andtouchingtheheadoffatherZeuswhoholdstheaegis,she,thatfair
goddess,swareagreatoathwhichhasintruthbeenfulfilled,that
shewouldbeamaidenallherdays.SoZeustheFathergaveheranhigh
honourinsteadofmarriage,andshehasherplaceinthemidstofthe
houseandhastherichestportion.Inallthetemplesofthegodsshe
hasashareofhonour,andamongallmortalmensheischiefofthe
goddesses.
(ll.3344)OfthesethreeAphroditecannotbendorensnarethehearts.
Butofallothersthereisnothingamongtheblessedgodsoramong
mortalmenthathasescapedAphrodite.EventheheartofZeus,who
delightsinthunder,isledastraybyher;thoughheisgreatestofall
andhasthelotofhighestmajesty,shebeguilesevenhiswiseheart
whensoevershepleases,andmateshimwithmortalwomen,unknownto
Hera,hissisterandhiswife,thegrandestfarinbeautyamongthe
deathlessgoddessesmostgloriousisshewhomwilyCronoswithher
motherRheadidbeget:andZeus,whosewisdomiseverlasting,madeher
hischasteandcarefulwife.
(ll.4552)ButuponAphroditeherselfZeuscastsweetdesiretobe
joinedinlovewithamortalman,totheendthat,verysoon,not
evensheshouldbeinnocentofamortal'slove;lestlaughterloving
Aphroditeshouldonedaysoftlysmileandsaymockinglyamongallthe
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godsthatshehadjoinedthegodsinlovewithmortalwomenwhobare
sonsofdeathtothedeathlessgods,andhadmatedthegoddesseswith
mortalmen.
(ll.5374)AndsoheputinherheartsweetdesireforAnchiseswho
wastendingcattleatthattimeamongthesteephillsofmanyfountained
Ida,andinshapewasliketheimmortalgods.Therefore,when
laughterlovingAphroditesawhim,shelovedhim,andterriblydesire
seizedherinherheart.ShewenttoCyprus,toPaphos,whereher
precinctisandfragrantaltar,andpassedintohersweetsmelling
temple.Thereshewentinandputtotheglitteringdoors,andtherethe
Gracesbathedherwithheavenlyoilsuchasbloomsuponthebodiesof
theeternalgodsoildivinelysweet,whichshehadbyher,filledwith
fragrance.AndlaughterlovingAphroditeputonallherrichclothes,
andwhenshehaddeckedherselfwithgold,sheleftsweetsmelling
CyprusandwentinhastetowardsTroy,swiftlytravellinghighupamong
theclouds.SoshecametomanyfountainedIda,themotherofwild
creaturesandwentstraighttothehomesteadacrossthemountains.After
hercamegreywolves,fawningonher,andgrimeyedlions,andbears,
andfleetleopards,ravenousfordeer:andshewasgladinheartto
seethem,andputdesireintheirbreasts,sothattheyallmated,two
together,abouttheshadowycoombes.
(ll.7588)[2525]Butsheherselfcametotheneatbuiltshelters,and
himshefoundleftquitealoneinthehomesteadtheheroAnchiseswho
wascomelyasthegods.Alltheotherswerefollowingtheherdsoverthe
grassypastures,andhe,leftquitealoneinthehomestead,wasroaming
hitherandthitherandplayingthrillinglyuponthelyre.AndAphrodite,
thedaughterofZeusstoodbeforehim,beinglikeapuremaidenin
heightandmien,thatheshouldnotbefrightenedwhenhetookheedof
herwithhiseyes.NowwhenAnchisessawher,hemarkedherwelland
wonderedathermienandheightandshininggarments.Forshewasclad
inarobeoutshiningthebrightnessoffire,asplendidrobeofgold,
enrichedwithallmannerofneedlework,whichshimmeredlikethemoon
overhertenderbreasts,amarveltosee.
Alsosheworetwistedbroochesandshiningearringsintheformof
flowers;androundhersoftthroatwerelovelynecklaces.
(ll.91105)AndAnchiseswasseizedwithlove,andsaidtoher:'Hail,
lady,whoeveroftheblessedonesyouarethatarecometothishouse,
whetherArtemis,orLeto,orgoldenAphrodite,orhighbornThemis,or
brighteyedAthene.Or,maybe,youareoneoftheGracescomehither,
whobearthegodscompanyandarecalledimmortal,orelseoneofthose
whoinhabitthislovelymountainandthespringsofriversandgrassy
meads.Iwillmakeyouanaltaruponahighpeakinafarseenplace,
andwillsacrificerichofferingstoyouatallseasons.Anddoyoufeel
kindlytowardsmeandgrantthatImaybecomeamanveryeminentamong
theTrojans,andgivemestrongoffspringforthetimetocome.Asfor
myownself,letmelivelongandhappily,seeingthelightofthe
sun,andcometothethresholdofoldage,amanprosperousamongthe
people.'
(ll.106142)ThereuponAphroditethedaughterofZeusansweredhim:
'Anchises,mostgloriousofallmenbornonearth,knowthatIamno
goddess:whydoyoulikenmetothedeathlessones?Nay,Iambuta
mortal,andawomanwasthemotherthatbareme.Otreusoffamousname
ismyfather,ifsobeyouhaveheardofhim,andhereignsoverall
Phrygiarichinfortresses.ButIknowyourspeechwellbesidemyown,
foraTrojannursebroughtmeupathome:shetookmefrommydear
motherandrearedmethenceforthwhenIwasalittlechild.Socomes
it,then,thatIwellknowyourtonguealso.AndnowtheSlayerof
Arguswiththegoldenwandhascaughtmeupfromthedanceofhuntress
Artemis,herwiththegoldenarrows.Forthereweremanyofus,nymphs
andmarriageable[2526]maidens,playingtogether;andaninnumerable
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companyencircledus:fromthesetheSlayerofArguswiththegolden
wandraptmeaway.Hecarriedmeovermanyfieldsofmortalmenand
overmuchlanduntilledandunpossessed,wheresavagewildbeasts
roamthroughshadycoombes,untilIthoughtneveragaintotouchthe
lifegivingearthwithmyfeet.AndhesaidthatIshouldbecalledthe
weddedwifeofAnchises,andshouldbearyougoodlychildren.Butwhen
hehadtoldandadvisedme,he,thestrongSlayerofArgos,wentback
tothefamiliesofthedeathlessgods,whileIamnowcometoyou:for
unbendingnecessityisuponme.ButIbeseechyoubyZeusandbyyour
nobleparentsfornobasefolkcouldgetsuchasonasyoutakeme
now,stainlessandunprovedinlove,andshowmetoyourfatherand
carefulmotherandtoyourbrotherssprungfromthesamestock.Ishall
benoilllikingdaughterforthem,butalikely.Moreover,senda
messengerquicklytotheswifthorsedPhrygians,totellmyfatherand
mysorrowingmother;andtheywillsendyougoldinplentyandwoven
stuffs,manysplendidgifts;taketheseasbridepiece.Sodo,andthen
preparethesweetmarriagethatishonourableintheeyesofmenand
deathlessgods.'
(ll.143144)Whenshehadsospoken,thegoddessputsweetdesirein
hisheart.AndAnchiseswasseizedwithlove,sothatheopenedhis
mouthandsaid:
(ll.145154)'Ifyouareamortalandawomanwasthemotherwhobare
you,andOtreusoffamousnameisyourfatherasyousay,andifyouare
comeherebythewillofHermestheimmortalGuide,andaretobecalled
mywifealways,thenneithergodnormortalmanshallhererestrain
metillIhavelainwithyouinloverightnow;no,notevenif
farshootingApollohimselfshouldlaunchgrievousshaftsfromhis
silverbow.WillinglywouldIgodownintothehouseofHades,Olady,
beautifulasthegoddesses,onceIhadgoneuptoyourbed.'
(ll.155167)Sospeaking,hecaughtherbythehand.And
laughterlovingAphrodite,withfaceturnedawayandlovelyeyes
downcast,crepttothewellspreadcouchwhichwasalreadylaid
withsoftcoveringsforthehero;anduponitlayskinsofbearsand
deeproaringlionswhichhehimselfhadslaininthehighmountains.And
whentheyhadgoneupuponthewellfittedbed,firstAnchisestook
offherbrightjewelryofpinsandtwistedbroochesandearringsand
necklaces,andloosedhergirdleandstrippedoffherbrightgarments
andlaidthemdownuponasilverstuddedseat.Thenbythewillofthe
godsanddestinyhelaywithher,amortalmanwithanimmortalgoddess,
notclearlyknowingwhathedid.
(ll.168176)Butatthetimewhentheherdsmendrivetheiroxenand
hardysheepbacktothefoldfromtheflowerypastures,eventhen
AphroditepouredsoftsleepuponAnchises,butherselfputonherrich
raiment.Andwhenthebrightgoddesshadfullyclothedherself,she
stoodbythecouch,andherheadreachedtothewellhewnrooftree;
fromhercheeksshoneunearthlybeautysuchasbelongstorichcrowned
Cytherea.Thenshearousedhimfromsleepandopenedhermouthandsaid:
(ll.177179)'Up,sonofDardanus!whysleepyousoheavily?and
considerwhetherIlookasIdidwhenfirstyousawmewithyoureyes.'
(ll.180184)Soshespake.Andheawokeinamomentandobeyedher.
ButwhenhesawtheneckandlovelyeyesofAphrodite,hewasafraid
andturnedhiseyesasideanotherway,hidinghiscomelyfacewithhis
cloak.Thenheutteredwingedwordsandentreatedher:
(ll.185190)'SosoonaseverIsawyouwithmyeyes,goddess,Iknew
thatyouweredivine;butyoudidnottellmetruly.YetbyZeuswho
holdstheaegisIbeseechyou,leavemenottoleadapalsiedlifeamong
men,buthavepityonme;forhewholieswithadeathlessgoddessisno
halemanafterwards.'
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(ll.191201)ThenAphroditethedaughterofZeusansweredhim:
'Anchises,mostgloriousofmortalmen,takecourageandbenottoo
fearfulinyourheart.Youneedfearnoharmfrommenorfromtheother
blessedones,foryouaredeartothegods:andyoushallhaveadear
sonwhoshallreignamongtheTrojans,andchildren'schildrenafter
him,springingupcontinually.HisnameshallbeAeneas[2527],because
IfeltawfulgriefinthatIlaidmeinthebedofmortalman:yetare
thoseofyourracealwaysthemostliketogodsofallmortalmenin
beautyandinstature[2528].
(ll.202217)'VerilywiseZeuscarriedoffgoldenhairedGanymedes
becauseofhisbeauty,tobeamongsttheDeathlessOnesandpourdrink
forthegodsinthehouseofZeusawondertoseehonouredbyallthe
immortalsashedrawstherednectarfromthegoldenbowl.Butgrief
thatcouldnotbesoothedfilledtheheartofTros;forheknewnot
whithertheheavensentwhirlwindhadcaughtuphisdearson,sothat
hemournedhimalways,unceasingly,untilZeuspitiedhimandgavehim
highsteppinghorsessuchascarrytheimmortalsasrecompenseforhis
son.Thesehegavehimasagift.AndatthecommandofZeus,theGuide,
theslayerofArgus,toldhimall,andhowhissonwouldbedeathless
andunageing,evenasthegods.SowhenTrosheardthesetidingsfrom
Zeus,henolongerkeptmourningbutrejoicedinhisheartandrode
joyfullywithhisstormfootedhorses.
(ll.218238)'SoalsogoldenthronedEosraptawayTithonuswhowas
ofyourraceandlikethedeathlessgods.Andshewenttoaskthe
darkcloudedSonofCronosthatheshouldbedeathlessandlive
eternally;andZeusbowedhisheadtoherprayerandfulfilledher
desire.ToosimplywasqueenlyEos:shethoughtnotinherhearttoask
youthforhimandtostriphimofthesloughofdeadlyage.Sowhile
heenjoyedthesweetfloweroflifehelivedrapturouslywith
goldenthronedEos,theearlyborn,bythestreamsofOcean,attheends
oftheearth;butwhenthefirstgreyhairsbegantoripplefromhis
comelyheadandnoblechin,queenlyEoskeptawayfromhisbed,though
shecherishedhiminherhouseandnourishedhimwithfoodandambrosia
andgavehimrichclothing.Butwhenloathsomeoldagepressedfullupon
him,andhecouldnotmovenorlifthislimbs,thisseemedtoherinher
heartthebestcounsel:shelaidhiminaroomandputtotheshining
doors.Therehebabblesendlessly,andnomorehasstrengthatall,such
asoncehehadinhissupplelimbs.
(ll.239246)'Iwouldnothaveyoubedeathlessamongthedeathless
godsandlivecontinuallyaftersuchsort.Yetifyoucouldliveonsuch
asnowyouareinlookandinform,andbecalledmyhusband,sorrow
wouldnotthenenfoldmycarefulheart.But,asitis,harsh[2529]old
agewillsoonenshroudyouruthlessagewhichstandssomedayatthe
sideofeveryman,deadly,wearying,dreadedevenbythegods.
(ll.247290)'AndnowbecauseofyouIshallhavegreatshameamong
thedeathlessgodshenceforth,continually.Foruntilnowtheyfearedmy
jibesandthewilesbywhich,orsoonorlate,Imatedalltheimmortals
withmortalwomen,makingthemallsubjecttomywill.Butnowmymouth
shallnomorehavethispoweramongthegods;forverygreathasbeenmy
madness,mymiserableanddreadfulmadness,andIwentastrayoutof
mymindwhohavegottenachildbeneathmygirdle,matingwithamortal
man.Asforthechild,assoonasheseesthelightofthesun,the
deepbreastedmountainNymphswhoinhabitthisgreatandholymountain
shallbringhimup.Theyrankneitherwithmortalsnorwithimmortals:
longindeeddotheylive,eatingheavenlyfoodandtreadingthelovely
danceamongtheimmortals,andwiththemtheSileniandthesharpeyed
SlayerofArgusmateinthedepthsofpleasantcaves;butattheirbirth
pinesorhightoppedoaksspringupwiththemuponthefruitfulearth,
beautiful,flourishingtrees,toweringhighupontheloftymountains
(andmencallthemholyplacesoftheimmortals,andnevermortallops
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themwiththeaxe);butwhenthefateofdeathisnearathand,first
thoselovelytreeswitherwheretheystand,andthebarkshrivelsaway
aboutthem,andthetwigsfalldown,andatlastthelifeoftheNymph
andofthetreeleavethelightofthesuntogether.TheseNymphsshall
keepmysonwiththemandrearhim,andassoonasheiscometolovely
boyhood,thegoddesseswillbringhimheretoyouandshowyouyour
child.But,thatImaytellyouallthatIhaveinmind,Iwillcome
hereagaintowardsthefifthyearandbringyoumyson.Sosoonasever
youhaveseenhimasciontodelighttheeyesyouwillrejoicein
beholdinghim;forheshallbemostgodlike:thenbringhimatonceto
windyIlion.Andifanymortalmanaskyouwhogotyourdearsonbeneath
hergirdle,remembertotellhimasIbidyou:sayheistheoffspring
ofoneoftheflowerlikeNymphswhoinhabitthisforestcladhill.
Butifyoutellallandfoolishlyboastthatyoulaywithrichcrowned
Aphrodite,Zeuswillsmiteyouinhisangerwithasmokingthunderbolt.
NowIhavetoldyouall.Takeheed:refrainandnamemenot,buthave
regardtotheangerofthegods.'
(l.291)Whenthegoddesshadsospoken,shesoareduptowindyheaven.
(ll.292293)Hail,goddess,queenofwellbuildedCyprus!Withyouhave
Ibegun;nowIwillturnmetoanotherhymn.

VI.TOAPHRODITE(21lines)
(ll.118)IwillsingofstatelyAphrodite,goldcrownedandbeautiful,
whosedominionisthewalledcitiesofallseasetCyprus.Therethe
moistbreathofthewesternwindwaftedheroverthewavesofthe
loudmoaningseainsoftfoam,andtherethegoldfilletedHours
welcomedherjoyously.Theyclothedherwithheavenlygarments:onher
headtheyputafine,wellwroughtcrownofgold,andinherpierced
earstheyhungornamentsoforichalcandpreciousgold,andadornedher
withgoldennecklacesoverhersoftneckandsnowwhitebreasts,jewels
whichthegoldfilletedHourswearthemselveswhenevertheygototheir
father'shousetojointhelovelydancesofthegods.Andwhentheyhad
fullydeckedher,theybroughthertothegods,whowelcomedherwhen
theysawher,givinghertheirhands.Eachoneofthemprayedthathe
mightleadherhometobehisweddedwife,sogreatlyweretheyamazed
atthebeautyofvioletcrownedCytherea.
(ll.1921)Hail,sweetlywinning,coyeyedgoddess!GrantthatImay
gainthevictoryinthiscontest,andorderyoumysong.AndnowIwill
rememberyouandanothersongalso.

VII.TODIONYSUS(59lines)
(ll.116)IwilltellofDionysus,thesonofgloriousSemele,how
heappearedonajuttingheadlandbytheshoreofthefruitlesssea,
seeminglikeastriplinginthefirstflushofmanhood:hisrich,dark
hairwaswavingabouthim,andonhisstrongshouldersheworeapurple
robe.PresentlytherecameswiftlyoverthesparklingseaTyrsenian
[2530]piratesonawelldeckedshipamiserabledoomledthemon.When
theysawhimtheymadesignstooneanotherandsprangoutquickly,and
seizinghimstraightway,puthimonboardtheirshipexultingly;for
theythoughthimthesonofheavennurturedkings.Theysoughttobind
himwithrudebonds,butthebondswouldnotholdhim,andthewithes
fellfarawayfromhishandsandfeet:andhesatwithasmileinhis
darkeyes.Thenthehelmsmanunderstoodallandcriedoutatoncetohis
fellowsandsaid:
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(ll.1724)'Madmen!Whatgodisthiswhomyouhavetakenandbind,
strongthatheis?Noteventhewellbuiltshipcancarryhim.Surely
thisiseitherZeusorApollowhohasthesilverbow,orPoseidon,for
helooksnotlikemortalmenbutlikethegodswhodwellonOlympus.
Come,then,letussethimfreeuponthedarkshoreatonce:donotlay
handsonhim,lesthegrowangryandstirupdangerouswindsandheavy
squalls.'
(ll.2531)Sosaidhe:butthemasterchidhimwithtauntingwords:
'Madman,markthewindandhelphoistsailontheship:catchallthe
sheets.Asforthisfellowwemenwillseetohim:Ireckonheisbound
forEgyptorforCyprusortotheHyperboreansorfurtherstill.Butin
theendhewillspeakoutandtellushisfriendsandallhiswealthand
hisbrothers,nowthatprovidencehasthrownhiminourway.'
(ll.3254)Whenhehadsaidthis,hehadmastandsailhoistedonthe
ship,andthewindfilledthesailandthecrewhauledtautthesheets
oneitherside.Butsoonstrangethingswereseenamongthem.Firstof
allsweet,fragrantwineranstreamingthroughoutalltheblackship
andaheavenlysmellarose,sothatalltheseamenwereseizedwith
amazementwhentheysawit.Andallatonceavinespreadoutbothways
alongthetopofthesailwithmanyclustershangingdownfromit,anda
darkivyplanttwinedaboutthemast,blossomingwithflowers,andwith
richberriesgrowingonit;andallthetholepinswerecoveredwith
garlands.Whenthepiratessawallthis,thenatlasttheybadethe
helmsmantoputtheshiptoland.Butthegodchangedintoadreadful
lionthereontheship,inthebows,androaredloudly:amidshipsalso
heshowedhiswondersandcreatedashaggybearwhichstoodupravening,
whileontheforepeakwasthelionglaringfiercelywithscowlingbrows.
Andsothesailorsfledintothesternandcrowdedbemusedaboutthe
rightmindedhelmsman,untilsuddenlythelionspranguponthemaster
andseizedhim;andwhenthesailorssawittheyleaptoutoverboardone
andallintothebrightsea,escapingfromamiserablefate,andwere
changedintodolphins.ButonthehelmsmanDionysushadmercyandheld
himbackandmadehimaltogetherhappy,sayingtohim:
(ll.5557)'Takecourage,good...;youhavefoundfavourwithmyheart.
IamloudcryingDionysuswhomCadmus'daughterSemelebareofunion
withZeus.'
(ll.5859)Hail,childoffairfacedSemele!Hewhoforgetsyoucanin
nowiseordersweetsong.

VIII.TOARES(17lines)
(ll.117)Ares,exceedinginstrength,chariotrider,goldenhelmed,
doughtyinheart,shieldbearer,Saviourofcities,harnessedinbronze,
strongofarm,unwearying,mightywiththespear,OdefenceofOlympus,
fatherofwarlikeVictory,allyofThemis,sterngovernorofthe
rebellious,leaderofrighteousmen,sceptredKingofmanliness,who
whirlyourfierysphereamongtheplanetsintheirsevenfoldcourses
throughtheaetherwhereinyourblazingsteedseverbearyouabovethe
thirdfirmamentofheaven;hearme,helperofmen,giverofdauntless
youth!Sheddownakindlyrayfromaboveuponmylife,andstrengthof
war,thatImaybeabletodriveawaybittercowardicefrommyheadand
crushdownthedeceitfulimpulsesofmysoul.Restrainalsothekeen
furyofmyheartwhichprovokesmetotreadthewaysofbloodcurdling
strife.Rather,Oblessedone,giveyoumeboldnesstoabidewithin
theharmlesslawsofpeace,avoidingstrifeandhatredandtheviolent
fiendsofdeath.
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IX.TOARTEMIS(9lines)
(ll.16)Muse,singofArtemis,sisteroftheFarshooter,thevirgin
whodelightsinarrows,whowasfosteredwithApollo.Shewatersher
horsesfromMelesdeepinreeds,andswiftlydrivesherallgolden
chariotthroughSmyrnatovinecladClaroswhereApollo,godofthe
silverbow,sitswaitingforthefarshootinggoddesswhodelightsin
arrows.
(ll.79)Andsohailtoyou,Artemis,inmysongandtoallgoddesses
aswell.OfyoufirstIsingandwithyouIbegin;nowthatIhavebegun
withyou,Iwillturntoanothersong.

X.TOAPHRODITE(6lines)
(ll.13)OfCytherea,borninCyprus,Iwillsing.Shegiveskindly
giftstomen:smilesareeveronherlovelyface,andlovelyisthe
brightnessthatplaysoverit.
(ll.46)Hail,goddess,queenofwellbuiltSalamisandseagirt
Cyprus;grantmeacheerfulsong.AndnowIwillrememberyouand
anothersongalso.

XI.TOATHENA(5lines)
(ll.14)OfPallasAthene,guardianofthecity,Ibegintosing.Dread
isshe,andwithAresshelovesdeedsofwar,thesackofcitiesandthe
shoutingandthebattle.Itisshewhosavesthepeopleastheygoout
towarandcomeback.
(l.5)Hail,goddess,andgiveusgoodfortunewithhappiness!

XII.TOHERA(5lines)
(ll.15)IsingofgoldenthronedHerawhomRheabare.Queenofthe
immortalsisshe,surpassingallinbeauty:sheisthesisterandthe
wifeofloudthunderingZeus,thegloriousonewhomalltheblessed
throughouthighOlympusreverenceandhonourevenasZeuswhodelights
inthunder.

XIII.TODEMETER(3lines)
(ll.12)IbegintosingofrichhairedDemeter,awfulgoddess,ofher
andofherdaughterlovelyPersephone.
(l.3)Hail,goddess!Keepthiscitysafe,andgovernmysong.

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XIV.TOTHEMOTHEROFTHEGODS(6lines)
(ll.15)Iprithee,clearvoicedMuse,daughterofmightyZeus,sing
ofthemotherofallgodsandmen.Sheiswellpleasedwiththesound
ofrattlesandoftimbrels,withthevoiceofflutesandtheoutcryof
wolvesandbrighteyedlions,withechoinghillsandwoodedcoombes.
(l.6)Andsohailtoyouinmysongandtoallgoddessesaswell!

XV.TOHERACLESTHELIONHEARTED(9lines)
(ll.18)IwillsingofHeracles,thesonofZeusandmuchthe
mightiestofmenonearth.AlcmenabarehiminThebes,thecityof
lovelydances,whenthedarkcloudedSonofCronoshadlainwithher.
Onceheusedtowanderoverunmeasuredtractsoflandandseaatthe
biddingofKingEurystheus,andhimselfdidmanydeedsofviolenceand
enduredmany;butnowheliveshappilyintheglorioushomeofsnowy
Olympus,andhasneatankledHebeforhiswife.
(l.9)Hail,lord,sonofZeus!Givemesuccessandprosperity.

XVI.TOASCLEPIUS(5lines)
(ll.14)IbegintosingofAsclepius,sonofApolloandhealerof
sicknesses.IntheDotianplainfairCoronis,daughterofKingPhlegyas,
barehim,agreatjoytomen,asootherofcruelpangs.
(l.5)Andsohailtoyou,lord:inmysongImakemyprayertothee!

XVII.TOTHEDIOSCURI(5lines)
(ll.14)Sing,clearvoicedMuse,ofCastorandPolydeuces,the
Tyndaridae,whosprangfromOlympianZeus.Beneaththeheightsof
TaygetusstatelyLedabarethem,whenthedarkcloudedSonofCronoshad
privilybenthertohiswill.
(l.5)Hail,childrenofTyndareus,ridersuponswifthorses!

XVIII.TOHERMES(12lines)
(ll.19)IsingofCyllenianHermes,theSlayerofArgus,lordof
CylleneandArcadiarichinflocks,luckbringingmessengerofthe
deathlessgods.HewasbornofMaia,thedaughterofAtlas,whenshehad
madewithZeus,ashygoddessshe.Eversheavoidedthethrongofthe
blessedgodsandlivedinashadowycave,andtheretheSonofCronos
usedtoliewiththerichtressednymphatdeadofnight,while
whitearmedHeralayboundinsweetsleep:andneitherdeathlessgodnor
mortalmanknewit.
(ll.1011)Andsohailtoyou,SonofZeusandMaia;withyouIhave
begun:nowIwillturntoanothersong!
(l.12)Hail,Hermes,giverofgrace,guide,andgiverofgoodthings!
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[2531]

XIX.TOPAN(49lines)
(ll.126)Muse,tellmeaboutPan,thedearsonofHermes,withhis
goat'sfeetandtwohornsaloverofmerrynoise.Throughwoodedglades
hewanderswithdancingnymphswhofootitonsomesheercliff'sedge,
callinguponPan,theshepherdgod,longhaired,unkempt.Hehasevery
snowycrestandthemountainpeaksandrockycrestsforhisdomain;
hitherandthitherhegoesthroughtheclosethickets,nowluredbysoft
streams,andnowhepressesonamongsttoweringcragsandclimbsupto
thehighestpeakthatoverlookstheflocks.Oftenhecoursesthroughthe
glisteninghighmountains,andoftenontheshoulderedhillshespeeds
alongslayingwildbeasts,thiskeeneyedgod.Onlyatevening,ashe
returnsfromthechase,hesoundshisnote,playingsweetandlowonhis
pipesofreed:notevenshecouldexcelhiminmelodythatbirdwhoin
flowerladenspringpouringforthherlamentuttershoneyvoicedsong
amidtheleaves.Atthathourtheclearvoicednymphsarewithhimand
movewithnimblefeet,singingbysomespringofdarkwater,whileEcho
wailsaboutthemountaintop,andthegodonthissideoronthatof
thechoirs,orattimessidlingintothemidst,pliesitnimblywith
hisfeet.Onhisbackhewearsaspottedlynxpelt,andhedelightsin
highpitchedsongsinasoftmeadowwherecrocusesandsweetsmelling
hyacinthsbloomatrandominthegrass.
(ll.2747)TheysingoftheblessedgodsandhighOlympusandchoose
totellofsuchanoneasluckbringingHermesabovetherest,howhe
istheswiftmessengerofallthegods,andhowhecametoArcadia,the
landofmanyspringsandmotherofflocks,therewherehissacred
placeisasgodofCyllene.Forthere,thoughagod,heusedtotend
curlyfleecedsheepintheserviceofamortalman,becausetherefell
onhimandwaxedstrongmeltingdesiretowedtherichtresseddaughter
ofDryops,andtherehebroughtaboutthemerrymarriage.Andinthe
houseshebareHermesadearsonwhofromhisbirthwasmarvellous
tolookupon,withgoat'sfeetandtwohornsanoisy,merrylaughing
child.Butwhenthenursesawhisuncouthfaceandfullbeard,shewas
afraidandsprangupandfledandleftthechild.Thenluckbringing
Hermesreceivedhimandtookhiminhisarms:verygladinhisheart
wasthegod.Andhewentquicklytotheabodesofthedeathlessgods,
carryingthesonwrappedinwarmskinsofmountainhares,andsethim
downbesideZeusandshowedhimtotherestofthegods.Thenallthe
immortalsweregladinheartandBacchieDionysusinespecial;andthey
calledtheboyPan[2532]becausehedelightedalltheirhearts.
(ll.4849)Andsohailtoyou,lord!Iseekyourfavourwithasong.
AndnowIwillrememberyouandanothersongalso.

XX.TOHEPHAESTUS(8lines)
(ll.17)Sing,clearvoicedMuses,ofHephaestusfamedforinventions.
WithbrighteyedAthenehetaughtmengloriousgiftsthroughoutthe
world,menwhobeforeusedtodwellincavesinthemountainslikewild
beasts.ButnowthattheyhavelearnedcraftsthroughHephaestusthe
famedworker,easilytheyliveapeacefullifeintheirownhousesthe
wholeyearround.
(l.8)Begracious,Hephaestus,andgrantmesuccessandprosperity!

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XXI.TOAPOLLO(5lines)
(ll.14)Phoebus,ofyoueventheswansingswithclearvoicetothe
beatingofhiswings,ashealightsuponthebankbytheeddyingriver
Peneus;andofyouthesweettonguedminstrel,holdinghishighpitched
lyre,alwayssingsbothfirstandlast.
(l.5)Andsohailtoyou,lord!Iseekyourfavourwithmysong.

XXII.TOPOSEIDON(7lines)
(ll.15)IbegintosingaboutPoseidon,thegreatgod,moverofthe
earthandfruitlesssea,godofthedeepwhoisalsolordofHelicon
andwideAegae.Atwofoldofficethegodsallottedyou,OShakerofthe
Earth,tobeatamerofhorsesandasaviourofships!
(ll.67)Hail,Poseidon,HolderoftheEarth,darkhairedlord!O
blessedone,bekindlyinheartandhelpthosewhovoyageinships!

XXIII.TOTHESONOFCRONOS,MOSTHIGH(4lines)
(ll.13)IwillsingofZeus,chiefestamongthegodsandgreatest,
allseeing,thelordofall,thefulfillerwhowhisperswordsofwisdom
toThemisasshesitsleaningtowardshim.
(l.4)Begracious,allseeingSonofCronos,mostexcellentandgreat!

XXIV.TOHESTIA(5lines)
(ll.15)Hestia,youwhotendtheholyhouseofthelordApollo,the
FarshooteratgoodlyPytho,withsoftoildrippingeverfromyour
locks,comenowintothishouse,come,havingonemindwithZeusthe
allwisedrawnear,andwithalbestowgraceuponmysong.

XXV.TOTHEMUSESANDAPOLLO(7lines)
(ll.15)IwillbeginwiththeMusesandApolloandZeus.Foritis
throughtheMusesandApollothattherearesingersupontheearthand
playersuponthelyre;butkingsarefromZeus.Happyishewhomthe
Museslove:sweetflowsspeechfromhislips.
(ll.67)Hail,childrenofZeus!Givehonourtomysong!AndnowIwill
rememberyouandanothersongalso.

XXVI.TODIONYSUS(13lines)
(ll.19)IbegintosingofivycrownedDionysus,theloudcrying
god,splendidsonofZeusandgloriousSemele.TherichhairedNymphs
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receivedhimintheirbosomsfromthelordhisfatherandfosteredand
nurturedhimcarefullyinthedellsofNysa,wherebythewillofhis
fatherhegrewupinasweetsmellingcave,beingreckonedamongthe
immortals.Butwhenthegoddesseshadbroughthimup,agodofthymned,
thenbeganhetowandercontinuallythroughthewoodycoombes,thickly
wreathedwithivyandlaurel.AndtheNymphsfollowedinhistrainwith
himfortheirleader;andtheboundlessforestwasfilledwiththeir
outcry.
(ll.1013)Andsohailtoyou,Dionysus,godofabundantclusters!
Grantthatwemaycomeagainrejoicingtothisseason,andfromthat
seasononwardsformanyayear.

XXVII.TOARTEMIS(22lines)
(ll.120)IsingofArtemis,whoseshaftsareofgold,whocheerson
thehounds,thepuremaiden,shooterofstags,whodelightsinarchery,
ownsistertoApollowiththegoldensword.Overtheshadowyhillsand
windypeaksshedrawshergoldenbow,rejoicinginthechase,andsends
outgrievousshafts.Thetopsofthehighmountainstrembleandthe
tangledwoodechoesawesomelywiththeoutcryofbeasts:earthquakesand
theseaalsowherefishesshoal.Butthegoddesswithaboldheartturns
everywaydestroyingtheraceofwildbeasts:andwhensheissatisfied
andhascheeredherheart,thishuntresswhodelightsinarrowsslackens
hersupplebowandgoestothegreathouseofherdearbrotherPhoebus
Apollo,totherichlandofDelphi,theretoorderthelovelydanceof
theMusesandGraces.Thereshehangsuphercurvedbowandherarrows,
andheadsandleadsthedances,gracefullyarrayed,whilealltheyutter
theirheavenlyvoice,singinghowneatankledLetobarechildrensupreme
amongtheimmortalsbothinthoughtandindeed.
(ll.2122)Hailtoyou,childrenofZeusandrichhairedLeto!Andnow
Iwillrememberyouandanothersongalso.

XXVIII.TOATHENA(18lines)
(ll.116)IbegintosingofPallasAthene,thegloriousgoddess,
brighteyed,inventive,unbendingofheart,purevirgin,saviourof
cities,courageous,Tritogeneia.FromhisawfulheadwiseZeushimself
bareherarrayedinwarlikearmsofflashinggold,andaweseizedall
thegodsastheygazed.ButAthenasprangquicklyfromtheimmortalhead
andstoodbeforeZeuswhoholdstheaegis,shakingasharpspear:great
Olympusbegantoreelhorriblyatthemightofthebrighteyedgoddess,
andearthroundaboutcriedfearfully,andtheseawasmovedandtossed
withdarkwaves,whilefoamburstforthsuddenly:thebrightSonof
Hyperionstoppedhisswiftfootedhorsesalongwhile,untilthe
maidenPallasAthenehadstrippedtheheavenlyarmourfromherimmortal
shoulders.AndwiseZeuswasglad.
(ll.1718)Andsohailtoyou,daughterofZeuswhoholdstheaegis!
NowIwillrememberyouandanothersongaswell.

XXIX.TOHESTIA(13lines)
(ll.16)Hestia,inthehighdwellingsofall,bothdeathlessgodsand
menwhowalkonearth,youhavegainedaneverlastingabodeandhighest
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honour:gloriousisyourportionandyourright.Forwithoutyoumortals
holdnobanquet,whereonedoesnotdulypoursweetwineinofferingto
Hestiabothfirstandlast.
(ll.710)[2533]Andyou,slayerofArgus,SonofZeusandMaia,
messengeroftheblessedgods,bearerofthegoldenrod,giverofgood,
befavourableandhelpus,youandHestia,theworshipfulanddear.Come
anddwellinthisglorioushouseinfriendshiptogether;foryoutwo,
wellknowingthenobleactionsofmen,aidontheirwisdomandtheir
strength.
(ll.1213)Hail,DaughterofCronos,andyoualso,Hermes,bearerof
thegoldenrod!NowIwillrememberyouandanothersongalso.

XXX.TOEARTHTHEMOTHEROFALL(19lines)
(ll.116)IwillsingofwellfoundedEarth,motherofall,eldestof
allbeings.Shefeedsallcreaturesthatareintheworld,allthatgo
uponthegoodlyland,andallthatareinthepathsoftheseas,andall
thatfly:allthesearefedofherstore.Throughyou,Oqueen,menare
blessedintheirchildrenandblessedintheirharvests,andtoyouit
belongstogivemeansoflifetomortalmenandtotakeitaway.Happy
isthemanwhomyoudelighttohonour!Hehasallthingsabundantly:his
fruitfullandisladenwithcorn,hispasturesarecoveredwithcattle,
andhishouseisfilledwithgoodthings.Suchmenruleorderlyintheir
citiesoffairwomen:greatrichesandwealthfollowthem:theirsons
exultwitheverfreshdelight,andtheirdaughtersinflowerladenbands
playandskipmerrilyoverthesoftflowersofthefield.Thusisit
withthosewhomyouhonourOholygoddess,bountifulspirit.
(ll.1719)Hail,Motherofthegods,wifeofstarryHeaven;freely
bestowuponmeforthismysongsubstancethatcheerstheheart!Andnow
Iwillrememberyouandanothersongalso.

XXXI.TOHELIOS(20lines)
(ll.116)[2534]Andnow,OMuseCalliope,daughterofZeus,beginto
singofglowingHelioswhommildeyedEuryphaessa,thefarshiningone,
baretotheSonofEarthandstarryHeaven.ForHyperionweddedglorious
Euryphaessa,hisownsister,whobarehimlovelychildren,rosyarmed
EosandrichtressedSeleneandtirelessHelioswhoislikethe
deathlessgods.Asheridesinhischariot,heshinesuponmenand
deathlessgods,andpiercinglyhegazeswithhiseyesfromhisgolden
helmet.Brightraysbeamdazzlinglyfromhim,andhisbrightlocks
streamingfromthetemplesofhisheadgracefullyenclosehisfarseen
face:arich,finespungarmentglowsuponhisbodyandfluttersinthe
wind:andstallionscarryhim.Then,whenhehasstayedhisgoldenyoked
chariotandhorses,hereststhereuponthehighestpointofheaven,
untilhemarvellouslydrivesthemdownagainthroughheaventoOcean.
(ll.1719)Hailtoyou,lord!Freelybestowonmesubstancethatcheers
theheart.AndnowthatIhavebegunwithyou,Iwillcelebratetherace
ofmortalmenhalfdivinewhosedeedstheMuseshaveshowedtomankind.

XXXII.TOSELENE(20lines)
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(ll.113)Andnext,sweetvoicedMuses,daughtersofZeus,wellskilled
insong,tellofthelongwinged[2535]Moon.Fromherimmortalhead
aradianceisshownfromheavenandembracesearth;andgreatisthe
beautythatarisethfromhershininglight.Theair,unlitbefore,glows
withthelightofhergoldencrown,andherraysbeamclear,whensoever
brightSelenehavingbathedherlovelybodyinthewatersofOcean,and
donnedherfargleaming,shiningteam,drivesonherlongmanedhorses
atfullspeed,ateventimeinthemidmonth:thenhergreatorbitis
fullandthenherbeamsshinebrightestassheincreases.Sosheisa
suretokenandasigntomortalmen.
(ll.1416)OncetheSonofCronoswasjoinedwithherinlove;and
sheconceivedandbareadaughterPandia,exceedinglovelyamongstthe
deathlessgods.
(ll.1720)Hail,whitearmedgoddess,brightSelene,mild,
brighttressedqueen!AndnowIwillleaveyouandsingtheglories
ofmenhalfdivine,whosedeedsminstrels,theservantsoftheMuses,
celebratewithlovelylips.

XXXIII.TOTHEDIOSCURI(19lines)
(ll.117)BrighteyedMuses,telloftheTyndaridae,theSonsofZeus,
gloriouschildrenofneatankledLeda,Castorthetamerofhorses,and
blamelessPolydeuces.WhenLedahadlainwiththedarkcloudedSon
ofCronos,shebarethembeneaththepeakofthegreathill
Taygetus,childrenwhoaredeliversofmenonearthandofswiftgoing
shipswhenstormygalesrageovertheruthlesssea.Thentheshipmen
calluponthesonsofgreatZeuswithvowsofwhitelambs,goingtothe
forepartoftheprow;butthestrongwindandthewavesofthesealay
theshipunderwater,untilsuddenlythesetwoareseendartingthrough
theairontawnywings.Forthwiththeyallaytheblastsofthecruel
windsandstillthewavesuponthesurfaceofthewhitesea:fairsigns
aretheyanddeliverancefromtoil.Andwhentheshipmenseethemthey
aregladandhaverestfromtheirpainandlabour.
(ll.1819)Hail,Tyndaridae,ridersuponswifthorses!NowIwill
rememberyouandanothersongalso.

HOMER'SEPIGRAMS[2601]
I.(5lines)(ll.15)Havereverenceforhimwhoneedsahomeand
stranger'sdole,allyewhodwellinthehighcityofCyme,thelovely
maiden,hardbythefoothillsofloftySardene,yewhodrinkthe
heavenlywaterofthedivinestream,eddyingHermus,whomdeathlessZeus
begot.
II.(2lines)(ll.12)Speedilymaymyfeetbearmetosometownof
righteousmen;fortheirheartsaregenerousandtheirwitisbest.
III.(6lines)(ll.16)Iamamaidenofbronzeandamsetuponthe
tombofMidas.Whilethewatersflowandtalltreesflourish,andthe
sunrisesandshinesandthebrightmoonalso;whileriversrunandthe
seabreaksontheshore,everremainingonthismournfultomb,Itell
thepasserbythatMidashereliesburied.
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IV.(17lines)(ll.117)TowhatafatedidZeustheFathergivemea
preyevenwhilehemademetogrow,ababeatmymother'sknee!Bythe
willofZeuswhoholdstheaegisthepeopleofPhricon,ridersonwanton
horses,moreactivethanragingfireinthetestofwar,oncebuilt
thetowersofAeolianSmyrna,waveshakenneighbourtothesea,through
whichglidesthepleasantstreamofsacredMeles;thence[2602]arosethe
daughtersofZeus,gloriouschildren,andwouldfainhavemadefamous
thatfaircountryandthecityofitspeople.Butintheirfollythose
menscornedthedivinevoiceandrenownofsong,andintroubleshall
oneofthemrememberthishereafterhewhowithscornfulwordstothem
[2603]contrivedmyfate.YetIwillendurethelotwhichheavengaveme
evenatmybirth,bearingmydisappointmentwithapatientheart.My
dearlimbsyearnnottostayinthesacredstreetsofCyme,butrather
mygreathearturgesmetogountoanothercountry,smallthoughIam.
V.(2lines)(ll.12)Thestorides,fullmanythingstherearethat
mortalscannotsound;butthereisnothingmoreunfathomablethanthe
heartofman.
VI.(8lines)(ll.18)Hearme,Poseidon,strongshakeroftheearth,
rulerofwidespread,tawnyHelicon!Giveafairwindandsightofsafe
returntotheshipmenwhospeedandgovernthisship.Andgrant
thatwhenIcometothenetherslopesoftoweringMimasImayfind
honourable,godfearingmen.AlsomayIavengemeonthewretchwho
deceivedmeandgrievedZeusthelordofguestsandhisownguesttable.
VII.(3lines)(ll.13)QueenEarth,allbounteousgiverof
honeyheartedwealth,howkindly,itseems,youaretosome,andhow
intractableandroughforthosewithwhomyouareangry.
VIII.(4lines)(ll.14)Sailors,whorovetheseasandwhomahateful
fatehasmadeastheshyseafowl,livinganunenviablelife,observe
thereverenceduetoZeuswhorulesonhigh,thegodofstrangers;
forterribleisthevengeanceofthisgodafterwardsforwhosoeverhas
sinned.
IX.(2lines)(ll.12)Strangers,acontrarywindhascaughtyou:but
evennowtakemeaboardandyoushallmakeyourvoyage.
X.(4lines)(ll.14)Anothersortofpineshallbearabetterfruit
[2604]thanyouupontheheightsoffurrowed,windyIda.Forthereshall
mortalmengettheironthatAreslovessosoonastheCebreniansshall
holdtheland.
XI.(4lines)(ll.14)Glaucus,watchmanofflocks,awordwillIput
inyourheart.Firstgivethedogstheirdinneratthecourtyard
gate,forthisiswell.Thedogfirsthearsamanapproachingandthe
wildbeastcomingtothefence.
XII.(4lines)(ll.14)Goddessnurseoftheyoung[2605],giveeartomy
prayer,andgrantthatthiswomanmayrejecttheloveembracesofyouth
anddoteongreyhairedoldmenwhosepowersaredulled,butwhose
heartsstilldesire.
XIII.(6lines)(ll.16)Childrenareaman'scrown,towersofacity;
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horsesarethegloryofaplain,andsoareshipsofthesea;wealth
willmakeahousegreat,andreverendprincesseatedinassemblyarea
goodlysightforthefolktosee.Butablazingfiremakesahouselook
morecomelyuponawinter'sday,whentheSonofCronossendsdownsnow.
XIV.(23lines)(ll.123)Potters,ifyouwillgivemeareward,Iwill
singforyou.Come,then,Athena,withhandupraised[2606]overthekiln.
Letthepotsandallthedishesturnoutwellandbewellfired:let
themfetchgoodpricesandbesoldinplentyinthemarket,andplenty
inthestreets.Grantthatthepottersmaygetgreatgainandgrantme
sotosingtothem.Butifyouturnshamelessandmakefalsepromises,
thenIcalltogetherthedestroyersofkilns,ShatterandSmashand
CharrandCrashandCrudebakewhocanworkthiscraftmuchmischief.
Comeallofyouandsackthekilnyardandthebuildings:letthewhole
kilnbeshakenuptothepotter'sloudlament.Asahorse'sjawgrinds,
soletthekilngrindtopowderallthepotsinside.Andyou,too,
daughteroftheSun,Circethewitch,comeandcastcruelspells;hurt
boththesemenandtheirhandiwork.LetChironalsocomeandbring
manyCentaursallthatescapedthehandsofHeraclesandallthatwere
destroyed:letthemmakesadhavocofthepotsandoverthrowthekiln,
andletthepottersseethemischiefandbegrieved;butIwillgloatas
Ibeholdtheirlucklesscraft.Andifanyoneofthemstoopstopeerin,
letallhisfacebeburnedup,thatallmenmaylearntodealhonestly.
XV.(13lines)[2607](ll.17)Letusbetakeustothehouseofsomeman
ofgreatpower,onewhobearsgreatpowerandisgreatlyprosperous
always.Openofyourselves,youdoors,formightyWealthwillenter
in,andwithWealthcomesjollyMirthandgentlePeace.Mayall
thecornbinsbefullandthemassofdoughalwaysoverflowthe
kneadingtrough.Now(setbeforeus)cheerfulbarleypottage,fullof
sesame....
((LACUNA))
(ll.810)Yourson'swife,drivingtothishousewithstronghoofed
mules,shalldismountfromhercarriagetogreetyou;mayshebeshod
withgoldenshoesasshestandsweavingattheloom.
(ll.1113)Icome,andIcomeyearly,liketheswallowthatperches
lightfootedintheforepartofyourhouse.Butquicklybring....
XVI.(2lines)(ll.12)Ifyouwillgiveusanything(well).Butif
not,wewillnotwait,forwearenotcomeheretodwellwithyou.
XVII.HOMER:Huntersofdeepseaprey,havewecaughtanything?
FISHERMAN:Allthatwecaughtweleftbehind,andallthatwedidnot
catchwecarryhome.[2608]
HOMER:Ay,forofsuchfathersyouaresprungasneitherholdrichlands
nortendcountlesssheep.

FRAGMENTSOFTHEEPICCYCLE

THEWAROFTHETITANS(fragments)
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Fragment#1Photius,EpitomeoftheChrestomathyofProclus:TheEpic
CyclebeginswiththefabledunionofHeavenandEarth,bywhichthey
makethreehundredhandedsonsandthreeCyclopestobeborntohim.
Fragment#2AnecdotaOxon.(Cramer)i.75:Accordingtothewriterof
the"WaroftheTitans"HeavenwasthesonofAether.
Fragment#3ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.1165:Eumelussays
thatAegaeonwasthesonofEarthandSeaand,havinghisdwellingin
thesea,wasanallyoftheTitans.
Fragment#4Athenaeus,vii.277D:Thepoetofthe"WaroftheTitans",
whetherEumelusofCorinthorArctinus,writesthusinhissecondbook:
'Upontheshieldweredumbfishafloat,withgoldenfaces,swimmingand
sportingthroughtheheavenlywater.'
Fragment#5Athenaeus,i.22C:EumelussomewhereintroducesZeus
dancing:hesays'InthemidstofthemdancedtheFatherofmenand
gods.'
Fragment#6ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.554:Theauthorof
the"WaroftheGiants"saysthatCronostooktheshapeofahorseand
laywithPhilyra,thedaughterofOcean.ThroughthiscauseCheironwas
bornacentaur:hiswifewasChariclo.
Fragment#7Athenaeus,xi.470B:Theolytussaysthathe(Heracles)
sailedacrosstheseainacauldron[2701];butthefirsttogivethis
storyistheauthorofthe"WaroftheTitans".
Fragment#8Philodemus,OnPiety:Theauthorofthe"WaroftheTitans"
saysthattheapples(oftheHesperides)wereguarded.

THESTORYOFOEDIPUS(fragments)
Fragment#1C.I.G.Ital.etSic.1292.ii.11:....the"Storyof
Oedipus"byCinaethoninsixthousandsixhundredverses.
Fragment#2Pausanias,ix.5.10:JudgingbyHomerIdonotbelievethat
OedipushadchildrenbyIocasta:hissonswerebornofEuryganeiaasthe
writeroftheEpiccalledthe"StoryofOedipus"clearlyshows.
Fragment#3ScholiastonEuripidesPhoen.,1750:Theauthorsofthe
"StoryofOedipus"(say)oftheSphinx:'Butfurthermore(shekilled)
nobleHaemon,thedearsonofblamelessCreon,thecomeliestand
loveliestofboys.'

THETHEBAID(fragments)
Fragment#1ContestofHomerandHesiod:Homertravelledaboutreciting
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hisepics,firstthe"Thebaid",inseventhousandverses,whichbegins:
'Sing,goddess,ofparchedArgos,whencelords...'
Fragment#2Athenaeus,xi.465E:'Thentheheavenbornhero,
goldenhairedPolyneices,firstsetbesideOedipusarichtableof
silverwhichoncebelongedtoCadmusthedivinelywise:nexthefilled
afinegoldencupwithsweetwine.ButwhenOedipusperceivedthese
treasuresofhisfather,greatmiseryfellonhisheart,andhe
straightwaycalleddownbittercursesthereinthepresenceofboth
hissons.AndtheavengingFuryofthegodsfailednottohearhimas
heprayedthattheymightneverdividetheirfather'sgoodsinloving
brotherhood,butthatwarandfightingmightbeevertheportionofthem
both.'
Fragment#3LaurentianScholiastonSophocles,O.C.1375:'Andwhen
Oedipusnoticedthehaunch[2801]hethrewitonthegroundandsaid:
"Oh!Oh!mysonshavesentthismockingme..."SoheprayedtoZeusthe
kingandtheotherdeathlessgodsthateachmightfallbyhisbrother's
handandgodownintothehouseofHades.'
Fragment#4Pausanias,viii.25.8:AdrastusfledfromThebes'wearing
miserablegarments,andtookblackmanedAreion[2802]withhim.'
Fragment#5Pindar,Ol.vi.15:[2803]'Butwhenthesevendeadhad
receivedtheirlastritesinThebes,theSonofTalauslamentedand
spokethusamongthem:"Woeisme,forImissthebrighteyeofmyhost,
agoodseerandastoutspearmanalike."'
Fragment#6Apollodorus,i.74:OeneusmarriedPeriboeathedaughter
ofHipponous.Theauthorofthe"Thebais"saysthatwhenOlenushadbeen
stormed,Oeneusreceivedherasaprize.
Fragment#7Pausanias,ix.18.6:Nearthespringisthetombof
Asphodicus.ThisAsphodicuskilledParthenopaeusthesonofTalausin
thebattleagainsttheArgives,astheThebanssay;thoughthatpartof
the"Thebais"whichtellsofthedeathofParthenopaeussaysthatitwas
Periclymenuswhokilledhim.

THEEPIGONI(fragments)
Fragment#1ContestofHomerandHesiod:Next(Homercomposed)the
"Epigoni"inseventhousandverses,beginning,'Andnow,Muses,letus
begintosingofyoungermen.'
Fragment#2Photius,Lexicon:Teumesia.Thosewhohavewrittenon
ThebanaffairshavegivenafullaccountoftheTeumesianfox.[2901]
Theyrelatethatthecreaturewassentbythegodstopunishthe
descendantsofCadmus,andthattheThebansthereforeexcludedthoseof
thehouseofCadmusfromkingship.But(theysay)acertainCephalus,
thesonofDeion,anAthenian,whoownedahoundwhichnobeastever
escaped,hadaccidentallykilledhiswifeProcris,andbeingpurified
ofthehomicidebytheCadmeans,huntedthefoxwithhishound,andwhen
theyhadovertakenitbothhoundandfoxwereturnedintostonesnear
Teumessus.ThesewritershavetakenthestoryfromtheEpicCycle.
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Fragment#3ScholiastonApolloniusRhodius,Arg.i.308:Theauthors
ofthe"Thebais"saythatMantothedaughterofTeiresiaswassent
toDelphibytheEpigoniasafirstfruitoftheirspoil,andthatin
accordancewithanoracleofApolloshewentoutandmetRhacius,the
sonofLebes,aMycenaeanbyrace.Thismanshemarriedfortheoracle
alsocontainedthecommandthatsheshouldmarrywhomsoevershemight
meetandcomingtoColophon,wastheremuchcastdownandweptoverthe
destructionofhercountry.

THECYPRIA(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,i:This[3001]iscontinuedbythe
epiccalled"Cypria"whichiscurrentiselevenbooks.Itscontentsare
asfollows.
ZeusplanswithThemistobringabouttheTrojanwar.Strifearrives
whilethegodsarefeastingatthemarriageofPeleusandstartsa
disputebetweenHera,Athena,andAphroditeastowhichofthem
isfairest.ThethreeareledbyHermesatthecommandofZeusto
Alexandrus[3002]onMountIdaforhisdecision,andAlexandrus,lured
byhispromisedmarriagewithHelen,decidesinfavourofAphrodite.
ThenAlexandrusbuildshisshipsatAphrodite'ssuggestion,andHelenus
foretellsthefuturetohim,andAphroditeorderAeneastosailwith
him,whileCassandraprophesiesastowhatwillhappenafterwards.
AlexandrusnextlandsinLacedaemonandisentertainedbythesonsof
Tyndareus,andafterwardsbyMenelausinSparta,whereinthecourseof
afeasthegivesgiftstoHelen.
Afterthis,MenelaussetssailforCrete,orderingHelentofurnishthe
guestswithalltheyrequireuntiltheydepart.Meanwhile,Aphrodite
bringsHelenandAlexandrustogether,andthey,aftertheirunion,put
verygreattreasuresonboardandsailawaybynight.Herastirsupa
stormagainstthemandtheyarecarriedtoSidon,whereAlexandrustakes
thecity.FromtherehesailedtoTroyandcelebratedhismarriagewith
Helen.
InthemeantimeCastorandPolydeuces,whilestealingthecattleofIdas
andLynceus,werecaughtintheact,andCastorwaskilledbyIdas,and
LynceusandIdasbyPolydeuces.Zeusgavethemimmortalityeveryother
day.
IrisnextinformsMenelausofwhathashappenedathishome.Menelaus
returnsandplansanexpeditionagainstIliumwithhisbrother,and
thengoesontoNestor.NestorinadigressiontellshimhowEpopeuswas
utterlydestroyedafterseducingthedaughterofLycus,andthestoryof
Oedipus,themadnessofHeracles,andthestoryofTheseusandAriadne.
ThentheytraveloverHellasandgathertheleaders,detectingOdysseus
whenhepretendstobemad,notwishingtojointheexpedition,
byseizinghissonTelemachusforpunishmentatthesuggestionof
Palamedes.
AlltheleadersthenmeettogetheratAulisandsacrifice.Theincident
oftheserpentandthesparrows[3002]takesplacebeforethem,and
Calchasforetellswhatisgoingtobefall.Afterthis,theyputoutto
sea,andreachTeuthraniaandsackit,takingitforIlium.Telephus
comesouttotherescueandkillsThersanderandsonofPolyneices,and
ishimselfwoundedbyAchilles.AstheyputoutfromMysiaastormcomes
onthemandscattersthem,andAchillesfirstputsinatScyrosand
marriedDeidameia,thedaughterofLycomedes,andthenhealsTelephus,
whohadbeenledbyanoracletogotoArgos,sothathemightbetheir
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guideonthevoyagetoIlium.
WhentheexpeditionhadmusteredasecondtimeatAulis,Agamemnon,
whileatthechase,shotastagandboastedthathesurpassedeven
Artemis.Atthisthegoddesswassoangrythatshesentstormywindsand
preventedthemfromsailing.Calchasthentoldthemoftheangerofthe
goddessandbadethemsacrificeIphigeneiatoArtemis.Thistheyattempt
todo,sendingtofetchIphigeneiaasthoughformarriagewithAchilles.
Artemis,however,snatchedherawayandtransportedhertotheTauri,
makingherimmortal,andputtingastaginplaceofthegirluponthe
altar.
NexttheysailasfarasTenedos:andwhiletheyarefeasting,
PhiloctetesisbittenbyasnakeandisleftbehindinLemnosbecause
ofthestenchofhissore.Here,too,AchillesquarrelswithAgamemnon
becauseheisinvitedlate.ThentheGreekstriedtolandatIlium,but
theTrojanspreventthem,andProtesilausiskilledbyHector.Achilles
thenkillsCycnus,thesonofPoseidon,anddrivestheTrojansback.The
GreekstakeuptheirdeadandsendenvoystotheTrojansdemandingthe
surrenderofHelenandthetreasurewithher.TheTrojansrefusing,they
firstassaultthecity,andthengooutandlaywastethecountryand
citiesroundabout.Afterthis,AchillesdesirestoseeHelen,and
AphroditeandThetiscontriveameetingbetweenthem.TheAchaeansnext
desiretoreturnhome,butarerestrainedbyAchilles,whoafterwards
drivesoffthecattleofAeneas,andsacksLyrnessusandPedasusand
manyoftheneighbouringcities,andkillsTroilus.Patrocluscarries
awayLycaontoLemnosandsellshimasaslave,andoutofthespoils
AchillesreceivesBriseisasaprize,andAgamemnonChryseis.Then
followsthedeathofPalamedes,theplanofZeustorelievetheTrojans
bydetachingAchillesfromtheHellenicconfederacy,andacatalogueof
theTrojanallies.
Fragment#2Tzetzes,Chil.xiii.638:Stasinuscomposedthe"Cypria"
whichthemorepartsaywasHomer'sworkandbyhimgiventoStasinusas
adowrywithmoneybesides.
Fragment#3ScholiastonHomer,Il.i.5:'Therewasatimewhenthe
countlesstribesofmen,thoughwidedispersed,oppressedthesurface
ofthedeepbosomedearth,andZeussawitandhadpityandinhiswise
heartresolvedtorelievetheallnurturingearthofmenbycausingthe
greatstruggleoftheIlianwar,thattheloadofdeathmightemptythe
world.AndsotheheroeswereslaininTroy,andtheplanofZeuscame
topass.'
Fragment#4VoluminaHerculan,II.viii.105:Theauthorofthe
"Cypria"saysthatThetis,topleaseHera,avoidedunionwithZeus,at
whichhewasenragedandsworethatsheshouldbethewifeofamortal.
Fragment#5ScholiastonHomer,Il.xvii.140:Foratthemarriageof
PeleusandThetis,thegodsgatheredtogetheronPeliontofeastand
broughtPeleusgifts.Cheirongavehimastoutashenshaftwhichhehad
cutforaspear,andAthena,itissaid,polishedit,andHephaestus
fitteditwithahead.Thestoryisgivenbytheauthorofthe"Cypria".
Fragment#6Athenaeus,xv.682D,F:Theauthorofthe"Cypria",
whetherHegesiasorStasinus,mentionsflowersusedforgarlands.The
poet,whoeverhewas,writesasfollowsinhisfirstbook:
(ll.17)'SheclothedherselfwithgarmentswhichtheGracesandHours
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hadmadeforheranddyedinflowersofspringsuchflowersasthe
Seasonswearincrocusandhyacinthandflourishingvioletandthe
rose'slovelybloom,sosweetanddelicious,andheavenlybuds,
theflowersofthenarcissusandlily.Insuchperfumedgarmentsis
Aphroditeclothedatallseasons.
((LACUNA))
(ll.812)ThenlaughterlovingAphroditeandherhandmaidenswove
sweetsmellingcrownsofflowersoftheearthandputthemupontheir
headsthebrightcoiffedgoddesses,theNymphsandGraces,andgolden
Aphroditetoo,whiletheysangsweetlyonthemountofmanyfountained
Ida.'
Fragment#7ClementofAlexandria,Protreptii.30.5:'Castorwas
mortal,andthefateofdeathwasdestinedforhim;butPolydeuces,
scionofAres,wasimmortal.'
Fragment#8Athenaeus,viii.334B:'Andafterthemshebareathird
child,Helen,amarveltomen.RichtressedNemesisoncegaveherbirth
whenshehadbeenjoinedinlovewithZeusthekingofthegodsbyharsh
violence.ForNemesistriedtoescapehimandlikednottolieinlove
withherfatherZeustheSonofCronos;forshameandindignationvexed
herheart:thereforeshefledhimoverthelandandfruitlessdark
water.ButZeuseverpursuedandlongedinhishearttocatchher.Now
shetooktheformofafishandspedoverthewavesoftheloudroaring
sea,andnowoverOcean'sstreamandthefurthestboundsofEarth,and
nowshespedoverthefurrowedland,alwaysturningintosuchdread
creaturesasthedrylandnurtures,thatshemightescapehim.'
Fragment#9ScholiastonEuripides,Andr.898:Thewriter[3003]ofthe
Cyprianhistoriessaysthat(Helen'sthirdchildwas)Pleisthenes
andthatshetookhimwithhertoCyprus,andthatthechildshebore
AlexandruswasAganus.
Fragment#10Herodotus,ii.117:Foritissaidinthe"Cypria"that
AlexandruscamewithHelentoIliumfromSpartainthreedays,enjoying
afavourablewindandcalmsea.
Fragment#11ScholiastonHomer,Il.iii.242:ForHelenhadbeen
previouslycarriedoffbyTheseus,anditwasinconsequenceofthis
earlierrapethatAphidna,atowninAttica,wassackedandCastorwas
woundedintherightthighbyAphidnuswhowaskingatthattime.Then
theDioscuri,failingtofindTheseus,sackedAthens.Thestoryisin
theCyclicwriters.
Plutarch,Thes.32:HereasrelatesthatAlycuswaskilledbyTheseus
himselfnearAphidna,andquotesthefollowingversesinevidence:'In
spaciousAphidnaTheseusslewhiminbattlelongagoforrichhaired
Helen'ssake.'[3004]
Fragment#12ScholiastonPindar,Nem.x.114:(ll.16)'Straightway
Lynceus,trustinginhisswiftfeet,madeforTaygetus.Heclimbedits
highestpeakandlookedthroughoutthewholeisleofPelops,son
ofTantalus;andsoonthegloriousherowithhisdreadeyessaw
horsetamingCastorandathletePolydeucesbothhiddenwithinahollow
oak.'
Philodemus,OnPiety:(Stasinus?)writesthatCastorwaskilledwitha
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spearshotbyIdasthesonofAphareus.
Fragment#13Athenaeus,35C:'Menelaus,knowthatthegodsmadewine
thebestthingformortalmantoscattercares.'
Fragment#14LaurentianScholiastonSophocles,Elect.157:Eitherhe
followsHomerwhospokeofthethreedaughtersofAgamemnon,orlike
thewriterofthe"Cypria"hemakesthemfour,(distinguishing)
IphigeneiaandIphianassa.
Fragment#15[3005]ContestofHomerandHesiod:'Sotheyfeastedall
daylong,takingnothingfromtheirownhouses;forAgamemnon,kingof
men,providedforthem.'
Fragment#16LouvrePapyrus:'Ineverthoughttoenragesoterriblythe
stoutheartofAchilles,forverywellIlovedhim.'
Fragment#17Pausanias,iv.2.7:Thepoetofthe"Cypria"saysthat
thewifeofProtesilauswho,whentheHellenesreachedtheTrojan
shore,firstdaredtolandwascalledPolydora,andwasthedaughterof
Meleager,thesonofOeneus.
Fragment#18Eustathius,119.4:SomerelatethatChryseiswastaken
fromHypoplacian[3006]Thebes,andthatshehadnottakenrefugethere
norgonetheretosacrificetoArtemis,astheauthorofthe"Cypria"
states,butwassimplyafellowtownswomanofAndromache.
Fragment#19Pausanias,x.31.2:Iknow,becauseIhavereaditinthe
epic"Cypria",thatPalamedeswasdrownedwhenhehadgoneoutfishing,
andthatitwasDiomedesandOdysseuswhocausedhisdeath.
Fragment#20Plato,Euthyphron,12A:'ThatitisZeuswhohasdone
this,andbroughtallthesethingstopass,youdonotliketosay;for
wherefearis,theretooisshame.'
Fragment#21Herodian,OnPeculiarDiction:'Byhimsheconceivedand
baretheGorgons,fearfulmonsterswholivedinSarpedon,arockyisland
indeepeddyingOceanus.'
Fragment#22ClementofAlexandria,Stromateisvii.2.19:Again,
Stasinussays:'Heisasimplemanwhokillsthefatherandletsthe
childrenlive.'

THEAETHIOPIS(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,ii:The"Cypria",describedin
theprecedingbook,hasitssequelinthe"Iliad"ofHomer,whichis
followedinturnbythefivebooksofthe"Aethiopis",thework
ofArctinusofMiletus.Theircontentsareasfollows.TheAmazon
Penthesileia,thedaughterofAresandofThracianrace,comestoaid
theTrojans,andaftershowinggreatprowess,iskilledbyAchillesand
buriedbytheTrojans.AchillesthenslaysThersitesforabusingand
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revilinghimforhissupposedloveforPenthesileia.Asaresulta
disputearisesamongsttheAchaeansoverthekillingofThersites,and
AchillessailstoLesbosandaftersacrificingtoApollo,Artemis,and
Leto,ispurifiedbyOdysseusfrombloodshed.
ThenMemnon,thesonofEos,wearingarmourmadebyHephaestus,comesto
helptheTrojans,andThetistellshersonaboutMemnon.
AbattletakesplaceinwhichAntilochusisslainbyMemnonand
MemnonbyAchilles.EosthenobtainsofZeusandbestowsuponherson
immortality;butAchillesroutstheTrojans,and,rushingintothecity
withthem,iskilledbyParisandApollo.Agreatstruggleforthebody
thenfollows,Aiastakingupthebodyandcarryingittotheships,
whileOdysseusdrivesofftheTrojansbehind.TheAchaeansthenbury
AntilochusandlayoutthebodyofAchilles,whileThetis,arrivingwith
theMusesandhersisters,bewailsherson,whomsheafterwardscatches
awayfromthepyreandtransportstotheWhiteIsland.Afterthis,the
Achaeanspilehimacairnandholdgamesinhishonour.Lastlyadispute
arisesbetweenOdysseusandAiasoverthearmsofAchilles.
Fragment#2ScholiastonHomer,Il.xxiv.804:Someread:'Thusthey
performedtheburialofHector.ThencametheAmazon,thedaughterof
greatsouledArestheslayerofmen.'
Fragment#3ScholiastonPindar,Isth.iii.53:Theauthorofthe
"Aethiopis"saysthatAiaskilledhimselfaboutdawn.

THELITTLEILIAD(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,ii:Nextcomesthe"LittleIliad"
infourbooksbyLeschesofMitylene:itscontentsareasfollows.The
adjudgingofthearmsofAchillestakesplace,andOdysseus,bythe
contrivingofAthena,gainsthem.Aiasthenbecomesmadanddestroysthe
herdoftheAchaeansandkillshimself.NextOdysseusliesinwaitand
catchesHelenus,whoprophesiesastothetakingofTroy,andDiomede
accordinglybringsPhiloctetesfromLemnos.Philoctetesishealedby
Machaon,fightsinsinglecombatwithAlexandrusandkillshim:thedead
bodyisoutragedbyMenelaus,buttheTrojansrecoverandburyit.After
thisDeiphobusmarriesHelen,OdysseusbringsNeoptolemusfromScyros
andgiveshimhisfather'sarms,andtheghostofAchillesappearsto
him.
EurypylusthesonofTelephusarrivestoaidtheTrojans,showshis
prowessandiskilledbyNeoptolemus.TheTrojansarenowclosely
besieged,andEpeius,byAthena'sinstruction,buildsthewoodenhorse.
OdysseusdisfigureshimselfandgoesintoIliumasaspy,andthere
beingrecognizedbyHelen,plotswithherforthetakingofthecity;
afterkillingcertainoftheTrojans,hereturnstotheships.Next
hecarriesthePalladiumoutofTroywithhelpofDiomedes.Thenafter
puttingtheirbestmeninthewoodenhorseandburningtheirhuts,the
mainbodyoftheHellenessailtoTenedos.TheTrojans,supposingtheir
troublesover,destroyapartoftheircitywallandtakethewooden
horseintotheircityandfeastasthoughtheyhadconqueredthe
Hellenes.
Fragment#2PseudoHerodotus,LifeofHomer:'IsingofIliumand
Dardania,thelandoffinehorses,whereintheDanai,followersofAres,
sufferedmanythings.'
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Fragment#3ScholiastonAristophanes,Knights1056andAristophanes
ib:Thestoryrunsasfollows:AiasandOdysseuswerequarrellingas
totheirachievements,saysthepoetofthe"LittleIliad",andNestor
advisedtheHellenestosendsomeoftheirnumbertogotothefoot
ofthewallsandoverhearwhatwassaidaboutthevalouroftheheroes
namedabove.Theeavesdroppersheardcertaingirlsdisputing,one
ofthemsayingthatAiaswasbyfarabettermanthanOdysseusand
continuingasfollows:
'ForAiastookupandcarriedoutofthestrifethehero,Peleus'son:
thisgreatOdysseuscarednottodo.'
TothisanotherrepliedbyAthena'scontrivance:
'Why,whatisthisyousay?Athingagainstreasonanduntrue!Evena
womancouldcarryaloadonceamanhadputitonhershoulder;butshe
couldnotfight.Forshewouldfailwithfearifsheshouldfight.'
Fragment#4Eustathius,285.34:Thewriterofthe"LittleIliad"says
thatAiaswasnotburiedintheusualway[3101],butwassimplyburied
inacoffin,becauseoftheking'sanger.
Fragment#5EustathiusonHomer,Il.326:Theauthorofthe"Little
Iliad"saysthatAchillesafterputtingouttoseafromthecountry
ofTelephuscametolandthere:'ThestormcarriedAchillesthesonof
PeleustoScyros,andhecameintoanuneasyharbourthereinthatsame
night.'
Fragment#6ScholiastonPindar,Nem.vi.85:'Aboutthespearshaft
wasahoopofflashinggold,andapointwasfittedtoitateither
end.'
Fragment#7ScholiastonEuripidesTroades,822:'...thevinewhichthe
sonofCronosgavehimasarecompenseforhisson.Itbloomedrichly
withsoftleavesofgoldandgrapeclusters;Hephaestuswroughtitand
gaveittohisfatherZeus:andhebestoweditonLaomedonasaprice
forGanymedes.'
Fragment#8Pausanias,iii.26.9:Thewriteroftheepic"Little
Iliad"saysthatMachaonwaskilledbyEurypylus,thesonofTelephus.
Fragment#9Homer,Odysseyiv.247andScholiast:'Hedisguised
himself,andmadehimselflikeanotherperson,abeggar,thelikeof
whomwasnotbytheshipsoftheAchaeans.'
TheCyclicpoetuses'beggar'asasubstantive,andsomeanstosaythat
whenOdysseushadchangedhisclothesandputonrags,therewasnoone
sogoodfornothingattheshipsasOdysseus.
Fragment#10[3102]Plutarch,Moralia,p.153F:AndHomerputforward
thefollowingversesasLeschesgivesthem:'Muse,tellmeofthose
thingswhichneitherhappenedbeforenorshallbehereafter.'
AndHesiodanswered:
'Butwhenhorseswithrattlinghoofswreckchariots,strivingfor
victoryaboutthetombofZeus.'
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Anditissaidthat,becausethisreplywasspeciallyadmired,Hesiod
wonthetripod(atthefuneralgamesofAmphidamas).
Fragment#11ScholiastonLycophr.,344:Sinon,asithadbeenarranged
withhim,secretlyshowedasignallighttotheHellenes.ThusLesches
writes:'Itwasmidnight,andtheclearmoonwasrising.'
Fragment#12Pausanias,x.25.5:Megesisrepresented[3103]wounded
inthearmjustasLescheosthesonofAeschylinusofPyrrhadescribes
inhis"SackofIlium"whereitissaidthathewaswoundedinthe
battlewhichtheTrojansfoughtinthenightbyAdmetus,sonofAugeias.
Lycomedestooisinthepicturewithawoundinthewrist,andLescheos
sayshewassowoundedbyAgenor...
Pausanias,x.26.4:LescheosalsomentionsAstynous,andhereheis,
fallenononeknee,whileNeoptolemusstrikeshimwithhissword...
Pausanias,x.26.8:ThesamewritersaysthatHelicaonwaswoundedin
thenightbattle,butwasrecognisedbyOdysseusandbyhimconducted
aliveoutofthefight...
Pausanias,x.27.1:Ofthem[3104],LescheossaysthatEionwaskilled
byNeoptolemus,andAdmetusbyPhiloctetes...HealsosaysthatPriam
wasnotkilledattheheartofZeusHerceius,butwasdraggedawayfrom
thealtaranddestroyedoffhandbyNeoptolemusatthedoorsofthe
house...LescheossaysthatAxionwasthesonofPriamandwasslainby
Eurypylus,thesonofEuaemon.Agenoraccordingtothesamepoetwas
butcheredbyNeoptolemus.
Fragment#13Aristophanes,Lysistrata155andScholiast:'Menelausat
least,whenhecaughtaglimpsesomehowofthebreastsofHelenunclad,
castawayhissword,methinks.'LeschesthePyrrhaeanalsohasthesame
accountinhis"LittleIliad".
Pausanias,x.25.8:ConcerningAethraLeschesrelatesthatwhenIlium
wastakenshestoleoutofthecityandcametotheHelleniccamp,where
shewasrecognisedbythesonsofTheseus;andthatDemophonaskedher
ofAgamemnon.Agamemnonwishedtogranthimthisfavour,buthewould
notdosountilHelenconsented.Andwhenhesentaherald,Helen
grantedhisrequest.
Fragment#14ScholiastonLycophr.Alex.,1268:'Thenthebrightsonof
boldAchillesledthewifeofHectortothehollowships;buthersonhe
snatchedfromthebosomofhisrichhairednurseandseizedhimbythe
footandcasthimfromatower.Sowhenhehadfallenbloodydeathand
hardfateseizedonAstyanax.AndNeoptolemuschoseoutAndromache,
Hector'swellgirdedwife,andthechiefsofalltheAchaeansgave
hertohimtoholdrequitinghimwithawelcomeprize.Andheput
Aeneas[3105],thefamoussonofhorsetamingAnchises,onboardhis
seafaringships,aprizesurpassingthoseofalltheDanaans.'

THESACKOFILIUM(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,ii:Nextcometwobooksofthe
"SackofIlium",byArctinusofMiletuswiththefollowingcontents.
TheTrojansweresuspiciousofthewoodenhorseandstandingroundit
debatedwhattheyoughttodo.Somethoughttheyoughttohurlitdown
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fromtherocks,otherstoburnitup,whileotherssaidtheyoughtto
dedicateittoAthena.Atlastthisthirdopinionprevailed.Thenthey
turnedtomirthandfeastingbelievingthewarwasatanend.Butat
thisverytimetwoserpentsappearedanddestroyedLaocoonandoneof
histwosons,aportentwhichsoalarmedthefollowersofAeneasthat
theywithdrewtoIda.SinonthenraisedthefiresignaltotheAchaeans,
havingpreviouslygotintothecitybypretence.TheGreeksthensailed
infromTenedos,andthoseinthewoodenhorsecameoutandfellupon
theirenemies,killingmanyandstormingthecity.Neoptolemuskills
PriamwhohadfledtothealtarofZeusHerceius(1);Menelausfinds
Helenandtakeshertotheships,afterkillingDeiphobus;andAiasthe
sonofIleus,whiletryingtodragCassandraawaybyforce,tearsaway
withhertheimageofAthena.AtthistheGreeksaresoenraged
thattheydeterminetostoneAias,whoonlyescapesfromthedanger
threateninghimbytakingrefugeatthealtarofAthena.TheGreeks,
afterburningthecity,sacrificePolyxenaatthetombofAchilles:
OdysseusmurdersAstyanax;NeoptolemustakesAndromacheashisprize,
andtheremainingspoilsaredivided.DemophonandAcamasfindAethra
andtakeherwiththem.LastlytheGreekssailawayandAthenaplansto
destroythemonthehighseas.
Fragment#2DionysusHalicarn,Rom.Antiq.i.68:Accordingto
Arctinus,onePalladiumwasgiventoDardanusbyZeus,andthiswasin
Iliumuntilthecitywastaken.Itwashiddeninasecretplace,anda
copywasmaderesemblingtheoriginalinallpointsandsetupforall
tosee,inordertodeceivethosewhomighthavedesignsagainstit.
ThiscopytheAchaeanstookasaresultoftheirplots.
Fragment#3ScholiastonEuripedes,Andromache10:TheCyclicpoetwho
composedthe"Sack"saysthatAstyanaxwasalsohurledfromthecity
wall.
Fragment#4ScholiastonEuripedes,Troades31:Forthefollowersof
AcamusandDemophontooknoshareitissaidofthespoils,butonly
Aethra,forwhosesake,indeed,theycametoIliumwithMenestheus
toleadthem.Lysimachus,however,saysthattheauthorofthe"Sack"
writesasfollows:'ThelordAgamemnongavegiftstotheSonsofTheseus
andtoboldMenestheus,shepherdofhosts.'
Fragment#5EustathiusonIliad,xiii.515:Somesaythatsuchpraise
asthis[3201]doesnotapplytophysiciansgenerally,butonlyto
Machaon:andsomesaythatheonlypractisedsurgery,whilePodaleirius
treatedsicknesses.Arctinusinthe"SackofIlium"seemstobeofthis
opinionwhenhesays:
(ll.18)'FortheirfatherthefamousEarthShakergavebothofthem
gifts,makingeachmoregloriousthantheother.Totheonehegave
handsmorelighttodraworcutoutmissilesfromthefleshandto
healallkindsofwounds;butintheheartoftheotherheputfulland
perfectknowledgetotellhiddendiseasesandcuredesperatesicknesses.
ItwashewhofirstnoticedAias'flashingeyesandcloudedmindwhenhe
wasenraged.'
Fragment#6DiomedesinGramm.,Lat.i.477:'Iambusstoodalittle
whileastridewithfootadvanced,thatsohisstrainedlimbsmightget
powerandhaveashowofreadystrength.'

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THERETURNS(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,ii:Afterthe"SackofIlium"
followthe"Returns"infivebooksbyAgiasofTroezen.Theircontents
areasfollows.AthenacausesaquarrelbetweenAgamemnonandMenelaus
aboutthevoyagefromTroy.Agamemnonthenstaysontoappeasetheanger
ofAthena.DiomedesandNestorputouttoseaandgetsafelyhome.
AfterthemMenelaussetsoutandreachesEgyptwithfiveships,therest
havingbeendestroyedonthehighseas.ThosewithCalchas,Leontes,
andPolypoetesgobylandtoColophonandburyTeiresiaswhodied
there.WhenAgamemnonandhisfollowersweresailingaway,theghostof
Achillesappearedandtriedtopreventthembyforetellingwhatshould
befallthem.ThestormattherockscalledCapheridesisthendescribed,
withtheendofLocrianAias.Neoptolemus,warnedbyThetis,journeys
overlandand,comingintoThrace,meetsOdysseusatMaronea,andthen
finishestherestofhisjourneyafterburyingPhoenixwhodiesonthe
way.HehimselfisrecognizedbyPeleusonreachingtheMolossi.
ThencomesthemurderofAgamemnonbyAegisthusandClytaemnestra,
followedbythevengeanceofOrestesandPylades.Finally,Menelaus
returnshome.
Fragment#2ArgumenttoEuripidesMedea:'ForthwithMedeamadeAesona
sweetyoungboyandstrippedhisoldagefromhimbyhercunningskill,
whenshehadmadeabrewofmanyherbsinhergoldencauldrons.'
Fragment#3Pausanias,i.2:ThestorygoesthatHeracleswasbesieging
ThemiscyraontheThermodonandcouldnottakeit;butAntiope,beingin
lovewithTheseuswhowaswithHeraclesonthisexpedition,betrayedthe
place.Hegiasgivesthisaccountinhispoem.
Fragment#4Eustathius,1796.45:TheColophonianauthorofthe
"Returns"saysthatTelemachusafterwardsmarriedCirce,whileTelegonus
thesonofCircecorrespondinglymarriedPenelope.
Fragment#5ClementofAlex.Strom.,vi.2.12.8:'Forgiftsbeguile
men'smindsandtheirdeedsaswell.'[3301]
Fragment#6Pausanias,x.28.7:ThepoetryofHomerandthe
"Returns"forheretoothereisanaccountofHadesandtheterrors
thereknowofnospiritnamedEurynomus.
Athenaeus,281B:Thewriterofthe"ReturnoftheAtreidae"[3302]says
thatTantaluscameandlivedwiththegods,andwaspermittedtoaskfor
whateverhedesired.Butthemanwassoimmoderatelygiventopleasures
thatheaskedfortheseandforalifelikethatofthegods.Atthis
Zeuswasannoyed,butfulfilledhisprayerbecauseofhisownpromise;
buttopreventhimfromenjoyinganyofthepleasuresprovided,and
tokeephimcontinuallyharassed,hehungastoneoverhisheadwhich
preventshimfromeverreachinganyofthepleasantthingsnearby.

THETELEGONY(fragments)
Fragment#1Proclus,Chrestomathia,ii:Afterthe"Returns"comesthe
"Odyssey"ofHomer,andthenthe"Telegony"intwobooksbyEugammonof
Cyrene,whichcontainthefollowingmatters.ThesuitorsofPenelopeare
buriedbytheirkinsmen,andOdysseus,aftersacrificingtotheNymphs,
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sailstoElistoinspecthisherds.HeisentertainedtherebyPolyxenus
andreceivesamixingbowlasagift;thestoryofTrophoniusand
AgamedesandAugeasthenfollows.HenextsailsbacktoIthaca
andperformsthesacrificesorderedbyTeiresias,andthengoesto
ThesprotiswherehemarriesCallidice,queenoftheThesprotians.A
warthenbreaksoutbetweentheThesprotians,ledbyOdysseus,andthe
Brygi.AresroutsthearmyofOdysseusandAthenaengageswithAres,
untilApolloseparatesthem.AfterthedeathofCallidicePolypoetes,
thesonofOdysseus,succeedstothekingdom,whileOdysseushimself
returnstoIthaca.InthemeantimeTelegonus,whiletravellinginsearch
ofhisfather,landsonIthacaandravagestheisland:Odysseuscomes
outtodefendhiscountry,butiskilledbyhissonunwittingly.
Telegonus,onlearninghismistake,transportshisfather'sbodywith
PenelopeandTelemachustohismother'sisland,whereCircemakesthem
immortal,andTelegonusmarriesPenelope,andTelemachusCirce.
Fragment#2Eustathias,1796.35:Theauthorofthe"Telegony",a
Cyrenaean,relatesthatOdysseushadbyCalypsoasonTelegonusor
Teledamus,andbyPenelopeTelemachusandAcusilaus.

NONCYCLICPOEMSATTRIBUTEDTOHOMER

THEEXPEDITIONOFAMPHIARAUS(fragments)
Fragment#1PseudoHerodotus,LifeofHomer:Sittingthereinthe
tanner'syard,Homerrecitedhispoetrytothem,the"Expeditionof
AmphiarustoThebes"andthe"HymnstotheGods"composedbyhim.

THETAKINGOFOECHALIA(fragments)
Fragment#1Eustathius,330.41:Anaccounthastherebeengivenof
EurytusandhisdaughterIole,forwhosesakeHeraclessackedOechalia.
Homeralsoseemstohavewrittenonthissubject,asthathistorian
showswhorelatesthatCreophylusofSamosoncehadHomerforhisguest
andforarewardreceivedtheattributionofthepoemwhichtheycall
the"TakingofOechalia".Some,however,asserttheopposite;that
Creophyluswrotethepoem,andthatHomerlenthisnameinreturnfor
hisentertainment.AndsoCallimachuswrites:'Iamtheworkofthat
SamianwhooncereceiveddivineHomerinhishouse.IsingofEurytus
andallhiswoesandofgoldenhairedIoleia,andamreputedoneof
Homer'sworks.DearHeaven!howgreatanhonourthisforCreophylus!'
Fragment#2Cramer,Anec.Oxon.i.327:'Raggedgarments,eventhose
whichnowyousee.'Thisverse("Odyssey"xiv.343)weshallalsofind
inthe"TakingofOechalia".
Fragment#3ScholaistonSophoclesTrach.,266:Thereisadisagreement
astothenumberofthesonsofEurytus.ForHesiodsaysEurytusand
Antiochehadasmanyasfoursons;butCreophylussaystwo.
Fragment#4ScholiastonEuripidesMedea,273:Didymuscontraststhe
followingaccountgivenbyCreophylus,whichisasfollows:whileMedea
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waslivinginCorinth,shepoisonedCreon,whowasrulerofthecity
atthattime,andbecauseshefearedhisfriendsandkinsfolk,fledto
Athens.However,sincehersonsweretooyoungtogoalongwithher,she
leftthematthealtarofHeraAcraea,thinkingthattheirfatherwould
seetotheirsafety.ButtherelativesofCreonkilledthemandspread
thestorythatMedeahadkilledherownchildrenaswellasCreon.

THEPHOCAIS(fragments)
Fragment#1PseudoHerodotus,LifeofHomer:Whilelivingwith
Thestorides,Homercomposedthe"LesserIliad"andthe"Phocais";though
thePhocaeanssaythathecomposedthelatteramongthem.

THEMARGITES(fragments)
Fragment#1Suidas,s.v.:Pigres.ACarianofHalicarnassusandbrother
ofArtemisia,wifeofMausolus,whodistinguishedherselfinwar...
[3401]Healsowrotethe"Margites"attributedtoHomerandthe"Battle
oftheFrogsandMice".
Fragment#2AtiliusFortunatianus,p.286,Keil:'Therecameto
Colophonanoldmananddivinesinger,aservantoftheMusesandof
farshootingApollo.Inhisdearhandsheheldasweettonedlyre.'
Fragment#3Plato,Alcib.ii.p.147A:'Heknewmanythingsbutknew
allbadly...'
Aristotle,Nic.Eth.vi.7,1141:'Thegodshadtaughthimneitherto
dignortoplough,noranyotherskill;hefailedineverycraft.'
Fragment#4ScholiastonAeschinesinCtes.,sec.160:Herefersto
Margites,amanwho,thoughwellgrownup,didnotknowwhetheritwas
hisfatherorhismotherwhogavehimbirth,andwouldnotliewithhis
wife,sayingthathewasafraidshemightgiveabadaccountofhimto
hermother.
Fragment#5Zenobius,v.68:'Thefoxknowsmanyawile;butthe
hedgehog'sonetrick[3402]canbeatthemall.'[3403]

THECERCOPES(fragments)
Fragment#1Suidas,s.v.:Cercopes.Theseweretwobrotherslivingupon
theearthwhopractisedeverykindofknavery.TheywerecalledCercopes
[3501]becauseoftheircunningdoings:oneofthemwasnamedPassalus
andtheotherAcmon.Theirmother,adaughterofMemnon,seeingtheir
tricks,toldthemtokeepclearofBlackbottom,thatis,ofHeracles.
TheseCercopesweresonsofTheiaandOcean,andaresaidtohavebeen
turnedtostonefortryingtodeceiveZeus.
'Liarsandcheats,skilledindeedsirremediable,accomplished
knaves.Farovertheworldtheyroameddeceivingmenastheywandered
continually.'
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THEBATTLEOFFROGSANDMICE(303lines)
(ll.18)HereIbegin:andfirstIpraythechoiroftheMusesto
comedownfromHeliconintomyhearttoaidthelaywhichIhavenewly
writtenintabletsuponmyknee.FainwouldIsoundinallmen'sears
thatawfulstrife,thatclamorousdeedofwar,andtellhowtheMice
provedtheirvalourontheFrogsandrivalledtheexploitsofthe
Giants,thoseearthbornmen,asthetalewastoldamongmortals.Thus
didthewarbegin.
(ll.912)OnedayathirstyMousewhohadescapedtheferret,dangerous
foe,sethissoftmuzzletothelake'sbrinkandrevelledinthesweet
water.Therealoudvoicedpondlarkerspiedhim:andutteredsuchwords
asthese.
(ll.1323)'Stranger,whoareyou?Whencecomeyoutothisshore,and
whoishewhobegotyou?Tellmeallthistrulyandletmenotfindyou
lying.ForifIfindyouworthytobemyfriend,Iwilltakeyoutomy
houseandgiveyoumanynoblegiftssuchasmengivetotheirguests.
IamthekingPuffjaw,andamhonouredinallthepond,beingruler
oftheFrogscontinually.ThefatherthatbroughtmeupwasMudmanwho
matedwithWaterladybythebanksofEridanus.Isee,indeed,thatyou
arewelllookingandstouterthantheordinary,asceptredkinganda
warriorinfight;but,come,makehasteandtellmeyourdescent.'
(ll.2455)ThenCrumbsnatcheransweredhimandsaid:'Whydoyouask
myrace,whichiswellknownamongstall,bothmenandgodsandthe
birdsofheaven?CrumbsnatcheramIcalled,andIamthesonof
Breadnibblerhewasmystoutheartedfatherandmymotherwas
Quernlicker,thedaughterofHamgnawertheking:shebaremeinthe
mouseholeandnourishedmewithfood,figsandnutsanddaintiesof
allkinds.Buthowareyoutomakemeyourfriend,whoamaltogether
differentinnature?Foryougetyourlivinginthewater,butIamused
toeachsuchfoodsasmenhave:Inevermissthethricekneadedloaf
initsneat,roundbasket,orthethinwrappedcakefullofsesameand
cheese,orthesliceofham,orlivervestedinwhitefat,orcheese
justcurdledfromsweetmilk,ordelicioushoneycakewhicheventhe
blessedgodslongfor,oranyofallthosecateswhichcooksmakefor
thefeastsofmortalmen,lardingtheirpotsandpanswithspicesofall
kinds.InbattleIhaveneverflinchedfromthecruelonset,butplunged
straightintothefrayandfoughtamongtheforemost.Ifearnotman
thoughhehasabigbody,butrunalonghisbedandbitethetipof
histoeandnibbleathisheel;andthemanfeelsnohurtandhissweet
sleepisnotbrokenbymybiting.ButtherearetwothingsIfearabove
allelsethewholeworldover,thehawkandtheferretforthesebring
greatgriefonmeandthepiteoustrapwhereinistreacherousdeath.
MostofallIfeartheferretofthekeenersortwhichfollowsyoustill
evenwhenyoudivedownyourhole.[3601]Ignawnoradishesandcabbages
andpumpkins,norfeedongreenleeksandparsley;forthesearefood
foryouwholiveinthelake.'
(ll.5664)ThenPuffjawansweredhimwithasmile:'Strangeryouboast
toomuchofbellymatters:wetoohavemanymarvelstobeseenbothin
thelakeandontheshore.FortheSonofChronoshasgivenusFrogsthe
powertoleadadoublelife,dwellingatwillintwoseparateelements;
andsowebothleaponlandandplungebeneaththewater.Ifyouwould
learnofallthesethings,'tiseasydone:justmountuponmybackand
holdmetightlestyoubelost,andsoyoushallcomerejoicingtomy
house.'
(ll.6581)Sosaidhe,andofferedhisback.AndtheMousemountedat
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once,puttinghispawsupontheother'ssleekneckandvaultingnimbly.
Nowatfirst,whilehestillsawthelandnearby,hewaspleased,and
wasdelightedwithPuffjaw'sswimming;butwhendarkwavesbeganto
washoverhim,heweptloudlyandblamedhisunluckychangeofmind:he
torehisfurandtuckedhispawsinagainsthisbelly,whilewithinhim
hisheartquakedbyreasonofthestrangeness:andhelongedtogetto
land,groaningterriblythroughthestressofchillingfear.Heputout
histailuponthewaterandworkeditlikeasteeringoar,andprayed
toheaventhathemightgettoland.Butwhenthedarkwaveswashedover
himhecriedaloudandsaid:'Notinsuchwisedidthebullbearonhis
backthebelovedload,whenhebroughtEuropaacrosstheseatoCrete,
asthisFrogcarriesmeoverthewatertohishouse,raisinghisyellow
backinthepalewater.'
(ll.8292)Thensuddenlyawatersnakeappeared,ahorridsightfor
bothalike,andheldhisneckuprightabovethewater.Andwhenhesaw
it,Puffjawdivedatonce,andneverthoughthowhelplessafriendhe
wouldleaveperishing;butdowntothebottomofthelakehewent,and
escapedblackdeath.ButtheMouse,sodeserted,atoncefellonhis
back,inthewater.Hewrunghispawsandsqueakedinagonyofdeath:
manytimeshesankbeneaththewaterandmanytimesheroseupagain
kicking.Buthecouldnotescapehisdoom,forhiswetfurweighedhim
downheavily.Thenatthelast,ashewasdying,heutteredthesewords.
(ll.9398)'Ah,Puffjaw,youshallnotgounpunishedforthis
treachery!Youthrewme,acastaway,offyourbodyasfromarock.
Vilecoward!Onlandyouwouldnothavebeenthebetterman,boxing,or
wrestling,orrunning;butnowyouhavetrickedmeandcastmeinthe
water.Heavenhasanavengingeye,andsurelythehostofMicewill
punishyouandnotletyouescape.'
(ll.99109)Withthesewordshebreathedouthissouluponthewater.
ButLickplatterashesatuponthesoftbanksawhimdieand,raising
adreadfulcry,ranandtoldtheMice.Andwhentheyheardofhisfate,
alltheMicewereseizedwithfierceanger,andbadetheir
heraldssummonthepeopletoassembletowardsdawnatthehouseof
Breadnibbler,thefatherofhaplessCrumbsnatcherwholayoutstretched
onthewaterfaceup,alifelesscorpse,andnolongernearthebank,
poorwretch,butfloatinginthemidstofthedeep.AndwhentheMice
cameinhasteatdawn,Breadnibblerstoodupfirst,enragedathis
son'sdeath,andthushespoke.
(ll.110121)'Friends,evenifIalonehadsufferedgreatwrongfrom
theFrogs,assuredlythisisafirstessayatmischiefforyouall.And
nowIampitiable,forIhavelostthreesons.Firsttheabhorredferret
seizedandkilledoneofthem,catchinghimoutsidethehole;then
ruthlessmendraggedanothertohisdoomwhenbyunheardofartsthey
hadcontrivedawoodensnare,adestroyerofMice,whichtheycalla
trap.TherewasathirdwhomIandhisdearmotherlovedwell,andhim
Puffjawhascarriedoutintothedeepanddrowned.Come,then,andlet
usarmourselvesandgooutagainstthemwhenwehavearrayedourselves
inrichwroughtarms.'
(ll.122131)Withsuchwordshepersuadedthemalltogirdthemselves.
AndAreswhohaschargeofwarequippedthem.Firsttheyfastenedon
greavesandcoveredtheirshinswithgreenbeanpodsbrokenintotwo
partswhichtheyhadgnawedout,standingoverthemallnight.Their
breastplateswereofskinstretchedonreeds,skilfullymadefroma
ferrettheyhadflayed.Forshieldseachhadthecentrepieceofalamp,
andtheirspearswerelongneedlesallofbronze,theworkofAres,and
thehelmetsupontheirtempleswerepeanutshells.
(ll.132138)SotheMicearmedthemselves.ButwhentheFrogswere
awareofit,theyroseupoutofthewaterandcomingtogethertoone
placegatheredacouncilofgrievouswar.Andwhiletheywereasking
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whencethequarrelarose,andwhatthecauseofthisanger,a
heralddrewnearbearingawandinhispaws,Potvisitortheson
ofgreatheartedCheesecarver.Hebroughtthegrimmessageofwar,
speakingthus:
(ll.139143)'Frogs,theMicehavesentmewiththeirthreatsagainst
you,andbidyouarmyourselvesforwarandbattle;fortheyhaveseen
CrumbsnatcherinthewaterwhomyourkingPuffjawslew.Fight,then,
asmanyofyouasarewarriorsamongtheFrogs.'
(ll.144146)Withthesewordsheexplainedthematter.Sowhenthis
blamelessspeechcametotheirears,theproudFrogsweredisturbedin
theirheartsandbegantoblamePuffjaw.Butheroseupandsaid:
(ll.147159)'Friends,IkillednoMouse,nordidIseeoneperishing.
Surelyhewasdrownedwhileplayingbythelakeandimitatingthe
swimmingoftheFrogs,andnowthesewretchesblamemewhoamguiltless.
Comethen;letustakecounselhowwemayutterlydestroythewilyMice.
Moreover,IwilltellyouwhatIthinktobethebest.Letusallgird
onourarmourandtakeourstandontheverybrinkofthelake,where
thegroundbreaksdownsheer:thenwhentheycomeoutandchargeupon
us,leteachseizebythecresttheMousewhoattackshim,andcastthem
withtheirhelmetsintothelake;forsoweshalldrownthesedryhobs
[3602]inthewater,andmerrilysetuphereatrophyofvictoryoverthe
slaughteredMice.'
(ll.160167)Bythisspeechhepersuadedthemtoarmthemselves.
Theycoveredtheirshinswithleavesofmallows,andhadbreastplates
madeoffinegreenbeetleaves,andcabbageleaves,skilfullyfashioned,
forshields.Eachonewasequippedwithalong,pointedrushfora
spear,andsmoothsnailshellstocovertheirheads.Thentheystood
incloselockedranksuponthehighbank,wavingtheirspears,andwere
filled,eachofthem,withcourage.
(ll.168173)NowZeuscalledthegodstostarryheavenandshowedthem
themartialthrongandthestoutwarriorssomanyandsogreat,all
bearinglongspears;fortheywereasthehostoftheCentaursandthe
Giants.Thenheaskedwithaslysmile;'Whoofthedeathlessgodswill
helptheFrogsandwhotheMice?'
AndhesaidtoAthena;
(ll.174176)'Mydaughter,willyougoaidtheMice?Fortheyall
frolicaboutyourtemplecontinually,delightinginthefatofsacrifice
andinallkindsoffood.'
(ll.177196)SothensaidthesonofCronos.ButAthenaansweredhim:
'IwouldnevergotohelptheMicewhentheyarehardpressed,forthey
havedonememuchmischief,spoilingmygarlandsandmylampstoo,
togettheoil.Andthisthingthattheyhavedonevexesmyheart
exceedingly:theyhaveeatenholesinmysacredrobe,whichIwove
painfullyspinningafinewoofonafinewarp,andmadeitfullof
holes.Andnowthemoneylenderisatmeandchargesmeinterestwhich
isabitterthingforimmortals.ForIborrowedtodomyweaving,and
havenothingwithwhichtorepay.YetevensoIwillnothelptheFrogs;
fortheyalsoarenotconsiderable:once,whenIwasreturningearly
fromwar,Iwasverytired,andthoughIwantedtosleep,theywouldnot
letmeevendozealittlefortheiroutcry;andsoIlaysleeplesswith
aheadacheuntilcockcrow.No,gods,letusrefrainfromhelpingthese
hosts,oroneofusmaygetwoundedwithasharpspear;fortheyfight
handtohand,evenifagodcomesagainstthem.Letusratherallamuse
ourselveswatchingthefightfromheaven.'
(ll.197198)SosaidAthena.Andtheothergodsagreedwithher,and
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allwentinabodytooneplace.
(ll.199201)Thengnatswithgreattrumpetssoundedthefellnote
ofwar,andZeusthesonofCronosthunderedfromheaven,asignof
grievousbattle.
(ll.202223)FirstLoudcroakerwoundedLickmaninthebelly,right
throughthemidriff.Downfellheonhisfaceandsoiledhissoftfur
inthedust:hefellwithathudandhisarmourclashedabouthim.Next
TroglodyteshotatthesonofMudman,anddrovethestrongspeardeep
intohisbreast;sohefell,andblackdeathseizedhimandhisspirit
flittedforthfromhismouth.ThenBeetystruckPotvisitortotheheart
andkilledhim,andBreadnibblerhitLoudcrierinthebelly,sothat
hefellonhisfaceandhisspiritflittedforthfromhislimbs.Now
whenPondlarkersawLoudcrierperishing,hestruckinquicklyand
woundedTroglodyteinhissoftneckwitharocklikeamillstone,so
thatdarknessveiledhiseyes.ThereatOcimideswasseizedwithgrief,
andstruckoutwithhissharpreedanddidnotdrawhisspearbackto
himagain,butfelledhisenemythereandthen.AndLickmanshotathim
withabrightspearandhithimunerringlyinthemidriff.Andashe
markedCabbageeaterrunningaway,hefellonthesteepbank,yeteven
sodidnotceasefightingbutsmotethatothersothathefelland
didnotriseagain;andthelakewasdyedwithredbloodashelay
outstretchedalongtheshore,piercedthroughthegutsandshining
flanks.AlsoheslewCheeseeaterontheverybrink....
((LACUNA))
(ll.224251)ButReedytooktoflightwhenhesawHamnibbler,
andfled,plungingintothelakeandthrowingawayhisshield.Then
blamelessPotvisitorkilledBrewerandWaterlarkedkilledthelord
Hamnibbler,strikinghimontheheadwithapebble,sothathisbrains
flowedoutathisnostrilsandtheearthwasbespatteredwithblood.
FaultlessMuckcoucherspranguponLickplatterandkilledhimwithhis
spearandbroughtdarknessuponhiseyes:andLeekysawit,anddragged
Lickplatterbythefoot,thoughhewasdead,andchokedhiminthe
lake.ButCrumbsnatcherwasfightingtoavengehisdeadcomrades,and
hitLeekybeforehereachedtheland;andhefellforwardattheblow
andhissoulwentdowntoHades.Andseeingthis,theCabbageclimber
tookaclodofmudandhurleditattheMouse,plasteringallhis
foreheadandnearlyblindinghim.ThereatCrumbsnatcherwasenragedand
caughtupinhisstronghandahugestonethatlayupontheground,a
heavyburdenforthesoil:withthathehitCabbageclimberbelowthe
kneeandsplinteredhiswholerightshin,hurlinghimonhisbackinthe
dust.ButCroakpersonkepthimoff,andrushingattheMouseinturn,
hithiminthemiddleofthebellyanddrovethewholereedspearinto
him,andashedrewthespearbacktohimwithhisstronghand,allhis
foe'sbowelsgushedoutupontheground.AndwhenTroglodytesawthe
deed,ashewaslimpingawayfromthefightontheriverbank,heshrank
backsorelymoved,andleapedintoatrenchtoescapesheerdeath.Then
BreadnibblerhitPuffjawonthetoeshecameupatthelastfromthe
lakeandwasgreatlydistressed....
((LACUNA))
(ll.252259)AndwhenLeekysawhimfallenforward,butstillhalf
alive,hepressedthroughthosewhofoughtinfrontandhurledasharp
reedathim;butthepointofthespearwasstayedanddidnotbreak
hisshield.ThennobleRueful,likeAreshimself,struckhisflawless
headpiecemadeoffourpotsheonlyamongtheFrogsshowedprowessin
thethrong.Butwhenhesawtheotherrushathim,hedidnotstayto
meetthestoutheartedherobutdiveddowntothedepthsofthelake.
(ll.260271)NowtherewasoneamongtheMice,Slicesnatcher,
whoexcelledtherest,dearsonofGnawerthesonofblameless
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Breadstealer.Hewenttohishouseandbadehissontakepartinthe
war.ThiswarriorthreatenedtodestroytheraceofFrogsutterly[3603],
andsplittingachestnuthuskintotwopartsalongthejoint,putthe
twohollowpiecesasarmouronhispaws:thenstraightwaytheFrogswere
dismayedandallrusheddowntothelake,andhewouldhavemadegood
hisboastforhehadgreatstrengthhadnottheSonofCronos,the
Fatherofmenandgods,beenquicktomarkthethingandpitiedthe
Frogsastheywereperishing.Heshookhishead,andutteredthisword:
(ll.272276)'Dear,dear,howfearfuladeeddomyeyesbehold!
SlicesnatchermakesnosmallpanicrushingtoandfroamongtheFrogs
bythelake.LetusthenmakeallhasteandsendwarlikePallasoreven
Ares,fortheywillstophisfighting,strongthoughheis.'
(ll.277284)SosaidtheSonofCronos;butHeraansweredhim:'Sonof
Cronos,neitherthemightofAthenanorofArescanavailtodeliver
theFrogsfromutterdestruction.Rather,comeandletusallgoto
helpthem,orelseletlooseyourweapon,thegreatandformidable
TitankillerwithwhichyoukilledCapaneus,thatdoughtyman,andgreat
EnceladusandthewildtribesofGiants;ay,letitloose,forsothe
mostvaliantwillbeslain.'
(ll.285293)SosaidHera:andtheSonofCronoscastalurid
thunderbolt:firsthethunderedandmadegreatOlympusshake,andthe
castthethunderbolt,theawfulweaponofZeus,tossingitlightly
forth.Thushefrightenedthemall,FrogsandMicealike,hurlinghis
boltuponthem.YetevensothearmyoftheMicedidnotrelax,but
hopedstillmoretodestroythebroodofwarriorFrogs.Only,theSon
ofCronos,onOlympus,pitiedtheFrogsandthenstraightwaysentthem
helpers.
(ll.294303)Sotherecamesuddenlywarriorswithmailedbacksand
curvingclaws,crookedbeaststhatwalkedsideways,nutcrackerjawed,
shellhided:bonytheywere,flatbacked,withglisteningshouldersand
bandylegsandstretchingarmsandeyesthatlookedbehindthem.They
hadalsoeightlegsandtwofeelerspersistentcreatureswhoarecalled
crabs.ThesenippedoffthetailsandpawsandfeetoftheMicewith
theirjaws,whilespearsonlybeatonthem.OfthesetheMicewereall
afraidandnolongerstooduptothem,butturnedandfled.Alreadythe
sunwasset,andsocametheendoftheonedaywar.

OFTHEORIGINOFHOMERANDHESIOD,ANDOFTHEIRCONTEST
(aka"TheContestofHomerandHesiod")
Everyoneboaststhatthemostdivineofpoets,HomerandHesiod,are
saidtobehisparticularcountrymen.Hesiod,indeed,hasputaname
tohisnativeplaceandsopreventedanyrivalry,forhesaidthat
hisfather'settlednearHeliconinawretchedhamlet,Ascra,whichis
miserableinwinter,sultryinsummer,andgoodatnoseason.'But,as
forHomer,youmightalmostsaythateverycitywithitsinhabitants
claimshimasherson.ForemostarethemenofSmyrnawhosaythathe
wastheSonofMeles,theriveroftheirtown,byanymphCretheis,and
thathewasatfirstcalledMelesigenes.HewasnamedHomerlater,when
hebecameblind,thisbeingtheirusualepithetforsuchpeople.The
Chians,ontheotherhand,bringforwardevidencetoshowthathe
wastheircountryman,sayingthatthereactuallyremainsomeofhis
descendantsamongthemwhoarecalledHomeridae.TheColophonians
evenshowtheplacewheretheydeclarethathebegantocomposewhena
schoolmaster,andsaythathisfirstworkwasthe"Margites".
Astohisparentsalso,thereisonallhandsgreatdisagreement.
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HellanicusandCleanthessayhisfatherwasMaeon,butEugaeonsays
Meles;CalliclesisforMnesagoras,DemocritusofTroezenforDaemon,
amerchanttrader.Some,again,sayhewasthesonofThamyras,butthe
EgyptianssayofMenemachus,apriestscribe,andthereareeventhose
whofatherhimonTelemachus,thesonofOdysseus.Asforhismother,
sheisvariouslycalledMetis,Cretheis,Themista,andEugnetho.Others
sayshewasanIthacanwomansoldasaslavebythePhoenicians;other,
CalliopetheMuse;othersagainPolycasta,thedaughterofNestor.
HomerhimselfwascalledMelesor,accordingtodifferentaccounts,
MelesigenesorAltes.SomeauthoritiessayhewascalledHomer,because
hisfatherwasgivenasahostagetothePersiansbythemenofCyprus;
others,becauseofhisblindness;foramongsttheAeolianstheblindare
socalled.Wewillsetdown,however,whatwehaveheardtohavebeen
saidbythePythiaconcerningHomerinthetimeofthemostsacred
EmperorHadrian.WhenthemonarchinquiredfromwhatcityHomercame,
andwhosesonhewas,thepriestessdeliveredaresponseinhexameters
afterthisfashion:
'Doyouaskmeoftheobscureraceandcountryoftheheavenlysiren?
Ithacaishiscountry,Telemachushisfather,andEpicasta,Nestor's
daughter,themotherthatbarehim,amanbyfarthewisestofmortal
kind.'Thiswemustmostimplicitlybelieve,theinquirerandthe
answererbeingwhotheyareespeciallysincethepoethassogreatly
glorifiedhisgrandfatherinhisworks.
NowsomesaythathewasearlierthanHesiod,othersthathewas
youngerandakintohim.Theygivehisdescentthus:ApolloandAethusa,
daughterofPoseidon,hadasonLinus,towhomwasbornPierus.From
PierusandthenymphMethonesprangOeager;andfromOeagerandCalliope
Orpheus;fromOrpheus,Dres;andfromhim,Eucles.Thedescentis
continuedthroughIadmonides,Philoterpes,Euphemus,Epiphradesand
MelanopuswhohadsonsDiusandApelles.DiusbyPycimede,thedaughter
ofApollohadtwosonsHesiodandPerses;whileApellesbegotMaeonwho
wasthefatherofHomerbyadaughteroftheRiverMeles.
Accordingtooneaccounttheyflourishedatthesametimeandevenhad
acontestofskillatChalcisinEuboea.For,theysay,afterHomerhad
composedthe"Margites",hewentaboutfromcitytocityasaminstrel,
andcomingtoDelphi,inquiredwhohewasandofwhatcountry?The
Pythiaanswered:
'TheIsleofIosisyourmother'scountryanditshallreceiveyoudead;
butbewareoftheriddleoftheyoungchildren.'[3701]
Hearingthis,itissaid,hehesitatedtogotoIos,andremainedinthe
regionwherehewas.NowaboutthesametimeGanyctorwascelebrating
thefuneralritesofhisfatherAmphidamas,kingofEuboea,andinvited
tothegatheringnotonlyallthosewhowerefamousforbodilystrength
andfleetnessoffoot,butalsothosewhoexcelledinwit,promising
themgreatrewards.Andso,asthestorygoes,thetwowenttoChalcis
andmetbychance.TheleadingChalcidianswerejudgestogetherwith
Paneides,thebrotherofthedeadking;anditissaidthataftera
wonderfulcontestbetweenthetwopoets,Hesiodwoninthefollowing
manner:hecameforwardintothemidstandputHomeronequestionafter
another,whichHomeranswered.Hesiod,then,began:
'Homer,sonofMeles,inspiredwithwisdomfromheaven,come,tellme
firstwhatisbestformortalman?'
HOMER:'Formenonearth'tisbestnevertobebornatall;orbeing
born,topassthroughthegatesofHadeswithallspeed.'
Hesiodthenaskedagain:
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'Come,tellmenowthisalso,godlikeHomer:whatthinkyouinyour
heartismostdelightsometomen?'
Homeranswered:
'Whenmirthreignsthroughoutthetown,andfeastersaboutthehouse,
sittinginorder,listentoaminstrel;whenthetablesbesidethemare
ladenwithbreadandmeat,andawinebearerdrawssweetdrinkfrom
themixingbowlandfillsthecups:thisIthinkinmyhearttobemost
delightsome.'
ItissaidthatwhenHomerhadrecitedtheseverses,theywereso
admiredbytheGreeksastobecalledgoldenbythem,andthatevennow
atpublicsacrificesalltheguestssolemnlyrecitethembeforefeasts
andlibations.Hesiod,however,wasannoyedbyHomer'sfelicityand
hurriedontoposehimwithhardquestions.Hethereforebeganwiththe
followinglines:
'Come,Muse;singnottomeofthingsthatare,orthatshallbe,or
thatwereofold;butthinkofanothersong.'
ThenHomer,wishingtoescapefromtheimpassebyanaptanswer,
replied:
'Nevershallhorseswithclatteringhoofsbreakchariots,strivingfor
victoryaboutthetombofZeus.'
HereagainHomerhadfairlymetHesiod,andsothelatterturnedto
sentencesofdoubtfulmeaning[3702]:herecitedmanylinesandrequired
Homertocompletethesenseofeachappropriately.Thefirstofthe
followingversesisHesiod'sandthenextHomer's:butsometimesHesiod
putshisquestionintwolines.
HESIOD:'Thentheydinedonthefleshofoxenandtheirhorses'necks'
HOMER:'Theyunyokeddrippingwithsweat,whentheyhadhadenoughof
war.'
HESIOD:'AndthePhrygians,whoofallmenarehandiestatships'
HOMER:'Tofilchtheirdinnerfrompiratesonthebeach.'
HESIOD:'Toshootfortharrowsagainstthetribesofcursedgiantswith
hishands'
HOMER:'Heraclesunslunghiscurvedbowfromhisshoulders.'
HESIOD:'Thismanisthesonofabravefatherandaweakling'
HOMER:'Mother;forwaristoosternforanywoman.'
HESIOD:'Butforyou,yourfatherandladymotherlayinlove'
HOMER:'WhentheybegotyoubytheaidofgoldenAphrodite.'
HESIOD:'Butwhenshehadbeenmadesubjectinlove,Artemis,who
delightsinarrows'
HOMER:'SlewCallistowithashotofhersilverbow.'
HESIOD:'Sotheyfeastedalldaylong,takingnothing'
HOMER:'Fromtheirownhouses;forAgamemnon,kingofmen,supplied
them.'
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HESIOD:'Whentheyhadfeasted,theygatheredamongtheglowingashes
thebonesofthedeadZeus'
HOMER:'BornSarpedon,thatboldandgodlikeman.'
HESIOD:'NowwehavelingeredthusabouttheplainofSimois,forthfrom
theshipsletusgoourway,uponourshoulders'
HOMER:'Havingourhiltedswordsandlonghelvedspears.'
HESIOD:'Thentheyoungheroeswiththeirhandsfromthesea'
HOMER:'Gladlyandswiftlyhauledouttheirfleetship.'
HESIOD:'ThentheycametoColchisandkingAeetes'
HOMER:'Theyavoided;fortheyknewhewasinhospitableandlawless.'
HESIOD:'Nowwhentheyhadpouredlibationsanddeeplydrunk,the
surgingsea'
HOMER:'Theyweremindedtotraverseonwellbuiltships.'
HESIOD:'TheSonofAtreusprayedgreatlyforthemthattheyallmight
perish'
HOMER:'Atnotimeinthesea:andheopenedhismouthsaid:'
HESIOD:'Eat,myguests,anddrink,andmaynooneofyoureturnhometo
hisdearcountry'
HOMER:'Distressed;butmayyouallreachhomeagainunscathed.'
WhenHomerhadmethimfairlyoneverypointHesiodsaid:
'OnlytellmethisthingthatIask:HowmanyAchaeanswenttoIlium
withthesonsofAtreus?'
Homeransweredinamathematicalproblem,thus:
'Therewerefiftyhearths,andateachhearthwerefiftyspits,and
oneachspitwerefiftycarcases,andtherewerethricethreehundred
Achaeanstoeachjoint.'
Thisisfoundtobeanincrediblenumber;forastherewerefifty
hearths,thenumberofspitsistwothousandfivehundred;andof
carcasses,onehundredandtwentythousand...
Homer,then,havingtheadvantageoneverypoint,Hesiodwasjealousand
beganagain:
'Homer,sonofMeles,ifindeedtheMuses,daughtersofgreatZeusthe
mosthigh,honouryouasitissaid,tellmeastandardthatisboth
bestandworstformortalmen;forIlongtoknowit.'Homerreplied:
'Hesiod,sonofDius,Iamwillingtotellyouwhatyoucommand,and
veryreadilywillIansweryou.ForeachmantobeastandardwillI
answeryou.Foreachmantobeastandardtohimselfismostexcellent
forthegood,butforthebaditistheworstofallthings.Andnowask
mewhateverelseyourheartdesires.'
HESIOD:'Howwouldmenbestdwellincities,andwithwhatobservances?'
HOMER:'Byscorningtogetuncleangainandifthegoodwerehonoured,
butjusticefellupontheunjust.'
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HESIOD:'Whatisthebestthingofallforamantoaskofthegodsin
prayer?'
HOMER:'Thathemaybealwaysatpeacewithhimselfcontinually.'
HESIOD:'Canyoutellmeinbriefestspacewhatisbestofall?'
HOMER:'Asoundmindinamanlybody,asIbelieve.'
HESIOD:'Ofwhateffectarerighteousnessandcourage?'
HOMER:'Toadvancethecommongoodbyprivatepains.'
HESIOD:'Whatisthemarkofwisdomamongmen?'
HOMER:'Toreadarightthepresent,andtomarchwiththeoccasion.'
HESIOD:'Inwhatkindofmatterisitrighttotrustinmen?'
HOMER:'Wheredangeritselffollowstheactionclose.'
HESIOD:'Whatdomenmeanbyhappiness?'
HOMER:'Deathafteralifeofleastpainandgreatestpleasure.'
Aftertheseverseshadbeenspoken,alltheHellenescalledforHomer
tobecrowned.ButKingPaneidesbadeeachofthemrecitethefinest
passagefromhisownpoems.Hesiod,therefore,beganasfollows:
'WhenthePleiads,thedaughtersofAtlas,begintorisebeginthe
harvest,andbeginploughingeretheyset.Forfortynightsanddays
theyarehidden,butappearagainastheyearwearsround,whenfirst
thesickleissharpened.Thisisthelawoftheplainsandforthose
whodwellneartheseaorliveintherichsoiledvalleys,farfromthe
wavetosseddeep:striptosow,andstriptoplough,andstriptoreap
whenallthingsareinseason.'[3703]
ThenHomer:
'TheranksstoodfirmaboutthetwoAiantes,suchthatnotevenAres
wouldhavescornedthemhadhemetthem,noryetAthenawhosaves
armies.FortherethechosenbestawaitedthechargeoftheTrojans
andnobleHector,makingafenceofspearsandserriedshields.Shield
closedwithshield,andhelmwithhelm,andeachmanwithhisfellow,
andthepeaksoftheirheadpieceswithcrestsofhorsehairtouched
astheybenttheirheads:soclosetheystoodtogether.Themurderous
battlebristledwiththelong,fleshrendingspearstheyheld,andthe
flashofbronzefrompolishedhelmsandnewburnishedbreastplates
andgleamingshieldsblindedtheeyes.Veryhardofheartwouldhehave
been,whocouldthenhaveseenthatstrifewithjoyandfeltnopang.'
[3704]
Here,again,theHellenesapplaudedHomeradmiringly,sofardid
theversesexceedtheordinarylevel;anddemandedthatheshouldbe
adjudgedthewinner.ButthekinggavethecrowntoHesiod,declaring
thatitwasrightthathewhocalleduponmentofollowpeaceand
husbandryshouldhavetheprizeratherthanonewhodweltonwarand
slaughter.Inthisway,then,wearetold,Hesiodgainedthevictory
andreceivedabrazentripodwhichhededicatedtotheMuseswiththis
inscription:
'HesioddedicatedthistripodtotheMusesofHeliconafterhehad
conquereddivineHomeratChalcisinacontestofsong.'
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Afterthegatheringwasdispersed,Hesiodcrossedtothemainlandand
wenttoDelphitoconsulttheoracleandtodedicatethefirstfruitsof
hisvictorytothegod.Theysaythatashewasapproachingthetemple,
theprophetessbecameinspiredandsaid:
'Blessedisthismanwhoservesmyhouse,Hesiod,whoishonouredby
thedeathlessMuses:surelyhisrenownshallbeaswideasthelight
ofdawnisspread.ButbewareofthepleasantgroveofNemeanZeus;for
theredeath'sendisdestinedtobefallyou.'
WhenHesiodheardthisoracle,hekeptawayfromthePeloponnesus,
supposingthatthegodmeanttheNemeathere;andcomingtoOenoein
Locris,hestayedwithAmphiphanesandGanyetorthesonsofPhegeus,
thusunconsciouslyfulfillingtheoracle;forallthatregionwascalled
thesacredplaceofNemeanZeus.Hecontinuedtostayasomewhatlong
timeatOenoe,untiltheyoungmen,suspectingHesiodofseducingtheir
sister,killedhimandcasthisbodyintotheseawhichseparatesAchaea
andLocris.Onthethirdday,however,hisbodywasbroughttolandby
dolphinswhilesomelocalfeastofAriadnewasbeingheld.Thereupon,
allthepeoplehurriedtotheshore,andrecognizedthebody,lamented
overitandburiedit,andthenbegantolookfortheassassins.But
these,fearingtheangeroftheircountrymen,launchedafishingboat,
andputouttoseaforCrete:theyhadfinishedhalftheirvoyagewhen
Zeussankthemwithathunderbolt,asAlcidamasstatesinhis"Museum".
Eratosthenes,however,saysinhis"Hesiod"thatCtimenusandAntiphus,
sonsofGanyetor,killedhimforthereasonalreadystated,andwere
sacrificedbyEuryclestheseertothegodsofhospitality.Headdsthat
thegirl,sisteroftheabovenamed,hangedherselfaftershehadbeen
seduced,andthatshewasseducedbysomestranger,Demodesbyname,who
wastravellingwithHesiod,andwhowasalsokilledbythebrothers.
AtalatertimethemenofOrchomenusremovedhisbodyastheywere
directedbyanoracle,andburiedhimintheirowncountrywherethey
placedthisinscriptiononhistomb:
'Ascrawithitsmanycornfieldswashisnativeland;butindeaththe
landofthehorsedrivingMinyansholdsthebonesofHesiod,whose
renownisgreatestamongmenofallwhoarejudgedbythetestofwit.'
SomuchforHesiod.ButHomer,afterlosingthevictory,wentfromplace
toplacerecitinghispoems,andfirstofallthe"Thebais"inseven
thousandverseswhichbegins:'Goddess,singofparchedArgoswhence
kings...',andthenthe"Epigoni"inseventhousandversesbeginning:
'Andnow,Muses,letusbegintosingofmenoflaterdays';forsome
saythatthesepoemsalsoarebyHomer.NowXanthusandGorgus,sonof
Midastheking,heardhisepicsandinvitedhimtocomposeaepitaph
forthetomboftheirfatheronwhichwasabronzefigureofamaiden
bewailingthedeathofMidas.Hewrotethefollowinglines:
'IamamaidenofbronzeandsituponthetombofMidas.Whilewater
flows,andtalltreesputforthleaves,andriversswell,andthesea
breaksontheshore;whilethesunrisesandshinesandthebrightmoon
also,everremainingonthismournfultombItellthepasserbythat
Midashereliesburied.'
Fortheseversestheygavehimasilverbowlwhichhededicatedto
ApolloatDelphiwiththisinscription:'LordPhoebus,I,Homer,have
givenyouanoblegiftforthewisdomIhaveofyou:doyouevergrant
merenown.'
Afterthishecomposedthe"Odyssey"intwelvethousandverses,having
previouslywrittenthe"Iliad"infifteenthousandfivehundred
verses[3705].FromDelphi,aswearetold,hewenttoAthensandwas
entertainedbyMedon,kingoftheAthenians.Andbeingonedayinthe
councilhallwhenitwascoldandafirewasburningthere,hedrewoff
thefollowinglines:
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'Childrenareaman'scrown,andtowersofacity,horsesarethe
ornamentofaplain,andshipsofthesea;andgooditistosee
apeopleseatedinassembly.Butwithablazingfireahouselooks
worthieruponawintrydaywhentheSonofCronossendsdownsnow.'
FromAthenshewentontoCorinth,wherehesangsnatchesofhispoems
andwasreceivedwithdistinction.NexthewenttoArgosandthere
recitedtheseversesfromthe"Iliad":
'ThesonsoftheAchaeanswhoheldArgosandwalledTiryns,andHermione
andAsinewhichliealongadeepbay,andTroezen,andEiones,and
vinecladEpidaurus,andtheislandofAegina,andMases,these
followedstrongvoicedDiomedes,sonofTydeus,whohadthespirit
ofhisfatherthesonofOeneus,andSthenelus,dearsonoffamous
Capaneus.Andwiththesetwotherewentathirdleader,Eurypylus,
agodlikeman,sonofthelordMecisteus,sprungofTalaus;but
strongvoicedDiomedeswastheirchiefleader.Thesemenhadeighty
darkshipswhereinwererangedmenskilledinwar,Argiveswithlinen
jerkins,verygoadsofwar.'[3706]
Thispraiseoftheirracebythemostfamousofallpoetssoexceedingly
delightedtheleadingArgives,thattheyrewardedhimwithcostlygifts
andsetupabrazenstatuetohim,decreeingthatsacrificeshouldbe
offeredtoHomerdaily,monthly,andyearly;andthatanothersacrifice
shouldbesenttoChioseveryfiveyears.Thisistheinscriptionthey
cutuponhisstatue:
'ThisisdivineHomerwhobyhissweetvoicedarthonouredallproud
Hellas,butespeciallytheArgiveswhothrewdownthegodbuiltwallsof
TroytoavengerichhairedHelen.Forthiscausethepeopleofagreat
citysethisstatuehereandservehimwiththehonoursofthedeathless
gods.'
AfterhehadstayedforsometimeinArgos,hecrossedovertoDelos,
tothegreatassembly,andthere,standingonthealtarofhorns,he
recitedthe"HymntoApollo"[3707]whichbegins:'Iwillrememberand
notforgetApollothefarshooter.'Whenthehymnwasended,theIonians
madehimacitizenofeachoneoftheirstates,andtheDelianswrote
thepoemonawhitenedtabletanddedicateditinthetempleofArtemis.
ThepoetsailedtoIos,aftertheassemblywasbrokenup,tojoin
Creophylus,andstayedtheresometime,beingnowanoldman.And,itis
said,ashewassittingbytheseaheaskedsomeboyswhowerereturning
fromfishing:
'Sirs,huntersofdeepseaprey,havewecaughtanything?'
Tothisreplied:
'Allthatwecaught,weleftbehind,andcarryawayallthatwedidnot
catch.'
Homerdidnotunderstandthisreplyandaskedwhattheymeant.Theythen
explainedthattheyhadcaughtnothinginfishing,buthadbeencatching
theirlice,andthoseofthelicewhichtheycaught,theyleftbehind;
butcarriedawayintheirclothesthosewhichtheydidnotcatch.
HereuponHomerrememberedtheoracleand,perceivingthattheendofhis
lifehadcomecomposedhisownepitaph.Andwhilehewasretiringfrom
thatplace,heslippedinaclayeyplaceandfelluponhisside,and
died,itissaid,thethirddayafter.HewasburiedinIos,andthisis
hisepitaph:
'HeretheearthcoversthesacredheadofdivineHomer,theglorifierof
heromen.'
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*****

ENDNOTES:
[Footnote1101:sc.inBoeotia,LocrisandThessaly:elsewherethe
movementwasforcedandunfruitful.]
[Footnote1102:Theextantcollectionofthreepoems,"WorksandDays",
"Theogony",and"ShieldofHeracles",whichalonehavecomedowntous
complete,datesatleastfromthe4thcenturyA.D.:thetitleofthe
ParisPapyrus(Bibl.Nat.Suppl.Gr.1099)namesonlythesethree
works.]
[Footnote1103:"DerDialektdesHesiodes",p.464:examplesareAENEMI
(W.andD.683)andAROMENAI(ib.22).]
[Footnote1104:T.W.AllensuggeststhattheconjuredDelianandPythian
hymnstoApollo("HomericHymns"III)mayhavesuggestedthisversionof
thestory,thePythianhymnshowingstrongcontinentalinfluence.]
[Footnote1105:Sheissaidtohavegivenbirthtothelyrist
Stesichorus.]
[Footnote1106:SeeKinkel"Epic.Graec.Frag."i.158ff.]
[Footnote1107:See"GreatWorks",frag.2.]
[Footnote1108:"HesiodiFragmenta",pp.119f.]
[Footnote1109:Possiblythedivisionofthispoemintotwobooksisa
divisionbelongingsolelytothis'developedpoem',whichmayhave
includedinitssecondpartasummaryoftheTaleofTroy.]
[Footnote1110:Goettling'sexplanation.]
[Footnote1111:x.1.52.]
[Footnote1112:Odysseusappearstohavebeenmentionedonceonlyand
thatcasuallyinthe"Returns".]
[Footnote1113:M.M.Croisetnotethatthe"Aethiopis"andthe"Sack"
wereoriginallymerelypartsofoneworkcontaininglays(theAmazoneia,
Aethiopis,Persis,etc.),justasthe"Iliad"containedvariouslays
suchastheDiomedeia.]
[Footnote1114:Nodateisassignedtohim,butitseemslikelythathe
waseithercontemporaryorslightlyearlierthanLesches.]
[Footnote1115:Cp.AllenandSikes,"HomericHymns"p.xv.Inthetext
Ihavefollowedthearrangementofthesescholars,numberingtheHymns
toDionysusandtoDemeter,IandIIrespectively:toplace"Demeter"
after"Hermes",andtheHymntoDionysusattheendofthecollection
seemstobemerelyperverse.]
[Footnote1116:"GreekMelicPoets",p.165.]
[Footnote1117:ThismonumentwasreturnedtoGreeceinthe1980's.
DBK.]
[Footnote1118:Cp.Marckscheffel,"Hesiodifragmenta",p.35.The
papyrusfragmentrecoveredbyPetrie("PetriePapyri",ed.Mahaffy,p.
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70,No.xxv.)agreesessentiallywiththeextantdocument,butdiffers
innumerousminortextualpoints.]
[Footnote1201:SeeSchubert,"Berl.Klassikertexte"v.1.22ff.;the
otherpapyrimaybefoundinthepublicationswhosenametheybear.]
[Footnote1202:Unlessotherwisenoted,allMSS.areofthe15th
century.]
[Footnote1203:TothislistIwouldalsoaddthefollowing:"Hesiodand
Theognis",translatedbyDorotheaWender(PenguinClassics,London,
1973).DBK.]
[Footnote1301:Thatis,thepoorman'sfare,like'breadandcheese'.]
[Footnote1302:TheAllendowed.]
[Footnote1303:Thejarorcasketcontainedthegiftsofthegods
mentionedinl.82.]
[Footnote1304:EustathiusreferstoHesiodasstatingthatmensprung
'fromoaksandstonesandashtrees'.ProclusbelievedthattheNymphs
calledMeliae("Theogony",187)areintended.Goettlingwouldrender:'A
raceterriblebecauseoftheir(ashen)spears.']
[Footnote1305:PreservedonlybyProclus,fromwhomsomeinferiorMSS.
havecopiedtheverse.ThefourfollowinglinesoccuronlyinGeneva
PapyriNo.94.Fortherestorationofll.169bcsee"Class.Quart."
vii.219220.(NOTE:Mr.EvelynWhitemeansthattheversionquotedby
Proclusstopsatthispoint,thenpicksupatl.170.DBK).]
[Footnote1306:i.e.theracewillsodegeneratethatatthelastevena
newbornchildwillshowthemarksofoldage.]
[Footnote1307:Aidos,asaquality,isthatfeelingofreverenceor
shamewhichrestrainsmenfromwrong:Nemesisisthefeelingof
righteousindignationarousedespeciallybythesightofthewickedin
undeservedprosperity(cf."Psalms",lxxii.119).]
[Footnote1308:Thealternativeversionis:'and,working,youwillbe
muchbetterlovedbothbygodsandmen;fortheygreatlydislikethe
idle.']
[Footnote1309:i.e.neighbourscomeatonceandwithoutmaking
preparations,butkinsmenbymarriage(wholiveatadistance)haveto
prepare,andsoarelongincoming.]
[Footnote1310:EarlyinMay.]
[Footnote1311:InNovember.]
[Footnote1312:InOctober.]
[Footnote1313:Forpoundingcorn.]
[Footnote1314:Amalletforbreakingclodsafterploughing.]
[Footnote1315:Theloafisaflattishcakewithtwointersectinglines
scoredonitsuppersurfacewhichdivideitintofourequalparts.]
[Footnote1316:Themeaningisobscure.Ascholiastrenders'giving
eightmouthfulls';buttheelderPhilostratususesthewordincontrast
to'leavened'.]
[Footnote1317:AboutthemiddleofNovember.]
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[Footnote1318:Springissodescribedbecausethebudshavenotyet
casttheirirongreyhusks.]
[Footnote1319:InDecember.]
[Footnote1320:InMarch.]
[Footnote1321:ThelatterpartofJanuaryandearlierpartof
February.]
[Footnote1322:i.e.theoctopusorcuttle.]
[Footnote1323:i.e.thedarkerskinnedpeopleofAfrica,theEgyptians
orAethiopians.]
[Footnote1324:i.e.anoldmanwalkingwithastaff(the'thirdleg'
asintheriddleoftheSphinx).]
[Footnote1325:FebruarytoMarch.]
[Footnote1326:i.e.thesnail.TheseasonisthemiddleofMay.]
[Footnote1327:InJune.]
[Footnote1328:July.]
[Footnote1329:i.e.arobber.]
[Footnote1330:September.]
[Footnote1331:TheendofOctober.]
[Footnote1332:Thatis,thesuccessionofstarswhichmakeupthefull
year.]
[Footnote1333:TheendofOctoberorbeginningofNovember.]
[Footnote1334:JulyAugust.]
[Footnote1335:i.e.untimely,premature.Juvenalsimilarlyspeaksof
'crudasenectus'(causedbygluttony).]
[Footnote1336:Thethoughtisparalleltothatof'O,whatagoodly
outsidefalsehoodhath.']
[Footnote1337:The'commonfeast'isonetowhichallpresent
subscribe.Theognis(line495)saysthatoneofthechiefpleasuresofa
banquetisthegeneralconversation.Hencethepresentpassagemeans
thatsuchafeastnaturallycostslittle,whilethemanypresentwill
makepleasurableconversation.]
[Footnote1338:i.e.'donotcutyourfingernails'.]
[Footnote1339:i.e.thingswhichitwouldbesacrilegetodisturb,such
astombs.]
[Footnote1340:H.G.EvelynWhitepreferstoswitchll.768and769,
readingl.769firstthenl.768.DBK]
[Footnote1341:Themonthisdividedintothreeperiods,thewaxing,the
midmonth,andthewaning,whichanswertothephasesofthemoon.]
[Footnote1342:i.e.theant.]
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[Footnote1343:Suchseemstobethemeaninghere,thoughtheepithetis
otherwiserendered'wellrounded'.Cornwasthreshedbymeansofa
sleighwithtworunnershavingthreeorfourrollersbetweenthem,like
themodernEgyptian"nurag".]
[Footnote1401:ThishaltverseisaddedbytheScholiastonAratus,
172.]
[Footnote1402:The"Catasterismi"("PlacingsamongtheStars")isa
collectionoflegendsrelatingtothevariousconstellations.]
[Footnote1403:TheStraitsofMessina.]
[Footnote1501:Orperhaps'aScythian'.]
[Footnote1601:Theepithetprobablyindicatescoquettishness.]
[Footnote1602:Aproverbialsayingmeaning,'whyenlargeonirrelevant
topics?']
[Footnote1603:'Sheofthenoblevoice':CalliopeisqueenofEpic
poetry.]
[Footnote1604:Earth,inthecosmologyofHesiod,isadisksurrounded
bytheriverOceanusandfloatinguponawasteofwaters.Itiscalled
thefoundationofall(thequalification'thedeathlessones...'etc.is
aninterpolation),becausenotonlytrees,men,andanimals,buteven
thehillsandseas(ll.129,131)aresupportedbyit.]
[Footnote1605:Aetheristhebright,untaintedupperatmosphere,as
distinguishedfromAer,theloweratmosphereoftheearth.]
[Footnote1606:BrontesistheThunderer;Steropes,theLightener;and
Arges,theVividOne.]
[Footnote1607:ThemythaccountsfortheseparationofHeavenand
Earth.InEgyptiancosmologyNut(theSky)isthrustandheldapartfrom
herbrotherGeb(theEarth)bytheirfatherShu,whocorrespondstothe
GreekAtlas.]
[Footnote1608:Nymphsoftheashtrees,asDryadsarenymphsofthe
oaktrees.Cp.noteon"WorksandDays",l.145.]
[Footnote1609:'Memberloving':thetitleisperhapsonlyaperversion
oftheregularPHILOMEIDES(laughterloving).]
[Footnote1610:Cletho(theSpinner)isshewhospinsthethreadof
man'slife;Lachesis(theDisposerofLots)assignstoeachmanhis
destiny;Atropos(Shewhocannotbeturned)isthe'Furywiththe
abhorredshears.']
[Footnote1611:Manyofthenameswhichfollowexpressvariousqualities
oraspectsofthesea:thusGaleneis'Calm',Cymothoeisthe
'Waveswift',PherusaandDynameneare'Shewhospeeds(ships)'and
'Shewhohaspower'.]
[Footnote1612:The'Wavereceiver'andthe'Wavestiller'.]
[Footnote1613:'TheUnerring'or'Truthful';cp.l.235.]
[Footnote1614:i.e.Poseidon.]
[Footnote1615:Goettlingnotesthatsomeofthesenymphsderivetheir
namesfromlandsoverwhichtheypreside,asEuropa,Asia,Doris,
Ianeira('LadyoftheIonians'),butthatmostarecalledaftersome
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qualitywhichtheirstreamspossessed:thusXantheisthe'Brown'or
'Turbid',Amphirhoisthe'Surrounding'river,Iantheis'Shewho
delights',andOcyrrhoeisthe'Swiftflowing'.]
[Footnote1616:i.e.Eos,the'Earlyborn'.]
[Footnote1617:VanLennepexplainsthatHecate,havingnobrothersto
supportherclaim,mighthavebeenslighted.]
[Footnote1618:Thegoddessofthehearth(theRoman"Vesta"),andsoof
thehouse.Cp."HomericHymns"v.22ff.;xxxix.1ff.]
[Footnote1619:Thevariantreading'ofhisfather'(sc.Heaven)rests
oninferiorMS.authorityandisprobablyanalterationduetothe
difficultystatedbyaScholiast:'HowcouldZeus,beingnotyet
begotten,plotagainsthisfather?'Thephraseis,however,partofthe
prophecy.Thewholelinemaywellbespurious,andisrejectedbyHeyne,
Wolf,GaisfordandGuyet.]
[Footnote1620:Pausanias(x.24.6)sawnearthetombofNeoptolemus'a
stoneofnogreatsize',whichtheDelphiansanointedeverydaywith
oil,andwhichhesayswassupposedtobethestonegiventoCronos.]
[Footnote1621:AScholiastexplains:'Eitherbecausethey(men)sprang
fromtheMeliannymphs(cp.l.187);orbecause,whentheywereborn
(?),theycastthemselvesundertheashtrees,thatis,thetrees.'The
referencemaybetotheoriginofmenfromashtrees:cp."Worksand
Days",l.145andnote.]
[Footnote1622:sc.Atlas,theShuofEgyptianmythology:cp.noteon
line177.]
[Footnote1623:Oceanusishereregardedasacontinuousstream
enclosingtheearthandtheseas,andsoasflowingbackuponhimself.]
[Footnote1624:TheconceptionofOceanusisheredifferent:hehasnine
streamswhichencircletheearthandthenflowoutintothe'main'which
appearstobethewasteofwatersonwhich,accordingtoearlyGreekand
Hebrewcosmology,thedisklikeearthfloated.]
[Footnote1625:i.e.thethresholdisof'native'metal,andnot
artificial.]
[Footnote1626:AccordingtoHomerTyphoeuswasoverwhelmedbyZeus
amongsttheArimiinCilicia.Pindarrepresentshimasburiedunder
Aetna,andTzetzesreadsAetnainthispassage.]
[Footnote1627:Theepithet(whichmeansliterally'wellbored')seems
torefertothespoutofthecrucible.]
[Footnote1628:Thefiregod.Thereisnoreferencetovolcanicaction:
ironwassmeltedonMountIda;cp."EpigramsofHomer",ix.24.]
[Footnote1629:i.e.Athena,whowasborn'onthebanksoftheriver
Trito'(cp.l.929l)]
[Footnote1630:RestoredbyPeppmuller.Thenineteenfollowinglines
fromanotherrecensionoflines889900,9249arequotedbyChrysippus
(inGalen).]
[Footnote1631:sc.theaegis.Line929sisprobablyspurious,sinceit
disagreeswithl.929qandcontainsasuspiciousreferencetoAthens.]
[Footnote1701:Acatalogueofheroineseachofwhomwasintroducedwith
thewordsEOIE,'Orlikeher'.]
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[Footnote1702:AnantiquarianwriterofByzantium,c.490570A.D.]
[Footnote1703:ConstantineVII.'BorninthePorphyryChamber',905959
A.D.]
[Footnote1704:"BerlinPapyri",7497(lefthandfragment)and
"OxyrhynchusPapyri",421(righthandfragment).Fortherestorationsee
"Class.Quart."vii.2178.]
[Footnote1705:Asthepricetobegiventoherfatherforher:soin
"Iliad"xviii.593maidensarecalled'earnersofoxen'.Possibly
Glaucus,likeAias(fr.68,ll.55ff.),raidedthecattleofothers.]
[Footnote1706:i.e.Glaucusshouldfatherthechildrenofothers.The
curseofAphroditeonthedaughtersofTyndareus(fr.67)maybe
compared.]
[Footnote1707:Porphyry,scholar,mathematician,philosopherand
historian,lived233305(?)A.D.HewasapupiloftheneoPlatonist
Plotinus.]
[Footnote1708:Authorofageographicallexicon,producedafter400
A.D.,andabridgedunderJustinian.]
[Footnote1709:ArchbishopofThessalonica11751192(?)A.D.,authorof
commentariesonPindarandonthe"Iliad"and"Odyssey".]
[Footnote1710:Intheearliesttimesaloinclothwaswornbyathletes,
butwasdiscardedafterthe14thOlympiad.]
[Footnote1711:Slightremainsoffivelinesprecedeline1inthe
original:afterline20anunknownnumberoflineshavebeenlost,and
tracesofaverseprecedingline21arehereomitted.Betweenlines29
and30arefragmentsofsixverseswhichdonotsuggestanydefinite
restoration.(NOTE:LineenumerationisthataccordingtoEvelynWhite;
aslightlydifferentlinenumberingsystemisadoptedintheoriginal
publicationofthisfragment.DBK)]
[Footnote1712:TheendofSchoeneus'speech,thepreparationsandthe
beginningoftheracearelost.]
[Footnote1713:OfthethreewhichAphroditegavehimtoenablehimto
overcomeAtalanta.]
[Footnote1714:Thegeographer;fl.c.24B.C.]
[Footnote1715:OfMiletus,flourishedabout520B.C.Hiswork,a
mixtureofhistoryandgeography,wasusedbyHerodotus.]
[Footnote1716:TheHesiodicstoryofthedaughtersofProetuscanbe
reconstructedfromthesesources.Theyweresoughtinmarriagebyall
theGreeks(Pauhellenes),buthavingoffendedDionysus(or,accordingto
Servius,Juno),wereafflictedwithadiseasewhichdestroyedtheir
beauty(orwereturnedintocows).Theywerefinallyhealedby
Melampus.]
[Footnote1717:Fl.5688A.D.:heisbestknownforhisworkon
Vergil.]
[Footnote1718:Thisandthefollowingfragmentsegmentaremeanttobe
readtogether.DBK.]
[Footnote1719:Thisfragmentaswellasfragments#40A,#101,and#102
wereaddedbyMr.EvelynWhiteinanappendixtothesecondedition
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(1919).Theyareheremovedtothe"Catalogues"properforeasieruseby
thereader.DBK.]
[Footnote1720:Fortherestorationofll.116see"Ox.Pap."pt.xi.
pp.467:thesupplementsofll.1731arebytheTranslator(cp.
"Class.Quart."x.(1916),pp.6567).]
[Footnote1721:ThecrocuswastoattractEuropa,asintheverysimilar
storyofPersephone:cp."HomericHymns"ii.lines8ff.]
[Footnote1722:ApollodorusofAthens(fl.144B.C.)wasapupilof
Aristarchus.HewroteaHandbookofMythology,fromwhichtheextant
workbearinghisnameisderived.]
[Footnote1723:PriestatPraeneste.Helivedc.170230A.D.]
[Footnote1724:SonofApolloniusDyscolus,livedinRomeunderMarcus
Aurelius.Hischiefworkwasonaccentuation.]
[Footnote1725:Thisandthenexttwofragmentsegmentsaremeanttobe
readtogether.DBK.]
[Footnote1726:SacredtoPoseidon.Forthecustomobservedthere,cp.
"HomericHymns"iii.231ff.]
[Footnote1727:Theallusionisobscure.]
[Footnote1728:Apollonius'theCrabbed'wasagrammarianofAlexandria
underHadrian.HewrotelargelyonGrammarandSyntax.]
[Footnote1729:275195(?)B.C.,mathematician,astronomer,scholar,
andheadoftheLibraryofAlexandria.]
[Footnote1730:OfCyme.Hewroteauniversalhistorycoveringthe
periodbetweentheDorianMigrationand340B.C.]
[Footnote1731:i.e.thenomadScythians,whoaredescribedbyHerodotus
asfeedingonmares'milkandlivingincaravans.]
[Footnote1732:Therestorationsaremainlythoseadoptedorsuggested
in"Ox.Pap."pt.xi.pp.48ff.:forthoseofll.814see"Class.
Quart."x.(1916)pp.6769.]
[Footnote1733:i.e.thosewhoseektooutwittheoracle,ortoaskof
itmorethantheyought,willbedeceivedbyitandbeledtoruin:cp.
"HymntoHermes",541ff.]
[Footnote1734:ZetesandCalais,sonsofBoreas,whowereamongstthe
Argonauts,deliveredPhineusfromtheHarpies.TheStrophades('Islands
ofTurning')areheresupposedtohavebeensocalledbecausethesons
ofBoreaswerethereturnedbackbyIrisfrompursuingtheHarpies.]
[Footnote1735:AnEpicureanphilosopher,fl.50B.C.]
[Footnote1736:'Charmingwithhervoice'(or'Charmingthemind'),
'Song',and'Lovelysounding'.]
[Footnote1737:DiodorusSiculus,fl.8B.C.,authorofanuniversal
historyendingwithCaesar'sGallicWars.]
[Footnote1738:Thefirstepicinthe"TrojanCycle";likeallancient
epicsitwasascribedtoHomer,butalso,withmoreprobability,to
StasinusofCyprus.]
[Footnote1739:ThisfragmentisplacedbySpohnafter"WorksandDays"
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l.120.]
[Footnote1740:AGreekofAsiaMinor,authorofthe"Descriptionof
Greece"(onwhichhewasstillengagedin173A.D.).]
[Footnote1741:Wilamowitzthinksoneorotherofthesecitations
belongstotheCatalogue.]
[Footnote1742:Lines151arefromBerlinPapyri,9739;lines52106
withB.150(andfollowingfragments)arefromBerlinPapyri,10560.A
referencebyPausanias(iii.24.10)toll.100ff.provesthatthetwo
fragmentstogethercomefromthe"CatalogueofWomen".Thesecondbook
(thebeginningofwhichisindicatedafterl.106)canhardlybethe
secondbookofthe"Catalogues"proper:possiblyitshouldbeassigned
totheEOIAI,whichweresometimestreatedaspartofthe"Catalogues",
andsometimesseparatedfromit.Theremainsofthirtysevenlines
followingB.50inthePapyrusaretooslighttoadmitofrestoration.]
[Footnote1743:sc.theSuitorwhosenameislost.]
[Footnote1744:Wooingwasbyproxy;soAgamemnonwooedHelenforhis
brotherMenelaus(ll.1415),andIdomeneus,whocameinpersonandsent
nodeputy,isspeciallymentionedasanexception,andthereasonsfor
thisiftherestorationprintedinthetextberightisstated(ll.69
ff.).]
[Footnote1745:ThePapyrusheremarksthebeginningofasecondbook
("B"),possiblyoftheEOIAE.Thepassage(ll.250)probablyledupto
anaccountoftheTrojan(andTheban?)war,inwhich,accordingto
"WorksandDays"ll.161166,theRaceofHeroesperished.Theopening
ofthe"Cypria"issomewhatsimilar.Somewhereinthefragmentarylines
1319asonofZeusalmostcertainlyApollowasintroduced,thoughfor
whatpurposeisnotclear.Withl.31thedestructionofman(cp.ll.
45)bystormswhichspoilhiscropsbegins:theremainingversesare
parenthetical,describingthesnake'whichbearsitsyounginthespring
season'.]
[Footnote1746:i.e.thesnake;asin"WorksandDays"l.524,the
"BonelessOne"isthecuttlefish.]
[Footnote1747:c.11101180A.D.Hischiefworkwasapoem,
"Chiliades",inaccentualverseofnearly13,000lines.]
[Footnote1748:AccordingtothisaccountIphigeneiawascarriedby
ArtemistotheTaurieChersonnese(theCrimea).TheTauri(Herodotusiv.
103)identifiedtheirmaidengoddesswithIphigeneia;butEuripides
("IphigeneiainTauris")makeshermerelypriestessofthegoddess.]
[Footnote1749:OfAlexandria.Helivedinthe5thcentury,andcompiled
aGreekLexicon.]
[Footnote1750:ForhismurderMinosexactedayearlytributeofboys
andgirls,tobedevouredbytheMinotaur,fromtheAthenians.]
[Footnote1751:OfNaucratis.His"Deipnosophistae"("DonsatDinner")
isanencyclopaediaofmiscellaneoustopicsintheformofadialogue.
Hisdateisc.230A.D.]
[Footnote1752:ThereisafanciedconnectionbetweenLAAS('stone')and
LAOS('people').ThereferenceistothestoneswhichDeucalionand
PyrrhatransformedintomenandwomenaftertheFlood.]
[Footnote1753:EustathiusidentifiesIleuswithOileus,fatherofAias.
Hereagainisfancifuletymology,ILEUSbeingsimilartoILEOS
(complaisant,gracious).]
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[Footnote1754:ImitatedbyVergil,"Aeneid"vii.808,describing
Camilla.]
[Footnote1755:c.600A.D.,alecturerandgrammarianof
Constantinople.]
[Footnote1756:PriestofApollo,and,accordingtoHomer,discovererof
wine.MaroneainThraceissaidtohavebeencalledafterhim.]
[Footnote1757:Thecrowwasoriginallywhite,butwasturnedblackby
Apolloinhisangeratthenewsbroughtbythebird.]
[Footnote1758:AphilosopherofAthensunderHadrianandAntonius.He
becameaChristianandwroteadefenceoftheChristiansaddressedto
AntoninusPius.]
[Footnote1759:ZeusslewAsclepus(fr.90)becauseofhissuccessasa
healer,andApolloinrevengekilledtheCyclopes(fr.64).In
punishmentApollowasforcedtoserveAdmetusasherdsman.(Cp.
Euripides,"Alcestis",18)]
[Footnote1760:ForCyreneandAristaeus,cp.Vergil,"Georgics",iv.
315ff.]
[Footnote1761:Awriteronmythologyofuncertaindate.]
[Footnote1762:InEpirus.TheoraclewasfirstconsultedbyDeucalion
andPyrrhaaftertheFlood.Laterwriterssaythatthegodrespondedin
therustlingofleavesintheoaksforwhichtheplacewasfamous.]
[Footnote1763:Thefragmentispartofaleaffromapapyrusbookof
the4thcenturyA.D.]
[Footnote1764:AccordingtoHomerandlaterwritersMeleagerwasted
awaywhenhismotherAltheaburnedthebrandonwhichhislifedepended,
becausehehadslainherbrothersinthedisputeforthehideofthe
Calydonianboar.(Cp.Bacchylides,"Ode"v.136ff.)]
[Footnote1765:Thefragmentprobablybelongstothe"Catalogues"proper
ratherthantotheEoiae;but,asitspositionisuncertain,itmay
convenientlybeassociatedwithFrags.99Aandthe"Shieldof
Heracles".]
[Footnote1766:Mostofthesmallerrestorationsappearintheoriginal
publication,butthelargerarenew:theselastarehighlyconjectual,
therebeingnodefinitecluetothegeneralsense.]
[Footnote1767:Alcmaon(whotookpartinthesecondofthetwoheroic
Thebanexpeditions)isperhapsmentionedonlyincidentallyasthesonof
Amphiaraus,whoseemstobeclearlyindicatedinll.78,andwhose
storyoccupiesll.510.Atl.11thesubjectchangesandElectryonis
introducedasfatherofAlcmena.]
[Footnote1768:Theassociationofll.116withll.1724ispresumed
fromtheapparentmentionofErichthoniusinl.19.Anewsectionmust
thenbeginatl.21.See"Ox.Pap."pt.xi.p.55(andforrestoration
ofll.516,ib.p.53).ll.1920arerestoredbytheTranslator.]
[Footnote1801:AmountainpeaknearThebeswhichtookitsnamefromthe
Sphinx(calledin"Theogony"l.326PHIX).]
[Footnote1802:Cyanuswasaglasspasteofdeepbluecolour:the
'zones'wereconcentricbandsinwhichwerethescenesdescribedbythe
poet.ThefigureofFear(l.44)occupiedthecentreoftheshield,and
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Oceanus(l.314)enclosedthewhole.]
[Footnote1803:'Shewhodrivesherds,'i.e.'TheVictorious',since
herdswerethechiefspoilgainedbythevictorinancientwarfare.]
[Footnote1804:Thecapofdarknesswhichmadeitswearerinvisible.]
[Footnote1805:Theexistingtextofthevineyardsceneisacompoundof
twodifferentversions,clumsilyadapted,andekedoutwithsome
makeshiftadditions.]
[Footnote1806:Theconceptionissimilartothatofthesculptured
groupatAthensofTwoLionsdevouringaBull(Dickens,"Cat.ofthe
AcropolisMuseaum",No.3).]
[Footnote1901:AGreeksophistwhotaughtrhetoricatRomeinthetime
ofHadrian.Heistheauthorofacollectionofproverbsinthree
books.]
[Footnote2001:WhenHeraclesprayedthatasonmightbeborntoTelamon
andEriboea,Zeussentforthaneagleintokenthattheprayerwouldbe
granted.HeraclesthenbadetheparentscalltheirsonAiasafterthe
eagle('aietos').]
[Footnote2002:Oenomaus,kingofPisainElis,warnedbyanoraclethat
heshouldbekilledbyhissoninlaw,offeredhisdaughterHippodamia
tothemanwhocoulddefeathiminachariotrace,onconditionthatthe
defeatedsuitorsshouldbeslainbyhim.UltimatelyPelops,throughthe
treacheryofthecharioteerofOenomaus,becamevictorious.]
[Footnote2003:sc.toScythia.]
[Footnote2004:IntheHomeric"HymntoHermes"Battusalmostdisappears
fromthestory,andasomewhatdifferentaccountofthestealingofthe
cattleisgiven.]
[Footnote2101:sc.Colophon.Proclusinhisabstractofthe"Returns"
(sc.oftheheroesfromTroy)saysCalchasandhispartywerepresentat
thedeathofTeiresiasatColophon,perhapsindicatinganotherversion
ofthisstory.]
[Footnote2102:ll.12arequotedbyAthenaeus,ii.p.40;ll.34by
ClementofAlexandria,Stromateisvi.2.26.Buttmansawthatthetwo
fragmentsshouldbejoined.(NOTE:Thesetwofragmentsshouldberead
together.DBK)]
[Footnote2201:sc.thegoldenfleeceoftheramwhichcarriedPhrixus
andHelleawayfromAthamasandIno.WhenhereachedColchisPhrixus
sacrificedtheramtoZeus.]
[Footnote2202:Euboeaproperlymeansthe'IslandoffineCattle(or
Cows)'.]
[Footnote2301:Thisandthefollowingfragmentaremeanttoberead
together.DBK]
[Footnote2302:cp.Hesiod"Theogony"81ff.ButTheognis169,'Whomso
thegodhonour,evenamaninclinedtoblamepraisethhim',ismuch
nearer.]
[Footnote2401:Cf.ScholiononClement,"Protrept."i.p.302.]
[Footnote2402:Thislinemayoncehavebeenreadinthetextof"Works
andDays"afterl.771.]
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[Footnote2501:ll.19arepreservedbyDiodorusSiculusiii.66.3;
ll.1021areextantonlyinM.]
[Footnote2502:Dionysus,afterhisuntimelybirthfromSemele,wassewn
intothethighofZeus.]
[Footnote2503:sc.Semele.Zeusisherespeaking.]
[Footnote2504:Thereferenceisapparentlytosomethinginthebodyof
thehymn,nowlost.]
[Footnote2505:TheGreeksfearedtonamePlutodirectlyandmentioned
himbyoneofmanydescriptivetitles,suchas'HostofMany':compare
theChristianuseofODIABOLOSorour'EvilOne'.]
[Footnote2506:Demeterchoosesthelowlierseat,supposedlyasbeing
moresuitabletoherassumedcondition,butreallybecauseinhersorrow
sherefusesallcomforts.]
[Footnote2507:Anactofcommunionthedrinkingofthepotionhere
describedwasoneofthemostimportantpiecesofritualinthe
Eleusinianmysteries,ascommemoratingthesorrowsofthegoddess.]
[Footnote2508:UndercutterandWoodcutterareprobablypopularnames
(afterthestyleofHesiod's'BonelessOne')forthewormthoughttobe
thecauseofteethingandtoothache.]
[Footnote2509:Thelistofnamesistakenwithfiveadditionsfrom
Hesiod,"Theogony"349ff.:fortheirgeneralsignificanceseenoteon
thatpassage.]
[Footnote2510:InscriptionsshowthattherewasatempleofApollo
Delphinius(cp.ii.4956)atCnossusandaCretanmonthbearingthe
samename.]
[Footnote2511:sc.thatthedolphinwasreallyApollo.]
[Footnote2512:Theepithetsaretransferredfromthegodtohisaltar
'Overlooking'isespeciallyanepithetofZeus,asinApolloniusRhodius
ii.1124.]
[Footnote2513:Plinynoticestheefficacyofthefleshofatortoise
againstwithcraft.In"Geoponica"i.14.8thelivingtortoiseis
prescribedasacharmtopreservevineyardsfromhail.]
[Footnote2514:Hermesmakesthecattlewalkbackwardsway,sothatthey
seemtobegoingtowardsthemeadowinsteadofleavingit(cp.l.345);
hehimselfwalksinthenormalmanner,relyingonhissandalsasa
disguise.]
[Footnote2515:Suchseemstobethemeaningindicatedbythecontext,
thoughtheverbistakenbyAllenandSikestomean,'tobelike
oneself',andso'tobeoriginal'.]
[Footnote2516:Kuhnpointsoutthatthereisalacunahere.Inl.109
theborerisdescribed,butthefrictionofthisuponthefireblock(to
whichthephrase'heldfirmly'clearlybelongs)mustalsohavebeen
mentioned.]
[Footnote2517:Thecowsbeingontheirsidesontheground,Hermes
bendstheirheadsbacktowardstheirflanksandsocanreachtheir
backbones.]
[Footnote2518:O.Mullerthinksthe'hides'wereastalactiteformation
inthe'CaveofNestor'nearMessenianPylos,thoughthecaveofHermes
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isneartheAlpheus(l.139).Otherssuggestthatactualskinswere
shownasrelicsbeforesomecavenearTriphylianPylos.]
[Footnote2519:GemollexplainsthatHermes,havingofferedallthemeat
assacrificetotheTwelveGods,remembersthathehimselfasoneof
themmustbecontentwiththesavourinsteadofthesubstanceofthe
sacrifice.Canitbethatbyeatinghewouldhaveforfeitedtheposition
heclaimedasoneoftheTwelveGods?]
[Footnote2520:Lit.'thornplucker'.]
[Footnote2521:Hermesisambitious(l.175),butifheiscastinto
Hadeshewillhavetobecontentwiththeleadershipofmerebabieslike
himself,sincethoseinHadesretainthestateofgrowthwhether
childhoodormanhoodinwhichtheyareatthemomentofleavingthe
upperworld.]
[Footnote2522:Literally,'youhavemadehimsitonthefloor',i.e.
'youhavestoleneverythingdowntohislastchair.']
[Footnote2523:TheThriae,whopractiseddivinationbymeansofpebbles
(alsocalledTHRIAE).Inthishymntheyarerepresentedasagedmaidens
(ll.5534),butarecloselyassociatedwithbees(ll.559563)and
possiblyarehereconceivedashavinghumanheadsandbreastswiththe
bodiesandwingsofbees.SeetheeditionofAllenandSikes,Appendix
III.]
[Footnote2524:Cronosswallowedeachofhischildrenthemomentthat
theywereborn,butultimatelywasforcedtodisgorgethem.Hestia,
beingthefirsttobeswallowed,wasthelasttobedisgorged,andso
wasatoncethefirstandlatestbornofthechildrenofCronos.Cp.
Hesiod"Theogony",ll.4957.]
[Footnote2525:Mr.EvelynWhiteprefersadifferentorderforlines
#8790thanthatpreservedintheMSS.Thistranslationisbasedupon
thefollowingsequence:ll.89,90,87,88.DBK.]
[Footnote2526:'Cattleearning',becauseanacceptedsuitorpaidfor
hisbrideincattle.]
[Footnote2527:ThenameAeneasishereconnectedwiththeepithetAIEOS
(awful):similarlythenameOdysseusisderived(in"Odyssey"i.62)from
ODYSSMAI(Igrieve).]
[Footnote2528:Aphroditeextenuatesherdisgracebyclaimingthatthe
raceofAnchisesisalmostdivine,asisshowninthepersonsof
GanymedesandTithonus.]
[Footnote2529:SoChristconnectingthewordwithOMOS.L.andS.give
=OMOIOS,'commontoall'.]
[Footnote2530:ProbablynotEtruscans,butthenonHellenicpeoplesof
Thraceand(accordingtoThucydides)ofLemnosandAthens.Cp.Herodotus
i.57;Thucydidesiv.109.]
[Footnote2531:Thislineappearstobeanalternativetoll.1011.]
[Footnote2532:ThenamePanisherederivedfromPANTES,'all'.Cp.
Hesiod,"WorksandDays"ll.8082,"HymntoAphrodite"(v)l.198.for
thesignificanceofpersonalnames.]
[Footnote2533:Mr.EvelynWhitepreferstoswitchl.10and11,reading
11firstthen10.DBK.]
[Footnote2534:AnextralineisinsertedinsomeMSS.afterl.15.
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DBK.]
[Footnote2535:Theepithetisausualoneforbirds,cp.Hesiod,"Works
andDays",l.210;asappliedtoSeleneitmaymerelyindicateher
passage,likeabird,throughtheair,ormean'farflying'.]
[Footnote2601:"TheEpigrams"arepreservedinthepseudoHerodotean
"LifeofHomer".Nos.III,XIII,andXVIIarealsofoundinthe"Contest
ofHomerandHesiod",andNo.IisalsoextantattheendofsomeMSS.
ofthe"HomericHymns".]
[Footnote2602:sc.fromSmyrna,Homer'sreputedbirthplace.]
[Footnote2603:ThecouncillorsatCymewhorefusedtosupportHomerat
thepublicexpense.]
[Footnote2604:The'betterfruit'isapparentlytheironsmeltedoutin
firesofpinewood.]
[Footnote2605:Hecate:cp.Hesiod,"Theogony",l.450.]
[Footnote2606:i.e.inprotection.]
[Footnote2607:ThissongiscalledbypseudoHerodotusEIRESIONE.The
wordproperlyindicatesagarlandwoundwithwoolwhichwaswornat
harvestfestivals,butcametobeappliedfirsttotheharvestsongand
thentoanybeggingsong.ThepresentisakintheSwallowSong
(XELIDONISMA),sungatthebeginningofspring,andansweredtothe
stillsurvivingEnglishMayDaysongs.Cp.Athenaeus,viii.360B.]
[Footnote2608:Thelicewhichtheycaughtintheirclothestheyleft
behind,butcarriedhomeintheirclothesthosewhichtheycouldnot
catch.]
[Footnote2701:SeethecylixreproducedbyGerhard,Abhandlungen,taf.
5,4.Cp.Stesichorus,Frag.3(Smyth).]
[Footnote2801:Thehaunchwasregardedasadishonourableportion.]
[Footnote2802:ThehorseofAdrastus,offspringofPoseidonand
Demeter,whohadchangedherselfintoamaretoescapePoseidon.]
[Footnote2803:RestoredfromPindarOl.vi.15who,accordingto
Asclepiades,derivesthepassagefromthe"Thebais".]
[Footnote2901:SocalledfromTeumessus,ahillinBoeotia.Forthe
derivationofTeumessuscp.Antimachus"Thebais"fr.3(Kinkel).]
[Footnote3001:TheprecedingpartoftheEpicCycle(?).]
[Footnote3002:WhiletheGreeksweresacrificingatAulis,aserpent
appearedanddevouredeightyoungbirdsfromtheirnestandlastlythe
motherofthebrood.ThiswasinterpretedbyCalchastomeanthatthe
warwouldswallowupninefullyears.Cp."Iliad"ii,299ff.]
[Footnote3003:i.e.Stasinus(orHegesias:cp.fr.6):thephrase
'Cyprianhistories'isequivalentto"TheCypria".]
[Footnote3004:Cp.Allen"C.R."xxvii.190.]
[Footnote3005:Thesetwolinespossiblybelongtotheaccountofthe
feastgivenbyAgamemnonatLemnos.]
[Footnote3006:sc.theAsiaticThebesatthefootofMt.Placius.]
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[Footnote3101:sc.aftercremation.]
[Footnote3102:Thisfragmentcomesfromaversionofthe"Contestof
HomerandHesiod"widelydifferentfromthatnowextant.Thewords'as
Leschesgivesthem(says)'seemtoindicatethattheverseandahalf
assignedtoHomercamefromthe"LittleIliad".Itispossibletheymay
haveintroducedsomeunusuallystrikingincident,suchastheactual
FallofTroy.]
[Footnote3103:i.e.inthepaintingsbyPolygnotusatDelphi.]
[Footnote3104:i.e.thedeadbodiesinthepicture.]
[Footnote3105:AccordingtothisversionAeneaswastakentoPharsalia.
BetterknownaretheHomericaccount(accordingtowhichAeneasfounded
anewdynastyatTroy),andthelegendswhichmakehimseekanewhome
inItaly.]
[Footnote3201:sc.knowledgeofbothsurgeryandofdrugs.]
[Footnote3301:ClementattributesthislinetoAugias:probablyAgias
isintended.]
[Footnote3302:Identicalwiththe"Returns",inwhichtheSonsof
Atreusoccupythemostprominentparts.]
[Footnote3401:ThisArtemisia,whodistinguishedherselfatthebattle
ofSalamis(Herodotus,vii.99)ishereconfusedwiththelater
Artemisia,thewifeofMausolus,whodied350B.C.]
[Footnote3402:i.e.thefoxknowsmanywaystobaffleitsfoes,while
thehedgehogknowsoneonlywhichisfarmoreeffectual.]
[Footnote3403:AttributedtoHomerbyZenobius,andbyBergktothe
"Margites".]
[Footnote3501:i.e.'monkeymen'.]
[Footnote3601:Lines4252areintrusive;thelistofvegetableswhich
theMousecannoteatmustfollowimmediatelyafterthevariousdishesof
whichhedoeseat.]
[Footnote3602:lit.'thoseunabletoswim'.]
[Footnote3603:ThismaybeaparodyofOrion'sthreatinHesiod,
"Astronomy",frag.4.]
[Footnote3701:sc.theriddleofthefisherboyswhichcomesattheend
ofthiswork.]
[Footnote3702:TheversesofHesiodarecalleddoubtfulinmeaning
becausetheyare,iftakenalone,eitherincompleteorabsurd.]
[Footnote3703:"WorksandDays",ll.383392.]
[Footnote3704:"Iliad"xiii,ll.126133,339344.]
[Footnote3705:Theacceptedtextofthe"Iliad"contains15,693verses;
thatofthe"Odyssey",12,110.]
[Footnote3706:"Iliad"ii,ll.559568(withtwoadditionalverses).]
[Footnote3707:"HomericHymns",iii.]

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