Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

CHAPTER 1 DEVELOPMENT

1. What would be the development goals or aspirations of the land less rural
labourers?
i. Landless Laborers wanted more days of work and better wages.
ii. They wanted that local school should provide quality education to their children.
iii. They wanted to become leaders in the village. They do not want any social
discrimination.
2. Prove by giving examples that developmental aspirations are some times
conflicting each other.
i. Industrialists wanted more dams to get more electricity. On the other hand, tribal
people do not want more dams, which submerge their land and disrupt their life.
ii. A girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother but the brother
may not like it.
3. State any two concepts of development goals.
i. Different persons can have different developmental goals.
ii. What may be the development for one may not be the development for the other.
4. What are the two types of development goals? ( What are the attributes that we
consider when we look at individual aspirations and goals?)
i. Money or material things: People wanted regular work, better wages, and decent
prices for their crops and thus wanted more income.
ii. Non material things: People wanted equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect
of others.
5. Why do people have different notions of development?
Life situation of people are different- they are born and brought up in different
situations. Their educational and spiritual thoughts will be different. Their
concept of life is different. So their notions of development will be different.
6. Give two examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our
lives.
i. People wanted equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others.
ii. A job with low income but offer regular employment will be more preferred than a
job with high pay with no job security.
iii. People desire friend ship. It plays an important role in their life style.
7. Why is greater income to be considered as one of the important national goal of
development?
i. Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
ii. More income means more of all things that human beings need. What ever people
like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.
8. What is per capita income?
i. It is the average income of a citizen. It is calculated by dividing the total income of
the country by the population.
ii. The per capita income of an Indian is Rs. 28000 in 2004.
9. How did World Bank classify countries? What criterion did they use? What are
its limitations?
i. The World Bank classified countries in to High Income countries, Medium Income
countries and Low-Income countries.
ii. Countries with per capita income above Rs. 4, 53,000 is considered high income
countries
iii. Countries with per capita income between Rs. 4, 53,000 and 37 000 is considered
medium income countries.

ISB 132
iv. Countries with per capita income less than Rs.37000 is considered low income
countries.
v. They used per capita income as the criterion to classify countries.
Limitations of this criterion are the following:
a) Per capita income alone can’t bring development.
b) Even though per capita income of many countries is very high, it is noticed
that the standard of living of the people remained low.
10. Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations. Or Why
do we use averages? What are the limitations to their use?
i. The per capita income or the average income is used to compare economic
development of countries.
ii. We use averages to identify and analyze performance level in different areas.
iii. It is used to compare different situations and to find out the strong and weak points.
iv. We use averages to make calculations easier and averages reveal general
performance level.
There are limitations to their use. Averages will not represent the actual performance.
When we take the average of similar performance or similar amount, it is meaningful.
However, when we calculate two extremes or a number of very low performances and
a very high performance, the average will not tell the exact situation.

11. Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development?
Explain.
i. Average income represents the total income of a country keeping in view of the
total population. If the average income is adequate to meet, the basic requirement
and other facilities that country is considered developed.
ii. More income means more of all things that human beings need. What ever people
like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.
12. Besides size of per capita income what other property of income is important in
comparing two or more societies?
i. Equal distribution of income is important in comparing two or more societies.
ii. Utilization effect( what for you use ) of income is also important.

13. Prove by giving examples that income itself is not a completely adequate
indicator of material goods and services that citizens were able to use.
i. The per capita income of Panjab and Kerala is Rs. 26000 and 22800 by the year
2002 .
ii. Though the per capita income of Punjab is much higher than Kerala their infant
mortality rate is 49 and it is higher than 11 in Kerala and literacy rate is 70 % in
Punjab and 91 % in Kerala.
iii. Money cannot buy all the goods and services that we need to live well. It can not
buy a pollution free environment or ensure that we get unadulterated medicine.
14. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development
different from the one used by the World Bank?
i. United Nations Development Programe used three criteria, life expectancy(health
status) , literacy rate and per capita income as the criteria to measure human
development where as World Bank used per capita income only as the criterion to
classify countries.
ii. The World Bank considered the economic aspect ie the average income only
whereas UNDP considered over all achievement in different aspects like health

ISB 133
status, educational achievements and average income to measure human
development.
15. What are the three components of Human Development Index? Or What are
attributes of regional or national developmental aspirations or goals?
I. Per capita income or the average income of a citizen. Per Capita Income is
calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a
way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any
country.
II. Life expectancy at birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of
life of a person at the time of birth. Infant Mortality Rate or the number of children
dying before the age of one year per thousand births.
III. Gross Enrolment Ratio or literacy rate for three levels means enrolment ratio for
primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school.
16. Find out the present source of energy used by the people in India. What could be
the possibilities fifty years from now?
i. At present we use conventional source of energy mostly like coal and petroleum as
the major source of energy.
ii. Since it is an exhaustible and non renewable source of energy it may not be
available after fifty years.
iii. We use non conventional source of energy like solar energy, wind energy, and
hydel energy to a small extent. After 50 years we have to depend on non
conventional sources of energy only or we have to develop a new source of energy.
17. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
i. It is important because future generations should not suffer due to the development
programmes of the present generation.
ii. Issue of sustainability consider judicious use of resources, adopt measures to
prevent environmental pollution and to avoid wastages
18. Why has Kerala a low infant mortality rate and a high literacy rate even though
the per capita income is comparatively low?
i. Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provision of basic
health and educational facilities. The Government spent a fair amount of money in
the field of health and education.
ii. The Public Distribution System functions properly in Kerala and essential goods are
supplied at a lower price than the market prices. Therefore, the health and
nutritional status of the people is very high.
19. How do public facilities stand as a clear indicator of development?
i. Money cannot protect you from diseases unless the whole community takes
preventive steps.
ii. You can not get good education if the provision is not available to all or no one
else, other than you, is interested in education.
iii. Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provision of basic
health and educational facilities. The Government spent a fair amount of money in
the field of health and education.
iv. The Public Distribution System functions properly in Kerala and essential goods are
supplied at a lower price than the market prices. Therefore, the health and
nutritional status of the people is very high.
20. Why have the scientists of the 2nd half of the 20th century been warning that the
present type and levels of development are not sustainable?

ISB 134
i. It is because the present type and levels of development is not eco friendly. It
creates a lot of problems like ozone layer depletion, global warming and
environmental pollution.
ii. The present type and levels of development is not judicious-there is too much over
exploitation of resources causing depletion of resources by which the future
generation would suffer.
21. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed
around you.
i. Large areas of forests are destroyed in different parts of India.
ii. Industrial effluents are disposed and discharged with out proper treatment causing
land and water pollution.
22. What should India do to achieve to become a developed country?
i. Per capita income of India should be increased by achieving rapid industrial
development and increasing national income and by reducing the population to the
size of the resources available in the country.
ii. Life expectancy of the people of India should be increased by improving the health
status of the people through awareness and immunization programmes, maternal
and child health care and improving overall medical facilities in India.
iii. Literacy rate and Gross Enrolment Ratio should be increased by effective
implementation of the constitutional provision to provide free and compulsory
education to all children up to the age of 14 and by launching various education
programmes.
23. Give two examples to show that collective provision of goods and services is
cheaper than individual provision.
i. Collective security for the whole locality is cheaper than individual security to each
house.
ii. A pond or a playground for all people will be cheaper than individual ones.
24. Why is Per Capita Income calculated in U.S. dollars?
Per Capita Income is calculated in U.S. dollars for all the countries so that it can be
compared. It is an internationally accepted currency. It is also done in a way so that
every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.

25. ‘The earth has the resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the
greed of one person’. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development?
i. The statement warns against the modern technology of production, which leads to
over exploitation of resources and further leads to environmental pollution and
wastages of resources.
ii. It is due to the greed of human beings that the resources are over exploited and the
environment is polluted. It is not sustainable. Sustainable development takes care
the needs of the present generation as well as the future generation.

Chapter 2 SECTORS OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY


1. What are the different sectors of an economy? Or How are economic activities
classified on the basis of the nature of the activity?
i. Primary Sector: When we produce a good by exploiting natural resources it is
an activity of primary sector. It forms the base for all other products that we
subsequently make. E.g. farming, fishing, forestry, mining, etc.
ii. Secondary Sector: The secondary sector covers activities in which
natural products are changed into other forms through ways of
manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. It is the

ISB 135
next step after primary activity. Using sugarcane as a raw
material, we make sugar or gur. We convert earth into bricks
and use bricks to make houses and buildings. Since this sector
gradually became associated with the different kinds of
industries that came up, it is also called as industrial sector.
iii. Tertiary Sector: These activities help in the development of
the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by
themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a
support for the production process. Transport, storage,
communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary
activities. Since these activities generate services rather than
goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector.
What is the secondary sector in an economy? Why do we call it industrial sector?
( Write points ii above)
2. Why is agriculture - called a primary activity? (- in
primary sector?)
i. It is the oldest occupation. It forms the base for all other products that
we
subsequently make.
ii. It is dependent mainly on natural factors like land, rain fall, sunshine, and
climate.
3. How is tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few
examples.
i. Tertiary activities, by themselves, do not produce goods but
primary and secondary sectors produce goods.
ii. Tertiary sector is the largest producing sector in India in 2003,
which shares 52% in the G.D.P where as primary and secondary
sectors contribute 22 % and 26 % respectively.
iii. Development of primary and secondary activities leads to the
development of tertiary activities like transport, trade, storage
etc.
iv. Cultivation of wheat is a primary activity and producing bread is
a secondary activity. Transportation, storing and selling bread
are tertiary activities.
4. What precaution should we take when we add the value of goods and services to
calculate the G.D.P?
i. Not every good (or service) that is produced and sold needs to
be counted. It makes sense only to include the final goods and
services.
ii. Take, for instance, a farmer who sells wheat to a flour mill for Rs
8 per kg. The mill grinds the wheat and sells the flour to a
biscuit company for Rs 10 per kg. The biscuit company uses the
flour and things such as sugar and oil to make four packets of
biscuits. It sells biscuits in the market to the consumers for Rs
60 (Rs 15 per packet). Biscuits are the final goods, i.e., goods
that reach the consumers.
iii. To count the value of the flour and wheat separately is therefore
not correct because then we would be counting the value of the
same things a number of times.

ISB 136
5. What are intermediary goods? Why is its value not added to the G.D.P?
i. Intermediate goods are the goods used in the production of a
final product. We use wheat, then its flour to produce bread.
These are intermediary goods.
ii. The value of final goods already includes the value of all the
intermediate goods that are used in making the final good.
Hence, value of all other intermediate goods would have been
included. To count the value of the flour and wheat separately is
therefore not correct because then we would be counting the
value of the same things a number of times.
6. What is G.D.P? How do we count the various goods and services for calculating
GDP? Explain with examples.
i. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a
country during a
particular year. The value of final goods and services produced in
primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors during a particular year
provides the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country.
ii. The great task of measuring GDP is undertaken by a central
government ministry. This Ministry, with the help of various
government departments of all the Indian states and union
territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods
and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP.
iii. Continue Answer 4 above
7. Describe the transition of different sectors in the path of
development of
countries. Or What are the historical changes in the
different sectors in the
course of development? Or What is the general pattern
of shift in the
importance of sectors observed in developed countries?
i. Generally, it has been noted from the histories of many
developed, countries that at the initial stages of development,
primary sector was the most important sector of economic
activity.
ii. As the methods of farming changed and agriculture sector
began to prosper, it produced much more food than before.
Many people could now take up other activities. There were
increasing number of craft persons and traders.
iii. Over a long time , and especially because new methods of
manufacturing were introduced, factories came up and started
expanding. Those people who had earlier worked on farms now
began to work in factories in large numbers.
iv. People began to use many more goods that were produced in
factories at cheap rates. Secondary sector gradually became
the most important in total production and employment. Hence,
over time, a shift had taken place. This means that the
importance of the sectors had changed.

ISB 137
v. In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from
secondary to tertiary sector in developed countries. Buying and
selling activities increased many times. Besides, there were also
transporters, administrators, army etc.
vi. However, at this stage, most of the goods produced were
natural products from the primary sector and most people were
employed in this sector.
The service sector has become the most important in terms of
total production.
Most of the working people are also employed in the service
sector. This is the
general pattern observed in developed countries.
How did secondary sector become important in the
growth of economies?
( Answer points iii and iv above. )

8. Which is the largest producing sector in India? What is the


scope for
employment opportunities in this sector?
i. In the year 2003, the tertiary sector has emerged as the largest
producing sector in India, replacing the primary sector.
ii. In any country several services such as hospitals, educational
institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts,
village administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence,
transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are required. These
can be considered as basic services.
iii. In a developing country the government has to take
responsibility for the provision of these services and thus
provide employment opportunities.
iv. At one end there are a limited number of services that
employ highly skilled and
educated workers. At the other end, there are a very large
number of workers
engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair
persons, transport persons,
etc.
9. Why is the tertiary sector becoming so important in India?
i. In any country several services such as hospitals, educational
institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts,
village administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence,
transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are required. These
can be considered as basic services. In a developing country
the government has to take responsibility for the provision of
these services and thus provide employment opportunities.
ii. The development of agriculture and industry leads to the
development of services such as transport, trade, storage and

ISB 138
the like. Greater the development of the primary and secondary
sectors, more would be the demand for tertiary services.
iii. As income levels rise, certain sections of people start
demanding many more services like eating out, tourism,
shopping, private hospitals, private schools, professional
training etc. We can see this change quite sharply in cities,
especially in big cities.
iv. Over the past decade or so, certain new services such as those
based on information and communication technology have
become important and essential. The production of these
services has been rising rapidly.
10. How does the primary sector continue to be the largest
employer in India while
the tertiary sectors contribute the highest share in the
G.D.P.?
i. It is because not enough jobs were created in the secondary
and tertiary sectors. Even though industrial output or the
production of goods went up by eight times during the period,
employment in the industry went up by only 2.5 times.
ii. The same applies to tertiary sector as well. While production in
the service sector rose by 11 times, employment in the service
sector rose less than three times.
iii. As a result, more than half of the workers in the country are
working in the primary sector, mainly in agriculture, producing
only a quarter of the GDP. In contrast to this, the secondary and
tertiary sectors produce three-fourth of the produce whereas
they employ less than half the people.
iv. It means that there are more people in agriculture than
necessary. So, even if you move a few people out, production
will not be affected. In other words, workers in agricultural
sector are underemployed.

11. What do you understand by under employment? Why is it


called disguised
unemployment? Explain with an example each from urban
and rural areas.
i. If more people are employed in an activity than required it is
known as under employment. In this situation of
underemployment, where people are apparently working, but all
of them are made to work less than their potential. The
production will not be affected even if the surplus workers are
thrown out.
ii. This kind of underemployment is hidden in contrast to someone
who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed.
Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment.
iii. All members in a family work in a plot of land throughout the
year in rural areas since they have nowhere else to go for work.

ISB 139
Each one is doing some work but no one is fully employed. This
is the situation of underemployment.
iv. There are thousands of casual workers in the service sector in
urban areas who search for daily employment. They are
employed as painters, plumbers, repairpersons and others
doing odd jobs. Many of them do not find work everyday.
Similarly, there are people on the street pushing a cart or selling
something where they may spend the whole day but earn very
little. They are doing this work because they do not have better
opportunities.
12. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised
unemployment.
i. In open unemployment, it is very visible that people are
unemployed where as in disguised unemployment people
appeared to be employed but are not.
ii. Disguised unemployment is seen mostly in agriculture or in
family run activities, where as open unemployment can be seen
in all sectors and activities.
iii. In disguised unemployment the effect of unemployment is not
felt since they share the benefit with others where as in open
unemployment it is felt deeply.
13. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of
people. Who are these?
i. At one end, there are a limited number of services that employ
highly skilled and educated workers. They are normally high
paid with all facilities.
ii. At the other end, there are a very large number of workers
engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons,
transport persons, etc. These people barely manage to earn a
living and yet they perform these services because no
alternative opportunities for work are available to them.
14. Suggest a few measures that can be adopted to tackle
the problem of under
employment.
i. The Government can spend some money or banks can give
loans to improve the
methods of cultivation and to absorb surplus workers in new
areas.
ii. Construction of canals and dams can improve agricultural
activities and create more employment opportunities.
iii. If Government invests some money in transportation and
storage of crops or make better rural roads helps the farmers
to sell their crops in the towns and create more job
opportunities.
iv. Identify, promote and locate industries in semi rural areas
where a large number of people may be employed.
v. Adopt measures to bring all children to schools, which require
more buildings, more teachers and other staff. It can create 20
lakh job opportunities in India.

ISB 140
vi. Development of tourism can create additional employment to
35 lakh people every year.
vii. Improve health facilities in India, which will provide a large
number of employment opportunities.

15. What is the importance of National Rural Employment


Guarantee Act 2005?
a. Under NREGA 2005, all those who are able to, and are in need
of, work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a
year by the government.
b. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it
will give unemployment allowances to the people. The types
of work that would in future help to increase the production
from land will be given preference under the Act.
16. How are activities in an economy classified based on
employment conditions?
Organized Sector:
i. Organized sector covers those enterprises or places of work
where the terms of employment are regular and therefore,
people have assured work.
ii. They are registered by the government and have to follow its
rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as
the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act,
Shops and Establishments Act etc.
iii. It is called organized because it has some formal processes and
procedures. Workers in the organized sector enjoy security of
employment. They are expected to work only a fixed number of
hours. If they work more they have to be paid overtime by the
employer. They also get several other benefits from the
employers.
iv. They get paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund,
gratuity etc. They are supposed to get medical benefits and,
under the laws, the factory manager has to ensure facilities like
drinking water and a safe working environment. When they
retire, these workers get pensions as well.
Unorganized Sector:
i. The unorganized sector is characterized by small and
scattered units which are largely outside the control of the
government.
ii. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. Jobs
here are low-paid and often not regular.
iii. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave
due to sickness etc. Employment is not secure. People can be
asked to leave without any reason. When there is less work,
such as during some seasons, some people may be asked to
leave. Job also depends on the whims of the employer.
iv. This sector includes a large number of people who are
employed on their own doing small jobs such as selling on the

ISB 141
street or doing repair work. Similarly, farmers work on their own
and hire labourers as and when they require.
Differentiate between Organized and Unorganized
sectors. Or Compare the
employment conditions prevailing in the organized and
unorganized sectors.
(Write points i to iv under Organized sector and the
corresponding opposite points to
Unorganized sector.)
What are the advantages enjoyed by the workers of the
organized sector?
(Write points i to iv under Organized sector)
Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you
agree with this view? Give
reasons in support of your answer.( Write points i to iv
under unorganized sector)

17. Who are the vulnerable people in the unorganized


sector, who need protection?
i. In the rural areas, the unorganized sector mostly comprises of
landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers,
sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths,
carpenters and goldsmiths).

ii. Nearly 80 per cent of rural households in India are in small and
marginal farmer category. These farmers need to be supported
through adequate facility for timely delivery of seeds,
agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing
outlets.
iii. In the urban areas, unorganized sector comprises mainly of
workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction,
trade and transport etc.
iv. Those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment
makers, rag pickers etc. need protection.
v. The casual workers in both rural and urban areas need to be
protected.
8. Why is protection and support necessary to the workers of
the unorganized sector ?
(Write points i to iv under Unorganized sector and continue.. )
v. The majority of workers from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes and backward communities are in the unorganized
sector. Besides getting the irregular and low paid work, these
workers also face social discrimination. Protection and support
to the unorganized sector workers is thus necessary for both
economic and social development.
19. Workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages,
safety and health. Explain with examples.

ISB 142
i. Wages: Jobs in the unorganized sector are low-paid. There is no
provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to
sickness etc. Those who work as street vendors, head load
workers, garment makers, rag pickers etc., need protection. In
the urban areas, unorganized sector comprises mainly of
workers in small-scale industries, casual workers in
construction, trade and transport etc.
ii. Safety: There is no job security in this sector. People can be
asked to leave without any reason. When there is less work,
such as during some seasons, some people may be asked to
leave. Job also depends on the whims of the employer.
Accidents are common in those industries where adequate
facilities and safety measures are not adopted.
iii. Health: Most of the workers are living in slums, in unhealthy
living conditions with out facilities for health and medical care. It
reduces their manpower potential and productivity.
20. How are economic activities classified based on the ownership?
Public Sector:
Public sector enterprises are owned and controlled by the government. It is run for
the benefit of the people in general. Companies such as Steel Authority of India
Limited, Indian Oil Corporation and Delhi Transport Corporation are some
examples of public sector enterprises. Railways and post offices are under public
sector.
Private Sector:
The private sector enterprises are owned and controlled by individuals, or a group
of individuals, with the aim of making profit. All retail and wholesale shops,
companies, farms that we see around are under private sector. Many large
companies having thousands of workers are also part of the private sector. Tata
Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Hindustan Lever Limited, Bajaj, Maruti Udyog
Limited and Reliance Industries Limited are examples of Private Sector
Enterprises.

Joint Sector:
When both the Government and individuals enter into agreement to run
enterprises on partnership basis they are referred to as joint sector enterprise.
Reliance Petro Chemicals Limited( RPL), Brihan Mumbai Suburban Electric
Supply (BSES) and Power Trading Corporation are some examples of joint
enterprises in India.
21. Why is Public Sector enterprises necessary? Or Explain how public sector
contributes to the economic development of a nation. Or Modern government
spent ………. Explain.
i. To build infrastructure that requires huge amount: There are
several things needed by the society as a whole but which the
private sector cannot provide at a reasonable cost. Examples
are construction of roads, bridges, railways, harbours,

ISB 143
generating electricity, providing irrigation through dams etc.
Thus, governments have to undertake such heavy spending and
ensure that these facilities are available for everyone.
ii. To support industrial development: There are some activities,
which the government has to support. The private sector may
not continue their production or business unless government
encourages it. For example, selling electricity at the cost of
production itself is very high. Many industries cannot bear it.
Therefore, the Government produces and supply electricity at
rates, which these industries can afford. Government has to
bear part of the cost.
iii. To protect the poor sections of the society: The government in
India buys wheat and rice from farmers at a ‘fair price’. These
are stored in godowns and sold at a lower price to consumers
through ration shops. The government has to bear some of the
cost. In this way, the government supports both farmers and
consumers.
iv. To provide basic facilities: It is the responsibility of the
Government to provide health and education facilities for all.
Running proper schools and providing quality education,
particularly elementary education, is the duty of the
government. Similarly, Government also needs to pay attention
to aspects of human development such as availability of safe
drinking water, housing facilities and food and nutrition for the
poor.
22. Explain the objectives of implementing the NREGA 2005.
i. To guarantee 100 days of employment in a year by the
government to those who are able to, and are in need of, work.
The types of work that would in future help to increase the
production from land will be given preference under the
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005
ii. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will
give unemployment allowances to the people.
23. Give examples of public sector activities and explain why
the Government has
taken them up.
a. Indian Railways: No private individual can set up railway lines
through out the country. It requires huge amount to invest. So
the Government has taken it up.
b. Electricity: The cost of production of electricity is very high. No
factory can function if the electricity charge is very high. So
the Government has taken it up to supply electricity lower
than the cost of production.

Chapter 3 MONEY AND CREDIT


1. Why are transactions made in money?

ISB 144
i. A person holding money can easily exchange it for any
commodity or service that he or she might want. Thus,
everyone prefers to receive payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that they want.
ii. It eliminates the need for double coincidence of wants. Money is
something that can act as a medium of exchange in
transactions.
2. What is double coincidence of wants? How does money solve
double coincidence of wants?
i. It was a situation that existed in the barter system of exchange,
before the introduction of money. What a person desires to sell
and buy is exactly what the other wishes to buy and sell. In this
situation, it is difficult to find a person who is willing to
exchange two commodities each other.
ii. Where money is in use goods can be bought and sold to
different people. Whatever one person wants to sell, he can sell
it to any one who wants it and get money. He can use the
money to buy some thing from a different person. Here money
acts as a medium of exchange and double coincidence of wants
is eliminated.
3. Why is money accepted as a medium of exchange?
i. Money is portable and easy to carry. It solves the problems of
double coincidence of wants.
ii. It is accepted as a medium of exchange because the currency
is authorized by the government of any country. Moreover, the
law legalizes the use of money as a medium of payment. No
individual in India can legally refuse a payment made in
currency. Hence, it is widely accepted as a medium of
exchange.
4. Trace the stages in the growth and use of money.
i. Before the introduction of coins, a variety of objects was used
as money. For example, since the very early ages, Indians used
grains and cattle as money in the barter system.
ii. Thereafter came the use of metallic coins — gold, silver, copper
coins — a phase which continued well into the last century.
iii. Modern forms of money include currency — paper notes and
coins. Unlike the things that were used as money earlier,
modern currency is not made of precious metal such as gold,
silver and copper. Unlike grain and cattle, they are neither of
everyday use. The modern currency is without any use of its
own.
5. How is modern currency different from early objects of transactions?
i. Modern currency is accepted as a medium of exchange because it
is authorized by the government of the country. There was no
medium of exchange in barter system before when goods were
exchanged for goods.
ii. Modern currency solves the problems of double coincidence of
wants where as in barter system double coincidence of wants
was essential.

ISB 145
iii. Modern currency is light and easy to carry where as objects
were heavy and difficult to carry to distant places.
iv. Unlike the objects used like grain or cattle, money does not have a
use of its own.
6. What are demand deposits? What are its features.
i. The money deposited in the bank accounts which can be
withdrawn on
demand is known as demand deposits. It is eligible to get a
small rate of interest. The time of withdrawal is not specified in
this account.
ii. It shares the essential feature of money. Payments can be done
by cheques instead of cash.
iii. Since demand deposits are accepted widely as a means of
payment along with currency, they constitute money in the
modern economy.
How do demand deposits posses the essential features of
money? ( Same above)
7. What is a bank cheque?
i. A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount
from the person’s
account to the person in whose name the cheque has been made.
8. How do banks mediate between the depositors and borrowers? Or Describe the
mechanism at work in the banks. Or What do banks do with the public deposits?
A. Banks accept deposit from depositors, by offering interest.
B. A small percentage of all the deposits ( 15 %) will be kept as reserves in the
banks to pay when depositors demand it, hoping all depositors will not
withdraw money at a time.
C. Banks use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans.
People take loan from banks for various purposes. Banks charge
a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits.
The difference between what is charged from borrowers and
what is paid to depositors is their main source of income for the
banks.
9. How is credit a boon and a curse to the borrower? Or What are the two different
situations of credit?
A. Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in which the lender
supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return
for the promise of future payment.
B. Credit will be a boon to a borrower if the interest rate is very
low and if he is able to pay back in time. In this situation credit
helps to increase earnings and therefore the person is better off
than before.
C. In different situation, if a borrower is not able to pay back the
loan because of high rate of interests or and an unexpected
situation like a crop failure, credit pushes the person into a debt
trap and recovery from this situation is difficult. To repay the
loan he has to sell a portion of the land or other property. In this
situation, the person is clearly much worse off than before.
What is meant by debt trap? ( Write Point C above )

ISB 146
10. What is collateral? Why do lenders ask collateral while lending?
i. Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (such as land,
building, vehicle, livestock, deposits with banks) and uses this
as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
ii. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right
to sell the asset or collateral to obtain payment. Property such
as land titles, deposits with banks, livestock are some common
examples of collateral used for borrowing.
11. What is credit? Explain the various terms of credit with examples.
Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies
the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the
promise of future payment. The terms of credit are the following:
i. Interest rate: Formal sector demands less rate of interest
compared to informal sector. At present, they demand 8 to 12 %
interest rate.
ii. Collateral and documentation requirement: It refers to the security
against the loan demanded and kept by the lender until the loan is
paid back. It can be gold or documents of properties or other
certificates attached with the application.
iii. The mode of repayment: The borrower should pay back the
interest and the principal amount weekly or monthly by cash or
cheques as decided at the time of making agreements.

12. What are the different sources of loan for agricultural farmers?
A. Formal Sector:
Commercial banks provide 25% and Cooperatives provide 27 % credit to rural
households in India.
B. Informal Sector:
A major part of credit requirement of the farmers is provided by moneylenders,
which constitute 30% of the credit. Traders provide 3 %, relatives and friends
provide 7 %, land lords provide 1 % and others provide 7 % of credit in India.
13. Differentiate between formal and informal sectors of credit in India.
i. Formal Sector of credit includes Commercial banks, Grammeen Banks,
Cooperative societies etc. who provide loan to farmers. Informal sector
includes moneylenders , traders, employers, relatives and friends who provide
loans.
ii. There is no organization, which supervises the credit activities
of lenders in the informal sector. However, Reserve Bank of
India supervises the formal sector and issue guidelines.
iii. Compared to the formal lenders, most of the informal lenders
charge a much higher interest and put other terms on loans.
Thus, the cost to the borrower of informal loans is much higher.
This may push them in to debt trap.
iv. Informal lenders adopt unfair means to get their money back.
On the other hand, Banks follow only legal measures to recover
loans. In many cases, they may even ‘write off’ agricultural
loans.
v. Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s
development. It is available in banks and cooperatives. It

ISB 147
reduces the dependence of rural households in the informal
sector.
Why should banks and cooperatives need to lend more?
( Write points ii to v above )
14. Why should credit at reasonable rate be available for all? ( Why do we need to
expand formal sources of credit in India? )
i. To start and continue an economic activity: Activities like crop production
requires considerable cost on seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, water , electricity,
repair of equipment, transportation etc. Since most of the farmers are poor, they
require credit facilities.
ii. To save from the debt trap: Most of the informal lenders charge a
much higher interest and put other terms on loans. Thus, the
cost to the borrower of informal loans is much higher. This may
push them in to debt trap. Reasonable rate of interests in the
formal sector may save them.
iii. Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s
development. It is available in Banks and cooperatives. It
reduces the dependence of rural households in the informal
sector. Hence, we should expand formal sources of credit in India.
15. What is the general pattern of credit taken by the rural and
urban households?
i. Majority of the rich urban and rural households depends on formal sector such as
banks for their credit facilities.
ii. Majority of the poor urban and rural households depends on informal sources of
credit like the moneylenders.
iii. Formal sector meets only about half of the credit requirements of the rural
people. The remaining credit needs are met from informal sources.

16. Describe the functioning of Self Help Group. ( SHG)


i. A typical SHG has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one
neighbourhood, who meet and save regularly. Saving per
member varies from Rs 25 to Rs 100 or more, depending on the
ability of the people to save.
ii. Members can take small loans from the group itself to meet
their needs. The group charges interest on these loans but this
is still less than what moneylenders charge. After a year or
two, if the group is regular in savings, it becomes eligible for
availing loan from the bank. Loan is sanctioned in the name of
the group and is meant to create self-employment opportunities
for the members.
iii. Most of the important decisions regarding the savings and loan
activities are taken by the group members. The group decides
as regards the loans to be granted — the purpose, amount,
interest to be charged, repayment schedule etc.
iv. Also, it is the group which is responsible for the repayment of
the loan. Any case of non-repayment of loan by any one
member is followed up seriously by other members in the
group. Because of this feature, banks are willing to lend to the

ISB 148
poor women when organized in SHGs, even though they have
no collateral as such.
v. Thus, the SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of
collateral. They can get timely loans for a variety of purposes
and at a reasonable interest rate. Moreover, SHGs are the
building blocks of organization of the rural poor.
vi. Not only does it help women to become financially self-reliant,
the regular meetings of the group provide a platform to discuss
and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition,
domestic violence, etc.

17. In situation with high risks, credit might create further problem to the borrower.
Explain.
i. High rate of interests and undue conditions may find borrowers difficult to repay
the loan taken and it push them to debt trap.
ii. In an unexpected situation like a natural calamity and a crop failure, a borrower
may find it difficult to repay the loan taken and some times, he will be forced to
sell off a portion of the land or other property to re pay the loan.
18. What is the basic idea behind the SHGs for the poor?
i. To develop saving habit among its members.
ii. To help each other at times of need for credit.
iii. To save them from the money lenders and the debt trap.
iv. To overcome the problem of collateral for loans and to become financially self-
reliant.
19. What are the reasons why the banks might not be willing to lend to certain
borrowers?
i. The risk involved in their activities like a crop failure, which may lead to non-
repayment of loans.
ii. Banks might not be willing to lend to certain borrowers who fails to provide
collateral as a security to the loan.

20. In what ways does the Reserve Bank of India supervise the functioning of
banks? Why is it necessary?
i. The RBI monitors that all banks actually maintain the minimum
cash balance. No bank is allowed to lend from the cash
reserves.
ii. Similarly, the RBI sees that banks give loans not just to profit-
making businesses and traders but also to small cultivators,
small scale industries, to small borrowers etc.
iii. Periodically, banks have to submit information to the RBI on
how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc.
iv. It is necessary to make the activities of all banks uniform in the country. It also
helps to prevent unfair practices in banking.
21. What is the role of credit in development?

ISB 149
i. It converts idle money into capital. Normally people take loan to
engage in economic activities to earn a living. In this process,
excess money that some people have is used for productive
purposes. Credit provides both fixed and working capital in the
processes of production. It helps the land less poor and
unemployed youths to start enterprises.
ii. It promotes thrift and savings, which is essential for
development. The money that is saved can be used as credit;
like wise, the borrower also has to save to repay the loan taken.
iii. It helps businessmen or employers and employees, at times of
financial crisis to come out of the situation and to sustain the
economic activities.
iv. The development plans of the country and a number of
schemes to reduce unemployment and poverty are
implemented through banks and thus through credit.

22. What are the advantages of formal source of credit?


i. Most of the formal lenders charge a much lower interest and do
not put other terms on loans. Thus, the cost to the borrower of
formal loans is much lower.
ii. Banks follow only legal measures to recover loans. In many
cases, they may even ‘write off’ agricultural loans.
iii. Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s
development. It is available in banks and cooperatives. It
reduces the dependence of rural households in the informal
sector.
iv. Reserve Bank of India supervises the formal sector and issue
guidelines. (any two)
23. Suggest two measures for improving the share of formal sector in total credit.
i. Reduce the interest rate.
ii. Make the terms and conditions and procedures easy
iii. Do not demand collateral. (Explain any two)

24. Why is moneylender still the largest single source of credit? ( or Why are the poor
households still depending on informal sources of credit in India?)
i. Banks are not present everywhere in rural India. Even if it is present, it is not easy to
get loans from a bank since many procedures are required.
ii. Absence of collateral and documentation required in formal sector, forces poor
households to depend on informal sectors like moneylenders where such collateral
and documentations are not required.
iii. Since the lender and the borrower in informal sector are personally known to each
other availability of loan is easy at any time required.
Chapter 4 GLOBALIZATION AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY

1. How have Indian markets been transformed in recent years? Explain with
examples. (What changes do you notice in the markets in India recently?)
i. We have a wide choice of goods and services before us in the
Indian markets now. The latest models of digital cameras,
mobile phones and televisions made by the leading
manufacturers of the world are within our reach. Electronics

ISB 150
goods became cheaper. Every season, new models of
automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.
ii. A similar explosion of brands can be seen for many other goods:
from shirts to televisions to processed fruit juices. Many
international food-processing companies like Coco Cola entered
Indian markets.
2. What is a MNC ? How does it function? Or How does it
spread production across the world?
i. MNC is the short form of Multi National Companies. It owns or
controls production in more than one nation.
ii. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions
where they can get cheap labour and other resources. This is
done so that the cost of production is low and the MNCs can
earn greater profits.
iii. MNCs set up production units where it is close to the markets;
where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low
costs; and where the availability of other factors of production is
assured. In addition, MNCs might look for government policies
that look after their interests..
iv. At times, MNCs set up production jointly with some of the local
companies of different countries.
What are the conditions assured by MNCs while spreading
the production across
the world? ( Write points ii and iii above)

3. What are the two-fold benefits to the local companies in


producing goods jointly with MNC?
i. Firstly, MNCs can provide money to local companies for
additional investments, like buying new machines for faster
production.
ii. Secondly, MNCs might bring with them the latest technology for
production.

4. How do MNCs control production all over world? Or State the


ways by which MNCs expand production all over the world?
i. The most common route for MNC investments is to buy up local
companies and then expand production. To take an example,
Cargill Foods, a very large American MNC, has bought over
smaller Indian companies such as Parakh Foods.
ii. There’s another way in which MNCs control production. Large
MNCs place orders for production with small producers. They
purchase goods like garments and footwear from theses small
companies and then sell these under their own brand names to
the customers. These large MNCs have tremendous power to
determine price, quality, delivery, and labour conditions for
these distant producers.
iii. They set up partnerships with local companies and expand
production in some cases. Thus MNCs are exerting a strong
influence on production at distant locations.

ISB 151
5. Why is foreign trade necessary? Or What are the functions
of foreign trade? Or What are the advantages of foreign
trade?
i. Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the producers to reach
beyond the domestic markets, and reach international markets.
ii. Producers can sell their produce not only in markets located
within the country but can also compete in markets located in
other countries of the world.
iii. Similarly, for the buyers, import of goods produced in another
country is one way of expanding the choice of goods beyond
what is domestically produced. Foreign trade thus results in
connecting the markets or integration of markets in different
countries.
iv. Foreign trade promote international understanding and
economic inter dependence between countries.
6. Define Globalization. How does it help international trade?
i. Globalization is the process of integration of a country’s
economy with international economy. According to this, Indians
can buy, sell any product or set up industries anywhere in the
world or a foreigner can do it in India.
ii. Since restrictions on imports and exports are removed, it makes
the movements of goods, services, investments and technology,
and labour freely from one country to the other.
7. What is the role of MNCs in the globalization process?
i. Since Multi National Companies have expanded their production
across the world, they encourage free movements of goods and
services, technology and labour from one country to the other
and thus help globalization.
ii. Development of Information Technology and the removal of
restriction imposed on imports and exports helped these
companies to accelerate the process of globalization.
8. What are the factors that have enabled globalization?
i. Rapid improvement in transportation technology has made
much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at
lower costs.
ii. Even the developments in information and communication
technology helped a lot. In recent times, technology in the areas
of telecommunications, computers and Internet has been
changing rapidly. Telecommunication facilities (telegraph,
telephone including mobile phones, fax) are used to contact one
another around the world, to access information instantly, and
to communicate from remote areas. This has been facilitated by
satellite communication devices.
ii. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policy and
the removal of trade barriers by many countries helped
globalization.
iii. Establishment of World Trade Organization played an important
role in encouraging globalization.

ISB 152
How does information technology help
globalization?( Write Point ii above)

9. What is trade barrier? Why did India Government put barrier


to foreign trade?
i. Restricting foreign trade by imposing tax on imports is called
trade barrier. Governments can use trade barriers to increase
or decrease (regulate) foreign trade and to decide what kind of
goods and how much of each, should come into the country.
ii. The Indian government, after Independence, had put barriers to
foreign trade and foreign investment. This was considered
necessary to protect the producers within the country from
foreign competition.
iii. Industries were just coming up in the 1950s and 1960s, and
competition from imports at that stage would not have allowed
these industries to come up. Thus, India allowed imports of only
essential items such as machinery, fertilizers, petroleum etc. All
developed countries, during the early stages of development,
have given protection to domestic producers through a variety
of means.

10. Why did the Government remove trade barriers? Or Why did
India adopt a new economic policy of liberalization and
globalization in 1991?
i. The government realized that trade barrier affected foreign
trade adversely and foreign companies hesitated to invest in
India. The negative aspects of the development strategy led to
the removal trade barriers.
ii. Around 1991, the Government decided that time had come for
Indian producers to compete with producers around the world. It
felt that competition would improve the performance of
producers with in the country since they would have to improve
the quality.
iii. This decision was supported by powerful international
organizations. In the general trend of globalization and being, a
member of World Trade Organization India government
removed the trade barriers.
11. What is liberalization of foreign trade?
Removing barriers or restrictions set by the government on
foreign trade is known as liberalization. With liberalization of
trade, businesspersons are allowed to make decisions freely
about what they wish to import or export. The government
removed the restrictions imposed on private sector in import and
export of goods and all the rules and regulations were relaxed.
12. What is W.T.O? What are its two faces?
i. World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international
organization set up to liberalize international trade. Started at
the initiative of the developed countries, WTO establishes rules
regarding international trade, and sees that these rules are

ISB 153
obeyed. 149 countries of the world are currently members of
the WTO (2006).
ii. Though WTO is supposed to allow free trade for all, in practice,
it is seen that the developed countries have unfairly retained
trade barriers. On the other hand, WTO rules have forced the
developing countries to remove trade barriers.
13. Examine the impact of globalization in India. ( Impact on
producers, consumers and workers) (How do we feel the
direct impact of globalization on our daily life? )
i. Firstly, Multi National Companies have increased their
investments in India over the past 15 years, MNCs have been
interested in industries such as cell phones, automobiles,
electronics, soft drinks, fast food or services such as banking in
urban areas. In these industries and services, new jobs have
been created. Also, local companies supplying raw materials,
etc. to these industries have prospered.
ii. Secondly, several of the top Indian companies have been
able to benefit from the increased competition. They have
invested in newer technology and production methods and
raised their production standards. Some have gained from
successful collaborations with foreign companies.
iii. Moreover, globalization has enabled some large Indian
companies to emerge as multinationals themselves! Tata
Motors (automobiles), Infosys (IT), Ranbaxy (medicines), Asian
Paints (paints), Sundaram Fasteners (nuts and bolts) are some
Indian companies which are spreading their operations
worldwide.
iv. Globalization has also created new opportunities for
companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.
The Indian company producing a magazine for the London
based company is an example.
v. Besides, a host of services such as data entry, accounting,
administrative tasks, engineering are now being done cheaply
in countries such as India and are exported to the developed
countries.
vi. For a large number of small producers and workers
globalization has posed major challenges. Batteries, capacitors,
plastics, toys, tyres, dairy products, and vegetable oil are some
examples of small manufacturers, who have been hit hard due
to competition. Several of the units have shut down rendering
many workers jobless.
vii. There is a greater choice before the consumers who now
enjoyed improved quality and lower prices for several products.
As a result, these people today enjoy higher standards of living
than before.
14. What are the negative effects of globalization? (Impact of
globalization on small producers and workers)
i. Globalization and the pressure of competition have changed the
lives of workers. To stand in the global competition many

ISB 154
companies cut down the benefits given to workers, reduced
their salaries and treated as temporary workers. Jobs are no
longer secure to them. Working conditions in organized sector
resemble the unorganized sector.
ii. For a large number of small producers and workers globalization
has posed major challenges. Batteries, capacitors, plastics, toys,
tyres, dairy products, and vegetable oil are some examples of
small manufacturers, who have been hit hard due to
competition. Several of the units have shut down rendering
many workers jobless.
‘The impact of Globalization has not been uniform’.
Explain the statement.
(Explain two points each from the two answers above- Ans
13 and 14 )

15. How did flexibility in labour laws help companies?


i. Companies are able to cut down the cost of production to
maximize the profit. As cost of raw materials cannot be
reduced, they tried to cut labour costs.
ii. Where earlier a factory used to employ workers on a permanent
basis, now they employ workers only on a temporary basis so
that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year and
they do not have to pay any service benefits.
iii. Workers also have to put in very long working hours and work
night shifts on a regular basis during the peak season. Wages
are low and workers are forced to work overtime to make both
ends meet. Workers are denied their fair share of benefits
brought about by globalization.

16. What is meant by SEZ?


i. It is the short form of Special Economic Zone. Such industrial
zones are set up by the government to attract foreign
companies to invest in India.
ii. SEZs are to have world-class facilities: electricity, water, roads,
transport, storage, recreational and educational facilities.
Companies who set up production units in the SEZs do not have
to pay taxes for an initial period of five years.
iii. Government has also allowed flexibility in the labour laws to
attract foreign investment.

17. What are the steps taken by the Government to attract


foreign investment in
India?
i. India has become a member of World Trade Union.
ii. The central and state governments set up Special Economic
Zones with all facilities to attract foreign investment.

ISB 155
iii. The Government of India followed a policy of liberalization and
relaxed the rules and regulations to encourage imports and
exports.
iv. In recent years, the government has allowed companies to
ignore many rules and regulations. Flexibility in labour laws
allowed.

18. What is fair globalization? What role can the Government


play to have a fair
globalization?
i. Fair globalization is a measure to eliminate the negative effect
of globalization. It would create opportunities for all, and ensure
that the benefits of globalization are shared better by all
countries.
ii. The government policies must protect the interests, not only of
the rich and the powerful, but all the people in the country.
iii. The government can ensure that labour laws are properly
implemented and the workers get their rights. It can support
small producers to improve their performance until the time
they become strong enough to compete.
iv. If necessary, the government can use trade and investment
barriers. It can negotiate at the WTO for ‘fairer rules’.
v. It can also align with other developing countries with similar
interests to fight against the domination of developed countries
in the WTO.

19. How has competition benefited people in India?


i. Competition helped to survive good quality products only in the
market at reasonable price, which helped consumers. It
provided them a lot of choice in purchasing.
ii. It helped to absorb advanced technology at work and made our
labour force competent.

20. Why do developed countries want developing countries to


liberalize their trade and
investment? What do you think should the developing
countries demand in return?
i. Developed countries want to interfere in the internal matters of
developing countries. They want to dominate these poor
countries in the form of neo- colonialism.
ii. The developed countries want to control international trade and
get market for their products. They even want safe places to
invest their capital to maximize the profit. There fore the
developed countries want developing countries to liberalize
their trade and investment.
iii. Developing countries should demand advanced technology,
financial assistance with low rate of interest and liberalization of
their immigration laws to absorb skilled labourers.

ISB 156
21. How has liberalization of trade and investment policies
helped the globalization
process?
i. It helped in the relaxation of rules and regulations on imports
and export of goods, which resulted in the free movement of
goods and services between countries.
ii. It helped Multi National Companies expand their business all
over the world and integration of international markets.

22. Why do MNCs spread out production across the borders?


i) To sell products globally it should be produced globally to meet
the wide market. It
helps to save time and money.
iii. MNCs set up production units where it is close to the markets;
where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low
costs; and where the availability of other factors of production is
assured. In addition, MNCs might look for government policies
that look after their interests.
23. Why do MNCs set up joint production units with local
companies?
i) It helps them to save money to invest in other sectors or buy new
machineries or
technology.
ii) It helps them to capture the existing market of the local
companies.

24. Why are Chinese toys more popular in Indian markets?

i) Chinese toys are much cheaper compared to Indian toys. So


people prefer to by it.
ii) Latest technology is used in Chinese toys so it has a wide
demand.
iii) Chinese toys have varieties to attract the consumers and
innovations were made frequently.

25. Discuss the impact of globalization on consumers.


i) Globalization and greater competition among producers have
been advantageous to
consumers particularly the well off sections in the urban area.
Now a variety of
goods at reasonable price is available to them.
ii) There is a greater choice to consumers now with improved
quality of products.
As a result, these people today enjoy higher standards of
living than before.

ISB 157
Chapter 5 CONSUMER RIGHTS

1. What are the various kinds of protection required to promote development?


i. Protection of workers in the unorganized sector,
ii. Protection of people from high interest rates charged by
moneylenders in the informal sector,
iii. Protection of consumers from unfair trade practices, are the various
kinds of protection required to promote development.
iv. Similarly, rules and regulations are also required for protecting
the environment.

2. Why are rules and regulations required in the market place?


Illustrate with a few examples. Or 9
i. Consumers are exploited in a number of ways in the market.
Individual consumers often find themselves difficult to protect
their interests. Therefore, rules and regulations are required to
protect the interest of consumers.
ii. Sometimes traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as
under weight and under measurement, adulteration, hoarding
etc.
iii. Whenever a complaint regarding goods or service is made, the
seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
iv. Certain rules and regulations are required for the markets to
work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful
whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are
scattered. (Continue answer 3)

3. State any two achievements of the consumer movement


in India. Or State any two positive impact of consumer
movements in India.

ISB 158
i. A company, for years, sold milk powder for babies all over the
world as the most scientific product claiming to be better than
mother’s milk. It took years of struggle before the company was
forced to accept that it had been making false claims.
ii. Similarly, a long battle had to be fought with court cases to
make cigarette-manufacturing companies accept that their
product could cause cancer. Hence, there is a need for rules and
regulations to ensure protection for consumers.
iii. It took many years for organizations in India, and around the
world, to create awareness amongst people. This has also
shifted the responsibility of ensuring quality of goods and
services on the sellers.
iv. Because of all these efforts, the movement succeeded in
bringing pressure on business firms as well as government to
correct business conduct, which may be unfair, and against the
interests of consumers at large. A major step taken in 1986 by
the Indian government was the enactment of the Consumer
Protection Act 1986, popularly known as COPRA.
v. There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country.
( any two points)
Explain the need for consumer consciousness by giving two
examples.
(A few points from Answer 2 and 3)

4. What are the various ways by which consumers are


exploited in the market?
i. Underweight and under measurements: The goods sold in the market are some times not
measured or weighed properly. The sellers give goods, less than the weight or measurement
purposely to get more profit. It causes financial loss to consumers.
ii. Sub-standard quality: Some products are not produced according to the government
specifications. They are of low quality. Selling medicines beyond expiry dates causes
financial loss and health hazards.
iii. High Prices: Very often traders charge a higher price than the prescribed retail price. It
leads to financial loss to consumers.
iv. Duplicate articles: In the names of branded or genuine products, fake or duplicate items
of low quality are sold in the market. Duplicate articles will not last long. These are not
manufactured according to the specifications given by the Government. So it will not satisfy
the requirements of the consumers.
v. Adulteration and impurity: Adding impurities or unwanted substances to food items with
a view to getting more profit is adulteration. When bricks powder is added to chilly powder
or low quality oil is added to edible oil, the consumer is exploited. Apart from financial
losses, it invites health hazard too.
vi. Lack of safety devices: Electronic goods, electrical devices or other appliances produce
locally, do not have the prescribed built-in safety devices. This cause accident to
consumers.

ISB 159
vii. Artificial scarcity: Sellers create artificial scarcity by hoarding the goods so that they can
sell it later at a higher price when the price rises.
viii. False or incomplete information: Sellers easily mislead consumers by giving wrong
information about a product, its price, quality, reliability, and durability. They even give
wrong information about expiry date, its effect on health, environment, safety and security
maintenance, cost involved and terms and conditions of purchase.
ix. Unsatisfactory after sale service: Expensive items required after sale service; other wise
it becomes useless when it is struck or damaged. However, many suppliers do not provide
after sale service in spite of necessary payments.(any four points)

5. What factors gave birth to the consumer movement in India?


Trace its evolution.
Or
Why did consumer movement in India originate as a social
force?
i. In India, the consumer movement as a ‘social force’ originated with
the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against
unethical and unfair trade practices.
ii. Whenever a complaint regarding goods or service is made, the seller
tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
iii. Rampant (unchecked) food shortages, hoarding, black marketing,
adulteration of food items gave birth to the consumer movement in an
organized form in the 1960s.
iv. Till the 1970s, consumer organizations were largely engaged in writing
articles and holding exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into
the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger
transport only.. More recently, India witnessed an upsurge in the number of
consumer groups.
6. Mention a few factors that cause exploitation of
consumers.
The factors causing the exploitation of the consumers are the following:
i. Illiteracy of the consumers: Most of the consumers are illiterate and ignorant. They
can’t differentiate between sub-standard and standard products. They may not know the
market prices and their rights and duties. Hence, the sellers often cheat them.
ii. Limited Competition (Monopoly of the product) : Certain products in the market are
supplied by a particular company only. Since similar products are not available, people don’t
have choice and are forced to purchase what is offered with whatever price and quality.
iii. Limited supply: When there is a shortage of a product in the market, consumers are
tempted to rush to get whatever is available at whatever price and quality and can be cheated
often.
iv. Limited information: Sometimes the information given may be false or incomplete.
On certain products, consumers have limited information, which leads to exploitation.
7. State the rights of consumers as codified in Indian laws.
a. Right to safety: The consumers have the right to protect against marketing of
goods and services, which are hazardous to life and property.
b. Right to be informed- It is the right of the consumers to know the quality,
quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of the goods. Right To Information Act support this
right.

ISB 160
c. Right to choose- It is the assurance of access to variety of goods with quality and
services at competitive prices. A consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity
regardless of age, gender and nature of service has the right to choose whether to continue to
receive the service. The consumers can choose any product of any brand that gives him more
satisfaction.
d. Right to seek redressal: Consumer has the right to get the money back or
compensation in the event of loss of money, damage, improper functioning or any other form of
exploitation.
e. Right to represent in the consumer courts - The consumer has the right to seek
constitutional remedy against unfair trade practices or exploitation. He / she can go to a court to
seek remedy and to get compensation depending on the degree of damage.
( Expect separate questions on each point)

8. Why are defective or low quality goods available in the market?


a. Since most of the consumers are illiterate and ignorant, trades find it easy to
exploit them. With the greed of making enormous profit they manufacture and sell such goods.
b. We do find bad quality products in the market because the
supervision of the rules and regulations is weak and the consumer movement
is not strong enough. There are loopholes in the laws to protect them.

9. What are the information that a consumer should gather before


purchasing a product?
i. These information are about ingredients used, price, batch
number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the
manufacturer, after sales service etc.
ii. When we buy medicines, on the packets, we find ‘directions for
proper use’ and information relating to side effects and risks associated with
usage of that medicine. When we buy garments, we find information on
‘instructions for washing’.

10. How does displaying the information about the product help
consumers?
a. It helps consumers to choose the best product after knowing the
information given by different products. It helps the consumers to use the
product effectively.
b. It comply the right of the consumers to be informed and to seek
remedy through courts. ( Explain)
11. Why are rules made to display information by the
manufacturers?
i. Rules are made because it is the right of consumers to be
informed.
ii. Consumers can complain and ask for compensation or
replacement if the product proves defective.
iii. Similarly consumers can protest and complain if some one sells
goods at more than the MRP.(Maximum Retail Price)
12. What is the rationale behind the enactment of Consumer
Protection Act 1986?
i. The rationale behind the enactment of Consumer Protection Act is
protection of consumer rights and the prevention of unfair practices in the
markets.

ISB 161
ii. Consumers are exploited in a number of ways in the market.
Individual consumers often find themselves difficult to protect their
interests. Therefore, this Act was passed.
iii. Sometimes traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as
under weight and under measurement, adulteration, hoarding
etc.
iv. Whenever a complaint regarding goods or service is made, the
seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
v. Certain rules and regulations are required for the markets to
work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful
whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are
scattered.

13. Describe some of your duties as consumers if you visit a


shopping complex in your
locality.
i. We should chose a brand product which is reliable, worth
buying, and is manufactured according to government
specifications or which has an I.S.I. or Agmark certification.
ii. Check the product thoroughly and know information about
ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture,
side effect or health hazard, expiry date and the address of the
manufacturer, after sales service etc.
iii. Insist on cash bill and warrantee card if available and retain it
till the expiry date.
14. What legal measures were taken by the government to
empower the consumers in
India?
i. A major step taken in 1986 by the Indian government was the
passing of the
Consumer Protection Act 1986, popularly known as COPRA.
ii. In October 2005, the Government of India enacted a law,
popularly known as RTI (Right to Information) Act, which
ensures its citizens, all the information about the functions of
government departments.
iii. Under COPRA, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the
district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of
consumer disputes.
iv. The district level court deals with the cases involving claims up
to Rs 20 lakhs, the state level courts between Rs 20 lakhs and 1
crore and the national level court deals with cases involving
claims exceeding Rs 1 crore. If a case is dismissed in district
level court, the consumer can also appeal in state and then in
National level courts.
15. By what means can consumers express their solidarity? .
i. By observing 24 December as the National Consumers’ Day
ii. By forming Consumer Protection Councils,
iii. By Seeking remedy through Consumer Courts in the case of violation of consumer
laws, and

ISB 162
iv. By getting consumer education and knowing the rights and duties, consumers
can express their solidarity (Explain points)
16. What are the drawbacks of consumer movement in India?
i. The consumer redressal process is becoming inefficient,
expensive, and time consuming. Many a time, consumers are
required to engage lawyers. These cases require time for filing
and attending the court proceedings.
ii. In most purchases cash memos are not issued hence, evidence
is not easy to gather. Moreover, most purchases in the market
are small retail sales.
iii. The existing laws also are not very clear on the issue of
compensation to consumers injured by defective products.
iv. After 20 years of the enactment of COPRA, consumer awareness
in India is spreading but slowly. Besides this the enforcement of
laws that protect workers, especially in the unorganized sectors
is weak. Similarly, rules and regulations for working of markets
are often not followed.
v. There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country of which only
about 20-25 are well organized and recognized for their work.

18. What is the difference between consumer protection


council and consumer courts?
i. Consumer Protection Councils are formed by consumers of a
city or an area.. It is a non-government voluntary organization.
Consumer Courts are set up by the Government.
ii. Consumer courts can fine or punish the sellers or manufacturers
who follow unfair trade practices whereas Consumer protection
Council can develop consumer awareness among the people
and help consumers to lodge complaints against the sellers or
manufacturers who follow unfair trade practices. In many cases,
they represent individual consumers in the courts.

18. Explain with examples how the Government of India protects the interest of the
consumers by standardization of products.
i) BIS: Standardization of product is a technical measure. It is achieved through Bureau
of Indian Standards (BIS) earlier known as Indian Standard Institute (ISI) for
industrial and consumer goods. An ISI or BIS certified products are manufactured
according to the specification given by the Government. Consumers can trust these
products.
ii) AGMARK: It is given for standardization for agricultural products. Agmark is
implemented under the Agricultural produce ( Grading and Marketing) Act , 1937,
amended in 1986. It is implemented by the DMI- Directorate of Marketing and
Intelligence, in the ministry of agriculture. Good products with high quality only
will be given this standardization.

19. What is the three-tier quasi-judicial machinery set up for redressal of consumer
disputes? (Examine the jurisdiction of the consumer courts in India.)
A three tier system of courts are set up in India at different levels.
i) The District level Courts or District Forum deals with cases involving claims up to
20 lakhs.

ISB 163
ii) The State level courts are known as State Consumer Commission and it deals with
cases for claims between rupees 20 lakhs and 1 crore.
iii) The National Consumer Commission is at the national level and it deals with cases
for claims exceeding 1 crore of rupees. If a case is dismissed in District Forum, it
can appeal in the State level courts and later at the national level courts.

20. Analyze the meaning of right to choose provided under Consumer Protection Act.
Right to choose- It is the assurance of availability of goods and services with quality
at competitive prices.
i. The consumers can choose any product of any brand that gives him the maximum
satisfaction.
ii. It is the right of the consumers to choose a product, which is durable, economical,
and worth buying.
iii. Consumers can choose a product that assures quality and provides after sale services
at a fair price.
iv. No seller can force a consumer to buy a product which the consumer doesn’t like.
The are situations like the gas connection will be provided only if the consumers purchase gas
stoves from the dealer. It goes against the right to choose.

21. Explain with three suitable examples the meaning of “right to be informed” as
provided under Consumer Protection Act.
i. It is the right of the consumer to get information about ingredients
used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address
of the manufacturer, after sales service etc. of a product.
ii. When we buy medicines, on the packets, we find ‘directions for proper
use’ and information relating to side effects and risks associated with usage
of that medicine. When we buy garments, we find information on
‘instructions for washing’.
iii. It helps consumers to choose the best product after knowing the
information given by different products. It helps the consumers to use the
product effectively.
iv. It comply the right of the consumers to be informed and to seek remedy
through courts. Rules are made because it is the right of consumers to be
informed. Consumers can complain and ask for compensation or replacement
if the product proves defective.
v. Similarly consumers can protest and complain if some one sells goods
at more than the MRP.(Maximum Retail Price) ( any three)
22. Critically examine the growth of consumer movements in India.
i. In India, the consumer movement as a ‘social force’ originated with
the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against
unethical and unfair trade practices.
ii. Whenever a complaint regarding goods or service is made, the seller
tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
iii. Rampant (unchecked) food shortages, hoarding, black marketing,
adulteration of food items gave birth to the consumer movement in an
organized form in the 1960s.
iv. Till the 1970s, consumer organizations were largely engaged in writing
articles and holding exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into
the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger
transport only..

ISB 164
v. More recently, India witnessed an upsurge in the number of consumer
groups. They make consumers aware of their rights and duties and guide
them to redress their grievances.
vi. There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country of which only about
20-25 are well organized and recognized for their work.
vii. Under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), a three-tier quasi-
judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for
redressal of consumer disputes.
viii. The district level court deals with the cases involving claims up to Rs
20 lakhs, the state level courts between Rs 20 lakhs and 1 crore and the
national level court deals with cases involving claims exceeding Rs 1 crore. If
a case is dismissed in district level court, the consumer can also appeal in
state and then in National level courts.
23. What is the importance of logos and certification? How does it
help consumers?
i. Logos and certification help consumers to get assured of quality while
purchasing goods and services. The organizations that monitor and issue these
certifications allow producers to produce according to government specifications
and to use their logos for their products.
ii. It is not compulsory that all producers follow standards in their
production. However for some products that affect the health and safety of
consumers or of products of mass consumption like LPG cylinders, cement, food
colours etc it is mandatory on the part of the producers to get certified by there
organizations.

24. ‘Consumer movements can be effective only with the active


involvement of the
consumers’. Support the statement with two arguments.
i. The Indian government has enacted the Consumer Protection Act
1986. It can be implemented effectively only with participation of
people. People should be aware of their rights and duties. They should
be vigilant in the market against any unethical practices.
ii. More and more consumer protection councils should be formed in
town and cities to make people aware of consumer exploitation and
consumers should lodge complaints against incidence of exploitation.
It is the ignorance and illiteracy of the consumers that the traders
exploit in the market.
iii. Consumers should observe 24 December as the National
Consumers’ Day with vigour and zeal.

Suggestions to : ennem56@gmail.com

ISB 165