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18.01 Single Variable Calculus


Fall 2006

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Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

Lecture 23: Work, Average Value, Probability

Application of Integration to Average Value


You already know how to take the average of a set of discrete numbers:
a1 + a2 + a3
a 1 + a2
or
2
3
Now, we want to nd the average of a continuum.

y=f(x)

y4.

x4

Figure 1: Discrete approximation to y = f (x) on a x b.

Average

y1 + y2 + ... + yn
n

where
a = x0 < x1 < xn = b
y0 = f (x0 ), y1 = f (x1 ), . . . yn = f (xn )
and
n(x) = b a

x =

ba
n

and
The limit of the Riemann Sums is
ba
=
n

y1 + + yn
1
=
n
n
ba

lim (y1 + + yn )

f (x) dx
a

Divide by b a to get the continuous average


lim

f (x) dx
a

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

y=1-x2

area = /2

Figure 2: Average height of the semicircle.


Example 1. Find the average of y =

1 x2 on the interval 1 x 1. (See Figure 2)

Average height =

1
2

1 x2 dx =

1
=
2 2
4

Example 2. The average of a constant is the same constant


1
ba

53 dx = 53
a

Example 3. Find the average height y on a semicircle, with respect to arclength. (Use d not dx.
See Figure 3)

equal weighting in

different weighting in x
Figure 3: Dierent weighted averages.

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

Average =

sin d = ( cos )

=
=

sin
1
2
( cos ( cos 0)) =

Example 4. Find the average temperature of water in the witches cauldron from last lecture. (See
Figure 4).

2m

1m

Figure 4: y = x2 , rotated about the y-axis.


First, recall how to nd the volume of the solid of revolution by disks.
1
1
y 2 1

V =
(x2 ) dy =
y dy =
=
2 0
2
0
0
Recall that T (y) = 100 30y and (T (0) = 100o ; T (1) = 70o ). The average temperature per unit
volume is computed by giving an importance or weighting w(y) = y to the disk at height y.
1
T (y)w(y) dy
0
1
w(y) dy
0
The numerator is

T y dy =

(100 30y)ydy = (500y 2 10y 3 ) = 40


0

Thus the average temperature is:


40
= 80o C
/2
Compare this with the average taken with respect to height y:

1
1
1 1

T dy =
(100 30y)dy = (100y 15y 2 ) = 85o C
1 0
0
0
T is linear. Largest T = 100o C, smallest T = 70o C, and the average of the two is
70 + 100
= 85
2
3

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

The answer 85o is consistent with the ordinary average. The weighted average (integration with
respect to y dy) is lower (80o ) because there is more water at cooler temperatures in the upper
parts of the cauldron.

Dart board, revisited


Last time, we said that the accuracy of your aim at a dart board follows a normal distribution:
cer

Now, lets pretend someone say, your little brother foolishly decides to stand close to the dart
board. What is the chance that hell get hit by a stray dart?

dart board

3r
2r

little
brother

Figure 5: Shaded section is 2ri < r < 3r1 between 3 and 5 oclock.
To make our calculations easier, lets approximate your brother as a sector (the shaded region
in Fig. 5). Your brother doesnt quite stand in front of the dart board. Let us say he stands at a
distance r from the center where 2r1 < r < 3r1 and r1 is the radius of the dart board. Note that
your brother doesnt surround the dart board. Let us say he covers the region between 3 oclock
1
and 5 oclock, or of a ring.
6
Remember that
probability =

part
whole

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

width dr,
circumference 2r
weighting ce-r 2

dr

Figure 6: Integrating over rings.

2
The ring has weight cer (2r)(dr) (see Figure 6). The probability of a dart hitting your brother
is:

1 3r1
r 2
2r dr
6 2r1 ce

2
r
ce 2r dr
0
1
53
=
is our approximation to the portion of the circumference where the little
6
12
2
2
brother stands. (Note: er = e(r ) not (er )2 )
Recall that

re

r 2

Denominator:

2 b
2
2
1
1
1
dr = er = eb + ea
2
2
2
a

(Note that e

R2

2
d r2
e
= 2rer
dr

2
2 R
2
2
1
1
1
1
er rdr = er
= eR + e0 =
2
2
2
2
0

0 as R .)

Figure 7: Normal Distribution.

Probability =

1
6

3r1

2
cer 2r dr
2r1

cer2 2r dr
0

3r1

er r dr
1
2r1
=
=
r 2 r dr
3
e
0
1
6

3r1

2r1

er r dr =

2
er 3r1

6
2r1

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

e9r1
+ e4r1

Lets assume that the person throwing the darts hits the dartboard 0 r r1 about half the time.
(Based on personal experience with 7-year-olds, this is realistic.)
r1
2

2
2

P (0 r r1 ) = =
2er rdr = er1
+ 1 = er1 =
2

0
Probability =

2
2 9
1

9r1

r1

e
= e
=
0
2

2 4 1
4
2
1

e4r1
= er1
=
=
2
16

er1
=

So, the probability that a stray dart will strike your little brother is

1
1
1

16
6
100

In other words, theres about a 1% chance hell get hit with each dart thrown.

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

Volume by Slices: An Important Example

ex dx

Compute Q =

Figure 8: Q = Area under curve e(x ) .


This is one of the most important integrals in all of calculus. It is especially important in probability
and statistics. Its an improper integral, but dont let those s scare you. In this integral, theyre
actually easier to work with than nite numbers would be.
To nd Q, we will rst nd a volume of revolution, namely,

2
V = volume under er (r = x2 + y 2 )
We nd this volume by the method of shells, which leads to the same integral as in the last problem.
2
The shell or cylinder under er at radius r has circumference 2r, thickness dr; (see Figure 9).
2
Therefore dV = er 2rdr. In the range 0 r R,

2
2 R
2
er 2r dr = er = eR +
0

When R , eR 0,

V =

er 2r dr =

(same as in the darts problem)

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

width dr

Figure 9: Area of annulus or ring, (2r)dr.


Next, we will nd V by a second method, the method of slices. Slice the solid along a plane
where y is xed. (See Figure 10). Call A(y) the cross-sectional area. Since the thickness is dy (see
Figure 11),

V =

A(y) dy

z
A(y)

x
Figure 10: Slice A(y).

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

y
dy
x

above level of y
in cross-section
of area A(y)

top view

Figure 11: Top view of A(y) slice.


To compute A(y), note that it is an integral (with respect to dx)



2
2
r 2
x2 y 2
y 2
A(y) =
e
dx =
e
dx = e
ex dx = ey Q

Here, we have used r2 = x2 + y 2 and


ex

y 2

= ex ey

and the fact that y is a constant in the A(y) slice (see Figure 12). In other words,


2
2
2
cex dx = c
ex dx with c = ey

y fixed
ce-x
2

Figure 12: Side view of A(y) slice.

Lecture 23

18.01 Fall 2006

It follows that

V =

A(y) dy =

y 2

Indeed,

Q=

x2

ey dy = Q2

Q dy = Q

dx =

ey dy

because the name of the variable does not matter. To conclude the calculation read the equation
backwards:

= V = Q2 = Q =
We can rewrite Q =

as
1

ex dx = 1

An equivalent rescaled version of this formula (replacing x with x/ 2)is used:



2
2
1

ex /2 dx = 1
2
2
2
1
This formula is central to probability and statistics. The probability distribution
ex /2 on
2
< x < is known as the normal distribution, and > 0 is its standard deviation.

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