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Wireless LANs

Wireless LANs

(a) Wireless networking with a base station


(infrastructure mode)
(b) Ad hoc networking

Wireless LANs
The

range of a single radio may not cover


the entire system.

Wireless LANs
A

multicell 802.11 network

Wireless LANs
Multihop

IEEE 802.2: Logical Link


Control

wireless networks (e.g., mesh)

(a) Position of LLC. (b) Protocol


formats.

802.11 Protocol Stack

802.11 MAC Sublayer

Part of the 802.11 protocol stack.

(a) The hidden station problem.


(b) The exposed station problem.

802.11 MAC Sublayer


The use of virtual channel sensing using
CSMA/CA.

802.11 MAC Sublayer

Wireless channels noisy better to send


fragments (retransmission unit smaller)
Should hold channel for the entire message
fragment burst

802.11 MAC Sublayer


Interframe spacing in 802.11.

802.11 Frame Structure


2

frame
address address address
duration
control
1
2
3

Address 1: MAC address


of wireless host or AP
to receive this frame

seq address
4
control

0 - 2312

payload

CRC

Address 3: used only


in ad hoc mode
Address 3: MAC address
of router interface to
which AP is attached

Address 2: MAC address


of wireless host or AP
transmitting this frame

802.11 Frame Structure


The 802.11 data frame.

802.11 Services
Distribution

services concerned with


managing cell membership and inter-cell
relationships
Association
Disassociation
Reassociation
Distribution
Integration

Code Division Multiple Access


(CDMA)

802.11 Services
Intra-cell

services (actions within a cell).


These services are used after associated
with a cell.
Authentication

Deauthentication
Privacy
Data

Delivery

used in several wireless broadcast channels


(cellular, satellite, etc) standards
unique code assigned to each user; i.e., code
set partitioning
all users share same frequency, but each user
has own chipping sequence (i.e., code) to
encode data
encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping
sequence)
decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and
chipping sequence
allows multiple users to coexist and transmit
simultaneously with minimal interference (if
codes are orthogonal)

802.11: mobility within same


subnet

CDMA: two-sender interference

H1 remains in same
IP subnet: IP
address can remain
same
switch: which AP is
associated with H1?

router
hub or
switch
BBS 1

switch
will see frame from
H1 and remember
which switch port can
be used to reach H1

AP 1
AP 2

self-learning

Indoor/Outdoor Wireless LANs


802.11

LANs are meant for indoor wireless


networks
Broadband wireless networks are meant
for outdoor longer range networks (MANs)
What is the big difference?

H1

BBS 2

Outdoor Wireless LANs


What

is the big difference

Quality

of service requirements
Security
High capacity bigger spectrum needed (1066 GHz)

No

mobility! (buildings dont move) good


assumption?
A building can have several stations

Broadband Wireless

Comparison of 802.11 and 802.16


The 802.16 Protocol Stack
The 802.16 Physical Layer
The 802.16 MAC Sublayer
Protocol
The 802.16 Frame Structure

The 802.16 Protocol Stack


The 802.16 Protocol Stack.

The 802.16 Physical Layer

The 802.16 Physical Layer (2)

The 802.16 transmission environment.

Frames and time slots for time division


duplexing.

The 802.16 MAC Sublayer


Protocol
Service Classes
Constant bit rate service
Real-time variable bit rate service
Non-real-time variable bit rate
service
Best efforts service