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What is Direct Link Networks?

Networks

Direct Link Networks

where hosts are directly


connected by some physical medium
No store-and-forwarding within the
network

Part I

Building Blocks
Nodes
General

purpose machines
More specialized devices coming online
Most issues covered by operating systems
Links
Depends

largely on the actual media


(wireless, optical, twisted pair)

Data Communications
Information

propagates on wires by
varying some property such as voltage or
current
Important questions:
How

fast can we push data through an ideal


channel with given bandwidth?
How fast can we push through a noisy
channel?

Fourier Analysis
Fourier

analysis is one way to transform a


signal from time domain to frequency
domain
How

Fourier Analysis
Signal and its root-mean square fourier amplitudes

does this help us?

Consider

a scenario where ASCII b


encoded as 8-bit value 01100010 is
transmitted

Fourier Analysis

Data Rates
Data rates achievable versus harmonics

Maximum Data Rate

Maximum Data Rate of a Channel


Nyquist

Rate:

Perfect

channel (noiseless) has finite data


rate
Arbitrary signal run through a low pass filter of
B/W H
Reconstructed by sampling at 2H/sec

Transmission Media

Shannon

extended this to noisy channels

log (1 + S/N)
where S/N is the signal to noise ratio

Fiber Optics

Magnetic

media
Twisted pair
Coaxial Cable
Fiber optics
Wireless
Single mode versus and Multi mode fibers

Fiber Optics
Attenuation depends on the wavelength
Attenuation = 10 log (transmitted power/received power)

Wireless Transmission

Wireless Transmission
On-line

all-the-time wireless the only

solution

Wireless Transmission
Most

transmissions use narrow frequency


band to get best reception
When wide-band is used: frequency
hopping used.
Makes

transmissions harder to detect and jam


Less multi-path fading

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Spectrum:
Licensed

band
Unlicensed band
Unlicensed

usage: ISM (Industrial,


Scientific, and Medical) band

Transmission Through Trunks


Use

few trunks and multiplex traffic


through them. Why?
Costs

almost same to install and maintain a


low-bandwidth and high-bandwidth trunks

Need

a multiplexing scheme to share


common trunks
FDM

(frequency division multiplexing)


TDM (time division multiplexing)

Frequency Division Multiplexing


Voice-grade

telephone channels are


multiplexed below

Wavelength Division Multiplexing


A

variation of FDM for fiber optic channels

Time Division Multiplexing


Drawback

Circuit/Packet Switching

with FDM needs analog

circuitry
TDM can be handled by digital circuitry
One example is SONET (Synchronous
Optical Network) used in Fiber networks