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Introduction

Internet Address Depletion


and CIDR

subnet is a subset of class A, B, or C


networks
IP addresses are formed of a network and
host portions network mask used to
separate the information

Introduction

Introduction

Each

class of address has its own natural


mask mask created by the definition of
the network
class

A natural mask 255.0.0.0


class B natural mask 255.255.0.0
class C natural mask 255.255.255.0

Mask

of 255.255.0.0 is applied to network


10.0.0.0
divides

the IP address 10.0.0.1 into a network


portion of 10, subnet portion of 0, host portion
of 0.1

By

using masks, networks can be divided


into subnetworks
extends

the network portion of the address


into host portion
increases the number of subnetworks and
reduces the number of hosts

Variable Length Subnet Mask

Variable Length Subnet Mask

VLSM

allows a network to be be
configured with different masks
adds

more flexibility in dividing the network


into multiple subnets
without VLSM a mask may have too few
subnets or hosts
Suppose

we want to split 192.214.11.0


(class C) into three subnets with 100 hosts
in one subnet and 50 hosts in each
remaining subnet

CIDR
Classless

Inter-Domain Routing was


designed as a remedy for
class

B exhaustion
routing table explosion
as more networks get connected -- more memory
is needed for storing routing tables
most high performance routers cache portions of
routing tables at the interface board themselves -to speedup forwarding
some extreme designs had fast memories that
were in stand-alone mode at the interface boards

CIDR
Classless

addresses

main

observation: many organizations need


more than a class C network but does not
have enough hosts to efficiently utilize a class
B
idea: give such organizations multiple class C
addresses
in the CIDR strategy, the class C addresses
are contiguous and share the same most
significant bits -- the same prefixes
if the routing protocols can route based on
these prefixes, they need only one block of
network numbers

CIDR
by

allocating addresses intelligently -- we can


group numbers by region

In

CIDR, an IP network is represented by


a prefix
IP

address + some indication of the left-most


contiguous significant bits within this address

CIDR
CIDR

notation enables lumping of specific


routes into aggregates
Aggregate denotes any summary route
Supernet denotes a summary route with
shorter prefix length than the natural mask

network is called supernet when prefix


boundary contains fewer bits than the
networks natural mask

CIDR

CIDR
Networks

that are subset of an aggregate


or a CIDR block are called more specific
Routing domains that are CIDR-capable
are called classless traditional routing
classfull routing

Route Aggregation in CIDR

Route Aggregation in CIDR


Aggregation

may not work always

customers

having IP addresses that do not


belong to their providers range
some customers (ISPs) need to connect to
multiple providers at the same time
A

router with 198.32.1.0/24 and


198.32.0.0/16 will match 198.32.1.0 when
trying to deliver traffic to 198.32.1.1

Longest Prefix Match

Destinations connected to multiple domains


must be explicitly announced in most specific
forms

Single Homing: Address Outside


Providers Address Space
Customer

connected to single provider


IP address space different from providers
Customer changed providers and kept
addresses of the previous provider
Renumbering should be done if not
provider

cannot aggregate as efficiently hole


is punched in the address space
new provider cannot aggregate the address
either

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from one provider

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from one provider

Customers

are connected to multiple


providers small enough to take
addresses only from one
Aggregate advertisement can lead to black
holes
Aggregating someone elses routes (proxy
aggregation) can be tricky
unless

aggregating party is a superset


or parties are in total agreement

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from one provider

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from one provider

ISP2 sends an aggregate summarizes Jamesnet


and Lindanet into one update 198.24.0.0/18
Stubnet which is a customer for ISP1 has an
address space falling in 198.24.0.0/18
Traffic for Stubnet 198.24.16.0/21 will perform
longest match and endup in ISP2
Solution:

ISP2 should specifically list each of the IP ranges


that it has in common with ISP1 on top of its own
address space 198.32.0.0/13

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from one provider

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from Different Providers

Large domains can take addresses from


different providers
Each provider aggregates its own address
space without listing specific ranges from other
provider
drawback backup routes to multihomed
organizations not maintained redundancy is one of
the reasons for multi-homing!
traffic using the addresses taken from provider will be
unable to reach the destination if the provider is down
even if the destination is reachable via other
provider

Multihoming Scenerio: Addresses


taken from Different Providers