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Line Encoding

Line

Direct Link Networks

encoding converts a binary


information sequence to digital signal
Maximize

Part 2

the bit rate over the channel


Clock synchronization between source and
destination
Noise immunity
Low and DC components
Complexity and cost of implementations

Line Encoding

Line Encoding

Framing

Character counting

is concerned with breaking up the


bit stream into frames -- done by the data
link layer
Approaches:

A character stream with and without errors

Framing

Character

counting
Flag bytes with byte stuffing
Start and end flags with bit stuffing
Physical layer coding violations

Byte stuffing

(a) A frame delimited by flag bytes.


(b) Four examples of byte sequences before and after stuffing.

Bit stuffing

Bit stuffing
(a) The original data
(b) The data as they appear on the line
(c) The data as they are stored in receivers memory
after destuffing

Error Detection & Correction


Communication

channels have noise and

interference
Causes errors in transmission
10E-6

for copper wires


10E-9 for optical fibers
10E-3 for wireless systems
Acceptable

error rates depends on the


applications

Error Detection
Error

detection and correction is important


Two basic approaches for error control:
Automatic

Retransmission Request (ARQ)


Forward Error Correction (FEC)
ARQ

is desirable when a return channel is


available data over Internet
FEC is desirable otherwise examples?

Error Detection
General

error detection is as follows:

Parity Check Codes


Simplest

code takes k information bits and


appends a single check bit to form
codeword ensures total # of 1s is even

Odd

# of bit errors detected


Even number of bit errors undetected

Distance Properties of Codes

Error Detection Properties


Two

fundamental observations:

Error

detection requires redundancy


Every error detection technique will fail to
detect some errors
For

example, any error that transforms a


valid codeword to another valid codeword
is undetectable

Error Detection Performance

Error Detection Performance

Performance

of error detection measured


by the probability that the system fails to
detect an error
Probabilities depend on error model:
Random

error vector model


Random bit error model
Burst error model

Error Detection Performance

Error Detection Performance

Error Detection Performance

Error Detection Performance

Error Detection Performance

Two-Dimensional Parity

Two-Dimensional Parity

Internet Checksum
Internet

Check algorithm:

Checks

whether the contents of Internet


protocols headers are uncorrupted
Ease of implementation important than error
detecting capability
Protocol

header consists of L 16-bit words


plus checksum; checksum recomputed at
every router

Internet Checksum

Internet Checksum

Polynomial Codes

Polynomial Codes

Polynomial

codes are extensively used in


error control easy to implement using
shift registers
Polynomial codes generate check bits in
the form of cyclic redun. check (CRC)

Polynomial Codes

Polynomial Codes
Can

you show that b(x) is divisible by the


generator polynomial without any
remainder?