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Surface Roughness Measurement

Section 3, Group 5
SOURABH BALDWA
2013A4PS400P
NIKHIL NAIR
2013A4PS341P
GOGRI ADITYA BHUSHAN
2012B3A4541P
GOPAL YOGHESH BHATT
2012B3A4606P
ADITYA RAKESH KULKARNI
2012B5A4411P

Instructor In- Charge: Dr. Tufan Chandra Bera

Objectives:
1) Measurement of surface roughness for various cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of
cut.
2) Prediction of surface roughness from machining conditions.

Apparatus Required
Talysurf instrument and turned work piece, Vernier Calipers.

Theory:
Surface RoughnessThe final surface roughness can be considered as a sum of two technological
parameters groups:

a) Ideal surface roughness resulted from tool geometry and feed;


b) Natural surface roughness resulted from irregularities in the machining process. One of
the main factors contributing to natural roughness is the occurrence of a built-up-edge.
The geometrical characteristics of a surface include,

1. Macro-deviations,
2. Surface waviness, and
3. Micro-irregularities.

The surface roughness is evaluated by the height, Rt and mean roughness index Ra
of the micro- irregularities.
Surface roughness number
It represents the average departure of the surface from perfection over a prescribed
sampling length, (usually selected as 0.8 mm)
Surface roughness number (Ra) is expressed in microns. Ra = (h1+h2+-----+hn)/n
The measurements are usually made along a line, running at right angle to the
general direction of tool marks on the surface.

Actual profile, Af

It is the profile of the actual surface obtained by finishing operation.


Reference profile, Rf
It is the profile to which the irregularities of the surface are referred to. it passes
through the highest point of the actual profile.
Datum profile, Df
It is the profile, parallel to the reference profile .it passes through the lowest point
B of the actual profile
Mean Profile, Mf
It is that profile, within the sampling length chosen (L) such that the sum of the
material-filled areas enclosed above it by the actual profile is equal to the sum of
the material void area enclosed below it by the profile.
Peak to valley height, Rt
It is the distance from the datum profile to the reference profile.
Mean roughness index, Ra
It is the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of the highest between the actual
and mean profile.

Procedure:

Three specimens for varying feed, speed and depth of cut conditions are produced on
lathe.
Open Ultra software.
In the appearing dialogue box set the current traverse unit carriage position to zero.
Slowly bring the stylus on to the specimen until it touches the specimen. To make sure
that there's a touching bring the stylus down more until the reading becomes zero.
Click on Measure & Analyse>Measure and Analyse.
The Measure Dialog contains the settings for a requested measurement.
Measurement Start Position. This is the absolute position on the traverse where you
want the measurement to start. This field is used only if the Immediate field is not
checked.
Data Length keep it 10 mm.
Run up Length keep it 0.3 mm.
Retract direction is default.
Measurement Speed 0.25 mm/sec.
Display Measurement. When this box is checked the measurement results are
automatically displayed after the measurement.
From the displayed raw profile and surface roughness profiles, note down the Ra value.
Now rotate the work piece and take 3 readings similarly along the circumference for one feed
value.

Observation:

Feed
(mm/rev)

Speed
(rpm)

DOC (mm)

0.04

147

0.06

147

0.08

147

0.06

147

Ra (m)
0.282
0.2693
0.2656
0.2544
0.2631
0.2755
0.3168
0.3216
0.3509
0.4313
0.3963

Mean Ra (m)

0.2723

0.26433

0.32977
0.40315

0.06

190

0.06

247

0.06

247

0.5

0.06

247

0.06

247

1.5

0.4142
0.3708
0.3601
0.392
0.3789
0.3237
0.2547
0.2565
0.2838
0.2351
0.3731
0.375
0.3612
0.3474
0.4114
0.3764
0.3838
0.4043
0.4309
0.3842
0.4245
0.4209

Graphs:
Roughness v/s Feed
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
Roughness (um) 0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09

Feed (mm/rev)
Speed 147 and DOC 1

0.36368

0.25753

0.36418

0.39398

0.41513

Roughness v/s Speed


0.5
0.4
0.3

Roughness (um)

0.2
0.1
0
140

160

180

200

220

240

260

Speed (rpm)
Feed 0.06 and DOC 1

Roughness v/s DOC


0.42
0.4
0.38

Roughness (um)

0.36
0.34
0.32
0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

DOC (mm)
Feed 0.06 and Speed 247

Conclusions:

Roughness increases with the increase in feed.


Roughness decreases with increase in cutting speed.
Roughness increases with increase in depth of cut.
It was observed that surface roughness shows minimum dependence
on depth of cut but depends more on feed rate and rpm.

Precautions:
1. The stylus can take readings of only 550m along the Y axis. Ensure that the work
piece does not have surface irregularities larger than this or the stylus might break.
2. Before starting a reading, ensure that the stylus touches the surface of the work piece
and not the burrs on the surface.
3. While the profile of the surface is being measured, relative vibrations between
workpiece and stylus should be avoided.