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The Ing Form Contruction is the form of an English verb ending in
-ing, which can function as a noun, as an adjective, and in the formation of
progressive tenses. See also Participle and Gerund.
A Participle is a form of a verb which is used in a sentence to modify a
noun or noun phrase, and thus plays a role similar to that of an adjective or
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term
verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a
verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a
gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a
noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject
complement, and object of preposition.


The present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used
in the following ways:
1. As part of the continuous form of a verb
(See continuous tenses in VERB TENSES)
I am working (Saya sedang bekerja)
He was singing (Ia sedang menyanyi)
They have been walking (Mereka sedang berjalan)
2. After verbs of movement/position in the pattern: verb + present participle
Example :
She went shopping (Ia pergi berbelanja)
He lay looking up at the clouds
She came running towards me (Ia datang berlari menghampiriku)
This construction is particularly useful with the verb 'to go', as in these
common expressions :
to go shopping, to go fishing, to go surfing, to go walking, to go
swimming, to go running, to go dancing, etc.
3. After verbs of perception in the pattern:
verb + object + present participle
Example :
I heard someone singing. (Saya mendengar seseorang bernyanyi)

He saw his friend walking along the road. (Ia melihat temannya

berjalan sepanjang jalan)

I can smell something burning! (Saya bisa mencium sesuatu yang

NOTE: There is a difference in meaning when such a sentence contains a
zero-infinitiverather than a participle. The infinitive refers to a complete
action, but the participle refers to an incomplete action, or part of an
I heard Joanna singing (= she had started before I heard her, and
probably went on afterwards)
I heard Joanna sing (= I heard her complete performance)
4. As an adjective
Example :
It was an amazing film. (Itu film yang luar biasa)
It's a bit worrying when the police stop you.
Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
Racing cars can go as fast as 400kph.
He was trapped inside the burning house.
Many of his paintings depict the setting sun.
5. With the verbs spend and waste, in the pattern:
verb + time/money expression + present participle
Example :
My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
Don't waste time playing computer games!
They've spent the whole day shopping.
6. With the verbs catch and find, in the pattern:
verb + object + present participle:
With catch, the participle always refers to an action which causes
annoyance or anger:
If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
This is not the case with find, which is unemotional:
We found some money lying on the ground.
They found their mother sitting in the garden.
7. To replace a sentence or part of a sentence:
When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same
person or thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:
They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. They went

laughing out into the snow.

He whistled to himself. He walked down the road. Whistling to
himself, he walked down the road.

When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same
person or thing, we can express the first action with a present participle:
He put on his coat and left the house. Putting on his coat, he left the

She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the gun,

she put her hands in the air.

8. Time Temporal (when, while)
Example :
Waiting for the bus, I met an old friend.
( Ketika menunggu bus, saya bertemu teman lama )
Going to the market, I got stolen.
( Ketika pergi ke pasar, saya kecopetan)

9. Concessive (although, eventhough, though, etc)

Example :
Lydia lives me knowly my weaknesses
10. Cause Effect (because)
The present participle can be used instead of a phrase starting as, since,
because, and it explains the cause or reason for an action:
Example :
Beating roughly, makes her hospitalzed.
( Karena pukulan yang kasar, membuatnya masuk ke rumah sakit )
Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
( Karena rasa lapar, dia pergi ke dapur dan membuka lemari es )
Being accepted in three well known universites, Intan gets confused to
( Karena diterima di tiga universitas terkenal, Intan menjadi bingung
memilih )
Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
( Karena miskin, dia tidak menghabiskan banyak baju )
Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
( Karena mengetahui bahwa ibunya datang, dia membersihkan lantai )
11. Conditional (would)
Example :
Being ignored by him, she killed her self
( Merasa terabaikan olehnya, ia bunuh diri )

1. Gerund as subject:
Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is

the gerund)
Solving problems is satisfying. (Solving is the gerund)

Jogging is boring. (Jogging is the gerund)

Eating too much made me sick. (Eating is the gerund)

Investigating the facts won't hurt. (Investigating is the gerund)

2. Gerund as direct object:

They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing)
I like solving problems. (The gerund is solving)
He has started jogging. (The gerund is jogging)

She avoids eating too much. (The gerund is eating)

We tried investigating the facts. (The gerund is investigating)
3. Gerund as subject complement:
My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping)
4. Gerund as object of preposition:
The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding)
No one is better at solving problems. (The gerund is solving)
Before jogging, she stretches.(The gerund is jogging)

That prevents you from eating too much.(The gerund is eating)

After investigating the facts, we made a decision.(The gerund is
A gerund phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the
modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct
object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed
in the gerund, such as:
1. The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying
to do.
- Finding (gerund)
- a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
- in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)
2. The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.
- my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
- offering (gerund)
- you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
- this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
3. The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
Tom's favorite tactic has been jabbering away to his constituents.

jabbering away to (gerund)

his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

4. The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.

You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.
- faking (gerund)
- an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
- to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)
5. The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.
- Being (gerund)
- the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed
in gerund)


A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.