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Now you can expect more from your HMI!

The C-more EA9 HMI software (just $99) now delivers more functionality, usability and value to our popular C-more touch panels. Dozen of new features and upgrades give you MORE for LESS!

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* EA9-PGMSW for use with EA9 series panels only; cannot be used with EA7 series panels.

MORE LOGIC

• New tag combinations allow simple logic with multiple events

Combine up to four different tags to trigger actions based on logical results

MORE MATH

• New math functions let you create custom formulas with constants or tag values

• The Math Keypad provides both simple and complex operations including log, sine, and square root

MORE ACCESSIBILITY

• The new Object Layer List Window shows all the objects on the active screen and lets you lock/unlock, hide/unhide objects or quickly select them for editing

• The Object Layer List allows access to individual objects in a group; additional lists for hidden, locked or overlapping objects

• Recipe database supports 99 recipe sheets, each with 1000 recipes of 256 possible tags or values; operator can now modify and save while the process is active

• New menu options, customizable toolbars and updated graphics for improved ease of use

MORE ALARMING OPTIONS

Enhanced Alarm List offers more options for alarm customization

New alarm filters allow for dedicated alarm summaries

MORE DRIVERS

• C-more panels have drivers for most major brands of PLCs. See the entire list at www.automationdirect.com/c-more-drivers

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input #1 at www.controleng.com/information

DO MORE WITH

YOUR DATA

Introduce real-time industrial data to your cloud-based business systems with Kepware’s industry-leading communications platform.

Kepware Technologies provides a portfolio of software solutions that connect diverse industrial automation devices and software applications. Established in 1995 and now distributed in more than 100 countries, Kepware has helped thousands of customers improve operations and decision making.

Visit us online to learn more about our communications platform that’s enabling the Internet of Things.

input #2 at www.controleng.com/information

26 COVER: Fanuc America’s CR-7iA (left), ABB’s YuMi (top), and Universal Robots’ UR10 (right) are
26 COVER: Fanuc America’s CR-7iA (left), ABB’s YuMi (top), and Universal Robots’ UR10 (right) are
26
26

COVER: Fanuc America’s CR-7iA (left), ABB’s YuMi (top), and Universal Robots’ UR10 (right) are among collaborative robots available. Michael Smith, Control Engi- neering creative director, designed the composite cover using images courtesy of the companies mentioned.

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CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 63, No. 3, GST #123397457) is pub- lished 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/ Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2016 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. E-mail: customerservice@cfemedia.com. Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Pub- lications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: customerservice@ cfemedia.com. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $150/yr; Canada/Mexico, $180/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); International air delivery $325/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $30.00 US and $35.00 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CON- TROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regard- less of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.

from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever. M ARCH 2016 Vol. 63 Number 3 Features
from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever. M ARCH 2016 Vol. 63 Number 3 Features
from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever. M ARCH 2016 Vol. 63 Number 3 Features

MARCH 2016

Vol. 63 Number 3
Vol. 63
Number 3

Features

26

Collaborative robots: safety, other bene ts

Cover story: Collaborative robots are becoming more common on the plant oor. Deciding if they should be used requires considering safety and business goals. New guidance on safety is available.

30

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Industrie 4.0: World views

 

30

The advent of Industrie 4.0 in the Czech Republic

32

Industrie 4.0 is opportunity, challenge: China

33

Data analysis: a key requirement for IIoT: Europe

34

Quanti ed bene ts of Industrial Internet of Things implementations

36

IoT gateways: Industrial automation’s path to Industrie 4.0

38

Use IIoT to improve operations

40

PC-based control drives global adoption of Industrie 4.0, IIoT concepts

42

Enabling IIoT requires communication protocol translation

43

Digital edition exclusives

 

Cognitive computing delivering answers, new questions; Technology developments for IIoT, real-time data

44

High-performance HMIs for increased ef ciency and overall process safety

Using high performance human-machine interfaces (HMIs) is a power- ful way to streamline how operators manage processes and allows them to react to process upsets as ef ciently as possible.

46

Using programming standards to leverage modern HMI solutions

 

Modern human-machine interface (HMI) solutions can bene t from automation technology (AT) and information technology (IT) conver- gence solutions.

48

Using connectivity software to integrate the IoT with existing systems

Open platform communications (OPC) and data distribution service (DDS) provide two approaches to bridge the communication gap.

51

Hannover Preview

 

Hannover Messe preview: Reasons and examples show why you should go to this show.

2 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

www.controleng.com

Reduce Operating Costs With Wireless
Reduce Operating Costs
With Wireless
Compared to leased land lines, wireless connectivity over Wi-Fi or cellular can be a much
Compared to leased land lines, wireless connectivity over Wi-Fi or cellular can be a much
easier and much more cost effective way to collect data from your sensors and equipment.
Moxa’s ioLogik 2500 Series brings open wireless communication standards to data
acquisition technology in a single, rugged unit. With options for wired Ethernet, Wi-Fi, 2G
GPRS, and 3G HSPA connectivity, it’s easier than ever to get more connected.
ioLogik 2500 Series Smart Wireless I/O Modules
ioLogik 2500 Series
Smart Wireless I/O Modules
Ethernet Switches • Wireless AP/Bridge/Clients • Cellular Gateways Secure Routers • Gateways and Protocol
Ethernet Switches • Wireless AP/Bridge/Clients • Cellular Gateways
Secure Routers • Gateways and Protocol Converters • Media Converters
Serial Device Servers • Multiport Serial Boards • IP Cameras
Video Servers • Remote I/O and Controllers • Embedded Computing

input #3 at www.controleng.com/information

Re-Route Your Temperature Measurements Around Potential Roadblocks input #4 at www.controleng.com/information The new THZ
Re-Route Your Temperature Measurements Around Potential Roadblocks
Re-Route Your Temperature Measurements
Around Potential Roadblocks
Your Temperature Measurements Around Potential Roadblocks input #4 at www.controleng.com/information The new THZ 3

input #4 at www.controleng.com/information

The new THZ 3 /TDZ 3 Dual Input Smart HART ® temperature transmitters can help you avoid costly process interruptions and maintenance delays by ensuring your measurements always make it safely to your control system. Our Sensor Backup and Failover protection feature means you will never miss those critical readings - even if something goes wrong with one of the sensors.

Plus, with Device Intelligence, a series of new and advanced features that enable smarter control and monitoring, the THZ 3 /TDZ 3 gives you the condence that your temperature measurements will get from Point A to Point B despite any potential roadblocks.

from Point A to Point B despite any potential roadblocks. Demand Moore Reliability To learn more

Demand Moore Reliability

B despite any potential roadblocks. Demand Moore Reliability To learn more about our Dual Input Temperature

To learn more about our Dual Input Temperature

Transmitter, go to:

Or call 800-999-2900

www.miinet.com/THZ3TDZ3
www.miinet.com/THZ3TDZ3

MARCH 2016

Vol. 63 Number 3
Vol. 63
Number 3

Inside Process

Appears after page 57; If not, see the Digital Edition:

www.controleng.com/DigitalEdition

Controller outputs

100 75 50 25 Plot area 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
100
75
50
25
Plot area
0
0 10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
P1
Time, seconds
MV signal, percentage

P1 Neural networks in process control:

architecture, controls

Neural networks have been used in process control strategies for years, but they’re still not commonly found in industry. This technology has been applied in a number of elds with great

success. With proper training to lift the veil from the technology,

it

can be more widely applied—without mystery—to solve some

of

the most nagging process control problems.

P9 Filtration process improves vermouth drinks

A food and beverage equipment manufacturer designs and builds

rotating dynamic cross ow lter systems to replace traditional vacuum lters.

ow lter systems to replace traditional vacuum lters. 8 Think Again Disruptive opportunities 10 Apps for

8 Think Again

Disruptive opportunities

10

Apps for Engineers

Control methods

12

Research

Information integration

14

Control Engineering International

Creating a universal robot controller for Industrie 4.0

16

IT Insight

Why manufacturing software should be tested before updates

18

Technology Update

Understanding ber-optic network technology for SCADA

72

Back to Basics

Ladder Logic 105: PLC scanning

News

22 Engineer a culture of service excellence

23 Open systems transitions; New robot sales record

24 Plant of the Year; Motor repair help; cyber security budget

25 Cloud-based IoT acquisition; Events; online; corrections

Cloud-based IoT acquisition; Events; online; corrections Products P9 70 Robot series designed for fast,

Products

P9

70

Robot series

designed for fast, repeatable move- ments; Programmable alarm trips for process, chemical applications; Particulate monitoring system with multi- channel con gurations

monitoring system with multi- channel con gurations www. controleng .com CONTROL ENGINEERING MARCH 2016 | 5
monitoring system with multi- channel con gurations www. controleng .com CONTROL ENGINEERING MARCH 2016 | 5
monitoring system with multi- channel con gurations www. controleng .com CONTROL ENGINEERING MARCH 2016 | 5

www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 |

5

MARCH

Trending

New Products

Control Systems

Process Manufacturing

Discrete Manufacturing

Planning algorithms for automatic contingency planning

There’s a lot more to read online. Go to www.controleng.com/news to read Control Engineering’s exclusive Web content.

Collaboration on time-sensitive networking testbed announced

Projects for improving manufactur- ing challenges receive funding

Ladder logic 104:

Memory organization

Bene ts of using a process historian

IoT standards group formed to unify companies, developers.

Newsletter: Safety and Cyber Security

Industrial cyber security: Learn from the mistakes of others

De-risk by design:

Maintaining safety at heights

Protecting FPSOs from arc ash

ICS security trends.

Keep up with the latest industry news by subscribing to Control Engineering’s 14 newsletters at www.controleng.com/newsletters

New version

Global System Integrator Database

CFE Media has launched the latest version of the Global System Integrator Database. Find and connect with the most suitable service provider for your unique application.

6 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

More resources posted daily at:

www.controleng.com

System Integration

Networking & Security

Info Management

Education & Training

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) 2016 webcast series

Control Engineering ’s webcast series on the IIoT continues in 2016. Learn more about the upcoming webcast in the series here www.controleng.com/webcasts:

IIoT Webcast Part One:

Webcasts

Effective change management

Thursday, March 31, at 11 a.m. PT/1 p.m. CT/2 p.m. ET

Oil & Gas Engineering February issue

Oil & Gas Engineer- ing provides industry- speci c solutions de- signed to maximize uptime and increase productivity through the use of industry best practices and new innovations, increase ef ciency from the wellhead to the re nery by imple- menting automation and monitoring strategies, and maintain and improve safety for workers and the work environment. Read the digital edi- tion at www.oilandgaseng.com.

Digital Edition

The tablet and digital editions of this publication have unique content for our digital subscrib- ers.This month has digital exclusives on:

Cognitive comput- ing in a data-driven age; and technology development using the IIoT.

www.controleng.com

www.controleng.com

Reliable Detection For Your Application

You can’t afford not to know. See it all at thinkallied.com/sensors

© Allied Electronics, Inc 2015. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.

input #5 at www.controleng.com/information

1.800.433.5700

An Electrocomponents Company.

THINK AGAIN IIoT disruption Disruptive
THINK AGAIN
IIoT disruption
Disruptive

opportunities

Industrial Internet of Things and Industrie 4.0 models bring disruptive opportunities to manufacturing and other increasingly automated indus- tries, augmenting human productivity. Five years from now, will you be grinding in first gear while your competitors innovate in overdrive?

F For years, automation end users and

system integrators have sought greater inno-

vation through interoperability. For years,

many automation vendors have hesitated,

some, perhaps, fearing loss of market share.

Disruption and innovation opportunities from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

and Industrie 4.0 frameworks give automa-

tion and controls vendors an opportunity to encourage connections and interoperability

in ways that will more quickly facilitate ben-

efits, according to several end users and ana-

lysts at the ARC Advisory Group Industry Forum in February. Disruptive thinking, changes, and innova- tion are required for large leaps, noted Luke Williams, New York University (NYU) Stern

School of Business, clinical associate profes- sor of marketing, and executive director at the W.R. Berkley Innovation Lab. Williams, speak- ing at the A3 Business Forum, in February in Orlando, said to think disruptively: 1) Craft

a disruptive hypothesis; 2) define a disrup-

tive market opportunity; 3) generate disrup- tive ideas; 4) shape a disruptive solution; and 5) make a disruptive pitch.

Models for disruption

See views on IIoT and Industrie 4.0 in this

issue representing disruptive opportunities for greater investment in automation where

it makes sense, in more connectivity and real-

time analytics to get useful information where needed for smarter decisions, and in digital manufacturing for greater simulation, collab- oration, efficiencies, and optimization. How?

collab- oration, efficiencies, and optimization. How? MORE ADVICE In this issue, see IIoT articles and the

MORE

ADVICE

In this issue, see IIoT articles and the Digital Edition article on computer cognitive learning. Online see additional article links:

Automation vendors: Connect and interoperate, or someone else will Engineers: Be disruptive in thinking, innovation

8 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

Be the disrupter, Williams suggested, add- ing that never has there been a better time to try new things and to re-arrange your busi- ness. Moving slowly can be hazardous, he said. Ask Nokia, Motorola, and Blackberry about smartphones. Ask Blockbuster about stream- ing video. Ask a taxi driver about Uber. “Traditional suppliers have to be nontradi- tional, or there are others who will help,” said Andy Chatha, ARC president. “We critically need innovation. If the automation industry doesn’t provide it, others will.” Chatha said that one-third of the ARC Forum audience was there for the first time; many are trying to be the disruptors in industry, where the money is. Don Bartusiak, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, chief engineer process control, said ExxonMobil is working with Lockheed Martin and others to define a more open con- trol system, with a plan to deploy in 2019. This isn’t a custom effort and should benefit all. Sandy Vasser, ExxonMobil Development, facil- ities I&E manager added, “We have to make big changes; we have no choice.” Working with suppliers may bring about disruptive, benefi- cial changes more quickly. Michael Carroll, Georgia Pacific, vice pres- ident innovation and operational excellence, noted the need to not let prior knowledge be the enemy of what may be next. He said there’s more at risk for those who choose not to par- ticipate than those who do. Technology spending for IIoT and Indust- rie 4.0 are being accepted to a greater degree, Bartusiak observed; it’s increasingly under- stood that related investments will pay off. Most innovation of the next 10 years, Wil- liams said, won’t be driven by what drove the last 80 years. Think again if you believe old methods can suffice. ce

Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
MHoske@CFEMedia.com
ce Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager MHoske@CFEMedia.com 1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL

1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523 630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504

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Frank J. Bartos, P.E., braunbart@sbcglobal.net Peter Welander, PWelander@CFEMedia.com Vance VanDoren, Ph.D., P.E., controleng@msn.com Suzanne Gill, Control Engineering Europe suzanne.gill@imlgroup.co.uk Ekaterina Kosareva, Control Engineering Russia ekaterina.kosareva@fsmedia.ru Wojciech Stasiak, Control Engineering Poland wojciech.stasiak@trademedia.us Lukáš Smelík, Control Engineering Czech Republic lukas.smelik@trademedia.us Aileen Jin, Control Engineering China aileenjin@cechina.cn

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NEW

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input #6 at www.controleng.com/information

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APPS A FOR ENGINEERS

data collection

APPS A FOR ENGINEERS data collection www.controleng.com/appsforengineers Mobile apps for

www.controleng.com/appsforengineers

Mobile apps for monitoring, controldata collection www.controleng.com/appsforengineers Control and monitoring mobile applications have potential

Control and monitoring mobile applications haveMobile apps for monitoring, control potential p to help engineers do their jobs better. CFE M

potential p to help engineers do their jobs better. CFE

M
M

Media’s Apps for Engineers is an interactive direc-

t
t

tory of engineering-related apps for Apple iOS and

Android operating systems from various companies.

A
A

Apps A are organized by category, company, and type.

These are listed in the app as of February 2016.

T
T
and type. These are listed in the app as of February 2016. T BOGE iOS 4.2
and type. These are listed in the app as of February 2016. T BOGE iOS 4.2

BOGE iOS 4.2 +, Android 4.0+

Cost: Free Company: Cybob Communication GmbH Website: www.cybob.com

The BOGE app allows the user to check the status on BOGE compressors and compressed air stations at any time. This app is designed to provide informa- tion on the component’s runtime, status, maintenance level, and other important technical values.

maintenance level, and other important technical values. CTC qMon iOS 5.1+ Cost: Free Company: Control Technology
maintenance level, and other important technical values. CTC qMon iOS 5.1+ Cost: Free Company: Control Technology
maintenance level, and other important technical values. CTC qMon iOS 5.1+ Cost: Free Company: Control Technology

CTC qMon

iOS 5.1+

Cost: Free Company: Control Technology Corp. Website: http://controltechnologycorp.com

The CTC qMon app is a tool allowing the user to gain access to your automation systems, locally and remotely. With the app the user can monitor and con gure CTC controllers and connect wirelessly to any CTC automation controller. The app can also write values to the controller and from there you can set outputs, numeric registers, and ags.

Data Dashboard for LabVIEW iOS 8.0+, Android 5.0+

Cost: Free Company: National Instruments Website: www.ni.com/mobile

The Data Dashboard lets the user fabricate a custom rendition of NI LabVIEW applications by showing values of network published shared variables and web services on charts, gauges, text indicators, and LEDs.

Energi Savr

iOS 6.0+

Cost: Free Company: Lutron Electronics Inc. Website: www.lutron.com

Energi Savr allows the user to adjust the programming and con guration of a Lutron Energi Savr Node (ESN) system over a Wi-Fi network with an iPhone or iPod Touch.

10 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

www.controleng.com

OPEN

THE

DOOR

TO

ASIA

INTERESTED?

Visit G2A.CCLinkAmerica.org CLPA-Americas: info@CCLinkAmerica.org

You’ve implemented the local open network technologies in your products. But now it’s time to look further afield. Chances are these technologies leave a large part of the Asian market inaccessible. So how can you also capture that? CC-Link is a market leading technology for open automation networking in Asia. Adding this connectivity can lead to a significant business increase in critical markets such as China. Our Gateway to Asia (G2A) program offers a comprehensive package of development and marketing benefits to capture this additional market share.

TM

input #8 at www.controleng.com/information

research 2015 IIoT, INDUSTRIE 4.0, INFORMATION INTEGRATION STUDY: Six key findings on integrating operations R

research

2015 IIoT, INDUSTRIE 4.0, INFORMATION INTEGRATION STUDY:

Six key findings on integrating operations

R Respondents to the Control

Engineering 2015 Industrial Internet

of Things (IIoT), Industrie 4.0, Infor-

mation Integration Study identified six

high-level findings impacting control systems today:

1. Integrated levels: Seventeen per-

cent of organizations’ manufacturing floors (Level 1) and advanced manufac-

turing control (Level 2) are highly inte- grated. Another 9% report Level 2 and enterprise (Level 3) to be highly inte- grated, and 8% cite the same level of integration between Levels 1 and 3.

2. Lack of integration: The most

popular reasons for low levels of inte- gration at respondents’ facilities are an

unwillingness to assign resources/bene- fits are not recognized and the difficulty and cost of implementation.

3. Benefits: Some benefits from

recent integration projects include bet- ter support for decision making (47%), faster decision making (39%), and bet- ter control of resources (39%).

4. Challenges: One in four respon-

dents have found a lack of budget to

be the top challenge when integrat- ing operations, followed closely by confusion over project scope and/or benefits.

5. Information sharing: Internal

networks and weekly reports are popu- lar methods for which corporate man- agement receives information from the

manufacturing and enterprise levels of organizations.

6. Integration tools: To establish

and sustain integration, respondents

take advantage of system integrators (42%), customized software (42%), and browser-based interfaces (34%), among other methods. ce

View more information at

www.controleng.com/2015InfoStudy.

Amanda Pelliccione is research director at CFE Media, apelliccione@cfemedia.com.

Status of information integration over the next few years

44% 25% 24% 15%
44%
25%
24%
15%

Information integration will slowly increase

Information integration should be improved, but it’s a low priority

Improvements are

currently underway

No change expected

Forty-four percent of survey respondents believe that information integration within their facilities will increase at a slow pace, while 24% are currently undergoing improve- ments. Courtesy: Control Engineering

Control system cyber security threat levels

High

Severe Severe 9% 25% 18% 48% Low L M Moderate d r t
Severe
Severe
9%
25%
18%
48%
Low L
M Moderate d r t

Nearly half of control systems are considered moderately at risk to a cyber security breach. Source:

Control Engineering 2015 Cyber Security Study

49% of engineers admit that they or their peers lack com- munication/presentation skills necessary for advancing in their career. Source: Control Engineer- ing 2015 Career Study

15: Average number of sys- tem integration projects worked on or outsourced per year; 57% work on/outsource 10 projects or fewer annually. Source: Control Engineering 2015 System Integra- tion Study

3 in10 engineers report a lack of integration between the manufacturing floor and enterprise due to an execu- tive decision to restrict information access. Source: Control Engineer- ing 2015 IIoT, Industrie 4.0, Informa- tion Integration Study

More research

Control Engineering surveys its audience on several topics each year, including cyber security; career survey; system integration, and IIoT, Industrie 4.0, information integration. All reports are available at www.controleng.com/ce-research.

www.controleng.com/ce-research

FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION

12 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

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CFE Media’s Global System Glo Integr Integrator Database CFE Media’s Global System Integrator Database is
CFE Media’s
Global System
Glo
Integr
Integrator Database
CFE Media’s Global System Integrator Database is an interactive community of
global end-users and system integrators hosted by Control Engineering, Plant
Engineering, and our global partners in Asia and Europe.
e newest version of the online database is even easier to use. Features and updates:
• More search results can now be seen on the screen
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ROBOT CONTROL

Control Engineering International

ROBOT CONTROL Control Engineering International

Creating a universal robot controller for Industrie 4.0

A controller designed for independent robot developers aims to help the Chinese robot market to continue to grow rapidly. See other robotic and Industrie 4.0 coverage in this issue.

C

China’s robotics industry has gone

through a major period of growth thanks to the

approval and implementation of policies such as

“Intelligent manufacturing” and “Made in China

2025.” In 2014, the Chinese industrial robot mar- ket became the largest in the world with more than 56,000 robots sold and industry growth of 54%. Robots continue to become more sophisticated as intelligent controls develop. The accuracy and stability of the robot’s controller are key factors in influencing the robot’s performance. Li Guozhong (Vincent Li), the business devel- opment director for Advantech (China), discussed with Control Engineering China how the company is developing a robot controller designed to operate like an industrial PC (IPC). “Some users who used the low-cost controller at the very start would find the accuracy and stabil- ity of such controller can’t meet the requirements half a year later,” Li said. Cur- rently, robot controllers are mainly manufactured by non-Chinese manufactur- ers, however, the “four big- gest manufacturers” who dominate about half of the world sell high-quality controllers with their robot systems. More enterprises are manufacturing robots and must rely on others due to the lack of a univer-

sal controller. Aimed at the demands of independent develop- ment of users, a robot con- troller is being designed for independent devel- opers. It integrates a tra- ditional robot controller into one PCI control card, which can be inserted into any IPC with a PCI inter- face; development runs in Microsoft Windows.

MORE ADVICE GO ONLINE www.controleng.com/international www.cechina.cn
MORE
ADVICE
GO ONLINE
www.controleng.com/international
www.cechina.cn

Independent developers will benefit from Advantech’s RC2000 Robot Controller, according to Vincent Li, business development director for machine automation at Advantech (China). The RC2000 integrates the traditional robot controller into one PCI control card, which could be inserted into any industrial PC (IPC) that has a PCI interface and could run all development procedures in Micro- soft Windows. Li said Advantech has a competitive advantage in the field of robot controllers: “The integration of the Internet of Things and Industrie 4.0 is the core advantage of Advantech.” Courtesy:

Control Engineering China, Advantech (China)

14 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

This is designed to make the hardware layer func- tion an open and extensible architecture. It can control industrial robots such as Delta, selective compliance assembly robot arms (SCARA), and 6-axis robots. The open hardware architecture and plug-and-play rapid development are designed to improve the working efficiency of users who need secondary development platforms and special flex- ible customizing functions. Li said that when control functions are designed for a 6-axis robot, an IPC with the robot controller will suffice. Data collection or machine vision cards can be added, if needed. The media board processor can control vision without consuming CPU capaci- ty. Li said that control system efficiency is improved with a strong hardware design.

Help with integration

Knowledge about integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrie 4.0 helps in designing a robot controller, Li said. Advantech acquired LNC in 2013, gaining expertise in control technology and precision machining. Applying that knowledge to robot control may make it easier for Advantech to integrate robots into factories. “When robots appear in factories or the produc- tion line, it will not become an isolated island. We can integrate robots with the Internet of Things and Industrie 4.0 with a more complete plan from the very start,” Li said. Advantech’s IoT plans are reflect- ed in controller integration and in vertical indus- tries such as metalworking. Advantech also has entered into Industrie 4.0 memorandum of coop- eration with Goodway Machine Corp., the largest machine tool plant in Taiwan. By preassembling new equipment or adding modules or software in the old equipment, Advan- tech upgraded Goodway equipment for end users to an Industrie 4.0 or Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architecture, including uniform management and system monitoring. The Goodway experience is helping Advantech launch an Industrie 4.0 solution to meet the needs of metalworking end users. ce

Aileen Jin is editor-in-chief, Control Engineering China. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

www.controleng.com

Learn about the latest engineering trends and technologies. Check out our Control Engineering webcasts on
Learn about the latest engineering
trends and technologies.
Check out our Control Engineering
webcasts on topics like:
• Ethernet (with 2015 research)
• lloT
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INSIGHT

IT & engineering

Why manufacturing software should be tested before updates

The way Microsoft is updating its Microsoft Windows 10 operating system, the ball is out of the user’s court. Instead, Microsoft has installed an automated ball machine that fires when it wants, even if the user isn’t ready. This new update scheme may wreak havoc for many mission-critical systems.

input #9 at www.controleng.com/information

I

It is vitally important to test

any updates or changes before commit-

ting them to production use, and there can

be consequences for not completely test-

ing. There have been so many reports of an untested update crashing a critical system that it is common sense to test before com- mitting an update. The typical manufactur- ing application relies on tens to hundreds of underlying libraries, processes, services,

and operating system elements.

Expensive lessons learned

The typical manufacturing facility uses about 50 to 100 applications, ranging from simple spreadsheets to a multimillion-dol- lar distributed control system (DCS) and manufacturing execution system (MES). Each application relies on tens to hundreds of underlying elements. Clearly, there is a lot to test in an update. The problem came from failing to test the small applications, especially those that are not mission critical per se, but are ones that are important and were always assumed to work. The problem occurred on the Micro- soft Windows 10 Version 1511 update. With Microsoft Windows 7 and 8.1 it was easy to setup a system so it wouldn’t automatically update. Microsoft Win- dows 10 changed the pattern and not for the better. Microsoft considers Windows 10 a service, so they will decide when to update, not the user. The concept of “patch Tuesday,” when all patches were released on the sec- ond Tuesday of the month, is also gone. Patches can be pushed out at any time. The Microsoft Windows 10 Version 1511 update was massive at 3 GB and seemed to touch almost every part of the system. Some Microsoft Windows 10 editions will allow updates to be deferred for sev- eral months, but security updates will still install. No one in the user community dis- covered that “stop updating” solutions pro- vide a long-term answer, which is bad news

16 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

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for mission-critical manufacturing systems. However, even security updates, which can’t be easily stopped, can cause problems. On Dec. 30, 2015, Microsoft pushed out a security patch that disabled Skype, HP scanner software, and various other systems, and in June 2015 a security patch disabled some graphic card drivers and multi-monitor support. Microsoft Windows 10 is used for office applications, document manage- ment, project management, program development, test machines, and other applications. The systems are set up to delay installing the updates. We carefully tested the 1511 update on a few systems with quick “confi- dence” tests. These were faster and less comprehensive than the full set of tests used when Microsoft Windows 10 was first installed. After the test systems passed the confidence tests, we allowed the other machines to be updated. Then we discov- ered that the confidence tests didn’t cover the “small” applications and all of the sup- porting services. The update changed file

associations, removed shortcuts, removed applications from the start menu, changed the printer options, even crashed Micro- soft Windows Explorer on one machine, and caused a set of problems that collec- tively took days to resolve. Fortunately, the systems it affected were not mission- critical, just annoyingly hard to fix.

Expensive lessons learned

The lesson learned is if you are using Microsoft Windows 10 in a manufac- turing environment for mission-criti- cal, or even mission-important, systems, then you have to disable automatic updates. This requires using group poli- cies and Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). WSUS allows full control over the internal distribution of updates using existing management solutions such as System Center Configuration Manager. The most important point, however, is to ensure that the operations group con- trols the updates for the mission-critical, and mission-important systems. These systems should never be updated using the same rules as the business systems.

Dennis Brandl is president of BR&L Consulting in Cary, N.C. His firm focus- es on manufacturing IT. Contact him at dbrandl@brlconsulting.com. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

content manager, Control Engineering , mhoske@cfemedia.com. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Microsoft Windows 10 updates can

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Microsoft Windows 10 updates can be deferred, but not security patches. Watch for unintended consequences to mission-critical systems. Disable automatic updates to allow testing.

GO ONLINE The posted version contains “Patch management advice” and other information. At www.controleng.com, search Brandl for more on related topics. See other articles for 2016 at www.controleng.com/archives.

CONSIDER THIS Operating system updates are becoming more cumber- some and, in some cases, are being forced upon the user. How will you ensure mission-critical systems are not compromised?

Industrial Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Information Integration Turning research into insights makes for better
Industrial Internet of Things,
Industry 4.0, Information Integration
Turning research into insights makes for better business decisions
The 2015 Industrial Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Information
Integration study was conducted by Control Engineering to better
understand how companies have undertaken projects to integrate
multiple levels within their organization.
The top three technologies/trends that respondents believe
will change how they work over the next few years are 3-D
printing/additive manufacturing (43%), the Industrial Internet
of Things (41%), and Big Data (39%).
Access the full Control Engineering 2015 Industrial Internet
of Things, Industry 4.0, Information Integration report with
additional findings and insights.
www.controleng.com/2015InfoStudy

TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

serial-to-Ethernet for IoT

TECHNOLOGY UPDATE serial-to-Ethernet for IoT Understanding fiber-optic network technology for SCADA Supervisory control

Understanding fiber-optic network technology for SCADA

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have undergone significant changes, and the technological developments have made fiber-optic technology a viable solution for users looking to build a network or transition from serial to Ethernet.

MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS:
MORE
ADVICE
KEY CONCEPTS:

Fiber-optic networks are a good choice for SCADA networks and remote communications with the de- mand for more bandwidth and speed. One of the biggest changes in SCADA networking has been the evolution from serial networking protocols to Internet protocol (IP). There are three main network technologies to consider in building a ber-optic SCADA network: Coarse wave division multiplexing, Multipro- tocol label switching, and Ethernet backbone networking.

GO ONLINE See related stories about the IoT and SCADA networks with this article online at www.controleng.com.

CONSIDER THIS What other networks could be used in building a ber-optic SCADA network?

S

Supervisory control and data acquisi-

tion (SCADA) networks have undergone significant

changes since the start of the decade as companies

modernize systems, improve security, and reduce

networking costs. As networks need more band- width to support security, Internet of Things (IoT) sensor data, and other application data traffic, many organizations are considering moving to fiber-optic networks for next-generation SCADA networks. One of the biggest changes in SCADA network- ing has been the evolution from serial networking protocols to the Internet protocol (IP), the widely used network technology for enterprise networks. Adopting IP for SCADA networks means equip- ment costs can decrease, and bandwidth can scale up to 10 Gbps for end stations and up to 100 Gbps for backbone networks. The move to IP can provide

a way to better integrate SCADA-based operation-

al technology (OT) systems with information tech- nology (IT) systems to set the stage for Internet of Things (IoT), facilitate better and lower-cost track- ing of network conditions, and provide access to better data analysis tools for operations.

Not every organization has moved to IP. Some still are cautious about the ability of a packet-orient- ed technology like Ethernet to replace deterministic serial networks based on time-division multiplex- or (TDM) technology with guaranteed data deliv- ery. Most SCADA applications have real-time data needs that require 99.999% network reliability and low end-to-end delay. With the recent introduction of ITU G.8032 (an International Telecom Union standard) Ethernet has a 50 ms failover that delivers levels of reliability to match serial protocols. Many industrial network managers are just becoming comfortable with this technology. SCADA backbone networks are needed to sup- port data flows from substation equipment. Substa- tions increasingly require better physical security, often with increased video surveillance–leverag- ing the SCADA backbone network to backhaul the video data to a central location for monitoring. In the near future, these networks will require greater capacity to support sensors that monitor

a wide range of industrial processes as part of the emerging IoT applications. Some predict that net-

18 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

works could support thousands of sensors to moni- tor processes and equipment and report to a central console over the network. IoT driving more band- width and consolidation of OT and IT systems to better process valuable production data and enable faster decision making with the information.

Moving to fiber optics

Even though fiber-optic networks provide band- width, transmission distance, security, and elec- tromagnetic interference (EMI) advantages, it is important to choose the right network technology. Network technology decisions can provide added reliability, manageability, and redundancy. Each network implementation will have costs relat- ed to total capital costs to build the network and ongoing operating expenses. Networks can be built in a variety of topologies. Two main topologies for a fiber-optic SCADA network are:

Ring: A ring topology is a network in which each network node (remote facility) is connected to its adjacent nodes in a logical ring fashion so data travels around the ring until reaching its destina- tion. Ring networks are the easiest to build and to scale (a new node must connect to its peers in any part of the ring) as long as the distance that packets travel around the circumference of the ring is with- in the latency requirements of the network protocol. Cable redundancy must be built into a ring network to protect against node failures or cable breaks. Mesh: In a fully connected mesh network, each node is directly connected to every other node, and data can be routed to any network node with very low delay. Mesh networks are complex and costly to scale though, because each new node added to the network requires a quadratic increase in connec- tions for every node in the network. Consider three main network technologies in a fiber-optic SCADA network design.

1. Coarse wave division multiplexing

With coarse wave division multiplexing (CWDM), up to 16 wavelengths of light are trans- mitted in a pair of fiber cables; each wavelength is an independent data channel for a separate data flow up to 10 Gbps. CWDM networks use ring topology.

www.controleng.com

Example of

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Courtesy: Transi-

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TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

serial-to-Ethernet for IoT

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CWDM is a passive technology that can support transport of any protocol over the link, as long as it is at a specific wavelength (serial bit streams over fiber at 1,570 nm, alongside 10 Gbps Ethernet at 1,590 nm). This allows network managers to build a backbone that can be upgraded as the network evolves. If a new network type is supported, 10 Gb Ethernet for example, then any open channel can be configured for this data. This is because the multi- plexor simply refracts light at any network speed, regardless of the protocol used. CWDM networks, like any circuit-ori- ented technology, ties up backbone chan- nels, meaning that if they are not being used, bandwidth is unavailable for other networks to use. Packet-switched networks to not guarantee channels, but the full bandwidth of the link is available.

2. Multiprotocol label switching

Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) encapsulates data into packets with a “label” to switch the packet to its destina- tion. MPLS is an open standard via the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It has been rapidly adopted by almost every major telecommunications service provid- er as a platform for supporting thousands of customers over a common infrastruc- ture. It is heavily used in service provider and enterprise networks and is a compel- ling choice for SCADA networks. In MPLS, when the packet enters a net- work, it is assigned a route called a for- warding equivalence class (FEC). Each router knows that packet’s FEC thanks to its label—a bit sequence that identifies the FEC. The FEC indicate the path through the network and tells the router how to handle the data flow. The FEC appended to video data packets, for example, will map that data flow to a low-latency path. Because of its design, MPLS can trans- port many payload types. In a SCADA application, this could include serial bit streams, IP packets, video data streams, and others. This flexibility makes MPLS a viable option for a modern network design that also supports legacy data formats. MPLS is a mature and reliable tech- nology, proven in large-scale networks. It offers a flexible network architecture that

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20 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

networking equipment is considered car- rier grade for telecommunications net-

works: high reliability, and more expensive

to build and operate.

3. Ethernet backbone

A third option is to create a routed Eth- ernet backbone network. Advantages of

Ethernet include flexibility, versatility, and

a very wide bandwidth range with stan-

dards from 10 Mbps to 100 Gbps. Ethernet can use copper or fiber-optic media, in a mesh or ring topology, and many Ethernet products have been hardened to provide the ruggedness and wide operating tem-

perature range (-40 to 75 C/-40 to 167 F)

for

remote locations or outdoor use. Most data protocols can be packetized

for

an Ethernet network; with support for

50 ms Ethernet failover capabilities and quality of service functionality, Ethernet brings high-quality wide area network fea-

tures to local area network technology. Ethernet packets can be routed, based

on IP addresses (layer 3 address), key to a well-controlled SCADA network. IP proto-

cols broadcast data packets to all stations in

a broadcast domain. Each network device

must examine that data packet and discard

or accept it as appropriate. In larger broad-

cast domains each device has to process more packets. Creating a reasonable layer 3 broadcast domain can help limit network flooding and boost capacity. The Power over Ethernet (PoE) stan- dard allows power delivery over the same Cat 5 or Cat 6 copper cable that transmits Ethernet data. Devices such as IP cameras, gas analyzers, and embedded computers can operate without addional power. IEEE 802.3af PoE delivers up to 15.4

W (good for a VoIP phone or WiFi access

point); IEEE 802.3at Power over Ethernet

Plus (PoE +) standard delivers up to 25.5

W and is backward compatible. Any SCADA network that deploys Eth-

ernet as an access network can benefit from PoE or PoE+ even if another type of back- bone network technology is selected. With the steady demand for increased band- width and speeds, fiber-optic networks

are a clear choice for SCADA network and remote communications needs. ce

Tony LeFebvre is director, product manage- ment, Transition Networks. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engi- neering, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

www.controleng.com

Need a System Integrator?

Need a System Integrator? ese are just two of many service providers in the Global System
Need a System Integrator? ese are just two of many service providers in the Global System

ese are just two of many service providers in the Global System Integrator Database.

Find a System Integrator for your project today!

To search the Global System Integrator Database, or to create your own System Integrator Corporate Pro le visit www.controleng.com/global-si-database

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INDUSTRY NEWS

and events
and events

When engineering a culture of service excellence, demonstrate the message

Engineering firms need to instill ser- vice excellence in existing and prospec- tive team members by living important values, according to Dennis Snow, con- sultant and 20-year employee of Walt Dis- ney Co. at the A3 Business Forum. Snow said that demonstrating the company’s vision, engaging the minds of team mem- bers through involvement, and making everyone accountable for expectations are ways to create and expand a culture of service excellence at engineering-related companies. Snow admitted to making up words to emphasize the point, explaining the need to “inculturate” service excellence into their organizations by demonstrat- ing important values. It doesn’t matter how much anyone tells a candidate how much people matter in the organization, Snow said, if that candidate doesn’t feel welcomed, interested, and positively chal- lenged during the interview process. A3, the Association for Advancing Automation, is the umbrella organization for the AIA, Advancing Vision, Imaging, Motion Control and Motor Asso- ciation (MCMA), and the Robotic Industries Asso- ciation (RIA). A3 holds an annual meeting Feb. 3-5, this year, in Orlando, Fla. Here are other “Lessons from the Mouse” from Snow, of Snow and Associ- ates Inc.

thing like: “I don’t know what you’re talking about. That’s just what we do.” What do you want cus- tomers to say about their experience with your com- pany? For Disney, Snow said, three key points are, “It was magical, the atten- tion to every detail, and they made us feel special.” Disney knows if they do that, people will return and tell others about the posi- tive experience. The average guest at Disney will carry a piece of trash 27 ft before dropping it. The average distance between trashcans is 26 ft,

and everyone, top to bot- tom, picks up trash (Snow showed a photo of Walt Disney doing so). To keep and retain the best talent, ensure that the talent isn’t ignored when

Company culture is in the center of vision, involve- ment, and accountability, demonstrated daily. Don’t
Company culture is in the center of vision, involve-
ment, and accountability, demonstrated daily. Don’t
miss a teaching moment. Courtesy: Mark T. Hoske,
Control Engineering, CFE Media

mortgage on his house to finish his first film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. 2. Understands the true product offered. Disney creates happiness. Prod- uct is not the hamburger; it’s the happi- ness the hamburger creates. 3. Understands what’s expected. When employees see others doing what is need- ed, that’s worth much more than manu- als or training. The vision should always be there, alive. He also suggested having a quarterly meeting to air out the barriers to excellence and then doing something about overcoming them.

Hold people accountable

Accountability is often the reason things don’t happen. I didn’t say this and couldn’t find out who did, but it’s true:

Intolerable service exists because intoler- able service is tolerated. Never let a coach- ing moment go, but coach in private. Ensure people know why they’re appreci- ated and recognized. Snow quoted Tom Peters while show- ing a photo of Walt Disney picking up trash: “The problem isn’t that your peo- ple don’t know what you’re doing. It’s that they do know what you’re doing.”

Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

content manager, Control Engineering , mhoske@cfemedia.com. Dennis Snow, consultant at Snow and Associates Inc. and

Dennis Snow, consultant at Snow and Associates Inc. and 20-year employee of Walt Dis- ney Co., spoke at the A3 Busi- ness Forum, offering “Les- sons from the Mouse” about improving company culture by living the message. Courtesy:

Mark T. Hoske, Control Engi- neering, CFE Media

Live the message

Whether it’s the 3 p.m. parade in a Dis- ney theme park or your next big engi- neering project, the magic that goes into any experience is because of the employ- ees involved. How can 60,000 people get it right most of the time? To “inculturate” service excellence means living the impor- tant values of the company, every minute of every day, from the top down in the orga- nization in everything team members do, as second nature. You know behaviors are ingrained and working when you ask an employee: “How does that happen?” and the reply is some-

hiring. Most people interviewing focus on skills and knowledge and don’t observe tal- ent (the hardest thing to teach) during the interview. If a position requires someone to be friendly, for instance, don’t hire some- one who’s grumpy during the interview. Study your best people. Who would you like to clone? Learn what makes them tick and look for those attributes to be demonstrated during interviews. Training and positive communication need to hap- pen throughout a career. Ensure the team member is:

1. Proud of the organization. I didn’t know Walt Disney had to take a second

22 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

www.controleng.com

Reading the digital edition? Click on headlines for more details. See news daily at www.controleng.com/news

‘Industry in transition’ transformed by open systems

A manufacturing plant that is open and connected is at the core of what ARC Advisory

Group president and CEO Andy Chatha sees as an industry that is in transition overall.

Chatha addressed about 700 attendees at the 20th annual ARC Industry Forum in

Orlando on Feb. 9. If an open, connected plant seems to run contrary to the way plants oper- ate today, that was one of Chatha’s main points: Industrial plant operations are adapting to new rules and new technology. “We see the world changing,” Chatha said. “The aerospace industry is being transformed, the automotive industry is being turned upside down. And we know what fracking companies have done to the oil and gas industry. Industry after industry is being transformed by compa- nies from outside the industry.” To accomplish this, Chatha said manufacturers have to adopt new, open architecture control and operation systems to augment or replace the proprietary systems of today. “We believe process plants are ripe for next generation digital transforma- tion,” Chatha said. “Most plants are aging, and most of the plant assets are 30 years old. If you want to see the most highly automated plants, go to China. Old plants are prone to failure and are very difficult to operate. Because plants are so expensive and so complex to upgrade, many companies don’t upgrade; they just keep existing plants up as long as they can. We believe today’s proprietary systems don’t provide a good foundation for future plants.” The new model points to the use of connected assets: a connected supply chain, con- nected workers, connected machines, and connected finished products. “You need some sort of an open system to do that,” he said. The open architecture and smart machines pro- vide a framework to allow a full, interactive manufacturing process. “It has to be an end-to- end process, from the time you design the product to the time you decommission the line.” Information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) are converging. “We believe you need to have your experts working together,” Chatha said. “I know many companies are integrating IT and OT and others are trying to get there. That’s a very important thing our industry has to do.” ONLINE see: five traits of innovation-driven companies.

Bob Vavra is content manager, Plant Engineering, CFE Media, bvavra@cfemedia.com.

Robot sales in North America set record for 2015

Robot orders and shipments in North America set records in 2015, according to Robotic Industries Association (RIA), the industry’s trade group. A total of 31,464 robots valued at $1.8 billion were ordered from North American companies in 2015, an increase of 14% in units and 11% in dol- lars over 2014. Robot shipments set new records, with 28,049 robots valued at $1.6 billion shipped to North American custom- ers in 2015. Shipments grew 10% in units and 9% in dollars over the 2014 records. The automotive industry was the pri- mary driver of growth in 2015, with robot orders increasing 19% year over year. Non- automotive robot orders grew five percent over 2014. The leading nonautomotive industry in 2015 in terms of order growth was semiconductors and electronics at 35%. The fastest growing applications for robot orders in North America in 2015

were coating and dispensing (49%), mate- rial handling (24%), and spot welding (22%), according to Alex Shikany, RIA director of market analysis. Recent record performance by the robotics market in North America is concurrent with falling unemployment. Last month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics announced that the U.S. unemployment rate reached 4.9%, its low- est level since February 2008. “Today there are more opportunities than ever before in the robotics industry,” said Jeff Burnstein, RIA president. “The continuing growth in robotics is opening many new job opportunities for people who can program, install, run, and main-

is helping to save

tain robots

automation

and create jobs. A lot of companies tell us they wouldn’t be in business without robot-

ics and related automation.” Edited from an RIA press release.

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CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 |

23 input #12 at www.controleng.com/information

INDUSTRY NEWS

and events
and events

Nominees being accepted for Plant of the Year award

The FieldComm Group is seeking qual- ified nominees for the 14th annual Plant of the Year Award. End users and manufac- turers from all world areas are encouraged

to enter their plant or customer’s plant. The FieldComm Group Plant of the Year is pre- sented to end user companies in the pro- cess automation industry to recognize the exceptional and valuable application of Foundation Fieldbus and/or HART Com- munication technologies. Nominations will be accept-

ed until May 16, 2016. “Selection of the Plant of the Year is based on a plant’s use of our field com- munication and integration technologies—

recognizing capabilities of Foundation Fieldbus, HART-, or WirelessHART- enabled instruments beyond configuration and calibration.

not on the size or location of the installa- tion. We are seeking a plant that has taken the capabilities of Foundation Fieldbus, HART-, or WirelessHART-enabled instru- ments beyond configuration and calibra- tion,” said Ted Masters, FieldComm Group President and CEO. “Or, the plant that is using real-time device diagnostics and pro- cess information integrated with control, information, asset management, safety sys- tems, or any other system to lower oper- ating costs, reduces unplanned downtime and improves operations.” This award has been expanded to include all communication and inte- gration technologies supported by the FieldComm Group. Previous recipients include Nucor Steel, Dow Chemical, Monsanto, Shell, Mitsubishi Chemical, Statoil, Sasol, and DuPont.

Edited from a FieldComm Group press release by CFE Media.

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input #13 at www.controleng.com/information

Motor repair standards for increased efficiency and reliability updated

A n updated edition of the repair of motors and generators—ANSI/EASA

AR100-2015: Recommended Practice for the Repair of Rotating Electrical Appa- ratus—was recently published for use by the repair industry and its customers. The standard describes industry best practices for the repair, rewinding, and testing of electrical apparatus in order to maintain or enhance the energy efficiency and reliability of both ac and dc motors and generators. The revision introduced new require- ments, added or tightened performance tolerances in several critical areas, and expanded testing procedures. The stan- dard now includes requirements relating to the machining of commutators and slip rings and establishes temperature limits for the process of removing motor windings. Additional performance toler- ances were added for balancing motors rated above 2,500 rpm. Finally, testing procedures were established or clarified relating to bearing insulation, winding surge comparison and resistance, no-load performance, and vibration. Edited from an EASA press release by CFE Media.

Administration asks for more for cyber security

The White House allocated more than $19 billion in the proposed 2017 budget for cyber security, more than 35% above the 2016 enacted level. Resources are designed to enable agencies to augment cyber secu- rity, improve private-sector protection, disrupt and deter adversary activity, and incident response. The Obama Adminis- tration is implementing a Cybersecurity National Action Plan (CNAP) to help with long-term strategies to enhance cyber and digital security awareness, protections, and public safety. Department of Homeland Security is collaborating with industry to develop a cybersecurity assurance program to test and certify networked devices for Internet of Things (IoT). Edited from a White House press release fby CFE Media.

24

| MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

Reading the digital edition? Click on headlines for more details. See news daily at www.controleng.com/news

for more details. See news daily at www.controleng.com/news More headlines online Industry events At

More headlines online

Industry events At www.controleng.com, on the right side, click on the events box and scroll by month to see related industry events including:

MODEX 2016, Atlanta, April 4-6 www.modexshow.com

4th USA Science & Engineering Festival, Washington, DC, April 15-17 www.usasciencefestival.org

CSIA Executive Conference, Puerto Rico, April 19-22 www.csiaexecutiveconference.org

Hannover Messe 2016, Hannover, Germany, April 25-29 www.hannovermesse.de

The AIA Vision Show, Boston, May 3-5 www.visiononline.org/mvo-content-adv.

cfm?id=247

Offshore Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Tex., May 2-5

http://2016.otcnet.org

Rockwell Automation TechED, Orlando, Fla., June 12-17 www.rockwellautomation.com/global/events

Top 5 Control Engineering articles Feb. 8-14: The most visited articles included the 2016 Engineers’ Choice Awards winners, Microsoft Windows XP Embedded, Learning from past cyber security mistakes, Wireless for closed-loop applications, Process models and feedback control.

PMI steadies itself in January reading The Institute for Supply Management’s (ISM) Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) rose for the first time in six months to 48.2% in January to start 2016 on a somewhat positive note.

Process mapping with a purpose Process maps are lean tools to be used for a purpose. Use the lean tool to help you solve problems.

Remote support update advice and best practices When a controls programmer has make a live update to an already running process, it is best to follow strict procedures and best practices to mitigate risks and ensure suc- cess when making these changes.

Falling oil prices’ impact on pump and compressor suppliers While they face many tough challenges, innovation and intelligent manufacturing initiatives are still driving forces in these mar- kets; IHS believes they will greatly reduce the full impact of the ongoing oil price crisis.

Added protection through virtualization Network virtualization is the process of combining hardware and software network resources and network functionality into a single, software-based administrative entity, and it is essential that preventive measures be taken to protect the network from poten- tial breaches.

Cloud-based IoT company to be acquired

C isco announced its intent to acquire Jasper Technologies Inc., a privately held company based in Santa Clara, Calif., that delivers a cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) service

platform designed to help enterprises and service providers launch, manage, and mon- etize IoT services. Under the terms of the agreement, Cisco will pay $1.4 billion in cash and assumed equity awards, plus retention-based incentives. The proposed acquisition intends to allow Cisco to offer an IoT solution that is interoperable across devices and works with IoT service providers, application developers, and an ecosystem of partners. Cisco will build on the Jasper IoT service platform and add services such as enterprise Wi-Fi, security for connected devices, and advanced analytics for better device usage management. Jasper

develops and provides a software as a service (SaaS) platform with an IoT business that manages and drives a wide range of connected devices and services for more than 3,500 enterprises worldwide, working with 27 service provider groups. The acquisition is expected to close in the third quarter of fiscal year 2016, subject to customary closing conditions. Edited from a Cisco press release by CFE Media.

CORRECTION

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“More intelligent and efficient PLC programming.” The online version clarifies previously approved edits. See the cor- rected article under January 2016 at www.controleng.com/archives.

Call 1-800-544-7769 or visit info.turck.us/sensors

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CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 |

25 input #14 at www.controleng.com/information

COVER STORY

collaborative robots

COVER STORY collaborative robots Tips for improving safety, ROI for collaborative robots Collaborative robots are becoming

Tips for improving safety, ROI for collaborative robots

Collaborative robots are becoming more common on the plant floor. Deciding if they should be used requires considering safety and business goals and return on investment (ROI). See new safety guid- ance in a technical specification, ISO/TS 15066:2016 Robots and robotic devices – collaborative robots.

Robots and robotic devices – collaborative robots. MORE ADVICE C ollaborative robots have gone through major

MORE

ADVICE

C ollaborative robots have gone through major developments over the last few years as the myth of robots and humans working togeth- er in a defined workspace have now

become a reality. As the technology continues to evolve, this will become standard on many plant floors for a variety of applications in manufac- turing and automation. Jeff Fryman and Rick VandenBoom examined the attributes of collaborative robots and what they mean for a company’s process and automa- tion development in the Dec. 17, 2015, Webcast “Changing ROI for Industrial Robotics.” Robot- ic safety for collaborative robots and return on investment (ROI) for robotics were among topics covered. A collaborative robot technical specifi-

cation released in February offers more details. Fryman, a principal consultant for JDF Con- sulting Enterprises and a retired director with

KEY CONCEPTS A collaborative robot is an opera- tion between a person and a robot sharing a common workspace. With collaborative robots, it’s im- portant to determine if it is pro table to change the process for a robot. Understand what kind of automa- tion a company needs.

GO ONLINE See more linked with this article at www.controleng.com. Watch the “Changing ROI for Indus- trial Robotics” webcast on-demand at www.controleng.com/webcasts

CONSIDER THIS What applications and industries would bene t the most from collab- orative robots?

would bene t the most from collab- orative robots? 2 6 | MARCH 2016 CONTROL ENGINEERING

26 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

the Robotic Industries Association (RIA), defines a collaborative robot as “A special kind of operation between a person and a robot shar- ing a common workspace.”

Safety, collaborative robots

Furthermore, collaborative operations need to follow specific criteria:

They can only be used for pre-determined tasks.

They’re only possible when all required protective measures are active.

They’re only for robots with features spe- cifically designed for collaborative opera- tion complying with ISO 10218 Part 1.

The primary feature is safety-rated soft axis/ space limiting, which consists of software that provides defined limits to robot motion. The software uses space limiting that is used to define any geometric shapes that define where the robot may do the work. Fryman said that this feature is only available for new robots, and the customer must ask when purchasing the robot for this feature. It is not a standard feature. Other features mentioned include optional safety-rated speed controls that meet ISO stan- dard 13849-1. Fryman explained that the speed of the tool center point (TCP) does not exceed the limit set for reduced speed and that a pro- tective stop is immediately issued when a fault occurs.

Collaborative robots can be designed with human-like dimensions and movements to improve safe interactions with humans, and some are fitted with lightweight elements wrapped in soft padding to absorb potential impacts for increased safety, like this ABB YuMi robot, which also has integrated machine vision. Courtesy: ABB

www.controleng.com

Packaging, consumer electronics, and small parts assembly are some of the applications that benefit from
Packaging, consumer electronics, and small parts assembly are some of the applications that benefit from

Packaging, consumer electronics, and small parts assembly are some of the applications that benefit from collabora- tive robots. ABB’s YuMi is shown. Courtesy: ABB

Risk assessment, said Fryman, is a key ele- ment of robot safety because each robot sys- tem is unique. There are special considerations to make, especially for power- and force-lim- ited robots, and the assessment, as such, must be comprehensive. Fryman said there are many important things to consider, such as the plant floor and workspace layout design, limits of the robot system, hazard and task identification, and risk reduction. Fryman stressed that workspace require- ments need to be clearly defined so the opera- tor knows where he can directly interact with the robot. “It may be good to paint the floor, but it’s not said in the standard,” he said. The workspace design needs to be flexible so the operator can easily perform all tasks while maintaining a clearance of 500 mm from any trapping or pinch point, which is unique to collaborative robots. When it comes to col- laborative operation, one or more of the safe- ty features shall be appropriately selected to ensure a safe work environment for all person- nel exposed to potential hazards. Any detect- ed failure of the selected safety features shall result in a protective stop. “These safeguards are directed toward the integrator and toward how the collaborative application is designed,” Fryman said. This is especially true, Fryman said, when trying to discern the direction of the robot’s movement against the human and its possible movement. “It is unsafe if the robot is able to strike the human above the neck,” he said. “Any- thing below that has a number to it, but anything above the neck must be corrected.”

to it, but anything above the neck must be corrected.” Some collaborative robots are designed to

Some collaborative robots are designed to help manufacturers solve ergonomic challenges that are physically demanding for humans. Fanuc America’s CR-35iA can lift 35 kg (77.2 lb). Courtesy: Fanuc America

COVER STORY

collaborative robots

COVER STORY collaborative robots The challenge with power and force limitations for collaborative robots is that
COVER STORY collaborative robots The challenge with power and force limitations for collaborative robots is that

The challenge with power and force limitations for collaborative robots is that they aren’t well under- stood. It is a relative issue compared to speed controls, which can be easily measured and defined. The ISO/TS 15066:2016 (TS stands for tech- nical specification) Robots and robotic devices – collaborative robots, was published in Febru- ary 2016 and provides additional information and guidance on collaborative robots.

Understanding automation, process strategies

Rick VandenBoom, automated system group manager for Applied Manufacturing Technolo- gies (AMT), said any particular company needs to deterimine if collaborative robots are useful. He said that it’s important to determine wheth- er or not it is profitable to change the process

Collaborative robots are designed to work alongside operators in small spaces without the need for safety fences in applications such as small part sorting and assembly, inspection, machine tending, and part delivery. This Fanuc America CR- 7iA collaborative robot is based on Fanuc’s popular LR Mate 200iD series of mini material handling robots. Courtesy: Fanuc America

to accommodate a robot and what needs to be considered in return on investment (ROI) calculations. Automation, VandenBoom said, is valuable because it can:

Improve throughput

Reduce direct labor costs

Improve product quality

Improve worker safety

Reduce overall footprint.

While there are many good reasons to use automation, VandenBoom warned against get- ting caught up in automation just because the competition is doing it or because collaborative robots are the hot new trend at the trade show, and you have money to spend. “You should clearly understand which of these factors are driving your decision process and what their relative importance is,” Vanden- Boom said. “When you automate for the wrong reasons, you end up with failed automation.” VandenBoom also said companies should identify the business requirements of a proj-

Injection molder Dynamic Group has installed three collaborative UR robots to tend two injection-molding machines and a kitting application. The collaborative robot enabled the Minnesota-based contract manufacturer to quadruple production in those applications resulting in a two-month payback for the robot investment. Courtesy: Universal Robots

28 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

www.controleng.com

ect, understand the process needed, and determine the appropriate level of automation when deciding on whether or not to incorpo- rate collaborative robots. With business requirements, VandenBoom said that it’s important to meet the production milestones and part volumes. And that means being realistic. Every company, he said, wants the shortest schedule, highest quality, and lowest cost. “You can be fast, good, or cheap. Sometimes you can do two, but never all three. Pick two and aim for that as your goal,” he said. “Be realistic within your own team and your suppliers.” Determining the appropriate level of auto- mation changes demands a strong understand- ing of the current process being employed on the plant floor. Knowing where you can improve and where you’re already efficient goes a long way. Among the things to consider with a process are the number of processes, the number of opera- tors, types of equipment being used, current cycle time, and current footprint. “The better you understand the current pro- cess the better you can achieve your goals, mit- igate risks, and make intelligent trade-offs and achieve synergistic results,” VandenBoom said. Understanding what kind of automation and how much is needed on the plant floor is also

automation and how much is needed on the plant floor is also In trying to meet

In trying to meet demand on labor- intensive, high finish loudspeakers, Paradigm Electronics in Toronto has now implemented a UR10 robot from Universal Robots in polishing applications. The collaborative robot delivered significant increased production output, eliminat- ing bottle necks while improving the work envi- ronment. Courtesy: Universal Robots

crucial. What applies to one company doesn’t necessarily apply to another, and each challenge is unique. VandenBoom argues that if a com- pany wants to improve its automation through robotics it should find an expert with a breadth of experience across many industries and appli- cations and mine their knowledge. “Leverage the experts in these situations,” he said. “Don’t try to re-invent the wheel.” Regardless of what the company ends up deciding, VandenBoom said that the options that are being considered should be the result of a structured empirical approach that has removed the guesswork out of the potential choices. “It begins with gathering the right data, fol- lowing a structured analysis, and presenting multiple fact-based solutions,” he said. ce

Chris Vavra is production editor, Control Engi- neering, CFE Media, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

Determine the appropriate level of automation when deciding on whether or not to incorporate collaborative robots.

Cage-free safety, dif- ferent than collaborative robotics, is accomplished with an area sensor and the robots built-in safety. This allows operators to quickly and easily interact with the robot without entering cages. Courtesy:

Mitsubishi Electric

INDUSTRIE 4.0

Underway in the Czech Republic

INDUSTRIE 4.0 Underway in the Czech Republic

The advent of Industrie 4.0 in the Czech Republic

The core topic and trend in the Czech industrial market is Industrie 4.0. Many recent investments in computer systems are evolving manufacturing in that direction, and more specific instructions are yet to come. There is risk in moving too slowly, explains Control Engineering Czech Republic.

I f you were looking for one core topic and trend in the Czech industrial market [and perhaps the world], it’s Industrie 4.0. Each conference of experts, press release, or tech- nical article suddenly looks much better if

it includes the all-encompassing subject of new industrial revolution. Should these changes real-

ly be called a revolution? And at what progress is the heart of Europe making? Like a Shakespearean play, many say that Industrie 4.0 is “much ado about nothing.” In the Czech Republic (and in Slo- vakia) Industrie 4.0 is more like the mythical Mrs. Columbo from the old detective television show:

someone everybody talks about, but never sees in person.

o “ ”
o

Logo is shown for the “Prumysl 4.0,”

a national initiative defined first by Jan Mládek, Czech Minister of Industry and Trade, who also introduced the white paper in September 2015 summarizing the issue. Courtesy: Control Engineering Czech Republic

Many names, one flavor

sus

that

Industrie

marily

an

effective

4.0

is

There is a general consen-

pri-

marketing

name that works very well to promote changes in the name of technical progress. Although industry decision makers often hesitate to implement something called Industrie 4.0, under closer examination of the technical side they discover that many recent investments, mainly to computer systems, have launched this process already. Conversely, no one would likely believe the assertion: “From now on we will manufacture in line with the Industrie 4.0 trends.” How could anyone say that, when nobody knows exactly what such a perfect manufactur- ing model should be? This is the moment when the higher authority should chime in. Good news is that the first step to define Industrie 4.0 implementation was taken by the Czech Repub- lic too, although a little bit late. The “Průmysl 4.0” national initiative was defined for the first time by Jan Mládek, Czech Minister of Industry and Trade, who also introduced the white paper

of Industry and Trade, who also introduced the white paper MORE ADVICE Key concepts Industrie 4.0

MORE

ADVICE

Key concepts Industrie 4.0 implementations are happening now, even if they’re not ideal. Those using Industrie 4.0 concepts are adding value now, helping with the skills gap, even if people aren’t necessarily calling it Industrie 4.0.

GO ONLINE See related IIoT and Industrie 4.0 coverage in this issue and linked to this article at www.controleng.com.

CONSIDER THIS Industrial connectivity can offer bene ts no matter what you call it.

30 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

in September 2015 summarizing the issue. Luck- ily, it was compiled under expert group supervi- sion, so it covers much more than just a fancy Czech mascot “Lion 4.0.” The question that remains is: When and in what form we will see the announced “Industrie 4.0 implementation action plan?”

Changes underway now

Industrie 4.0 already is gradually changing the manufacturing industry. There is a huge risk that we will respond too slowly and lose the valuable competitive edge, because deci- sions about where to manufacture tomorrow are being taken today. This is confirmed by the recent survey conducted among more than 270 companies in Czech. Results indicate that online interconnections of value-adding processes are a decisive or very important factor for more than half of companies. Large players are realizing this rapid development more than small- and medium-sized companies do. Commenting on the current situation, three quarters of respon- dents described the digitization in their compa- nies as fully (10%), well (39%), or sufficiently (28%) implemented. The survey results may lead to a conclu- sion that Czech companies perceive Indust- rie 4.0 efforts positively. Based on discussions with market players, the reality isn’t as bright. Vendors are prepared, for the most part. Their solutions are capable of integrating the Industry 4.0 concept into the Czech plant environments; however, they are not that much interested in doing so yet. Unfortunately, there are still a num- ber of cases (typical in the Czech way of think- ing) of unwillingness to make any change. Where does the hesitation originate? As with many prior developments, misunderstanding is the culprit.

Revolution vs. evolution

A frequent and philosophical question remains: Is this a revolution? Technologically

www.controleng.com

speaking, these changes are generally consid- ered resulting from industrial systems evolu- tion in recent years. This school of thought tends to promote the term evolution rather than rev- olution. However, the pace of such changes (if Moore’s Law is to blame) really intensifies. Mobile technology development and the abil- ity of machines to talk to each other, combined with the advent of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or Internet of Services (IoS), are changing the face of manufacturing. Moreover, competitive globalization forces profit-hungry companies to take the advantage of all the ben- efits coming from deployment of automated and robotic workplaces. This vision won’t fully materialize anytime soon. Despite the wishes of many, just having technologies readily available will not be reflect- ed in the massive influx of investments. Remember, the first industrial revolution was not achieved in one day either. Future gener- ations will likely claim the revolution status as they implement 4.0 factories. And this might be the core issue. Why do these changes occur? Whether deemed a cause or effect, the underlying factors are human behavioral changes. Industrie 4.0 relates to advances in technology, but humans still must have a place in the factory of the future.

How much for machines?

It’s a justified claim that machines should take on work that is difficult, repetitive, and can be harmful to health, the workers of the future are expected to handle mentally more demand- ing tasks. Although advances in construction and control of machines will play a role (mostly in simplification and to accommodate habits of the future generations of workers), the changes must begin now. Actually, the Czech Republic already faces a lack of experienced workers (not to be discussed publicly due to the rate of unemployment). Gen- eration X is to be replaced with Generation Y, and it appears there is a serious lack of them. Without some n-th revolution, mainly in educa- tion, and if we fail to get the future generation excited about technical matters, it might be inev- itable for machines to substitute humans’ abili- ties and handle it all by themselves. And then, what purpose will be left for us humans?

Digital plant progress

Czech Republic enterprises owned by Ger- man companies are deploying Industrie 4.0 the most. Any visitor of the Škoda plant in Mladá

Mobile technology development and the ability of machines to talk to each other, combined with the advent of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or Internet of Services (IoS), are changing the face of manufacturing.

Lukáš Smelík is managing director of Control Engineering Czech Republic. Courtesy: Control Engineering Czech Republic
Lukáš Smelík is managing director of Control
Engineering Czech Republic. Courtesy: Control
Engineering Czech Republic

Boleslav can spot the technology elements of the smart factory: automated warehouses, robots cooperating with humans, and digitization of the manufacturing process, along with elements of the Internet of Things concept. The same applies for the Bosch Diesel plant in Jihlava, where an Industrie 4.0 project aims to monitor vibrations in machine tools and report devia- tions that can indicate upcoming faults. However, all of this can be found in other plants, without necessarily being named Indus- trie 4.0. This doesn’t necessarily mean that the fourth industrial revolution isn’t in progress, although, as a matter of semantics, we should rather call it the industrial evolution. Thus, Industrie 4.0 is not like Mrs. Columbo who everyone talks about but no one ever sees. More likely, we’ve met her already. Maybe we even know her well. We just have not been intro- duced to her real name. ce

Lukáš Smelík is managing director of Control Engineering Czech Republic . Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

INDUSTRIE 4.0 94 projects in China Aileen Jin
INDUSTRIE 4.0
94 projects in China
Aileen Jin

Industrie 4.0 is opportunity, challenge

China is pushing ahead with Industrie 4.0 with 94 intelligent manufacturing efforts in China Manufacturing 2025; challenges remain.

Editor-in-chief,

Control Engineering

China

remain. Editor-in-chief, Control Engineering China I ndustrie 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution, the

I ndustrie 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution, the general orientation, transformation, and upgrade of the manufacturing industry, and an unprecedented opportunity for development in the industrial automation industry. Whether

large-scale application of robots or wise use of fac- tory Internet, it will bring huge changes to the glob- al manufacturing industry. 2015 is the first year for Industrie 4.0 in China. On May 8, 2015, the State Council released the strategic planning of China Manufacturing 2025, which symbolizes the formal implementation of the Chinese blueprint for Industrie 4.0. After that, the Ministry of Industry and Information Tech- nology introduced 94 special projects of intelli- gent manufacturing, initiated more than 30 pilot intelligent manufacturing demonstration projects, and released a package of policies to promote and implement the China Manufacturing 2025 strategy. For a while, publicity about Industrie 4.0 and intelligent factory demonstration projects was over- whelming, boiling the manufacturing industry of China overnight. After more than a half year, peo- ple tend to have calmer thinking about Industrie 4.0 after following it blindly at the start and finding few shortcuts on the road of transformation leading to intelligent manufacturing. Instead, it calls for a more down-to-earth craftsman spirit.

MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS
MORE
ADVICE
KEY CONCEPTS

Industrie 4.0 is being demonstrated

in 94 projects in China.

Investments and efforts may produce few recognizable bene ts initially.

Security of off-site data analysis is

a concern.

GO ONLINE www.controleng.com/international www.controleng.com/webcasts www.controleng.com/ce-research

CONSIDER THIS When will you be implementing the best practices from Industrie 4.0?

Transformation, upgrades

Developed countries are speeding up the imple- mentation of reindustrialization, and developing countries are also speeding up the industrialization process. China is confronting dual challenges from

the advanced technologies of developed countries and low-cost competition of developing countries, so it is extremely urgent to accelerate industrial

transformation and upgrade. “Different from developed countries stepping into Industrie 4.0 based on Industry 3.0, China not only needs to keep up with Industrie 4.0, but also needs to make up missed lessons in Industry 2.0 and Industry 3.0,” said Li Keqiang, premier of the State Council. In spite of very bright prospects, Industrie 4.0, is

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a long-term process to implement. At earlier stag- es, no effects may be obvious after great amounts of spending and effort. In moving from Industry 2.0 and Industry 3.0 to Industrie 4.0, there will be huge challenges. Industrie 4.0 needs powerful hardware support to complete the functions such as data collection and acquisition, network connections, computa- tional analysis, visualization, and more, while the hardware investment cost is rather high. To obtain more information about machine efficiency and health, more sensors will need to be installed. After a data connection is estab- lished, massive amounts of data will come out of the machine in real time, although data transmis- sion speed and transmission quality are affected by hardware quality. The analysis, cleansing, and stor- age of big data also need support from high perfor- mance computers and mass storage memory media. At present, many factories have no such hardware or data connections, and a digitalized analysis plat- form will require additional investments.

Safety, security

Another challenge comes from safety and secu- rity. Industrial data often contains many trade secrets. Risk of divulging secrets increases with data transmission and analysis. With industrial big data analysis, a factory may cooperate with a third-party data analysis company, which separates the analysis algorithm or software of intelligent data from a fac- tory’s internal data environment. Safely securing a connection between data in a factory and an analy- sis platform outside the factory becomes difficult. Industrie 4.0 needs to be implemented. Future engineers will no longer focus on just one field. Instead, they need to grasp multidisciplinary knowledge. At present, lack of comprehensive tal- ents in the industrial circles and the gap in human resources are challenges in the realization of Industrie 4.0. ce

Aileen Jin is editor-in-chief of Control Engineering China; Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

www.controleng.com

GLOBAL IIOT improving data analytics
GLOBAL IIOT
improving data analytics

IIoT requires data analysis

Data analysis can help industry benefit from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), said Suzanne Gill, editor-in-chief for Control Engineering Europe, from the 27th Honeywell User Group EMEA event.

T he dramatic change in fortunes of the

oil and gas sector in the past few years

has had a wide-ranging impact across

many industry sectors, resulting in an

increasing requirement for engineers to

show a good return on any technology investment. This has led many to consider doing things differ- ently, with automated solutions becoming more rel- evant and easier to justify. At the annual Honeywell User Group (HUG) in Madrid in November 2015, Honeywell emphasized data analysis solutions. “Our customers run some of the most complex industrial operations in the world, and they require better knowledge to improve process safety, reliabil- ity, security, and sustainability,” said Vimal Kapur, president of Honeywell Process Solutions (HPS). He said new engineers replacing those now reach- ing retirement age do not have the same wealth of experience relating to the often aging control tech- nology in use at many process plants; more intuitive control solutions are required to help inform deci- sions on process efficiency improvements.

More rapid updates are needed

“The pace of technology change is much fast- er today,” said Kapur. “Systems traditionally would have become obsolete every 5 to 10 years. However, the underlying operating system technology used today is changing much more rapidly so there is a need to update systems more regularly.” There is also increasing interest in cyber security issues and the IIoT. “At this point the IIoT is throw- ing up more questions than answers,” said Kapur. “Customers will not be throwing away their exist- ing systems to implement IIoT, so we need to help them unleash the power that they already have. I believe that control systems will become the heart of the IIoT, which will rely on process data for opera- tion, maintenance, and optimization—and that data comes from the control system.” Kapur said the IIoT will give engineers the ability to host applications in a more centralized environment. With different source applications becoming centralized in the cloud, it will no lon- ger be necessary to maintain the same applica- tion multiple times, and upgrades will be much easier to achieve. It will also allow less skilled engineers to manage applications. “I believe that

the IIoT will allow for greater efficiencies and increased uptime. It offers nothing new, just a way of doing things dif- ferently,” he said. Kapur said Honey- well is enabling cus- tomers to leverage the benefits of cloud-based applications and this,

he says, is helping to lower engineering costs and optimize schedul- ing during the front-end engineering design (FEED) stage, where time sav- ings of up to four months have been achieved along with up to 30% reductions in engineering costs. “We have seen an increase in projects executed in the cloud environment–almost 2,000 projects since April 2015.”

Bruce Calder, chief technology officer for Hon- eywell Process solutions, said the process industry

We already

have the capacity to make use of this information

the next big change

will be how this data is managed.” One-third of process and manufacturing indus- try executives from around the world surveyed by Honeywell said that they already are using data ana- lytics to improve business performance. Two-thirds said that they are using data analytics capability to monitor assets to drive a proactive maintenance program. Two-thirds also said they were invest- ing heavily in IT infrastructure to collect more data from their facilities or remote assets. “There is a huge interest in data,” said Calder. “Data aggragation solutions can be used to monitor applications and identify potential safe-

to benefit plant performance

has “been doing [IIoT] for decades

Vimal Kapur, president of Honey- well Process Solutions (HPS), at the annual Honeywell User Group (HUG), in Madrid in November 2015, explained the importance of data analysis to improve process safety, reliability, security, and sustainability. Courtesy:

Control Engineering

Europe

and sustainability. Courtesy: Control Engineering Europe MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Data analysis was widely

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Data analysis was widely discussed at the Honeywell User Group. Cloud-based applications can save up to four months in engineering design and lower engineering costs up to 30%. Data analysis helps monitor applica- tions and identify potential safety and performance issues.

GO ONLINE Read more in this article online and at www.controleng.com/international

CONSIDER THIS Are you keeping up with data analytic opportunities to improve processes?

ty and performance issues.” To securely enable an increasingly connect- ed world, accurate instrumentation is needed, from field devices to gas measurement control,” Calder said. ce

Suzanne Gill is editor-in-chief of Control Engineer- ing Europe. Edited by Joy Chang, digital project man- ager, Control Engineering, jchang@cfemedia.com.

IIoT

implementation savings

II o T implementation savings Quantified benefits of Industrial Internet of Things Automation experts already have

Quantified benefits of Industrial Internet of Things

Automation experts already have been implementing Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architectures for years, prior to calling it IIoT; benefits of digital manufacturing including less downtime, fewer defects, and more new product introductions, as explained by Douglas Bellin, Cisco Systems Inc., at the A3 Business Forum, the day after Cisco spent $1.4 billion for a cloud-based service company, Jasper Technologies Inc.

Douglas Bellin, senior manager, indus- try lead, Cisco Systems Inc., presented at the A3 Business
Douglas Bellin,
senior manager, indus-
try lead, Cisco Systems
Inc., presented at the
A3 Business Forum
Feb. 4 in Orlando.
All images courtesy:
Mark T. Hoske, Con-
trol Engineering, CFE
Media

I mplementations of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architectures and the ben- efits of digital manufacturing deliver real benefits, including 48% less downtime, 49% fewer defects, and 23% increase in new prod-

uct introductions, according to Douglas Bell- in, senior manager, industry lead, Cisco Systems Inc. Bellin made the comments at the A3 Busi- ness Forum Feb. 4 in Orlando, the day after Cisco spent $1.4 billion for a cloud-based service com- pany, Jasper Technologies Inc. A3, the Association for Advancing Automation, is the umbrella organization for the AIA, Advanc- ing Vision+Imaging, Motion Control and Motor Association (MCMA), and the Robotic Industries Association (RIA). A3 helds its annual meeting Feb. 3 to 5, this year, in Orlando, Fla.

Realities of IoT, less pain

Bellin offered other pieces of advice about the IIoT and what it means for engineers. In a poll of the room, just a few admitted to liking the infor- mation technology (IT) department, yet oper- ational technology (OT) and IT personnel will need to work together more closely, Bellin said. “We’ve been doing IoT (Internet of Things) for years,” Bellin said, pointing to machine-to- machine (M2M) communications and other information integration efforts. The IIoT resolves pain points that we all have suffered with for years, such as rising energy costs, aging and remotely located workers, glob- ally distributed operations, customer support across time zones, world competition, product proliferation, asset optimization, and others. The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings people, processes, data, and things together to make better business decisions. While almost every machine has a controller with a lot of data available, data driven manufacturing is

34 | MARCH 2016

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not the norm, Bellin said, citing that 86% of 64 million U.S. machines are completely uncon- nected. Some say 40% of businesses won’t be the same or exist as we move forward if they don’t do IoT.

Disruptive trends

Disruptions changing manufacturing include:

IT and OT are converging

Industrie 4.0 and Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) are advocating IoT

Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have an increased focus on services, such as offering machines as a service, similar to software as a service (SaaS)

An increase in data-driven manufacturing

There are more secure operations and machines.

Implementations of digital manufacturing have delivered benefits including:

48% less downtime 49% fewer defects 23% increase in new product introductions 16% gain in overall equipment effectiveness 35% improved inventory 18% less energy use.

“Cisco Systems offers networking tools, so we, like many others advocate that networking is an important part of the answer,” Bellin said. Challenges are many, he acknowledged, includ- ing the skills gap, but supply chain visibility is the largest challenge, according to research.

www.controleng.com

Mazak, a machine tool manufacturer, test- ed a data-collection box retrofitted outside its machines, which connects to algorithms that allow predictive maintenance. Cisco, Fanuc, and Rockwell Automation are working together in the robot space captur- ing stranded data and pushing it into the cloud (remote servers) in a capable form, he said. This provides predictive maintenance with a two- week lead-time on failures. Bearings failures and resulting unplanned downtime and related costs and fines are falling dramatically as a result. The goal is to have 3 to 5 weeks of failure prediction. Sub-Zero and Wolf Appliances, based in Mad- ison, Wis., opened an Arizona factory. After an engineer often flew back and forth, an interface offering online video eliminated most trouble- shooting, unnecessary trips for the engineer. The interface allows collaboration among the designer, factory worker, and supplier to resolve issues and get back up and running, reducing downtime. Applied to oil rigs, such technologies could save millions of dollars in a short time by getting things fixed without loss of transla- tion issues. “See what you’re saying to better understand,” Bellin said. Where’s the IoT going? The connected journey means rapid commissioning of machines, greater security, start-up templates, a machine integration platform, OEE monitoring, data offload via MTC and OPC interfaces, scaled factory data acquisition, and advanced security. Then IIoT will enable machines as a service, a security framework, machine-to-cloud communi- cations, secure bi-directional communications, and remote access. Finally, IIoT will deliver advanced machine automation, time-sensitive networks (TSN), high-speed standards, advanced controls, and human-machine interface (HMI) integration with analytics. Digitization creates foundation of new applications and outcomes. Fanuc has found tremen- dous savings with problem prediction, he said.

Real-time analytics

In another example, a high pressure casting machine offers real-time analytics, performance projections, real-time data collection, with all sen- sors connected. A 5% revenue increase resulted with continuous real-time measurements and anal-

resulted with continuous real-time measurements and anal- Digital manufacturing drives business outcomes with

Digital manufacturing drives business outcomes with benefits such as 48% less downtime, 49% fewer defects, and 23% increase in new product intro- ductions.

The five waves of connectivity are connectivity foundation, business, people, things, and convergence. They are designed to be the framework of the IIoT, according to Bellin.

to be the framework of the IIoT, according to Bellin. The connected journey for the IIoT
to be the framework of the IIoT, according to Bellin. The connected journey for the IIoT

The connected journey for the IIoT starts with proprietary serial islands and expands to connected machines, machine integration, machine as a ser- vice, and advanced machine automation.

machine as a ser- vice, and advanced machine automation. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Implementations of IIoT

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Implementations of IIoT architec- tures and digital manufacturing deliver less downtime, fewer defects, and more new product introductions. Disruptive trends in manufacturing change how companies capture value.

GO ONLINE Read more advice with this article online, linking to an article about a recent Cisco transaction with Jasper Technologies.

CONSIDER THIS What future developments will involve digital manufacturing and the IIoT and how might they bene t?

ysis, inline quality inspections, and instant rework. This accelerated the journey to value-added services. If softer U.S. economy results in 2019, as some economists predict, offering services will keep machine builders ahead of the curve. “Manufacturing is moving from product-cen- tric to services-centric, led by a digital transfor- mation where services and the digital journey converge. This delivers deeper insights into prod- uct and customer needs,” Bellin said. To capture value, digital manufacture- ring builds a hyper-aware organization, makes informed decisions, executes quickly, and outpac- es the competition. Adding artificial intelligence algorithms can improve decisions and prevent failures. IoT breaks down IT/OT silos. ce

Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engi- neering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

IIOT

gateway connections
gateway connections

IoT gateways:

Industrial automation’s path to Industrie 4.0

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industrie 4.0 connect industrial automation devices and equipment, or “things,” with cloud-based systems to harvest information faster and to drive business value by providing new services to customers.

drive business value by providing new services to customers. MORE ADVICE Key concepts Industrial Internet of

MORE

ADVICE

Key concepts Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) improves connectedness for processes, factories, and building automation. IoT gateways connect to cloud-based computing and analysis. Information should connect to existing systems for the best value.

GO ONLINE Link to related production information with this article online, under March at www.controleng.com/archives.

CONSIDER THIS Does your human-machine in- terface (HMI) software promote easier mobile connectivity?

Create, save, and load self-service dashboards via MobileHMI for use with Iconics Genesis64 HMI/SCADA software on any smartphone, tablet, web browser, or web- enabled device by using KPIWorx from Iconics. Users can drag and drop data, configure widgets, and split screens to add new widgets with several preconfigured gauges, process points, trends, alarms, and grids in KPI- WorX. Courtesy: Iconics

T he ever-expanding Industrial Inter- net of Things (IIoT), sometimes referred to as IoT for applications beyond industrial automation, brings a vast communications infrastructure

to the process, factory, and building automa- tion industries; one that is far beyond anything these industries have typically used. With cloud communications services available from sever- al companies spread across the planet—includ- ing Microsoft, Amazon, and others—it has never been easier or more cost-effective to connect even the smallest and least expensive devices to a network—and not just to a local network, but to one that spans the globe. IoT carries vast amounts of processing power to the process, factory, and building automation

industries. This processing power, which can also be found in the cloud, is scalable from one cen- tral processing unit (CPU) with limited memory and disk space to a large array of CPUs or serv- ers. If used effectively, this processing power can be applied to monitor and analyze data, to report events and results, and to solve problems that could never have been solved before.

Scalable software

Many organizations embarking on their IoT initiative seek “off-the-shelf,” scalable soft- ware applications to enable monitoring, visual- ization of data, real-time analytics, and much more. Because of the openness and standard- ization in emerging communications protocols, many of these applications are serviceable with

protocols, many of these applications are serviceable with 3 6 | MARCH 2016 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.

36 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

www.controleng.com

minimal configuration and with little or no middleware. Achieving these benefits requires the availability of low-cost bridging devic- es called “IoT gateways.” IoT gateways communicate to the exiting sensors and automation controllers called “edge devices” and provide the bridge between an on-premise communications network and cloud-based computing power and visualization. IoT gateways must have the ability to interface with industry standard protocols such as OPC Unified Architecture (UA), BACnet, Modbus, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), or web services, but can some- times use proprietary communications protocols as well.

IoT gateway

Connectivity is key. Without being able to connect edge devices from behind firewalls and securely publish data to cloud-based applications, organizations will not be able to achieve the promises of advanced analytics through comput- ing power in the cloud. A premium IoT gateway, for instance, should be able to communicate with Microsoft Azure or third-party appli- cations using the most popular trans- port protocols. After the IoT gateway is online, it can register with the Microsoft IoT Hub in the Azure cloud through a secure Advanced Message Queuing Pro- tocol (AMQP) so that it can authenticate, send, and receive data. Acting as a secure message broker, the hub can allow for remote device management, provision- ing, and configuration. The IoT gateway should be able to work with enterprise resource planning (ERP), manufacturing execution systems (MES), and other enterprise applications running in private or public clouds other than Azure using Representational State Transfer (REST) and Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) as estab- lished IoT transport protocols. IIoT and Industrie 4.0 represent the advent of connecting industrial automa- tion devices and equipment, or “things,” with cloud-based systems to harvest hidden information faster than ever and to drive business value by providing new services to customers. The benefits to organizations, line of business appli- cations, and customers may be attained

CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 | 37

in the form of cost reduction, new rev- enue streams, or an improved customer experience. ce

Oliver Gruner is the director of cloud business development at Iconics. Edit- ed by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Connect edge devices from behind firewalls and securely publish data to cloud-based applications for better analytics.

Advance to the IIoT.

Connect devices and ignite productivity.

Give your existing infrastructure a brighter future.

Red Lion has been connecting devices and igniting productivity for years. From plug-and- play Ethernet switches to HMIs and visual management systems with built-in protocol conversion, our industrial automation and networking solutions will enable you to connect, monitor and control virtually anything, anywhere at any time to meet today’s Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) requirements. Visit www.redlion.net/IIoT and discover how to extend equipment lifespan, improve process visibility and push control to the edge.

input #15 at www.controleng.com/information

+1 (717) 767-6511 I info@redlion.net I www.redlion.net

© 2016 Red Lion Controls, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

IIOT

data analytics
data analytics

Use IIoT to improve operations

More data is just more data: data analysis software is the key to extracting insights and creating value from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) opportunities in production facilities. See an implementation example. Online, see another example and the four needs of data analytics.

Figure 1: Getting the most from available information requires col- lecting data, transmitting it via wired or wireless methods, analyzing it with software, and making it available to engineers via smartphones, tablets, and computers. Courtesy:

Seeq Corp.

T hanks to a new generation of wired and wireless sensors, data can now be eco- nomically generated and gathered in quantities never previously available and then sent to process control and

monitoring systems via plant networks or through the Internet. Data can then be used to improve automated real-time control and to help plant engi- neers and operators make better decisions regard- ing operation and maintenance. It also is available to data analysis software, which can be used by plant personnel to increase efficiency, diagnose equipment problems, and improve safety. As a result of this opportunity for new insights, terms such as the Internet of Things (IoT), the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), big data, and Industrie 4.0 are now common. Recent advances in sensors, connectivity, and data analysis software combine to make it easier and less expensive to acquire, send, store, and analyze information. The objective is to get better insights faster. IIoT, to choose one of the terms, can improve plants in brownfield, greenfield, and service-related applications. All three can be described indepen- dently, and can co-exist within the same plant. Brownfield refers to existing plants and oper- ations where new sensors are added to existing control or plant networks. Common brownfield scenarios include adding a wireless system and sen- sors to expand operator visibility and asset monitor- ing capabilities or adding sensors to replace the eyes

ing capabilities or adding sensors to replace the eyes 3 8 | MARCH 2016 CONTROL ENGINEERING

38 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

and ears of engineers being transitioned to central- ized remote monitoring centers or integrated oper- ations facilities. Greenfield scenarios are plants or facilities just coming online with IIoT projects. This is the most common scenario for smart city or pub- lic sector projects, and it’s where the association of IIoT with cloud-based monitoring systems origi- nates because the project isn’t designed around an on-premise control and monitoring system. Green- field deployments may lack a control system infra- structure. Examples include monitoring remote tank farms, pump stations, and vehicles as a com- plementary system for an existing facility.

Cash in on services

Finally, “servicization” is one of several moni- kers describing the inclusion of a remote moni- toring capability for an asset. Vendors of pumps, valves, and many other asset types are introduc- ing subscription services for monitoring equipment installed on customer promises. The business ben- efit is asset reliability and uptime, but the real driver is the opportunity for the vendor to provide exper- tise in asset performance and management. Each model follows a common architecture of sensor, communications network, and analy- sis that is very familiar to the process industry and noted by many prominent industry speakers. There are new opportunities for improved plant performance enabled by these new technologies and at drastically lower price points. The key question for manufacturers with exist- ing plants then becomes: “How do we bring our facilities forward into a smarter state?” The answer should always be framed in the context of the end benefit: better insights faster. Sensors are the starting point in the data col- lection process. They monitor operation of the “things” in the IIoT: pumps, valves, and other assets. Their cost of implementation and use is dropping rapidly, making it cheaper to acquire more data. Plant personnel were once limited to 4 to 20 mA, HART, or various fieldbus protocols to connect

www.controleng.com

Figure 2: Wireless transmitters eliminate the need for cables, conduit, power supplies, and safety devices.
Figure 2: Wireless transmitters eliminate the need for cables, conduit, power supplies, and safety devices.

Figure 2: Wireless transmitters eliminate the need for cables, conduit, power supplies, and safety devices. This makes it easier and less expensive to acquire data from pumping systems and other process equipment. Courtesy: Emerson Process Management

these sensors to control and monitoring systems and software. But today, they can use many types of wired and wireless data connection methods, often employing multiple networks simultaneously in one plant (see Figure 1). Sensors and connections enable new data from new sources to be accumulated quickly and inex- pensively, and there’s a wide range of modern net- working options for deployment. Battery-powered transmitters require no signal or power wiring infrastructure, so they can be installed in locations far away from a process unit’s wired signal termina- tion points. They also can operate safely for years in hazardous and other areas. Wireless instrumentation enables monitoring of

a wide variety of equipment and systems previously too difficult or expensive to reach with wires.

Brownfield IIoT: using pump data

Retrofitting a pump with sensors, a network,

and pump analysis software makes it possible for process plants to monitor pumps and detect prob- lems long before a pump fails and shuts down, and

it is an example of a brownfield IIoT solution.

A few years ago, high cost of installing a dedi-

cated online monitoring system limited use to the most critical pumps. With the relative ease of add-

ing pump condition monitoring using wireless sen- sor technology, online monitoring can be done on all important pumps (see Figure 2).

A pump monitoring system gathers data on

temperature, pressure, level, and other variables in real time and transmits via a wireless mesh network to a gateway, which sends it to the con- trol room via a hardwired link, usually Ethernet- based. There, pump monitoring software analyzes

data from dozens or hundreds of pumps and alerts operators when it finds potential problems. At

and alerts operators when it finds potential problems. At Figure 3: A scatter chart can be
Figure 3: A scatter chart can be quickly and easily created by process plant per-
Figure 3: A scatter chart can be quickly and easily created by process plant per-
sonnel for data analysis. Seeq data analysis software can give process experts
first hand insights to data, enabling them to customize analysis and improve pro-
duction outcomes. Courtesy: Seeq Corp.

one 250,000 bpd refinery, pump monitoring sys- tems were installed on 80 pumps throughout the complex. The annual savings was over $1.2 mil- lion after implementation, resulting in a payback period of less than six months. Similar results have been accomplished across a range of asset types: valves, steam traps, and others. Cost/benefit ratios continue to improve because of ongoing downward cost pressure on components.

IIoT last mile: data analysis

Delivering better insight faster is a good goal, but the last mile of IIoT unlocks value. To deal with the challenges of data from IIoT deployments, spe- cialized data analysis software is required to handle the high data volumes and provide the integration platform for data from disparate sources. Data analysis software should enable rapid insights for employees who know the process, assets, and operations (see Figure 3). The software must also be easy to use so as not to require the intermediate and time consuming step of program- ming by developers or translation by data scientists. The value of insight degrades quickly if devel- opers and data scientists need to become involved as they introduce time lags to the data analysis process. If changes can’t be found and implement- ed in time to impact production outcomes, they have little value. For example, if a pump monitoring system sends data to software designed to analyze prob- lems inherent to pumps, maintenance engineers can use the information to understand exactly what the software is telling them. ce

Michael Risse is a vice president at Seeq Corp. Edit- ed by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Control Engineering , CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS IIoT in action: Data acquisition

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS IIoT in action: Data acquisition is easier than ever, with many wired and wireless networks available. Important assets, such as pumps in a re nery as well as valves, steam traps can be monitored for maintenance prior to failure. Ingredient tracking improves product quality.

GO ONLINE Longer online version has more advice, including 4 needs of data analytics. Search on the headline at www.controleng.com.

CONSIDER THIS Information integration works best when information is put to use within an appropriate period of time.

IIoT

automation, information technologies

II o T automation, information technologies PC-based control drives global adoption of Industrie 4.0, IIoT concepts

PC-based control drives global adoption of Industrie 4.0, IIoT concepts

PC-based control systems are at the front lines of automation technology and information technology convergence (AT/IT) as businesses find ways to funnel data into a useful, actionable form designed to empower decision makers as they look to stay competitive.

to empower decision makers as they look to stay competitive. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS PC-based control

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS PC-based control systems are at the front lines of automation technology and information technology conver- gence (AT/IT). PC-based control systems and IIoT software can establish a seamless connection between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. PC-based control is becoming the de facto system for companies seeking to bene t from the rising tide of the Smart Factory.

CONSIDER THIS What else can PC-based control do for Industrie 4.0 and the IIoT?

GO ONLINE See additional stories about the IIoT, Industry 4.0, and Big Data at Control Engineering’s Networking and Security channel.

E veryone has been talking about the

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

and Industrie 4.0 for quite some time,

but there are very good reasons it has

stayed on our collective radar. The key

themes behind the smart factory concept revolve around establishing high connectivity and man- aging the critical mass of data generated every day in manufacturing facilities around the world to gain valuable insight to optimize businesses and processes. Regardless of methodology, the business needs that motivate companies to embrace big data and cloud-connected communication con- tinue to grow unabated. This will be a subject of discussion for a long time to come. This is because there is a business case at the center of the constructive conversations about these sub- jects. Manufacturing operations produce vast amounts of data, and finding ways to funnel that data into a useful, actionable form becomes par- amount to empower company decision makers with the information they need to stay competi- tive and innovative. However, storing and conveying this data is just the tip of the digital iceberg. Heightened lev- els of integration with plant operations minutiae enable companies to achieve a superior degree of operational knowledge as well as facilitate cutting- edge methods to streamline and optimize pro- cesses. Concepts such as predictive maintenance, machine downtime reductions, and control solu- tion optimization—minimizing cycle times or energy peaks—offer companies previously unseen clarity towards increased manufacturing efficiency and driving down production costs. Though implementation of these concepts can be achieved in many ways, PC-based control sys- tems provide an efficient means to build this type of functionality by relying heavily on standards.

40 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

In addition, PC-based control systems are at the front lines of automation technology and infor- mation technology convergence (AT/IT). This convergence is occurring almost every- where in the world of automation and controls, but it has been developing far longer, with the greatest level of integration in PC-based control. Cloud-connected industrial databases, object- oriented manufacturing processes, and control system notifications pushed to mobile devices are just a few of the exciting things on the hori- zon for forward thinking companies.

Connectivity and big data

IIoT and Industrie 4.0 have a strong hand in connectivity, but the data derived through that connectivity are the valuables being mined. Seamless, cycle-synchronous data acquisition and storage are prerequisites for effective pro- duction/throughput analysis and correction of processing errors in machines. To this end, Internet of Things (IoT) soft- ware includes the ability to store all process-rel- evant data in a cycle-synchronous manner and in a standardized data format. This data can be stored either locally in the controller, in a cloud- based solution on a server in the company net- work, or in a public cloud, depending on the needs of the company. The platform provides a complete temporal image of the manufactur- ing process and the production data, offering an ideal information baseline to assist in the event of an error, to enable comprehensive condi- tion analysis of the machine, and other valuable functions. The recorded process and production data can be analyzed online or offline, and machine cycles can be examined for minimum, maxi- mum, and average values of the cycle times. Features such as online and offline condition

www.controleng.com

Integration with plant operations via the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) enables companies to achieve
Integration with plant operations via the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) enables companies to achieve a superior degree of oper-
ational knowledge and facilitates cutting-edge methods to streamline and optimize processes. Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation

analysis, predictive maintenance, pattern rec- ognition, machine optimization, and long-term data archival are designed to help companies that seek complete business intelligence cover- ing the finest details of their operation. Another new feature deals with moving vital data from point to point, ensuring that autho- rized personnel can access this data, regardless of time or their location in the world. This fea- ture supports standardized protocols for cloud communication such as MQTT, AMQP, and OPC-UA for smart device integration. The extension of conventional control tasks through applications such as big data, pattern recognition, or condition and power monitoring in the cloud, can result in major improvements to production throughput, equipment efficiency, and time-to-market with new products precisely tailored to rapidly changing demand. Through the use of a PC-based control sys- tem and IIoT software, establishing a seam- less connection between the IoT devices and the Internet of Services becomes a simple mat- ter of configuration via the software graphical user interface (GUI). Corresponding services can be affordably hosted in public cloud systems or within private, local networks. Using these platforms and services in combination with advanced PC-based control systems, which sup- port native connections to these services, offers a

Seamless, cycle-synchronous data acquisition and storage are prerequisites for effective production/throughput analysis and correction of processing errors in machines.

solution that is quickly configured; process data can start being captured and analyzed. The value of data in any manufacturing oper- ation cannot be oversold, and the ability to mold that data into the means to streamline plant operations, reduce operational downtime, and cut costs has become today’s gold standard for the modern enterprise. This is really what Indus- try 4.0 and the IIoT discussions should be about. PC-based control is becoming the de facto sys- tem for companies seeking to create measurable and compelling business results off the rising tide of the smart factory. ce

Daymon Thompson is automation product spe- cialist, Beckhoff Automation. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

II OT, INDUSTRIE 4.0

implementations begin

II O T, INDUSTRIE 4.0 implementations begin

Enabling IIoT requires protocol translation

As implementations of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industrie 4.0 frameworks begin, Hilscher is providing network gateways and other communications from the plant floor to the enterprise and cloud for manufacturing data analysis, company executives told Control Engineering, recently.

company executives told Control Engineering, recently. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Hilscher is helping enable

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Hilscher is helping enable connectivity the IIoT requires. Plant oor can connect to the enterprise and cloud for analytics. IIoT and Industrie 4.0 test cases and demonstrations are underway.

GO ONLINE See more details with this article online at www.controleng.com.

CONSIDER THIS IIoT can connect and derive value from islands of automation.

I mplementations of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industrie 4.0 frameworks are pro- gressing, and translations of major industrial net- work communication protocols enable the flow of data that becomes actionable information with

analysis. Hilscher is among companies providing network gateways and other communications from the plant floor to the enterprise and cloud for manu- facturing data analysis. Hilscher representatives said the company devices aim to make it easier for end users, device manufacturers, and machine builders to access the benefits of Industrial Internet-connected manufac- turing. Enabling technologies extract data in paral- lel with current control networks and deliver it to cloud-based analytical services without compromis- ing existing systems or services.

Armin Pühringer, Hilscher business develop- ment manager, said products are designed to help make industrial cloud benefits a reality today. Hilscher North America CEO, Phil Marshall, also addressed the benefits of connectivity, providing communications for fieldbuses and industrial Eth- ernet protocols, he said. The goal is to get machine builders, system integrators, and end users “out of the network wars, and allow them to connect easily to as much as they need,” Marshall said. “Devices help IIoT get data off the wire. Prod- ucts are vendor independent and legacy proof,”

A Hilscher demonstration showed vibration monitoring for drives, with strain gauges, and transfer of data
A Hilscher demonstration showed vibration monitoring for drives, with strain
gauges, and transfer of data from the edge into the cloud and analytic services.
Hilscher plans to be the enabler of field data in Industrial Internet-based architec-
tures. Courtesy: Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering, CFE Media

42 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

Marshall said. “You don’t have to retrofit the con- trol system to get data to the cloud,” for existing and future PLCs, without touching or adding communi- cations responsibilities to PLCs. Pühringer said customers can use existing infrastructure in plants; deploy reference architec- tures from Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) and Industrie 4.0, vetted for all implementations; use cyber-physical systems as a virtual twin; and leverage standards and start again, in a cycle of continuous improvement. The IIC Reference Architecture includes an edge tier with devices, such as actuators, scanner, sensors, motors, controls; a platform tier; and con- nections to the enterprise and cloud. Field includes existing real-time infrastructure, Pühringer said, and the edge bridges information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT), then connects to higher level systems. This is valid model, laid out in great detail for all test beds, Pühringer said. Industrie 4.0 uses a three-dimensional RAMI 4.0 model; functional layers are in line with plant floor people, and physical objects enable IIoT functions.

Installations: Flatter, faster

Pilot installations underway are moving to dis- solve hierarchical control architectures, Pühringer said, flattening structures and connecting the plant to enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. A cyber-physical system holds the model to sim- ulate process behavior. Models can be put on exist- ing wire in the plant without disturbing the PLC, using presently available protocols and time sensi- tive network (TSN), an emerging Ethernet standard designed to bring one real-time Ethernet structure to the many-flavored protocol soup of today. Pühringer said companies are moving beyond prior concerns about safety, security, and privacy risks. For a major IBM pilot installation, expected to be announced at Hannover Messe, Hilscher is sup- plying network protocol translators. A bottle-filling application was shown at SPS Drives in Nurnberg, Germany, fall 2015. ce

Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engi- neering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

www.controleng.com

More resources posted daily at: www. controleng .com digital edition Exclusives, Online Extras: Benefits of

More resources posted daily at:

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digital edition

posted daily at: www. controleng .com digital edition Exclusives, Online Extras: Benefits of the Control

Exclusives, Online Extras: Benefits of the Control Engineering Digital Edition include tablet-friendly viewing (HTML5), exclusive content in every issue; headlines link to the longer version posted online; links are live where a URL is provided; and an email link arrives when ready. In addition, link to additional “Online Extra” articles.

DE1

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DIGITAL EDITION EXCLUSIVES

Technology developments using IIoT, real-time data to help workers in the field

Automation and controls designed to benefit manufacturers in the field were among topics discussed at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum.

Cognitive computing delivers answers, asks new questions

In a data-driven age, taking advantage of collective knowledge can be done with very little jeopardy. Just ask Watson. Humans in many industries are taking advantage of cognitive learning and massive data analysis, including 10% savings in aerospace industrial maintenance.

including 10% savings in aerospace industrial maintenance. ONLINE EXTRAS (Click on the headlines or search

ONLINE EXTRAS (Click on the headlines or search www.controleng.com. )

Projects for improving manufacturing challenges receive funding

The Energy Department announced $3 million for 10 new projects for the High-Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program, which is designed to enable private-sector companies to use high- performance computing resources at the department’s national laboratories to tackle major manufacturing challenges.

Planning algorithms for automatic contingency planning

Researchers at MIT and the Australian National University (ANU) have developed a planning algorithm that also generates contingency plans for logistics and control applications that can help guide autonomous robots and determine control policies for the power grid.

Changing the narrative

Rethinking ways to attract and retain African-American women in academic engineering—while understand- ing the intersection of race and gender—has never been more important. These women are showing the way.

Following selective coordination best practices

Design engineers must coordinate electrical systems so that the protective device closest to the fault opens first, and quickly enough, to prevent the upstream devices from tripping.

Augmented reality is essential for the next generation of skilled workers

Newport News Shipbuilding is constantly seeking new technology and innovative ways to improve safety, quality, cost, and schedules. Since 2007, they have explored augmented reality as a means to shift away from paper-based documentation in the work environment.

Six trends for the field service industry in 2016

As manufacturing shifts to a service-based economy, many businesses are beefing up their product support departments in order to stay competitive. Six trends and technology developments will impact the field ser- vice industry in 2016.

www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 |

43

DIGITAL EDITION

exclusive
exclusive

Technology developments using IIoT, real-time data to help workers in the field

At the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum, industry professionals and experts discussed and provided demonstrations on the latest manufacturing trends and ideas designed to benefit manufacturers in the field. See related articles in this issue, pages 30 to 42.

field. See related articles in this issue, pages 30 to 42. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Companies

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Companies are looking to leverage the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to improve worker ef ciency. Balancing connections among things, services, and people will add value beyond the IoT to other industries. Some of the developments include enhancements to real-time data processing, asset performance moni- toring, and improvements for mobile applications.

CONSIDER THIS What other IIoT bene ts do you see that weren’t mentioned here? (See related articles in this issue.)

DE1 | MARCH 2016

A t the 20th Annual ARC Industry

Forum, from Feb. 8-11 in Orlando,

industry professionals and experts

discussed the latest manufacturing

trends. They touched on many sub-

jects including the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Industrie 4.0, increased plant efficien- cy, synergy, and delivering real-time data. Click on the headlines for each section to learn more about the latest developments as well as addi- tional images from each press conference.

Connecting manufacturing assets to enterprise systems

Fred Yentz, president and CEO of Telit IoT Platforms, talked about the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and the formation of Telit’s IoT Factory Solutions business unit as well as how its working on helping customers to take advan- tage of the IIoT. The business unit’s goal involves multiple paths to deployment from one scalable platform designed to provide secure, robust shop floor access to the top floor and a connected eco- system of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), suppli- ers, and customers. Yentz said Telit is working to simplify connections with deviceWise, an industrial auto- mation platform that seamlessly

an industrial auto- mation platform that seamlessly Peter Terwiesch, president, ABB Process Automation,

Peter Terwiesch, president, ABB Process Automation, discussed how the Internet of Things, ser- vices, and people (IoTSP) is deliver- ing tangible results in a number of industries at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum in Orlando, Feb. 8-11. All images courtesy: Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering.

CONTROL ENGINEERING

connects any manufacturing asset to any enter- prise system, vertically and horizontally, without programming. deviceWise is designed for man- ufacturing verticals such as automotive, phar- maceuticals, machinery, oil and gas, electrical power generation, water, and other industries. “Companies recognize the value of the Indus- trial IoT, sometimes referred to as Industrie 4.0,” Yentz said. “The challenge has been securely connecting high-value production equipment to enterprise systems as well as to the information consumer outside of the enterprise.” This focus is a key component part of Telit’s vision of connected factories, connected machines, and connected consumers and ties directly into its core IoT business.

Increased efficiency and productivity through the IoTSP

The Internet of Things, services, and people (IoTSP) is bringing tangible benefits in multiple industries, explained Greg Scheu, president, ABB Americas, and Peter Terwiesch, president, ABB Process Automation, at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum on Feb. 8 in Orlando. Scheu opened the presentation with a brief company overview since its inception in 1883 and some of the products the company has pro- vided, such as gearless motor drives, turbocharg- ers, industrial robots, extended control systems, and variable speed motor drives. Scheu said ABB offers power and automation, which account for 40% and 60% of company revenue respectively. Terwiesch discussed ABB’s initiative on deliv- ering the IoTSP. He gave a brief overview of the prior industrial revolutions and the progression to Industrie 4.0:

Industry 1.0-1712: Mechanical production powered by steam in England

www.controleng.com

Satoru Kurosu (left) and Simon Wright from Yokogawa discussed creating customer value and cloud-based solutions
Satoru Kurosu (left) and Simon Wright from
Yokogawa discussed creating customer value and
cloud-based solutions at the ARC Industry Forum.

Industry 2.0-1870: Assembly lines powered by electricity in 1870

Industry 3.0-1969: Electronics and soft- ware-based control powered automation

Industrie 4.0-Today: The IoT connects things, services, and people.

Terwiesch also discussed a growing shift in automation as industrial products become smaller while still delivering increased pro- ductivity. Key drivers include affordable sen- sors, increased computing power, and more sophisticated software algorithms that can pro- cess data in new ways. The benefits, he said, include higher uptime and product quality while increasing safety from a worker and pro- cess standpoint. Terwiesch also discussed the plant of the future involving IoTSP and what this means for information technology/operational technolo- gy (IT/OT) integration. Whether its infrastruc- ture, industry, transportation, or the home, everything will become more integrated and more connected with one another. Terwiesch used several examples from ABB’s recent oper- ations involving the IoTSP including a mine facility in Sweden, a paper mill in Brazil, and a plant in Ohio. Terwiesch also emphasized focusing on customer outcomes by improving operations, maintaining assets, and transforming projects to increase efficiency and improve worker safe- ty as a whole.

increase efficiency and improve worker safe- ty as a whole. Terwiesch said balancing connections among things,
increase efficiency and improve worker safe- ty as a whole. Terwiesch said balancing connections among things,

Terwiesch said balancing connections among things, services, and people will add value beyond the IoT to other industries. He cited benefits to mining, pulp and paper, oil and gas, and other applications. “It’s a great time to be in automation. Create it.”

Delivering real-time data to companies in the field

Don Pearson, chief strategy officer of Induc- tive Automation, and Travis Cox, co-director of sales engineering, along with Arlen Nipper, president of Cirrus Link Solutions and co- inventor of MQTT, demonstrated the addition of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) function- ality to the existing human-machine interface/ supervisory control and data acquisition (HMI/ SCADA) functionality to Inductive Automation’s Ignition industrial application platform. The modules—MQTT Engine, MQTT Injector, and MQTT Distributor—are designed to accelerate organizations’ ability to leverage the IIoT. Pearson said companies aren’t getting the data they need for decisions. Coupling devices with

Honeywell Process Solutions (HPS) showed how Pulse mobility soft- ware can add productivity to users of Honeywell Dynamo or Uniformance software at the ARC Forum.

www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING

MARCH 2016 | DE2

DIGITAL EDITION

exclusive
exclusive

applications stops innovation because systems take too much time to set up and change after that. Nipper explained that Inductive Automation and Cirrus Link Solutions are taking a funda- mentally different approach by combining Igni- tion software from Inductive Automation with all the efficiency of MQTT, a translator used in oil and gas successfully for 10 years. MQTT is

a pub/sub messaging transport that’s perfect-

ly suited to the IIoT. MQTT provides fast, bi- directional communication in a very simple manner, so it requires minimal network band- width. And the speed of the new solution is groundbreaking. The modules with Induction technology are designed to connect hundreds of devices in just minutes.

Synergy and customer value through cloud-based solutions, integrated data

Cloud-based solutions and how to cre- ate customer value, were among discussions from Satoru Kurosu and Simon Wright of Yok- ogawa, also at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum in Orlando. Kurosu, director and exec- utive vice president, head of solutions service business headquarters, discussed creating cus- tomer value beyond the plant. Simon Wright, CEO of Yokogawa’s industrial knowledge business unit, discussed cloud-based, customer-connect- ed advanced solutions. Wright was formerly CEO

The IIoT is designed to deliver real-time operating data as well as cloud-enabled software for greater connectivity to unify systems and process more data for enhanced decision making.

of Industrial Evolution, a provider of cloud-based

plant data-sharing services, a company that Yok- ogawa acquired in January 2016. Kurosu said the new Yokogawa business unit, formed after acquisition of Industrial Evolution, aims to provide synergy and customer value cre- ation through integrated data and analytics. It pro- vides a secure cloud platform, data as a service (DaaS), and business applications on top of that. Wright said the DaaS effort began in 2000 for oil and gas utility companies. It is built on Osisoft PI and structured query language (SQL), moves data to a data center, a private cloud, and adds analytical value. It is scalable to millions of data points, proven, secure, reliable, and is data source

DE3 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

agnostic for data type, application vendor, and ser- vice provider. Both discussed the business strate- gy of advanced solutions that integrate OT and IT to enable industrial organizations to create value, foster sustainable business growth, and build syn- ergies that contribute to a company’s effective transformation.

Industrial Internet, mobility applications for increased connectivity

Mobile software is available to help users of process software be more productive using smart- phones and tablets. Honeywell Process Solutions discussed Honeywell Pulse and the Honeywell IIoT network, called iiOT, at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum in Orlando. Mara Weber, global business communications and investor relations, Honeywell Process Solu- tions, explained that the digital transformation connects people, processes, and assets. The IIoT is designed to deliver real-time operating data as well as cloud-enabled software for greater con- nectivity that also is designed to unify systems and process more data for enhanced decision making. It also uses data analytics to predict future events that can help prevent abnormal sit- uations and reduce downtime. Hilary Gwisdala, global marketing commu- nications, Honeywell Process Solutions, dem- onstrated Honeywell Pulse mobility software, showing simple setup in just a few minutes, eas- ily pulling information from Dynamo or Uni- formance software from Honeywell Process Solutions. Honeywell Pulse is a mobile applica- tion designed to provide immediate notifications and real-time plant performance data and analyt- ics to plant operators and managers.

Technology converging for asset performance monitoring

Bentley Systems CEO, Greg Bentley, dis- cussed the convergence of IT and OT and engi- neering technology (ET) also at the 20th Annual ARC Industry Forum. Bentley discussed how this convergence is enabling owner-operators to go beyond asset performance monitoring to asset performance modeling, and thereby achieve demonstrable improvements in asset perfor- mance. He also explained why digital engineer- ing models are critical to realizing the benefits of the IIoT and how new breakthroughs in reality modeling (enabled by way of unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs], digital imaging, and innovative software) are making the continuous creation of as-operated digital engineering models possible for every infrastructure asset. Bentley also suggested that digital engineer- ing model integration is a logical benefit of IT

www.controleng.com

and OT convergence. He gave an example of a south Australia gas utility that is adding weath- er and events to track, optimize, and control consumption with its portfolio for asset per- formance monitoring. Schematics, 3D models, functional components and specifications, anal- ysis, and network models all feed digital engi- neering models to create the digital DNA of the organization. Bentley said that IIoT success requires sen- sors, big data analysis, information mobility 3D, global positioning system (GPS), and other information for asset performance modeling. Mobile technology also can be used to expe- dite issue resolution in the field when site and field workers can collect and share field feed- back. For example, Bentley said, Western Power, in the U.K., is using 3,500 Apple iPads in field with maps software from Bentley. ce

Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, CFE Media, cvavra@cfemedia.com, with press release information from Yelit, ABB, Inductive Automation, Cirrus Link, Yokogawa, Honeywell Process Solutions (HPS), and Bentley Systems with additional infor- mation from Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

A gas utility is adding weather and events to track, optimize, and control consumption; schematics, 3D models, functional components and specifications, analysis, and network models all feed digital engineering models to create the digital DNA of the organization.

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DIGITAL EDITION

exclusive
exclusive

Cognitive computing delivers answers, asks new questions

In a data-driven age, taking advantage of collective knowledge can be done with very little jeopardy. Just ask Watson. Humans in many industries are taking advantage of cognitive learning and massive data analysis, including 10% savings in aerospace industrial maintenance.

T he importance of IBM’s Watson computer beating two human con- testants in a game of “Jeopardy!” five years ago was better demon- strated the day after the televised

event when cancer researchers called to ask if Watson’s computing capabilities could be har- nessed to help in that area. That idea evolved into IBM for Oncology, one of more than 500 partnerships, including industrial and maintenance-related applications, developed around the idea of cognitive comput- ing demonstrated by Watson on a game show can be used to help solve the complex problem of complex data in an increasingly complex world. That’s the potential of cognitive comput- ing, according to Rob High, vice president and

chief technical officer for the IBM Watson project. As he told the annual ARC Advisory Group forum in Orlando on Feb. 10, the need for such computing power is essential to take full advantage of the knowledge humans are creating. “Cognitive computing comes down to data. There’s been an enormous growth of data,” High said. “We are going to gen- erate 2.5 exabytes of data today. That’s 2.5 billion, billion bytes. By 2020, we’re going to generate 44 zetabytes of data.” The problem with that, High noted, was not the data itself. “We can’t read it all; we only can

not the data itself. “We can’t read it all; we only can Rob High, IBM’s vice
not the data itself. “We can’t read it all; we only can Rob High, IBM’s vice

Rob High, IBM’s vice president and chief technical officer of its Watson computing project, said cognitive computing is essential for humans to make better use of the massive data being created each day. Courtesy: CFE Media

DE5 | MARCH 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING

get a small sliver of it,” he said. “The disparity is between the information and our ability to con- sume it. We want to tap into that massive volume of information to make decisions, but to do that, we need cognitive systems.” High said there were four main characteristics of cognitive systems:

They are able to learn their behaviors through education.

They support forms of expression that are more natural for human interaction.

Their primary value is their expertise.

They continue to evolve as they experi- ence new information, new scenarios and new responses.

“Our human condition is far too complex to represent mathematically,” High said. “We don’t look up each individual word to create meaning. We derive our understanding through pattern recognition and through those signals gain meaning.” High said the questions are more daunting as humans and the cognitive systems keep learning. He posed three questions for consideration:

How do we use cognitive systems to amplify human cognition?

How do we make it possible to think about a problem you might not have thought about it before?

How do you make decisions in a way you didn’t before?

If that sounds a little too mechanical, some of the new cognitive systems under develop- ment also will include contextual, linguistic and even emotional analysis, such as robots

www.controleng.com

that can evaluate body language and cognitive systems that can recognize puns and innuendo. Those latter skills were important for Watson’s foray into “Jeopardy!” “We had to interpret the context in which the question was intended, but use that context to look for information,” High said. They also loaded about 200 million pages of literature into Watson to help prepare the computer to play the game. While the demonstration was a cultural phe- nomenon (“Jeopardy!” champion Ken Jennings famously wrote, “I for one welcome our new com- puter overlords,” for his “Final Jeopardy!” ques- tion at the end of the second game). High said the real breakthrough was demon- strating the potential of cognitive computing. “The real breakthrough was that we could tackle problem of human reasoning,” he said. Today, that concept that evolved into 530 business partnerships, including more than 100 universities, and 80,000 developers using cognitive services on IBM’s Bluemix platform. That includes Austin, Texas-based Spark- Cognition, which works with aerospace com- panies to resolve maintenance issues more

The cognitive system sifts

through the information to

find what is most important

to us and helps inform our

decisions.

quickly based on the context of the problems faced. High said this effort has lowered main- tenance costs by up to 10%. “Cognitive systems do the research for you so you can do your thinking better,” High said. “On our behalf, the cognitive system sifts through the information to find what is most important to us and helps inform our decisions. It changes the way we as humans think.” ce

Bob Vavra is content manager, Plant Engineer- ing, CFE Media, bvavra@cfemedia.com.

Plant Engineer- ing , CFE Media, bvavra@cfemedia.com. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS Cognitive computing demonstrated

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS Cognitive computing demonstrated by Watson can be used to help solve the complex problem of complex data. Cognitive systems can learn through education and evolve as they gain more information. The challenge going forward will be using cognitive computing to amplify human cognition.

CONSIDER THIS What other applications could cogni- tive computing be used for?

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High-performance HMIs, efficiency, process safety

Using high-performance HMIs is a powerful way to streamline how operators manage processes and allows them to react to process upsets as efficiently as possible.

them to react to process upsets as efficiently as possible. MORE ADVICE KEY CONCEPTS High performance

MORE

ADVICE

KEY CONCEPTS High performance HMIs can make operators more effective and reduce overall downtime and time spent on troubleshooting. High performance HMIs can also be helpful under normal operating conditions by using trends embedded into process object graphics to show conditions over time. Many companies are implementing high performance HMI applications in their facilities as they see gains in their process ef ciency.

GO ONLINE See more information about high performance HMIs at www.controleng.com.

CONSIDER THIS What other applications and industries could bene t from high performance HMIs?

44 | MARCH 2016

B efore computers were widely available in manufacturing, operator interfaces consisted of lights, rotary readouts, and control charts. These components were mounted on a wall in the control room

and required operators to physically interact with them to run the process. Early computer graphics were used to shrink the operator interface to fit on a monitor but were rudimentary and made it easy for the operators to be overwhelmed with data. As computer graphics progressed, and the world at large became familiar with general busi- ness computing, industrial graphics followed suit, leading to the 3D rendered pro- cess environments common in most human-machine interface (HMI) marketing materials over the past

few years. While these graph- ics look great in a brochure, they can get in an operator’s way leading to confusion and additional productivity losses during process upsets.

The major hurdle in designing high-perfor- mance HMI systems is that high-performance graphics are not conventionally attractive for use as marketing collateral and are not as easy to advertise.

Sound the alarms

In non-high-performance applications, normal process conditions are usually some combination of green and red for running or stopped motors, open and closed valves, and so on. There might be flashing animation to show items moving down a conveyor belt or fans spinning. Colored lines are used to show the different process connec- tions, usually based on the process’s pip- ing and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) drawing. When something goes wrong, there might even be a flood of alarms, leaving the oper- ator a pile of information to sort through to find out what the problem is before he can take steps to fix the issue. Even for someone who is familiar with the process, finding out the root cause of an upset can be a time consuming task. High-performance HMI applica- tions are designed to reduce the amount of time spent looking for the root cause. This is accom- plished by simplifying the graphics, removing ani- mation, flashing, and color under normal operating conditions. This even extends to accessibility con- cerns by not relying on color as the sole source of information. In the case of an alarm, different shapes and symbols can be used to indicate the equipment that is not running normally. When a process upset occurs, the offend- ing portion of the process can be highlighted, immediately drawing the operator’s attention to it, and increasing his or her situational awareness to reduce the amount of time it takes to trouble- shoot the problem. High-performance HMIs can also be he