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REV. GEORGE

THB

M. D.

SEXTON,LVL, ILK

Fellow of the Royal Italian Society ofSeienct;


Honorary and Corretponding

HonoraryMember

of L'Accademia

del

Home
Quirltl,

,'

'Member of the Victoria Inetitute;Philoaophical


SocietyofOreat Britain.
"

AUTHOR

OF

"The

Baseless Fabric

of

"Theistic
ScientiiicScepticism,"'

"Fallacies of Secularism,"
"*

Light in

the

Cloud,"

Hiblical Difficulties
etc
Dispelled,"

irdpra Kotr/ieiv ra

NoOf

"

Problems,*'

vpdyfiaraBia irdpToapiStna,
"Plato

EDITION.

THIRD

PHILADELPHIA:
M.

E.

Book

Room,

1018 Arch

Street.

^^

TORCrNTO:|fc.
W.

Briggs,Methodist Book

Roomy

kichmond Street.
("
y

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--"-"

mmtb

CMUNOM

XI

"

THE

FOLLY

ATHEISM.

OF

A Discourse Delivered beforethe American

InS^te

of ChristianPbiipsophy.

";"/" fl

"f*---

"
",^

-V

"

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"A%-"iA"'

qj%

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W^^-la^ -V^-a^J^'1^
H'-J-l^T-.J"-.f=-.^-^TSK"

"

I
"

(""
..

Quid

"

The

"p.M-""

t"."

p..te"te""

Etenml Will is the Civator

c..i"
per"picu.ini.

umque

of the world. M

is the

Ho

creator of the finite rea"".n.""Ftc/t(".


"

"

The

"on

of Nature

account for their own

cannot

origin

Sivnirt Uiii.

^-Jokn
"

Laws

omnipresence of soiuethingwhich passes con.prehen


inexis a-beliefwhich has nothing to fear from the most
The

Zi: i::gic.
the contrary
but
o"

exorable logicshews
"

l.lief

true.
Ikj profoundly

to

"1b^and

Forth from

his

l"brtentou"

sightI

Sailingon

i,

obscene

wlnch^e
n^
^Herbert
bpencev.
m-

lonelyhiding-place.

the owlet

Atheism.

wings athwart

the moon.

lid.,and holds them


Drops his blue-fringed
And

hooting at the glonoqs sun

Cries out. Where

close.

in Heaven.

is it ?"

^Colerifg
^^^

'

Printed by The 8tr"tfofdH.r"W

PrintingCo.

"/

"/""

"'

I'

The Folly
of Atheism.
ni. cum
eMe

ill

?"

mtur

will readilylie understood


(liscourHe hnH

been

pnsstti^'
"

of

ongin.
The

reference

inex-

to

shall not

fool is

i. 3

we

wither," where

that

is baMd

"

uu

in the ]k)ok

the

fool hath

God."

73^

rived
is de-

^*''^hdhV, and
It has

wither.

the soul

witheringof

the

and

everyone"

read

we

to
signifyinf;

root

In Psalm

iii-

Speiicer,

rsaluis/wherein

here renderetl

word

from

uprehenmost

to
/rell-known

said in his heart,there is na

ff

"

"

the title of this

that

uuKgested by

the

iH

08t

'*""'

that

doubtless

denial

of God

volves.
in-

his leaf also


godly man.
is employed,signifying
tJb^||tune'word
read of the

"

of that part of man


degeneracy,or tM|^|Pwering
spiritual
"^^Vsi^rliim
above the inferior creatures.
The roan who-

which

in God, and

delightsin His law, shall

Psalmist,therefore,Would
as

one

who

character

be unfriiitful. And
in all ages

In

wither

or

the

decline.

ment
embellishWhen

the

he speaksof
At^leist,
Will
be sterile,
and
His/actions
an

allgrea^aqd

this has been

noble

undertakingshe

him
his
will

the characteristic of Atheism

It is cold,negative,cheerless,and

the world.

of

"

deseri^

i^ withered.

barren.

only bringforth truit

his leaf ^also

in abuildi^nce hi his actions,but


of his chnracter-^shall not

not

believes

emotion
gloomy, lackingenthusiasm, feeling,

and

sympathy.
The Atheist often complains that David, in calling
him a
fool,w^ guiltyof a lack of courtesy. But truth is higherthan
and, as a rule,
Strong languageis often justifiable,
politeness.
unbelievers

not

are

slow

to

in
pileup expletives
anathemas

use

their

like small Joves


'

it.

They thunder

and hurl
language,

incensed

with

and

ate,
fulmin-

abroad

passion.

their

Moreover
^^

"/".

\
Yrr
'"'

.1.

their

of

o,,e

fHine"

would
the

"mriln.il

fault

JongH to

who

is defective

whi.h

r.od

TheChriMtian
he

wholuckH

his

path,

walks

any

cheered
-

is.

iKj

terribly
of

"}od"

to

show.

evidence

proceed

now

; for

p^mern

at

are

tide

wia.lon"

that

which

ex^.reasiononly

Hentiment

cannot

and

light,

guide,

feil

illumu..-

to

ami

be

to

but

destUule

led

tlius

ana

unwise.

spiritual perceptions

deteriorated,

fault

i" foohih

feet."

my,

refusal

the

are

and
at

it,

of

least

to

guide

His

Hia

ho|"e,

niy

without

hope.

however;

withere"l

Atheist

the

the

say

alone:

Not

",ust

to

this

darkness

f."r

""c

tentern

lhi"

ho|K..

the

in

and

not

:"

shall

echo-.K

this

groun.l

s.did

guide,

my

who

nian

that

of

itay,

cloe.

(M.

true

li

who

man.

manner.

no

fin.l it" full

eun

""

that

of

Myt.

*ide-the

higher

x\m

on

is

It

"

however,

reaaonin^

hi"

Shake.""|)e.irc Mays

worihip.

My

There

TtioinM

pni.lent

or

i.tTenHivo

un

in deatituU^

He

He

Daviil.

my",

withered

im

religion, and

Divine

in

f."cuUy

O.Kiw.ii.1.

up

fo".l. in

man

iulellect

h"

opens

the

wonU

UMi."

lu.

Umn

i"rm,n"KO

"

phih"*"pher.

were

iraiwUietl

in. that

lew

UftvUl'i

the

if there

term

meaning
hi.

011.1 not

olilv

live

ugv

ro-echoetl

nenily

hM

fool

th"

u|Kmtlek-no

own

nt

but

is

reasoning

point

every

existence

his

of

iM.wen.

which

to

overwhelming,

Ih..

tmn

we

llus

I shall

"

question

The

religion, and

of

th^hopes

millions

Certoin
woild

when

of

fears

until

under

records

Theology

Uiseless

instances,

huge

give

us

the
the

.delusion
the

visions
of

h'^rdly
ever

fairttest

(in.|

no

miiHt

from

mad

philosophy,

true

.ill

large majority
minds

hallucinations

the

Ik-

world

the

The

as

of

rwit

there

in

simply

been

the
be

If

agitated men's

brains.
as

the

at

.lijlusive.

have

now

exceptional

labouring
earliest

and

lies

supD^.rt.
of

have

if Atheism

withafew

the

that

disordered

it i"" that

been

idle

unsubaUntial

and

night

has

and

and

system

every

worship

of humanity

dawn
of

that

all

false, and

be

existence

foundation

is its

it is clear

then

Ootl's

of

dr.aius
ui

since

knowledge

the

nmi.iur.

wholo

the

worth

the

naming,
the

time
of

the

nml floingnof
miyiti}(ii

initluH
Nup|x"Ki(ionrt|iu
tho rHHl

iK)t

known

uf

Mlatv
pleaiMUit

fullierK

to-"Uy upon tliU

rv"ii

to

in

man

oni;

million

"

unit niiitledliytho

ulil erroM,

still in itiedurkneMiof

aru

of their
HU{Mi!iMtition
a

'And

r"ce.

our

the Ifant of it. lliisht not

To Hay

when
to
t)iingH
conlcmpliitu.

tuke

we

into

has in
thai religion
mnHolation
uniNUulh^liMl
tresse
all times l)r()|t^1it
the friundleii' and tho distlin Hiiffuriug,
to
the sick and the dyi^j^
and the nftlicted,
the |)ersccn\,(Hl
Not easilywill men
give up their faith in (itMl until something
needs and
human
nobler and lietU^r adapted to human
higlier,

oonsiderution

the

Ih)offered in itH

wants

loHM is incalculalile.

shall

Then

that (r"Hl is not',and

Sh("wu8

place.

what

feel

we

graphicallydescril"ed by the gicat Qerniah


reinlereilinto Knglishby Thomas
Carlyle.
I
Christ
who is sup]Hi8ed
to be s))eaking
"

"

worUls, I niounU"d

through the
as

far

the

of Heaven

wastes

'

rainbow

abyss

of creation
and

which

hung

trickled

no

And

He

('

so

"

well

(iod.

Dut

is"^

through the
the galajti^s

went

with
no

"

so

rent^rksit

looked

thou

1 descend-

dowi)

into the

I heai-d only

guides,and the gleaming

one
a

is

and

art

without

down.

Hew

but there

cried, Father, where

everlastingstorm

and

its shadow,

lieingctists

as

abyss,and

the .suns,

into

Wn

has

Richter

"

the

sun

when

that made
I looked

it,over
up

to

th"

measur
the im-

with an
^j^e,it glared on me
and Eternitylayupon Chaos,
empty, black,bottomless eye-aocket,
eatingit and ruminatingit. Cryon,ye dissonances; cry away the
flitted away, as
The palegrown
shadows
shadows, for'fle is not.
world

for the Divine

white

vapour

and
disappears,

h"ait, the dead


into the
on

frost has formed

which
all

And

void.

was

who

children

temple, and

the altar,.and said,

'

with
then

the

cAine, fearful for the

had been awakened

cast

we

in the churchyard

before the

themselves

Jesus, have

breath

warm

no

Father

high form
?'

And

he

orphans,Pand you :
of disson^
without
Father.'
Then
loud shrieking
are
came
we
ances,
parting asunder of quiveringtemple walls, grinding
of Worlds, the torch dance of celestialwild-fires," glim"ress
leringsouls upon the sea of Death." "void of immensity,"
[Dead,dumb, Nothingness." "Cold everlastingNecessity,"
answered, with streaming tears,' We

are

all

"

"

"

-^K*i" *C

'#

Chance!"

"Frantic
we

may

uncertain

sea

Rujjle,and

no

so

of Wordsworth

ocean

to

steer

driftingso
possibilit

are

itf the

out

true

standing on some
might have glimpses

conformable

Theism

God.

no

deny

is

there

that

existence is

purpose
of

This

must

same,

as

he

Appendi*

*Vide

'

:1: \/r

"'

means

'

."'

"

not

tliii

fashion*
to say

of His

you

harmonitms

satisfactory from
that

assuredlywill,

most

able
cap-

false.

it shall
then

will find

You

we
as

he seeks

"

,.

^tifr.

"

...t.

,.

-:

nvgid all ar^'u-

to

A.

"'

he

by this

hence

do

refuge behind a negation,saying


be
expected to prme a
cannot

will take

nothing

affirms

negative,and

it

show

of Atheism

demand

we

there is

is content

of the Universe,

and
unphilosophic

the Atheist

rule that

it

dogmatic

I will

as

therefore

and

if it fail,as

and

pronounce

that

is

Theism

whole

is

realitynot Atheism, but


answer
equally well for my

furnishing a rational theory


a

say

is in

it will

Nevertheless

says

sufficient evidence

that

but

to be had.

as

you

most

am

not

'if necessary

of unbelief, however,

philosophic
do

the

as

that Atheists

show

can

in

so

and
standpoint,

the

ed
oppos-

God, but, there

Atheist

The

far

as

I do

iaa

told here

for I

God,

God, and

positivemanner.

be

me

this occasion.

complete

and

form

be

not

Agnosticism:
on

philosophy,and

or

Goil exists.

done

have

may

or

of God,

moderate

more

unlovely system
prote it utterly false,
this

I believe there

let

not

the existence

many

is

there

words

do

And

of them

The

God,

in other

or

less forlorn.

me

is to

reason

this in the most

I do

there

I think

make

is whether

us

science,

that

asserts

concerned

would

that

business

my
to

thought.

all sound

God,

And

false.

outworn,

pleasant lea,

questionbefore

the
or

neither

suckled in acreed

pagan

But

to

be

that,

So

be

rather
I .'d

God!

language

*
,

Great

and

by,no' pilotto

the bare

at

that

one.

boisterous

we

led to cry

are

we

the

which

on

mercilessly. Looking

state of things

compass

no

of the

chart

recklesslyand
of such

with

of chance,

terrible

on

tosseil

helplew orphans

be poor

is

contemplation

The

-/"

";.. \

...

.;

-t"??
P^'^'S^fc's^^ep^j.r*'^

'

5-',r

A*^

rm^-'-^fi^Wjw^Wi^y^^

that

save
niifeiit,

piocess,

of

whatever

denial,which

mere

niay

is the

trade

well

has

Atheist"

is very

"lbwn

said oif the

and

true.' Denials

destroying

or

paintingin five
time to produce
mations

he

For

besides

which

w;e cannot

often

affirms

it

to

allow

idiot may

An

t^^

of

man

the

inuch

very

it mu^t
[universe,

if Atheism

spoil

to

furnish.

Unless

it can

thinking, enquiring mind.


school, that

inodern

iature, and

make

ibsurd,and

the

long

attempt

no

which

be content

)nuMrl:irics of the

the visible.

to

to

indeed

und

take

his afiir"

it

explanationof

du

this, it

mere

the

by

and

rest

to

as

No

them, is
sane

the

man

narrow

they

as

/"

facts of

in the confines

far

as

certain

witfi the

thoughts within

the

satisfy

never

enjohrsimpossible.

sense,

them

inferences from

valueless,except

are

can

taken

content

draw

his

And

by boldly facingall

an

rest

this

philosophy of

position

to

contract

region of

Facts

The

should

we

task

such

givingus

life

genius a

Atheist

true

itself to be so,

prove

facts of existence, and


is able

the

be

in

stock

body
deny what someart of controversy." This
simple enough. Pnlliiig

only

work;

easy

But

[negation.
Thus,

!tiD

course

His

requireprocrf equajly with tho$e of liie Theist


in philosophj'
the human
mind
cannot
rust in

Bt

very

minutes

position.

is

in the

of

are

has

an

"

Negationist,

He

he is set up

side; himself

Atheistic

"

mere

simplestpossible.

else holds

is

a
very easy
cat^se
be the truth that is set forth or affinned.

the
Holyoake^ an authorityjon

Mr.

of

of

shadow

|ortha philosophyrelatingto that which lies behind them, and


and to trace
their
le
businessof which is to explain them
Any

loses.

iquirymust
)ry of
prm

the

attempt to drive
inevitably fail,as

positive, as

)thingbeyond
did
syer

narks:

the content
never

be accused
"

of any

At

*Lay Sermons

the

p.,

uttermost

well

in

And

never

reach

this

the liis-

said, "The
assumes

facts,impliesthat which
even

Herbert

in favour
predilectidns

knowledge
I^ositive

thought.

has

from

of thought, which

of observed
will."*

inind

always failed

Huxley

implying a system

exist, and

cannot
^fao

the human

it has

Professor

As

past.

back

can

of

fill the

Spencer,
of Theism,

whole

discovery there

region
must

'i-fa

178.

.,

"^^
'.'1"*^"P"^"'

What
question,

arise the

ever

lies beyond?

The human

mind,

itselfnot only with ascertained


but also with that unascertained
phenomena and their relations,

all time, must


throughout
",

occupy

something wiiieh phenomena and their relations imply."


to be worth
a
deal with
straw, must
Any system, therefor;?,
thai which

the domain
lies beyoiul

to hazard

sort of

some

down.

theoryas

to

the

why

it is that Atheism

things. Herein

of

of fact,and must
and

has

be ed
preparthe wherefore

alwaysbroken

Theologyhas usuallybeen considered


and of altogether
distinct fioni,
n
perfectly
from, that upon which Science finds her

sure

occupy ground
different churacter
to

and

ing.
certain foot-

utterlyiticorrect. Thecdoeyis as
or
chemistry. The existence of Grod
geology

This notion is
a.

science as

clear

an

induction from observed

and

recorded

facts

niueh
is
as

iis

the

systeuiof astronomy, the evidence ui"on which both


Copernican
the same
of pwniisely
churacter. The Baconian
are receivedbeing
of induction,which lias furnished us with the true
principle
all the facts that liave
scientiHc method, consists in collecting
t
hese
the
o
n
subject,
b
ringing
tt)gether,
arrangin
any bearing
and classifying
joint
them, so that theyno longerstand out, in disbut form
isolation,

one

is inferredwhich shall cover

shall be in

and with which

each

of

writer in

an

anonymous

grand whole. This done, a law


the ground occupied
by all facts

one

review

harmony.'In
"Take

the words

astronomy as an
certain facts,
or

example. In the heaven above us thei'e are


which men
could not fail to obs^erve ; as, for iuphenomena,
of the sun, the waxing and waning
sUuice, the risfhgand
setting
of the stars,at certain
of the moon, the regular
recttirence
cord
alonga fixed pathor orbit. Merely to observe and reperiods,
these facts was not enough for reasoimble man.
He
was
i.e., to theorise
compelledby his very nature to reason"
"

for
seek
to
them,
upon

some

for some
rangeid,

to

Uiw under

which they might be

which

tlieymight be traced. He
could not but ask, From what does the regularorder and reof these p!iono:nen
V And after other answers
i spring
curraacs
cause

'

%"

"First Principles,
pp. 16,17.

-T

-,

^iils,
:n***P:WiS!"*.?"'*""^.i"ww**8y'ff*RW"w^a""*"'-;

."

V^^^^^IR-?^'"

"

...

"..""""
"'":/"-,.

"

..

to the

for
had been Rivenand accepted
question

This law is simplyan


accounts

the law of

gravitation.
a theory
inference,
an
liypothesis,
; but it

him to this
that which satisfies

on

time, he lit

for the astronomical

day,in

facts

no

us

otlier

theorydoes:

and till dome


at least for the present,
and, in this, therefore,
of man
be reached, the inquisitive
wider ^generalisation
reason
and is satisfied. Thus, from

rests

multitude of effects,
ed
scatter-

has arguedup to a cause, or law,


the uaiverse, man
tlirough
method
l)e
This
the
referred."
all
is
which
tc^
pursued
they
may
I
in all branches of science,and it is the

itheology.Science
I"

which

We

l^lown
from
cause
IIfeelconfident it

t"o its effects.

Now, if it can

causes,

be shown"

or
ns

is reached

that the existence of God

can"

arrive at

effectsto their

from

hypothesis
by arguingup

natural facts

readingof

our

follow in

we

theoryof the phenomenaof the universe.

our

the

is nothing but

one

f.-

by

{this
into
fieldof
the
science,
thereby
tbeolosiy
bring
process,
Lnd establishits primaltruth upon the
footing gravitaItionany other so-callednatural law. And the Atheist who
we

same

as

or

Iwould

overturn

theory is bound, in

oui

the first

to
place,

show

induction does not square with the facts,


and, in the
which does. Sir
Bcond,to give us a non-Theistic hypothesis

Ithat

our

Newton"
[isaac

greaterauthoritycould

and

quoted
lies properly
science starting
from phenomena''to
stop not tillit raise us to the hidden ground
it is by this process" a strictly
"f these phenomemu" And
ofijod's existence
that we reach the proofs
Bientific
oneIn dealingwith this question,
must, start from facts,
we
but not terminate. Lord
for with facts all thoughtmust begin,
be

hardlya
-hn3 well said "The
reasoningon to God
the domain of science. For it belongs
Iwitliin
to

icon

has well observed that" those who

have either been

of

men

like
are
Bxperiment

or
experiment

thteant"

substance.

[ts
materialsfrom

flowers of the

th"^by
and digests
fcransfornis
.,^..

make

But the bee takes


the

handled science

theory.

The

they only collect and

who
theoristsare like the spiders
^wn

of

have

cobwebs

middle

course

men

use.

out

of
its
own.
power

of their

; it gathers

garden and the field,but


Not unlike

""

r.J

of
The

P.1

"

-Tf""Vj. "-T"-^

ff

-^

"

.-"""".""""'" ''2

'.: :"
"

""^

"
"

'"""""

"-:

'"""""*
"

"

"
"

And
philosophy."*

business of

t his i8 the true

Ije followed in

must

of philosophy
that
principle

before us.
The nmterial that we use
question
depisionsmust
be gatheredfrom facts; but our

legitimateinferences that

afe

it is this true

derived from

the
discussing
in thought must
rest with

All

these.

the

man's

'

knowledge,accordingto Kant, beginswith sensible exi"crieEce:


from experience.
but all does not come
Every fact has a meaning.sometimes lyingvery deep down in its naH^"; and ihis
meaning has to be extractedif we would arrive ftUaifaccurate

opinion?
the phenomena
We nnist .luestion
tbey have

oi^der to learn wbat

but it is a very

soughttor niay

What's

be

is terribly
Tlii.*^
appKcabhto

mould tlmt thev

now

BeiXO,
In

facts have for them

hiy down

series of

your attention.

Exis-R

1 Know

WHAT

OK

making

somethingthat

to

correct

liKht.t

the most
nothing l)eyond

see

giveme

"

inaiiVof
the Atheists

to

beg you

nirive at

iound,

semblance which always appears

I will

I.

can

things.'
Hence

that mere

easy task,

an

api)ear to haVe been cast in

Their miuds

known.

material

would

unscarch'd for seld6picomes

iJut truth

hVe

always be

not

remaiks:-*
Sophocles

conclusion.

of their eau.ses. their relations

say

This may
essential om, if we

and their purposes.

'*

to

of the universe, in

that

I am

l"HILO.SOrHEltS CAIX

such

of
piili)able

the outside.

which
to
proppsitions

a
AN

Personal

Conscious

ECSO.

this atfirMiationthat I exist,1 attirni of


i.ssimply amid.st the

myself

complexity""f my
thoughts. This Ego

and

"

meaning beyond

no

on

that I

roundings
sur-

the varietyof my
may
manifest itselfin a thousand diflTerent ways, but utidenieath
these

amidst

\J

manifestationsthere lies .somethingthat is substantial


the

*Novuni

mere

phenomenalvj.riations. That

which

Organuni, Aph. 95.

'\\"uT6viK4""vyci
BerafieXovfievoi'.

"

A
r.^:;-?!,

1 call

-(""".

",":

""""*.

:.

13

myself
but

is not

something

It is

central

other

from

in

myself

irounds

existence

as

volition,

and

surroundings

conscious

higher than

which

is fact
of

knowledge
world

The
have

it

breaks

It

IS

is

axiomatic.
needs

necessity of thought.

Eternity,or there had


"

This," says

prop9sition

assert

the

Dr.

no

contrary

particularin

the

like

myself,

seej.heir Conconsciousness
The

"

of I's."

and

dent
stu-

All

my

aljove

of themselves

deciding anything.

philosophy
that

is

FROM

existed

from

thoroughly

so

which

alone

WHICH

thkhe

is

all

Eternity.

by

necessityof thought
is

of
.susceptible

Something

Ailicist

proof of

of

menus

still i"een

; and

Then

me.

be

my

ness.
conscious-

must

nought

Saiquel (Jlark, ;"is

that

of

ot

by^|j|)ealing
to this

Eternal,

prcwf,and

no

an

external

Truth

have
It

to

woild

be

known.

is

must

self, but

well,said

iiilets
to this

the

i"erception

obtain

such

has

my

The

uuUtcr

Nkxjessarv

Something

to exist

be

Can

ever
When-

knowledge

my

amnot

of

it is to-

cannot

ciiwciousness.

my

matcrinlistic

Something

that

by

it elevates

existences

IL

truth

the

for

and

not

iiideiMmdent

or

and

I infer lo

amidst

simply

arc

that

down,

material

ESCAPE

senses

is

himself

proved

separate

no

Here

be

do

"

that^sur-

as

is exterior

whom

I affect

me.

possibly

can

Prof. Mauriice

be tested

only

can

all

to

not

not

tlie numifcstatioii

finds

must

which

personages

enough.

history

1 4m

n.ny

anything

only

"

ijae

t^'^re^^y affirm

existence, and

thinking l)eings. I

sciousiiess,but

only

to
apipe'rtains

of self.

is

of

pronoiin

reeoj^nized hjf nie,

substantial

other

me

that

or

affect

personality; Sensation,

exertions

abstraction, but
this existence

I uifii the

consciousness

are

that

belongs

affluences by which

all the

separate

affections

all the influences

else

my

action,

around

thought^'and sensations

When

all

to

affirm

of th6ught"
ajc'ongeries

or

contradistinction, not

but

nie,

both

which

things diverge.

mark

see

which

to

point to which

and

converge

as

collection of sensation

tliere iS

For, since

quently,
conse-

it is

existed

from

nihilo

nihil

ear

evident

in aiiy afge has

therefore
it.

so

This

because

none,

have
; for

and,

and
ever

no

all

fit,

undeniable

presumed

need
little

something

now

of

to

being
is,'Us

mr

^if rst^wji'^'T^'-i^t,
'""*^";t
iiM?

t'
.u

Xhoutcui^wWcl.

^T

i.

plainco"".diot.on

JSlti*..

"

^^whYitdoth
exist
^Ts^ity
of iU

eurnTor

i" th* will of

must,

tog

SL

order
the
in
le.4t,

at

that
things*

grooud

of

of

self-evident truth.

plain and

.existedeternally, thit is, l."w

J^tually
past, is

STito

RS

eu,rm.l

an

comp.#.d

.nytlv"gthat

as

can

p"ss

ihe truth

that
proposition,

of the

actimllv past, would

even

thereto
c, mAtst

not

yet

eternal.

been

have

That

be

now

narrow

an^ex
to

deny

.s

now

ud.ntel

something far umre


real co"tr"lictio".-

and

have

duration

be to assert

express

au

eterl,.

an

our

.s

And

ttfbe.

first

ea.v

can

.mposaiblefor

contraction
be imagined

"

dumt.on

more

very

anyth.ng

how

For

thing utterly""

to

to
co"ceivs.than

to

man

Yet

none.

nature

can

manner

mind

other

exis
truths
most^^ulen

men

for the

of .Uelt

eafls...ty. have

and

nature

ex-

the

U=ing (and then that

one

-Mcult

of ito

been

have

to

ground or

^Z all eternil,-is of the "rt"inest and


iT^e"orld,.ckno"ledged
and d,s,,"ted
by
by all
Z the
it
be, there is ..othmg
how
0

Fo

something, therefore, has really

That

before it)

f^'"-""ji

re.ies,a

it must

other

"me

ex,st-*.lher

n"t

then

(and

nature

o"n

than

-ry

term..

its existence

mther

n^^i

the

a reason,

" cause,

which

o"

Otherwise,

was.

exists has

Whatever

alwavs

"o*K:nc"

,""

S"meth,"",

eter.u.1 somethu.g,

maybe

whatever

its

This is, I t"keit,a


both

are

for

limited in extent,
existence

with

tirms,because

,1

as

circle

square

fore, where

it

sort

or

the Thnst

duration

imply

an

finite existence

of existence

combining

which

is

finite infinity,which

crooked

.nduraU.m

and

Atheuit

would
supposition

impliesa
or

least

is inHnite

finite attributes, either of

of

that

some

or

the

that which

can

finite attribute,

infinite attribute;
infinite and

which

point upon

agreed. Nor

is infinite,at

nature,

line.
straight

divergence takes place between

"Being and Attribotes ol God, 9th Ed., pp. ". 9-

The

be.

inhnlle

w.h
in

aa

itself

contradiction
is as

irralion.

point,there-

the Atliei."t and

."^"^4

the

WKr*a^F^"|%Jrji^^'^?^

is

Theist

This

is

existed

impliesan

on

from

lower

'

is,caused

in time.

him,

and

brought

may

be its nature

have

been

call

him

It must

bodily organs

ether, and

it must

have

the whole

This

jattests.

cause

for that which

does

Ifrom

therefore

must

jman
vhich

not

eality. A
ayself and
Jur

him

his external

phenomenal
modern

invisible world

tieserealities demand
Ens

his

moulding

he lives,but

which

only

modern

been

be acbom-

science

fully

living power,
as

of impartbeencapi^le

then

but has
has

that

well

phenomena

an

originate only
existence

said
of

"

the

time, demand

As

the

the

in

as

an

in

visible
the

Eternal

recognitionof
realities consti-

time, so

conditions, yet regulatedplay


a

world, with

limits of place and

recognition of

4.

that

imperativelyas

producing them, which


l"yond

substratum

ui-derlies all the

Ego. which

nature, could

writer

all other

And

an

iperativelydoes the Hunted


an

of

itself

is absurd.

-^alities underlying and

7.

called,must

impart life. .Moreover


have

must

limitations of place and

ite an

whatever

intemgent, for intelligence


is re^ly for something to spring
noa-intelligence

constitutes

'T"henomenaof

preceded

we

could

as

have

live pannot

not

nothing,which
which

produced, that

this cause
intelligent,
jman
and therefore
inte'ligence
in
originate
jto

in

which

when

skUl, adaptingone

and

world

itself alive

was

is

jing

the

to

time

eflTectwhich

capable

precision

life,a task

him

that which
by
jplished

been

only have

was

said that man

be

of the

phically
philoso-

there

cause,

it may

name

he

of finite

have

this

And

production

marvellous

given

the

not

with

being.

is

up

must

one

not

which

thit

therefore

some

by whatever

or

made

up

has

he

supposition

ytras

or

taken

to

race

nj)t. If i^be
reply there was

Man

into

the

demonstrated

wa?

Somewhat

adeciuate to

man.

to the

has

animal,

existed.
livingorgai.isiiv

no

has

infinite chain

secondly,science
the planetwhen
nian

evolved

was

it

as

And

time

Neither

be

that

Man.

Not

ih

need

knoK^

man

in the first place such

absurd
linka

time

no

individual

Eternity.

For

belongs.

that

Infinite Existence*

one

Existence

Infinite

and

Each

ol the

nature

self-evident

so

from

the

Eternal

it.

proving

in

f.*-., 'F"

to

as

Thb

JII.

'*^

transcendent

of

Reaii

RealisHimum, unlimited, unconditioned,by whom

'***-'!
*f^'';'

."M^""
"TYf

tb which

^fljm'^wTi

they

their

owe

charactemtic of

in all itsforms.

matter

of
try, unlimited matter.

If you

the very nature of

can
things,

Yet there

an

be

must

You

not-even
to

tell us

He

must

and

conceive.

is

in
limitetl.

neither be Infinite nor

Absolute,since without

for it is one
Infinite,

essential

an

cannot

Now. that which

nothingthat is conditioned could exist ;


an

is

origin.Limitation

of the necessitiesof

Absolute.

the Unconditioned,

and

there must

be

thought. You

can-

think it out of e.xistence. The Atheist,then,is bound


where and what is the Infiniteand Absolute existence.
either show

form of matter

some

that is unconditioned

is,in fact,a c4"ntradiction in terms ; or


existence,which is. in truth,
prove that there is no Ab""ilute.
he must
to deny all existence;or
admit that the Infiniteis
which
unlinjited,

all material things,


which is
something transcending

to

re'"L'

his Atheism.
lincjuish

phenomena of the materinl universe,conniet


which artr also Relative,
ofasenee of changes,
limited Subm^.

All the

dinate and
This

Secondary.

beingso,

what conclusion

to

driven
li-ifesistibly

we

are

by what Herbert Spencercalls "the momentuto


which leads us from the things
as they appear to
how

of their existence ?

and

two

inference is

four,that there

make

all these

whom

The

be

must

the

clear

Prime

thought"
why and

as

that

Mover

two

from

spring.A consideration-

secondarymovements

of this fact it was

as

of

that let Aristotleto ascend

from

all observable

and

of motion up to what he calls


principleof principles,"
the
the fii-st"immoveable mover"
principle
which "causes all thingselse to move."
All movements
that
see
conditioned
other
Nq single
ar"?
movements.
by
^we
with which we are acquainted can
itself
thing
move
^material
movements

""

lOr

stop itselfwhen

or
imal^r letterkgown

IneHta*

^ot

*FiUe

is

do

There

is

no

property of

established*thanthat
thoroughly

ca^p^ AfMUy.

now

I do not

Whence

origin ?

^heir

more

oti^it

fmotion caused
lotion.

in motion.

set

mean

How, then, is
secondarymotion,but primary

all these subordinate movements

There is no

primary

AppencKxa

'^i^hiS-i'-'^^^

movement

in any

have
material

i-^^^^

'

^gi^^^^^r

Motion
connected
ao"|ualiitetl.
Ihj elenmi. for the ph^nonionathemselves
with i"h";noinena
cannot
Ininsient und dependent. l"rofeH"or Huxley liu
are
The very natiiro of the phenomena demonstrates
well said :
anil that they mut^ have
a beKinning,
that they must have had'
observe*!
Ih
in a body is caused by
that
end."*
Every change
an

thing witii whifch

wo

ure

"

to itself.
Honiethinj"exteri."r

of the

E'tch vurt

;l

hiweltein

vuith'inL univerM

tUertfore
ami
viimt
epct.

an

nhewn

iU

owe

iUelf to

existence to

outside iffittdf.

caune

pointto

Atheist cannot

The

wliicli does not Iwar

caused by
ti-eesand

uinm

power exJerior

some

flow'
rs.

and

singleobjectin physical
ture
nait the marks
-"f living Ikjcu
a

to

itself.

rollingwaters,

$uni" and stars, and

the violent tornado

and

the thunderstorm ami the dew-drop,


the
the soft,
gentle
zephyr,
the sen beach and the mightiest
on
tains
pebblestone
range of mounmammoth
the earth, the colossal

on

that
me

itselfin
disports

drop of

and

the

cule
tiny animal-

water, all cry

will you find the cause"of existence"

on

C,* "Not

in
.

No ; materiar. natui

Even man
nothingmore.
himself,
feelstliat he owes
of all created things,
his existence
the liighest
It has been
one
higher than himself.
or to"omc
to somewhat
sufficientof ourselves" not selfwell said by one : "We
iirefno*'
A few yearsagoandwe were not ;
nor self-sustained.
originated,
is simply^ series of effects"

A mystery is
few years hence^and our bodies shall not be.
about our littlelife. We
have mi small conti-ol over
gathered
a

thingsaround
Our

are

we

away.

We

are

We

findthat

We

find
we

Our
not

limiu"d and

hemmed

plansmiscarry.

schemes fail,
our

lights
gA out.

And

us

realitiesprove
where

it is not in

we

One

dreams.

would

W,

nor

in

on

all sides.

after another

Our
what

hopes waste
we

would W.

that walketh to direct his

man

our

steps.

circumference ^-^ry iiear the centre, everywhere.


feelan irresistible
tendencyto refer all things,
ourselves
our

with them.loa jwwer

us, sublime and mysterious,whicli


lieyoud
cannot
we
nor
measure,
e\^comprehend." Where, then,isthe
ourselves m"?luded? It cannot
cause
of altthings^
be found in

*lay
''""':-f:"

Sennoas:^
17.
"

: ':"""","-

"'"

"

"

"""

"""",".

J^

"

"",

""/"" .:.

"'^ff'JT''**''

-"'

material nature, for no part of the universe could cause itself,


besides itself. Everj individual thingthat
much lesssouiethin;;
itselfto t)ean

see, declares

we

is the
answer

the

"

This

cause

Where, then,and what,

effect.

questionwhieh

is the

problem before

can

Materialistic science bows

which

Atht;i8niand its twin sister Agnosticism


what is
and exclaim, We don't know
curtain hei-e,

abashed.

its head

"

hang

up a
inside '," while in truth

within and without.


that the material

our

that there is a

may
element ?

mancnt

How

"isForce.

Stuart Mill,*while

is

an

not

is this per"
will perhaps
be surprised
to hear that it

this statement

But what

cause.

can

helpthe

of his position,
to see.
fails
one
difficulty
nor

does

element in Nature, which

be- therefore the


You

admitting

changing in all its


continually
be an effect,
must
yet thinks
clianges

universe

permanent

and
change;

both

extends

consciousness

own

Mr. John

and
that whatever
parts,

sense

Athsist

no

attribute of matter

of the word, as I will

"

nor,

Athuist

out

of the

ter,
For Force is not mut-

in fact,of matter

shew.
presently

The

in any

permanency

but proves the permanency of mind, and that


of Force,therefore,
of material
in mind, and mind alone, can
efficientcause
an

thingsbe

foubd.

All matter

is an

other than material : and this cause


Atheists

are

whose
eflfect,

must

cause

be

is God.

constantly
babblingof Nature, as though by

they often employ in a .very loose und


of
rid
all
connection
with
in
sense
they
difficulty
got
vague
this question.What is meant by Nature ?
Unless we have a
clear and definitemeaningin our minds that we attach to this
to help us much.
The term Nature,
word, its use is not likely
is very often used in a most ambiguoussense,
it seems
to me,
At one
time it is employedto denote
even
by scientificmen.
of

use

word-^which
"

or

of
totality

all existence ; at another, to describe the causto


conditions of things;
at another,the re ations of phenomena ;

the

and eomotimes
to land
likely

allthese
us

derivation of the
that which is born
-

*Vid:

Essay

on

languageis
in inextricableconfusion.
Accordingto the
word Nature (2fatura" Hcuksitur),
it means
the becoming.
or produced in pointof fact,
Such
Collectively.

use

of

"

Theism.

'."*Lsi-#^^;j..v*,
/
v-n^'

'

.'

T'fe*""fei6"ii

"

will hav"
utifl
a l"e^inning
th"refore.it \in"\

In thia iien"e.

an

ond.

im
itN
must
cause
and
conse"|uenilx
It is solelyphenomenal,
That what l)ecome8 or beginsto Ikj,
itself.
of
out"i"!e
for
Bought
of
but
must
be
a
itself,
of
conse"|uenoe
c"^nnot be the cause
the
suiu-totalot
us
^
Nature
therefore,
conditions.
antecwlent
An"l
a
cause.
effect,and a" such* requires
is an

phenomena,

There
liey*md
Nature.
souiothtng
herea}"ain
of
(Consists
Nutfire
und
ena
phenoms
imply
be
no
can
phenomena"
motion
without
motion,
no
no
cliHiige
without change,
"""

force,and

without
.

Thus
"

None

to

force without

no

arc

we

conchision.
most

driven

are

we

will lie

as

ie"lby'various linesof

to
tliought

molecule.

ofiWw

since tlie time

"

sge,

We

ar",

unable
therefore,

jiiolecules
or the
of
the
existence
th.e
of any of the
to I he operation
On the other hand, the exact

o^briH

of the

kind

same

of
identity
which

causes

of each
quidity

which
at
point
from

same

when

thc-i)io)"

ascril"eeither

their

properties

call natural.
molecule

Herschel

to all

bus well
and

manufaclured

cludes
article^preself-existen^||rii|
";e

and
the idea of its beingeti-rnaj
been |ed.alonga

to

we

John
Sir
lis
it,
givies

satii,the essentialchara2ler of

have

the

proceMj|pk)f

difference
in
the
.sliglilest
produced
Natui* Ijegan.have

tjesof any

after.
here-

seen

of the
Nature," says o^ie

of the

sciontiticmen

eminent

riiind

path,verv
"c||jPtific
strictly
Not

science must

stop.
studyingthe external mechanism

to pieces,
any
^al^e
canXl^t

Scieiu

thiyt
of

^ molecule

^^

which she

fr(^nj
an
investigating
back
tracing
Ifut,
iji
together.
put
iriore than

cannot
^''^^^Ikv^^'^''^^'^

she
Science is arrested when
%^Hh|^ |^%|ler.
beei^
Ikis
the
molecule
made, and
x$^i
ht"rfu^ff^H^^^0^atiA.
iiiade by any of the proces.ses
has jfe^U^n
lhe^^B|b^t:
assures

the

on

we!

calHttMu^. Thua^atureis
"

manufactured

an

a phenomenon,a
effect,

article;in other words,a

creation.

And

her

(Jausettnd Creator is liod.


Thekb

The

idea oreausation" ^aiid it is a mental

mukt^Hk

followed
it"
if
from
escape
*Professor Clerk Maxwell
r.

UxcauhedCAusb.

FiKsT Cau.se, an

V.

out

niu.st

lejid

to
impossibility
to G(k1.
inevitably

President's Address, British Association,

4,

?.'

-X

J.

"

-^^

"

"

''XX^

"

''k

"4

H
,

^r

n
w

^Wt

the
ftccurately

trace

wl^iout ending in

ct

xvhich W.18

not

involved
if necessarily
'"

an

mid

ceuee

that is sii uncausetl cause.

firstcause,

"

between

nexus

This in truth is the idea thst

effect

ami

in cunsation

would

view

other

any

iivolve the denial of ciuisation alioKether. It has lieen


in6nite
series of
be
there
that
an
might
tiinort
suggested
effects. But

and

is almurd. for it 8up|K)8e8

that

Homocauses

ininite

an

And
is an
chain iua"le up of flnite links which
impossibility.
cause,
an"l effects is utterly inconceivable,beof cau"eH
HiH'lia Hcrijjs
in that case,

there would

bo

true

no

biMtoii
iiluHlratiou,which
an
ad."*|it"d

lijht
Suppose

an

is this chain held

power

IHirtsthe other willIwcause

Hows
Thia|deuiand

up?

Antl

chain

*'

cl""r

very

"UR|)en"l-

say that each lin " supof the mind.


re"iuiremenla

to

satisfythe

not

shall want

we

wluttimmediately
occui-s"lVy
question

The

edfnmitVsky.

puts thin in

of links in

infinitenumVwr

Wol-

nt all.

cause

to know

naturallyfrom

that it asks nwst


"luestion
cause, as it shapesitselfin

supportsthe wholes ch"fin#

what

of

the laws

The

be answered.

true

th"
,

idea

of

is,as Dr. Clarke has

mind

the human

and
thauglit,

else ; and, second.


First,that it pauses s""mething
and effects, any
that it is itselftincause"l. In a series of causes

ably shown

'""one

be

may

inu

cau8e^but
provisional

this process "f

out

reach

uncaused

an

the various effects which


be discovered in

must

Herbert

and
we

real one.

observe.

Nqw,

self-existent

the Corypheus
Spettcer.

Bemg

of nuxlern

FiiTjt Principles"
he renmrks:

"

follow-

this must

must

w"i all knaw

"

We

this

nowhere.

or

Even

sceptical
philosophy,

admits that the doctrine of causation lea"l8 to


his

In

in the end"
necessarily,
be capable
of producing

thought,we

cause,

not

first cause.

cannot

think

In
at

all

which
the external world produces
ns
on
iuipressionB
without thinking
of tlwm
cannot
we
as caused; and
carry out
an
mitting
cominquiryconcerningtheir causation without inevitably
ourselves to the hypothesis
of a firstcause."*
about

the

VI-

The

Motion

Force

is now

Behind

Nature

held to be caused

of force in the material

'li'^ii^

Ori(;inatk8

in^

Mind.

festations
by force,and all the maniuniverse arejresolvable into

%".""

ri/n
'

:""

'^^^-ji^f'^^^K:
,-/

1.J

^^"
"r;;

;^^,.

.
^

/
.

_1__L

,1'

r;

:^

'"="*'
ty-3
"

S
"""""

"
.

""'*

A
'"',-."

"

rs
'

\ '."

23
"Mh

other.

were

at one

megnctiam.
Light,h""t, electricity,
time "uppoeed

the fact that

eble bodiea.from

etion.and could

things

stilltalk about

men

actual existence.

tec,
Take

the

lying

on

ground

It is the

by the

added

an

impliesthat the
aiinply

ball

an

then

Now

mat-

conditioned and

distinct
perfectly

are

has

what

that which

altered condition.
and

movement

But what

have given elsewhere.*

impartedto

ball in

same

the other.

is set in motion.

has been

Motion

ed ?

illustration which

an

had

consist of forms of force

and, motion

Force

what conditioned it ?

such

no

though it

did it beoome

Yes. but how

told.

are

we

are

Motion ifl^condition of

?
called
force
thing

nsk is the

we

into

one

There

electric fluid,although

no

All theae phenomena


each

gravit-

to

recognised

now

ore

about it as

write

itand

be converted

andean

is

There

impondor-

eubject

not

of force.

that is,forms

lightand heat

as

they were

therefore,be weighed"

not.

of motion,

modes

as

be entities,end celled

to

which

etc"

was

b"I

happen-

before at

rest.

Nothing has beeii

The motion
nothing taken away.
has changed itsplace. But something

the motion, or
the rest had
have operated to cause
l,een interrupted.That something we call force. Force

must
never

is known

then

io

It

matter.

motion,

or

It

can

"

to

"./"

as

is the

the

to
ability

given

name

changesthe sute of
hardlybe necessary

doctrine of the
which

us

Unityof

front,since

no

one

who

that which

to

body with regard to

for

motion

enlaigeupon the
Conservation of Energy

broughtso

toconspicuously

anythingof

knows

changes
originates

here to

me

Eorce and the

science has

modern

produce certain

science

the

will have the

disputeit. Kach mode of motion can be converted


into magnetism and
the other, heat into light,electricity

to
temerity
into

"/.:

all into momentum.


In

order

to

make

This is not
the matter

theory,but demonstrable fact.


clear,however,I

more

may

give

as detaileditf the Lecture Notes of Dr


Meyer
"mple illustration
He says ;
The heat de^Ioped by the falling
force of a weight
stnkingthe terminals of a compound thermal battery
(formed
""

'

'

'

by pieces

of

Alternate

ends)caused

iron

and

Gennan
a

current

silver wire
of

twisted together at

electricity
throughthe wire.

"Baseless Fabric of Scientific


Scepticism,
p.

laa.

^*

.-^

"iatible

fchtfc the

"

of

force

in

only

the

yet

f6roe.ime8

words

nonsense.

Herbert

than
under

effect
to

material

any

even

cease

to

be.

for

in

only force
of

possible

but

drad

illustrations

that

mmd

ffow

/^I'ApXW

science

MoMon

18

in

Carpenter

the

Kivn^its.

tending

observes:

"

The

says

the

of

origimitor

tNatuie

VI.,

J.

3ir

alone.
all

time

the

deep-seated

in

into

matter

of

matter

is

as

old
And

direction

all

mind

without

hills

truth

thiough

Dr

humanity'

of

philosophy,alike
And

hun-

spirit

or

instincte

we

modem

this

transmitted

"The

the

doctrine
the

of

must

force'
is

The

in

is

possibly

or.

permit.

and

higher

experience

our

as

bute
attri-

sin

Spirit

only ^souit" of power."t

motion

in

it

universi

death,

being

commences

-^
HerseheU^marks.
i"iai,--Sir^ohn

4W

It is

it. must

and

not

the

be

matter.

Anaxagoras.
in

4H1

as

tteality by which

for

ways,

7?"hes
and

only

Causo"as

physical

motion

marvellously
always

regarded

therefore, cannot

In

did

given

exert.

can

force. ]"rhich is volition.

in multiform

media,

one

of

originator of

the

mind"!.?"!'
mind

mind

universe.

be

might

transformed

thousand

the

originator

one

is

in

and

be

can

but

Force, therefore,

it

differently conditioned

entire

Force, ahd.

mind

that

is

matter

.r

inactivity,stagnation,

torpor,

aought

of

"

that

says

and

Ull^^^l
consequently,
'
ultimat"'-^
Force
is the

fashions

The

existence.

motion

therefore, be

Abeolute

and

by

cannot,

and,

Force,

it moulds

control

tbe
of

^ow

for

Unconditioned

an

us

fundamenul

and

are

of the

God.

activity

who

Force

And

present

generated

maintains

motion

Force.

of

matter,

state

be

""

and

varied

energy,

remarns:

imtaediately produced."*
of

".

time

Spencer

ever

the

and

one

meaning,

reality indicating

active

Any

same

without

conditioned

certain

is

the

at

Matter

ultimates.

manifestations
a

thing.

same

inert, and

of

Inertness

force.

by

niiioiia}oiie
in

It is

be

cannot

contradictory attributes,

are

of

affirmed

is the

motion.

motion

on'y

of all motion

caiue

S. produce

that

Che

oonolution"

piu^sical universe,

per

physics

passivity

is the

the

of

itself, but

Sf

which

cannot,

axiom

I ^;^v^'^ ""a

the

mind,

phenomena
Motion

logic, to

point

to

farw^ter

conception

^ree
of

bodily contact,

or

^.T"^/"fcr;"-^^

4f^lJ^P-

of any inter meiliinn,is eagentfal to the


the Intervention
of physicalphenomena,
interpretation

"

"

righi

its exertion

personalconsciousness by the
*"
""*
it
and
of
affordsa
sensation
effort,
Tforce]
peculiar
the
partments
debetween
two
link
a
of
great
contact,
connecting'
point
mind ^d matter"
of being,
the one as its originator,
itwlf manifest

ma'"es

and the other


energy which

manifested around

see

of
nature
phenomena

'J%

recipient"* All the various forms of

its

us

we

to our

simply so

are

from
force,
springing
pne
"WUI.

the

transformations of

many

of power,

source

one

in the ten thousand

us

the Divine

"

For how should nature

"

"

"^

,1^^}

charge,

a law
Dull,as itis,and satisfy
So vast in its demands, unless impelled

ceaseless service by

To

%i'

occupy

ceaceless force,

And

under pres!tureof some

The

Lord

of

conscious

cause

#:

all,'himself
du-oughalldiffused^

"
all
that
lifeof
lives.
Sustains and is the

VII.
THEREFORE

The

Material

MUST

BE

THE

Manifests Thought

Uxiverse

WORK

OF

anit

ThINKER.

mark, that which is not the result of thoughtcannot

Now

thought. Take a book in your hand,open It,


and you see at once the orderlyarrangement of lettersinto
words,and of .words,into sentences. This bespeaksa certaitt
of thoughton the part of the author,and on the part
amount
who
of the compositor
the type. By no stretch of
set up
can
sult
imagination
you conceive this arrangement to be the reof chance or accident. The types might have been thrown
down at random ten million times,and theynever
would have
falleninto the order in which theywere placedin the printer's
form which was laid on the machine when a single
sheet of the
be translated into

The book in questionmay not be a


treatise on
a very
importanttopic,and the author may. have
dealt with his subject
but stillit is impossible
very imperfectly;
volume

was

to

worked off

imaginethat the arrangement

result of mind.

volume

of

from
Kant,will differgreatly

be other than the

of Newton, or of
Shakespeare,
school book, or
an
elementary

of
Science,
p.
'Familiar^Lectvres

^:-m:,

can

467.

""J*^

'J

"

vv^iff^^S^R'
^

fT"
,

^^"'

of an
from the immature prwluctioti
ignurantami uninformed
of degreeonly;
man
; but the differencewill,after all;be one
both

"x

book

at

all.

amount

of

of what

can

more

You

form

question

be

of

thought

in the volume

hns

thing than

the
And
pages.
will be the measure

been

put

cannot

it

into

mind

be incompetent
may
of the author ; and in that case
you

less,because your

out

all the

mind, when you

in your

extracted from

Nbw,

br detected-it is as certain
that the book

as

and
ftjrcea

^ith

view

her laws ?

has

produced

was

does prevail I
all our^science but a
order

discover the meaning of her

to

'*'**'" '^'

'"^"^"" ^'

deeplyengraven

so

that mind

and all experimentis


investigatio^n

AH

^-4;

^1
rA*^
*".rf
hks
that
been
guage

be

if order

words

before referredto

by an mtelligent
being. And that such
tokeit.no one will deny. For what is

readingof nature,

that the pre-

if thoughtcan

the material universe" in other

harmony can

and

his boo^

see

been there.

thinker has

.been at work

'":iii

singlesentence

In other words, you

from it.

meted

exi

out

of the

sence

tWii-

"'
produce

to

meaning
to reach his profundity
misunderstand him throughfailing
there will be no
whether his thoughtsbe deepor shallow,

may
But

thoughtcontained

may get

to grasp

thought must
Chance is incompetentto

caM8

work

at

utthingof writingseveral hundred

to say

get

been

have

on

'^'

mysterious Un-

her multiform pages.

compared

Again and againhas Nature bee" most uptly


book.an4 a marvellous volutne it is.in which we may

read-

"

The perfecthand
That poised,impels,and rules die whole."
"

Xetme

givj you

say. ^f
painting,

than
It

are

men

come

charmed

There
simple illustration.

very

master.
greilt

is

So

perfecta work of art is it


longdistancestoseeit.and all wbogazeupo,
a

and

delighted
; and

^hTe

leave impressed

I^-'^l^'dsca
tZsInH
^h^iig
they
tn^and.flowersare
"'"*"'

''^

mitural

so

could break oflfa


catt

^^"'^'-

twig

or

he

that

look

leaf and cany


"

it away

you

wwL^h

seeH tLj^^tl^
W
wonderfS
JnZ^y^
What

in the foregreund
browsing

walk out of the framed


really

a.

*?"

'*.K
*

*'^.'"'rT"7r\''"^Ffr,%^^^

,".^"V"
"

"*

27

excbim.

the

"

man

had who paintedthai picture."But

rr

did

yoa

*CZ'o
.
th*l
No
in
W.ll
other
."d could h.,.
mind,
by
LiJZ,
i.
the
th.t
B"t
remember
pict""
ngh..
70"
whicrZ
from
the
i,
Yonder
.nd therefore copy.
origin.!,
^
J^^
^,^
^^^^
it
No,
Uken.
you "y
picture
lo.
Tth.!
mind
wiihouV.ny
whilst
theongin.!
copy,
n".t..r

Z
it i. fl"i.h"d

""w

"e

""

com.

"."ter

I know

way

1
.

,"

.t

"",e

.y.tem the
the
U

world

Supple

-hould pl"e

you

n.ve

w.

After .11 the .mount

yet
picture

bmited

But

he"d of.

e.er

*4

of
.

don, "UK

not

^
intl
thoughtput

gCof
,n.g"Vi"^

b"kgJo""d
of the
highpower
fo'
b^t
wh.
would
,rd."l^
Why.
nothing
p.int,ng
thi
for
the
of
.nd
the
in
t.ke
fml
painter
design
you woald
But
harmly.
the p.intwould be destituteof order
on.bo"t

inch of the

",u.re

"e

you

to

or

r"t

the
of
ori.m.11
however
the
under
mireroecope.ny portion
pl"!e
wonid incre"e thebcuty, tor God h".t.mped

g,n.I.ndyou
""

""Pff
"m6fe,of the

Ihe """""" -inu^ part

whole.

and h.rmony ,nd

well

the tout

"n

"

the
in
i.niven"we
Everywhere

theae "xi,t there is

where

hM;

W-

order

we

pl.p,^

"here

ia
there
there
where
i,
there
and
purpose,
there u, plan
pnrpoae.
thereia a thinker
.nd where there ia thought
" thought,
hi.
in
with
the
And
Atheist
atepa
ngbthere
^
the
Natu^l Uw. a, thoughthat

It.

i.

t
wtl
expUini: "thtng
"

ll
"U
1"L
It i. but
I.W
what
The
kw.
expression
ambiguous
hJi7v^^
glibly the lip. those
I.

word

often used
""

senae.

in

"

of n.ta"

"" """'

'

of

who

^tl7^J:'T"'"''^
we".S"ehpeoplespesk
^^
on

or
forees,

entities-wherew

"...

"*"

*'i
Z
T^
sequTn'ce"
than ob",rved ordera of
t
pow^
uothtHraLr
is
u
it
U
neither
"
entity,
klof
of
the
mode
force
wjtion
Simply
W^
^
th^t::!:
^
. ....aud hence
powers,

even

that I...

muat

not

""""

en

"""

"

"

f"

"-^pi-'^

?*i^
-

Af
results.
of
""fMihl" prmliioing

"

Mid. "d.

iiKMlern poet Hm

Deity
(IreMing

"

lawt of

"The

'For
'

4^4*

The

more

that

name

aiaign

men

workings of Katural

the

called intb

itselfwas

Ijiw, the

more

liesbebiod the \vfi.by

which

the Power
law

Volition the

the

"

i" "h* ?

Thy "Je alchemy r.

To

becumes
""tounding
whoee

! who

Nature

name

wonHcrr.il

but Thine.
Nature^ftre

being. As

his

\
been well and wtMly said. All things plants,animals,men
with
ever
whatstorms,
comets,
meteors,
and
even
stars
;
moon,
sun,
"

"

fulfill
the law

of their

being. This
law theydid not imposeon themselves, for they oinnot
repeal
'Jt,though theyoften rebel againstit : it is imposed on them by
emtic"

most

seems

and
obedience
avenges
superiorpower,
power
under a law of
disobedience. Man, for instance,is obviously

which

health,
ag"instwhich
however painfulmay
/

Taw.
'

/
.J

And

he often

sins,but which he

be the resultsof his disobedience


find

wofirldwe

throughoutthe natural

so

annul,

cajamot

to

that

law inde"

pendentof the will of the creature, superiorto them, supreme


as
we
over
them, capable,
avenging
say, .of assertingand
itself. Whence

does this law

For,of

course,

no

|^

There n^ust be

some

one

an

can

and who

reallyadminister

behind

for

name

and

above

administers it ?
assert

or

the

law.

of the land.

it is, ^thosewill it exprf6se"

is

laws of the land

Justai^he

who
magistrate,
authority,
laws of nature

will act

l^eafwitness

and
imposes^
those who
obey,punishing

implythe
them

on

to

existence of

an

enforces them,

those who

violate them.

Let

such

men

as

Matthew

and

utiseen

pow^r^or person, who


call God."

The

administer themselves than the Uws

them, so the

*'

Law

whose
method
person,
laws of nature can no more

we

itself.

or

an

come

fora
of
method
for
a right
action,
sequence,
It impliesthe existence of a power,
invariable method.

only our
or

rewards

assert

force,or

rewardin

This power
Arnold
it u
term

by which all thingsfulfilthe law of their


tendency,
itnd thuH lose themselves in the foga that their own
,being/'
stream

of

^i^":

f"'

"

"''

"

""r'

".

",""

k"S.T ^f'f

into exutance
;
bnght MialHthtof clear .dea..ami
whether

of

tendencyor

somewhere.
fron.

We

Divine

The

only

ia at

of

the

natund

by which

CJraviutlon is
described

it isgoverned

originaU.r
and

of PUto

mathematical rela-

are

necessary,

to

in the universe.

might

demon-

be transferred to

Suffice it to

They

the

mechanical

all the benefits that the

time here,nor is it
dre known
to
every

say that natural

the mathematical
investigate,
first,
then

afterwards discovered

I have not

explainthese laws.

mathematician.

and

the class of

before Newton

ratio,
were

mean

law

race

which

has

symmetry leads
law which it embodies,
embodies

derived from

it.
the

and

Thuf

pursuit

of physical
discovery
science have come
to ua
throughthe
of geometricalthoughtsin the
suggestions
universe.
Now, all
of form," says a modern writer, is
regularity
as trulyan
pression
exof thoughtas a
geometricaldiagramcan be. The
"

"

of matter

ticles
par-

uke

to
actingaccording

their form in obedience to


an

force which is

intellectual
law, imposingconditions

on

exercise. It does not alter the


of this ultimate pendence
reajity
deof symmetry
upon
thought,
simplyto introduce a
chain of secondary causes, between the
originat
thinkingand
the final expression of the
thought."A geometricalfigure
whether drawn by a piece
of chalk
upon a black board, or
gravedon a block of wood and printedin a
Its

en,'

book,or

Itselfapparent iti natural

^"t

of which
properties
the
"K5cupied

true of them

was

and

extreme

be embodied

to

the od-

heavenlybodiea Many of the geometer's a


priori laws
first sugg^ted by natural
forma; and others,as Euclid'a

in
.division

us

in the

numerical law,and under iU influence


the heavenly
bwliea are the ellipse
circle

thousands of years

strated that whatever

to

flow

called conic sections,


the

great mind

were

not

law

by
and hyperlwla-tliat
parabola,
is.they all belongto

the

oriirin'

have iu

diaUnguiahing
characteristic
of the physicalunivera*

curves

curves

.tream

which doe.

*,urce

once

of the law.

is that the laws


tioua.

n.uat

".tream"

a"

the

who

,all It God.

to

anythingeUe.

of

And

Uw-maker,

mmiatrator

the

know

."ttrt"e.

of

prefer to keep In th",

we

phenomena,presents in the

making

one

case

I'M^

'**'

""#

*"^-

80

jM

hj

in the other* inoontrovertible evidence thai


thia

thought.
gvometrical
leee doielyto
couform mora
or

expreMed

meent

All natural forma

fcrinal
ideals. Thi" is the
arUinaU
made

com

up of

series of

"oience of mathematics

drawingsand

eryaUla. in

may

the

grandest and

al^e. IVofessor Flint well

modelXby

which

theVhool
in
taaght

be

that
The inference is irresistible
on

planeteand

alike ia

geonie-

mayVe
looktMl
therefore,
Nature,
upon
plant".

and

"t work

geometer ha*

"

an

most

as

the

of life.

has been
mmd
intelligent
magnifi("ntscale conceiv"Could

remarks:

matter

mere

know

of space and time and number, so aa


th" absirusest properties
has
it does ? Could what
to obey them in the wondrous way

taken

much

ho

have

mathematical

with
originated

/
relations
quantitative

what

Or must

was

not

research

to

wholly'
ignorant of
the order of

t^

prehen
ap-

all

universe

thoughtsas to these gelationsare high


as
the
above even those of the profoundest
are
mathematicians,
heavens above the earth I If the universe were created by an
with quantitativetruth,it is easy id
conversant
intelligence
quantitative
underetendwhyit should be ruiea by definitely
towi;but that there should be. such Uwsin a universe which
in intelligeptse
.is not only inexpfioable
did not originate
but
improbable.There is not merelyin that case no
inconceivably
discoverable reason
finite
why there should be any numericallydelaw in nature, but the probability
of there beingno
law
of any kind is exceedingly
or numerical regularity
great, and of
there beingno law-governed
universe incalculably
great Apart
from the supposition
of a Supreme intelligence,
the chances in
ftivourof disorderagainst
of chaos sgainst
of the
order,
coemoa^
indefiniteand inconstantagainst the definiteand
numerically
be due to

knowledge an"l

mind

whose

'

constant,niusrbe pronoimced all but infinite.The belief in a


Divine Beaspifirf
alone capable
of renderingrational the fact /
that mathematical truths are realisedin the materUl world."*
Did time permit,we mightgo throughthe various branches
of natural
vtnewe

and
knowledge,

gaze upon,

show that whatever part of the uniw6 must


everywhere confront order and

-'*'-

"

r"'

',%

-f.

sa
In

"

of

prob"bililxthould

BuiaUiu

that

probaUlit
J
jndgv

"

much

havt

w"

fin

Lord

question"remark*

of thia

'

"

for

fome, showing to

leaching ua

and

way

ua

if

and

awajr .""

with irresiatible

ua

upon

ua

ever^iai

through nature the influenoe of a free will,


the*9ver"
that all livingbeingadepend upon
been' my

T^iahaa

Ruler."*

and it haa lieen that of other

into the

"

ua

"etiogCreator and
been beclouded

around

iictentifk. turn

or
metaphysical
back
time, they come

.whether
perplexitien,
from them

b"tt"r

Overpowering proof of ip- \i

"

liea
deei|;rn

benevolent

and
4"l||pnoe

"ftkift'lMiUiuwol
Kvlvin
"
"cit"ntif{cml\f

Mill, and, therefore, n much

Mr.

than

man

w"

IIimi

more

aide.

our

Hut

tolerablyooiiclu"tye guide

bfi a

"

fur trMt"r

'At'

praviila " Urfn hftl"iioe


uoeertninly

world irli"r""" much

by doubta, but
of
full sunlight

by and by

who

for

have
."|itnie

have

lottn^their

minda

whoae

men

experience,

own

Chriat'a truth.

Ten thoufland instaucea could lie given,aelectod from

evei^

of the purpose and plan that pervadea"tM-'


knowledge,
univerae; but my objectis not so much to quote largenumbera
of

brench

of facta aatoreaaon

few that

upon

of
if
existence
the
Now,
dispute.
of from

the
that

universe,we

all the order and

the result of accident,or,


tons

as

of atoma

concourse

objectstronglyto
to

get rid of it if there

be

all,call it by what

name

you

Not

\A.
very
the

that exists

in

is

nature

chance.
no

"

Atheistic

that

aware

Yet how
The

plan 7

osophers
phil-

are

we

of

cause

will

Everythingthat

that it is to be

does not

There

wondered

at

is

no

that the

word
chance, should be
ugly and very unphilosophical
objectedto ; but then theorywith which it is indissolubly
If the arrangement that we

in the universe be not the result of

mind, it

must

have

come

Thingsmightjustus well
i(lii|^
a'

got rid

resolve itself into chance, after

associated should ^so be renounced.


see

be

to

absurdity of supposing

be the result of accident

by design must

other alternative.

well

purpose

thingsmust

attempts

ever

lieen fitly
termed, the fortui*

the word

the present state of

occrfr

no

am

the

to

harmony
it has

one

Designingmind

driven

are

no

'Address

V;.^.-

to

plan on

by chance, and
have

settled into

the British Association,


1871.

some

the part of
in

no

other

other

some

way.

shapeas

"

u
II

in which

iUl

ly ia

we

of th"ir

kfor

HimI tli"m

now

doinK to.

Th"

the
egainet
preMnt
IfW^

"

impaeaible.For the
which
"nd
regulftrly,
it

"rer

for

reeeon

it

to

rtpeate tteelfcontiQiiaUj

tee

up

ef^ainfor

once,
"

da

never

the fact iteelf

|l

long time. When.

something

to

do

with

the

dice be thrown up into the air at

ihrM

Ul

it nexl

we
frequently,
elweyt conclude

oociini

liave had

miut

we

to r"nd"r

from cheoc""
reettltinff

to expect

grMl*

wn

tnnat have been


prolmbility

ecciilenl tume

en

particuUrreeult

that mind

that

erente

not

ue

th" ehmntm

arninK"ment

order

the contrary, when

On

And

ment
arrange-

haphazard,

but highlyimprobable,
that they ahould
quitepoaaible.
witl^
the aix spota appermoat.
Rut
the
fall
experiauppoae
^1
renent
repeateda hundred timee. and alwaya with the tame
onlaide a LiAiatic Aaylunf who
would not
"ult.there ia no man
itia

and

at

conclude

once

ciaelysimilar
thousand

to that

times

was

preparedit :

dice
in

aee

we

loaded.

were

on

ia pi".

oaae

the latter ia

Kepler relates that

long been meditoting


upon

they

aalad

Tlie

Nature, only that

the atronger of the two


he had

onu^day.when
Uin
by which
There

that the

and

atonia

the

governed, he was oAlled to dinner.


the table,and he aaid to his wife,who had
were

Dost thou think that if from

the creation

plates
of tin,leaves of lettuce,
grainsof salt,drops of oil and viuegar,
in apace, in all
and fragmentsof hard-boiledeggs, were
floating
"

order,chance

directions and without

could

them

aasemble

to^

"

His spouse replied,


day to form a salsd f
perhaps without
seeingthe joke,but yet very much to the purpose :
Certainly
well seasoned
Now take
as this."*
not so good a one, nor so
"

the
one

of the

heavenlybodies ; and it is but


be jjc^ven.The lato Proinstance of thousands that qiight
fessor
de Morgan demonstrated that, when
only eleven planets

case

of the motions

againstchance" to which in such a case


of all these
is the only alternative" beingthe cause
intelligence
direction round the aun, with an inconsiderable
bodies moving in one
were

known,

the odds

inclination of the

thousand millions to

one.

"

of
pianea

their orbits,
were

his
are
prospect,"

What

own

twenty
words
"*^'

"frMOMK

w'4*t is^r?#is^

'^\.^.

i^-m^

"

wookl

II " tUl"
Ui the

of inch

lhAft h"v" hmn

fuMl imiu lh"

of chaiK"

bMii from

w"a4

orfroiA "til

to Mti.

Thar*
:
liiutUr to the followiaff
ball thall
blfiek

uriM

reictn
hAv"
tnif(ht

tt

wwl. Um

to

ia p"""iMl

otM

It tk JMAary oonlainiiig
bUdc

drnwlng of whioh il it m

bUU. from Moh

"ad mtAu

f Wtth

cmljr"al"ord"at

dirvciMiia.tiUi"i of which

uf th"

iiatu"n"H

ol eireanutaiuMt

eoomiirmmet

.vbilt

om

wha

a
liktly

It Iht ohanet

ol

ii
elflvftn ball* all whila t" antwar,
2,047 to 1 affaiiuil
(IniwitiK
la thia : Tharo
our
With
|)oaition
reganito thn othar ((uaation.
la a lottery
containingan tntinita number of onunlflra. tuarked
in atioh
difTarent angloalata than a ri|^tmir1".
with all poaaibla
to be drawn
that any angle is as likely
as another,
to
a manner
of the angleadrawn may be anythat in ten. drawings the mm
thing
under tan rightanglea;now, what it t|iechance of ten
leas than one right angl" ? an*
drawingN giving collectively
I^Tow.
witat is the ohauoe of
s"rer. 10,000.000 to I agninuliU
"

?" answer,
both theaeeveolaooniingtogether

000,000 to

that
degreeof probability
Wbich

ia not

It 'it

it
agaiitat

one

chance

That such results

in

of
oooaequently

h^a

been

of
Ihe foi^iatton

have

oau

there

been

than 20,000.*

more

the

aamt

aomething at work
the solai' system."

brought about

by chance ia

Iteyondbelief.
Tis true Atheists

deny that theybelieve in chansa, seeinf

that they maintain all is regulale"l


by law.

Hut

mament'a

reflection will show

be by ch"nce or acciden
you that stillit must
that thingshave fallen into some
particular
shapein feren
premind
to any other if there be no
behind
directing

Whatsis

law i

To

speak of

it as

cause

ia to

ooropletel

misunderstand the meaning of the word.


The Atheist talks of
laws of nature as thoughthey were entities that could tct upon
and govern
the

matter, whereas

phenomena

cause

:
mirabiy

when
*

having nothingwhatever

occur,

that liea behind.


"

There is

tbey say
Essay on

theyare simplythe modes

An

to

in whioh

do with the

able modem

writer has put this adclass of philoaophere


who think that

to
thingtakes place according
'

Probability.

""

IbJWui.

,) K
'

"

Inw

'

theyhave

TIm

omm,

bwt

of iMittr*

"""

Ittf!" Me(NQpii"h"d by t"Mfn


"d w"y

i" "rbi"ii tMiurt

pott."*

volition

chmam

alon*"

ait thing*
h"w"Yer

haw

aana

that

it ia

"d mechanical

parody on Lucretina. by
tO' Drury Lane
Theair*

the
tooe

"

Encountnrd
How

In their

Clasp'd
And

gave

we

Has

explain

aa

they are. that

and

If

art

And

to

Grant
That

ot

been

clouds

elate.

fury.

directed

Drury."*

"

HUp|)oa(f that

to
nroae

by

ttonie

it is comi)o"e"ithan

of which

formed

motion

and

Has

form

not

the

upecial
to

peopled with

agine
Imin-

and

counsel

greater

in each

such

Newton

block

to

far than
; a

Laws,
immortal

made

laughs

clod inferior to

it thought,

deeply learned

it made

atom

sage

Has

Is it

genius?

each

that with

Resides

one

vikte i

awM)iuble"l

now

but to guess,

thinks

Who

|lniah-

Smith, in reftr-

lime

abiiuitl

more

mathematics?

If so, how

moat

airy rllmb

renovated

our

mnret^than

nutter

Which

away

designing mind.

Judgment,
In

In

in chance

have

could

liabitantH without

Horace

through wandering

are

and

lo

theoryreminda

horsrhair, rasual

in the niat"riaU

tliat worUls

"

and

whit

in which
laiilding

"*

Jamea

slope blue elemental

birth

to

Asiata, bj

beams

solid

is nut

It

attraction

Atheiatic

casual

rafter*, borne

KlM'd

Now,

The

brkk"

casual

"Ing how

par-

peopled with living


or"atur"%

worlda

productions

or

by chanc*.

perfectionof whoae organisation far exceedaour

the

NuaU^

nothing o| titlMr

""

attampi
thinga are

may

you

won!"

baen fonneci -nd

Um

direrting mind

n"

Noih-

dirwiion.

gov"m"d.

am

much

""f the

agly meaning

t"llt

"nUKwt"nt--or

all, ihorefort. if

After

wboM

the

Uw

worka

itnm"(li"u

(""M'~"MMf"i

pUnotiMiiA

Umj OMralj itidimu

"

m#"n"

ol tMiortk

tiM powtn

not

"

Uw

Wow.
MoordifHr to
"i|"i"iiMaitM irtuik oMHtof.
oaljr lb" dtiall* Aod anv*rjriiigartkr in which
'

at

man

*"

me

conduct

skill.

human
Godhead

then. Invisible,Eternal. Mind

reigns.
(

granted, All is solv'4."t

Rejected Addresses.
fDr. Edward
Young.

Vide

Appendix

D.

fii

"t-

'

VIII.

*-

Point

Instincts

Human

Him.

Satisfiid Wi*H0t7T

:
*

!"V

God

to
'

Cannot

and

./

bi

!
.

itia one

of Atheism
of the favorite postulates

iorrnno
idea

of God.

^his,however,

that Atheists

correct, and shows


the mind

is very

far from

the word idea

use

catt

we

as

being
m
loosely

that which
theymean
exteirualthing cognised
by the senses.

other words.

they do many
depictsin

that

some

But thisis far too limited

By

idea

an

Locke says
is the immediate

view to take.

"

ever
What-

in itself,
or
objectof
perceives
that I call an idea." Andor understandmg,
thought,
perception,
We
do not perceive
remarks :
God, but
Cousin beautifully
the mind

"

we

we

conceive Him. upon the faith of this admirable world exposed


admirable stillwhich
to view, and upon the other world more

in'
ourselves." We

beai

ideas

have

far

higher than

those

Indeed, the lowest of all


froln the evidence of sense.
aprihging
mode% of viewing the universe is that which can discover no
make known.
The
reality
higherthan that which the senses
into more
who
cannot
rise above sense-knowledge
man
lofty
as op^powro?
spheresof thoughtmay be trulyd/escribed
ifrvx**"*
and livingfar below his high capabilitiea
As
a natural man,
Wordsworth

He

"

would

mind

Whose

"

And

.;

says ;

is but Uie mind

is a slave,the meanest

it will be remembered

describe

and
glowed,

no

in whose

of his

we

can

own

eyes

meet."

that when
breast

*_
this

same

poet

generous feeling
loftyaspirations
impelledto noble thoughts,he
man

no

said of him-^
"

primroseby the river'sbrim


A yellow
primrosewas to him.
And itwas nothmg more."
A

J:,'
#'
When

we

speakof

employ means
us.
'

the universe itself,


the very term that
much more
than the senses
make known
can

For what does the word

we

to

The Atheist says that by


idea of the entire system of physica
mean

it he intends to convey an
nature.
I^venthat isan idea which transcends sense-knowledge

""W^j.,
-I*?'

f"jn

i
88
uncaused

An

course.

and

Now,
sort

some

kind
not

of

prove

illall ages

few, which

old

all

amongst

and
principles

have

we

and
sense-knowledge,

are

essary
nec-

in all ages there is found


of some
the existence
hence

peoplesand

o! belief in God, and

does

gentium
religion.If the argument " consensu
does
it
of
God,
e
xistence
certainly
prove
tl^e
sort of

some

ao

in

to believe

men

that
one.

greatest living
It is,if
invention.

Bfuller, the

Max

question,'^
is not a

the world,

as

evidence has led

Professor

the

authorityon
as

seen

ing
think-

where

universal

*lBeligion,"
says
not

transcend

And

contradictibn in term"

it will be

Thus

beingsexist
a

worlds
all
and
to
all
to
times
apply

this law must

ideas not

is

event

new

least as old

as

the world

we

know.

anything of the thoughts and feelingsof


of religion,
in possession
find him
or rather possessed
we
man,
almost everydocuments
are
by religion. TUe oldest literary
As

as

soon

we

know

"

whej^Tuligioua Our earth,'as Herder


'

the seeds of

says,'owes

or oral.
tradition,whether literary
religious
explorethe
Even if we go beyond the age of literature,if we
discover in the
thought,we can
deepest levels of human

all higherculture

crude

ore,

the human

which

to

made

was

supply the

to

of

mind, the presence

this fact has to be accounted

coins

or

counters

of

Now,
ingredients."*
religions

for,and

no

Atheistic system with

that it can
acquaintedhas any scnrt of explanation
furnish worth a row of pins.
of man's nature, and hence its uni-.
Beligionis a necessity
the German, "God*
versality.What we may call fpllpniring'
which

am

consciousness "exists
human

breast

in all

more
probability

or

less in every

Someti^ies this faculty hJEus become

dimmed

it has been
and sin,and occasionally
superstition,
by ignorance,
left to rust'throogh
disuse,until it has all but disappeared
; yet
it is never
entirelylost We find some manifestation of it
in
The
fact
of
and
all
the
uniyerapeoples
age.
amongst
evei||
alityof the beliefin God was noticed by the ancients. Plutarchf
.

Rev., Maj^ 1873,p.


'Cbntemp.

tPlut Aclv.Cdot

211^

Epicureum, 1124.

II-

,"*-.,

V"T-ftS'

"f-'^

asserts

that
positively

lief,and

'

were

no

races

without

ot

the

latter

be*

idea,

same

Ovhiv
explicit,'

being very

In modern
times
t"tMK iaf$pJl(^nii^i^*o".*

such

the

Artenudorus gives expressionto

woi^

the

there

few

some

persons

but the facts


called in questionthe truth of this assertion,

have

they have relied upon in support of their views have very little
weight. It IS contended that a few savi^ tribes in Africa,the
of Australia,have no conception
Esquimaux,and the^ aborigines
if this were reallyso, it
of Qod, and no sort of religion.But
would simplyprove that the Atheist's highestideal pf man
is'
all
the
since
civilized
have
a
races
religious
faculty.
savage,
Suppose the case were reversed,and we found savages,with a
and alt civilizedpeopleswithout one, how the Atheist
religion,
would triumphantlypoint to the fact as a proofthat religion
the offspring
of ^^norance, and always disappeared
before
was
Such an argument, therefore,
scienoe^
knowledgeand cultu^.
as

he

can

savages

found

upon the absence of the belief in Ood amongst


is not worth much.
But the statement that anypeoples

destitute of religious
ideas is more
than question-,
entirely
able. A thoroughwith their language
and their
acquaintance
modes of thoughtwould in all probability
disclosesome vestiges
of a religion
not
lost,
and,a rudimentaryfaith which,
entirely
its inchoate appearance, is yet capab'eof very high development
despite
are

indications amongst the


many
where,
even
vagiiebelief in the supernatural,

Indeed,there
loweist savag!^
it'does not

of

are

manifest itself in any

external form

of

worship,nor
Supreme Being,or of a life

of a
involve any definiteconception
after death. Among these may be named
which is very common
amongst savage"

the fear of the

The

dead,

ol
aborigines

Australia are, perhaps,the lowest race to be found on the face


and they are by no mjeans destitute of the religioos
of the earth,

idea, T!he Rev. .William Ridley,who

has lived

great deal

has
studied
their
habits
and
a
nd
people,
carefully
among
modes of thought,
remarks,in a letter to Sir John Lubbock :
who formerly
and WiAidhuri tribes,
The Kamikroi
a
occupied

these

"

Artemid.,L ^

J^

^~J

^M

4"

"''i^\*^y
s^

-^ "i

-"-"^*,'-k.
-f^
''^^^

tional
tradihave
and
a
tributaries,
tt"
Darling'the maker/ from
Baiame/ or BaiAmai,'literally

on the
targaterritory

faith in

'

'

6oia, to m(ikeor
.

The

Rev. J. Gunther, of

Mudgee,who

of the Wiradhuri
instruction
in
the
engaged
the fact that these

goodne^.

.n

at

remote

years
communication
di" with

thing.
every-

was

many years
has recorded
tribes,

peopleascribe to-Baiame

three of'tlfBattributes

'

of the Bible '"supreme


power,

of the God
and

made

Baiame

They say that

build.

immortality,

who-lived
de
Becker,
M.
many
squatter,
in
blacks'
the
where
were
frequent
station,

with him,,told

cheerful

me

he had

of
them
seefi^many
in

of being soon
anticipation

in
so
God
truth,
has,
cbantry,'"*

'belter

iihe idea of
implanted

self
Him-

in maii's soul that it cannot fail to be discovered there


circumstances

look within,iind no

all who

to

erase

it.

"

He

are

reflects upon

who

by

oughly
thor-

likelyever

himself,"says Plo-

and
clearest
the
his
finds
sion
impresreflects
original,
tinus,
upon
eternal nature and perfectbeingstampedupon his
of some
"

own

soul"

root

in

and
p
receded
governments,
Religion
social law.

societythan

any
and founded the
civilization,

has

It led the

deeper

of
vanguard

empires that
mightiest

y?orld

the

-""..", .";"-"...;";
Z'-^''
:
"'-.."""':-'
;.'" ";";".
of
of
has
idea
God
where
some
sort
The fact that^man
every
proofof the existence of such a
has been considered a complete
by many of the greatestmen that have ever lived" such
has

seen.

Being
men

as

ment

Their arguthe idea of a perfect

etc
Descartes,Leibnitz,
Aiiselm.Spinoza,

took the

foUoWing
form

"

We

have

"

But existence is a part of this idea,and a


than
less
is
for
perfect
an
being
a^
imaginary
necessary part ;

Beingin our

teal

minda

being.Therefore,we

no

so

made

to believe
necessarily

b"

think of Grod \
we
Being.Whenever
perfect
have
can
;
we
as existing.And
to think of Him
are obliged
believe
that
than
o
f
we
ileeessarily
reality
proof
any
higher

in'the existence of
we

are

'

in ite existence^BO. soon


Whether

as

the idea of it arises -in

our

mind."

or not, that which


thisargument be cpnclusive

from it#oet

that
is"viz.-,
certainly

*,'/*NaturtX.
IK 521. -l-

springs
in some
worship,
religious
,

'-'"
"""""""'"""""
'--'w-'^
.

:'"" ""."""'
.

..

',

fr
*."

'

"'

^-^^^^rW^^S^?^'

*
'

"

'*""" \

"

"'

'"^'^
V

'

'-'.'
Ji'

F , -i'
'i-'
''-'"'"

lyPt^

"

--^i.
'^

T'Si

41
in every

other,has been engagedin ia every age and


land. If thi^practicebe hasied upon an iHusion,
how
form

"

or

'istrue ?
thfctanything

know

4"

error.

subject Our most potent instinct*


ideas hallucinations.
most cherished

for truth upon any


may

But

be
even

For what is there that is more

tiienuniversal humanity
If all religions
are false,
And that beingso, we can have no possible'
antee
guar-

universalf
is in

we

can

and our
delusions,
then we requireto

this' tremendous delusion

be told how

What were
the causes that gave ft
called religion
arose.
birth ? (What the circumstancesthat calledit into being? This

"

he
if
his
wishes
to
recommend
explain
whav/be
But -he has no explanation
and none is posto give,
philosophy.
the problemwill be
sible upon his theory.The oitly
solution.of
found in the fact that God-consciousness"is deeply
implanted
after the Infinite,
in the soul ; and the aspiration
the All-Perfect,

Atheist must

'

'^1

"

the Absolute

of universal humanity.
One, iisa characteristic

ProfessorTyndallhas well said:

Atheisticalreasoning-

No

of
the.heart
from
man.
reiigion
dislodge

can

Logiccannot d^-

As an exlife
to the religious.
is
religion
pdv^
of
of consciousness,
it is perfectly
beygnd the .assaults
'perienoe
logic."*This JB so ; and hence Atheism can never take firm
us

"

Of life,
and

hold of the mind of


more

l|an is a

man.

beinfcand
cin
religious

change his nature in llis


respect than his

Atheism

is

to,human\nature,
and can
foreign

no

form.
j^hysioa

never, under

any

become general.The human soulfinds its resting


cireumstances.
else
and
its
wants.
in,
can
Ood,
deepest
satisfy
only
nothing
place
It is the feishion
now

for wits to be

Without a God,
we
things
Exceptsome Force behind thjp
:
Like,heat or lightor electricity

/r

'

-,
,

j,

see,

^d-oneisod^:
'"}f Among
:

these

In any God

who' stilltbelieves
Oracles,

who tfiinks
or loves or grieves.

Biitthere'sa spirit,
deep in the heart'score,'

^.

4#
'

Of reverence,
Wfiich,
somehow will not bow down

forcein Nature
The mightiest

'*:,'W^!^

adore

what is mwe,

"Preface to seventh editionof BelfastAddress.

'.'*

to

-^

"

*\

*
'

.v

jae,

"

"

"

4i

'

"""'-^-!' ,""
"!

U-

Ihareatenae

"

'

"..'""

"

"""

Of betas soinetluiiggreater far th^


of the world n^icli adence knows.
Blind makers

'

but

I must,

Worship
"

worship aught

not

may

^.

.*

",

"

And

yoke to

The

secret

do

service,havingcaught

me

of its power, witfi wonder


But without mind ;

fraught,

Andwiulercomprriiendit,ImQ"tbe-

Highw

than that idiich eomprritends not

do not

You

need to

w(n"hip?

be

May

..^

'

so

me.

judge you not ;


Only, they say the dog that does not know
A master, Uke a savage
wolf, will grow,
Mating his lot,
'

';"

'

"*

is a sorry brute, untilhe find


mightierwi|ltban his, arid nobler mind.

And

"

holy faith of whidi

to rob

she seeks

us

us

"

exchange for the


Simply nothing,and
to the goldenClient,

is it that AtfaeiBm has to offer

What

"*

She

in

pointsas, not
bathed in brauty and robed in morning light a symbol of
^biit to a black and dismal
univeFsal Love and Eternal Mercy
of
and
the
issue
hollow
from
cri^s
which
despair,
moans,
abyss,
No.'* She calls,
Everlasting
upon us to look, not up to a sky
than

worse

nothing.

"

"

"

dear

and tender

to a' coppen

Shel"ids

lan

pity and

l^tecmel

pant after power


millions
.

x"nr

our

but

a. Providence

when

we

not

the cross,

which

feeds

bestows

upon

never

beIn

and
strugglewith fl|iB

cheer, she holds

to

source

of comfort to

'

ia*

tornado."

for
sleeps,
as Satan.
-unrelenting
that

and sympathy

to conquer

race,

care

the Furies and


sotrow,

vaguelyall around

sparrow'sfall,and

watchful

teaxtal eyes,

our

of

as

but

with^ earUiquakeand

pr^^Qt

the hiimble

m"rks

distress and

before
up

"

ezchangp oi!irfaith in

infinite

ief in
)Ur

firmament

us

the ravens,
*"..,"

as

the ,eye of God,

cruel skeleton, called

Katural

teeth,land mouldy bones.


rattling
La^, w^th hollow ey^-sdckets,
JListento what
unbelief of his

Stoauss has.to say

of the

earlyyears culminated

A^ism

in old afj^e:

in which
"

The

the

loss of

"'"*,'

48
the belief in Providence

privationswhich

ifcj.In

the

connected with

are

machine

Vhirl and hisii


of

terrific

himself

creature^finds

|um, a

hammer

^n"

him

crush

to

the incessant

universe, amid
the

in

hammers,
for

secure

whe^l may

not

powder.

This

deafening

the midst

him

seize

thai

mament

of

defence!^

helplessand

pLiced, not

imprudent motion

^me

of Christian*

renunciation

jagpl

commotion,

seiigible dA-

the moet

iron wheels, amid

and
staiS]^

its ponderous

of

this whole

on

its

of Uie

enon^us

"rMh

indeed, to
belongs,

and

rend

of abandon^

sense

""

is at first something awful

ment

This is Atheism

as

descriW

ed.by

Atheist.

an

And

gloomy

it is"

creed

enough

ii

to

blaift

deep despaifio^siBttle
on universal humanity.
For this wretched, miserable, mockery of life,
shall we exchange

all

hope and

the

cause

and

joy

sweet

direst distress,and

madman's

he described the

when

Atheist

see

can

Under

^sole

be

would, indeed,

in

at

any

of life

The

either

help or
to

seen

the

carollingof

,and the balmy breezes,all tell

be full"of

of

and

The

by

to

powder, and
To

tian,
Chris.

whisperings

by

Love

upheld.

are

the

can

of the trees,

wondrous

irresistibly

an

which

Every opening
the wing, and

on

golden t)eautyof the landscapennd^r thotraysof

the

foolish ?

beauty and redolent

bud" evefy'blooming flower,the busy insect


the mellowed

truly

sympaihy.

birds,the

created
earthly things^were,

as

grind him

may

DaVid

not

governed
ol^iron,

moment

external thingsare
(|I1

God

That

but huge wheels, ponderous

verse
nothing in the,uni

attom him

case

no

Spoke

denies

who

man

cheer amia,

can

afflictions?

heaviest

act

hammers, apd heavy beams


which
destiny,

that
religion,

of

happiness

settingsun, all point


The

country.

blue

U"

the

Father
Everlasting

mountains, with

their

and

the better
of

crests

^now
*

the

and

man-is

calm

loved

azure

by

followingfable

God

from

of

heaven's' arch

Endeared

Thomas

for

by

overhead, proclaim that


the

In^nite One.

Carlyle aptlydescribe

Dofiition*:^"'ilentlemen,*
said

The

ist's
the Athe-

conjuror "one fine starry

evening,'those heavens are a deeeptioviaua: what you call


stars are
nothingbut Jery motes in the air. Wait a littlp. 1
will clear them
*

"rtieOld

'

off,and

FaiUjand

show
the New.

you

how

the

matter

is!'

Where-

'"W

_fwVjj-"^j.

'-"W

of
the'
"
and,
a
rtist
force,
lofig
syringe'
great
produced
upon
with
mud
filled
it
and
dirty
a
puddle,
neighboring
stooping
ovet

with might and main against


the
water, which he then squirted
unfuried their umbrellas ;
xeniih. The wiser of the company
'
Down
cried
with deltfbut most part,
:
lookingup in triumph,
age of science ! Have

sion 1 It is an

and dirtywater
t^redthese simplepersons,and
that

they never
Art thou

even

such

guideand

meet

the

put

the eyes of several,

out

any

more.

clatter,is but

n"-

mill?"

This

the demands
neither satisfy

fnechanicalview of thingscan
the intellectnor

not

we

Utilitarian
Enlightened
of thine,
this patent logic-mill

stars

that

aware

with
grindeth

Which

the

saw

tallow

then ?
lights
felland bespattered
and besplat-

Here the mud

so

'

Man's earliest

of the heart.

wants

firstleaders looked to the heavens

of

for

support,and

for their purpose by so doing. The'


fresh strength
tequired
of infancypoint to fears of thiatwhich lies
simplebreathings

material things,
and
tl^yond

the stoutest-hearted

ever
what-

man"

of the
to the contrary" is in continual awe
boasting)^
The fears and hopes and desires of humanity all
supernatural.
hb

pointto

whilst the

source,
spiritual

iianianheart tell of
trusttin^od.

that

wants

can

of the
deepestyearnings
be satisfiedwithout

never

"

Thei"

is a

grandpoem, translatedfrom

the Russian

its length,
is
Bowring.which, despite
here:
as to be worth reproducing
appropriate

late Sir John


so

.'

it

'

"

Oh, Thou Eternal One

so

hj the
good and

"".'."".'_

t whose

presence bright
All space dodi occupy, all motimi guide.
throughTime's all-devastating
IJnchai^ied.
flight
;
'

^^'
.

1^

Beingabove

allbeingiI mightyOne I

Whom

can

none

comprdiend.and

none

Who

exploreI

existence with
fill'st

Thyselfatone ;
Embracing all,
rulingo'er ;
supporting,
Bong whom we call God, and know no more.
In itssubtime reseaich.
Philosophy

May
The

measure

out the

ocean

sands,or die sun's

deep,may cc^mTN,

rays ; but God

! for Thee

There is no weightnor measure


can
mount
; none
M pto Thy mysteries
; Reason's bri^test
qnrk.

^."4^lMilittaiMt4fi*"""w""%
"

I.then ? Nought
Against
divine.
of Thy light
influence
the
but
Nought
What
Infinity.

am

too.
boaom
reached
hath
my
Pervadingworlds,
shine.
spirit
dodi
Thy
Yei, in my spirit
dew.
of
in
a
drop
sunbeam
As shines the
and on Hope's pimons fly
I
Uve,
But
!
Nought
Thee
in
for
j
towardsThy presence

Eager

high,
asphing
dwell,
and
breathe,
and
I live,
Even to the throne of Thy divinity.
must be !
Thou
and
surely
O Cod

I am,
Thou

art ;

Thou
all
guiding
directing,

art i

to Thee
;
then,
understanding,
Direct my
heart
wandering
guidemy
Control my spirit,
immensity.
'midst
atom
but
an
Though

StillI

am

hand
;
fashioned
Thy
by
something
earth.
and
heaven
'twixt
sank
middle

I hold a
On the lastverge of mortal being stand,
^^
birdi.
their
have
where
angels
realm
Qose to the
land.
the
of
spirit
borders
Juston the
in
me
j
complete
of
i;i
chain
being
The
lost,
last
gradation
is
matter's
In me

And

the next step b

Deityt
Spirit,
^

dust
and
am
;
,
the
lightning,
I can command
a god !
a worm,
slave
a
and
;
A monarch,
? so marveUousIy
how
and
I
here,
came
Whence
? This clod
conceived
and
Constructed

"fc

higherenergy.
some
throi"h
Lives surely
"*
be I
not
cculd
it
a
lone
itself
For from
word
and
Thy
wisdom
Creator," yes. Thy
and
of
life
good
Source
Thou
!
Created me
and my Lord !
khou
of fflyspirit,

spirit
in theirbright
plenitude,
love,
^thy
Thy
light.
soul
to spring
iftimortal
with
an
Filledme
it
wear
bode
and
death,
of
Over the abyss
and
eternal
wing
of
day,
The garment
little
this
siAere,
beyond
flight
Its heavenly
there.
Author,
its
Thee,
to
Even to itsSource,
!
blest
vision
O
!
ineffable
O thought
of
all
Thee,
our
conceptions
worthless

Though

fill
our breast.
shadowett
image
Yet shalltliy
And waft itshomage to Thy Diet]f.
can
soar,-^
thought
lowly
God
and good !
wise
Being
Tht" ieek Thy presence.
adore ;
admire,
obey,
works,
vast
'MidstThy
no
more,
is
doquent
Ae
when
tongue
And

"

thtosalone my

"rf
gratitMde.
in
teani
shall
speak
The ?oul

"*y^TS~'"' "^

^
"

^'

". ^1.

,.T3

^-.j^i'

V tLahJU^^

t"'

TWtWM

^^

)"\

"".

47

Appendices^
NOTa

DENU|

OK

J"B.gI",d,on

A.

GOD-8

uwiTL,
oc"i,i"".

".

"The

lie, when

genUe^n

EX18TENCR

he

"^^

?'

'

'"""""* """
P'""'" """""":

""

'""'"".,
AXiTth^','"^""''"^
""""'
Ih^
"" "" "^"^'""'^ """vey.
"'

decided

hi","|f

."

the ide. of denial of

WeII.Iet"".e.

Hie

e^H^

""'?.""'"",""
Athei.Ho

"""elf

I^verpool."
w",te

"uch

do

men

not

""

Mlo^"'^^^*""""'"8

"

dei."

^h. .."^

w.

""i" matter.

""'

"""

one.

W.,

If

;'
enough"'on*:S:tbjee!"""~
emphalicali,
*^
ll^*^*^'""
cli4^-.thU"]S:tT
"'""" ?"

'""

the

"Mtenoe

"i

ah,

("life of 0"lile,-pT
m"
"

haa

Z4"

m"^'

^^'f;
The late

""^
""'

"

"y

Kobert

"""""eh

kiod

of

Cooper

Qod

in

God."
wrote:

"

...imM^iMW^^

"

""/"'

'W

"
"

48

""".;

"

";"",

*I t^m

th" theory of God

DevelTpment
of Atheism."
that

means
literally

theory

not

was

fog

is not

lact, which

edited

this

beeniu
as

by

time

the

at

that

"Meanwhile,

of God

existence.

lUvuu""i

recently

the existen"Jfe of

on

'*

1 have

where

paper

has

""'".,""

gauntletlie

let the

said
facts

were

Watts-who

in.

the

beoau"

of that

in the Secular

Charles

Mr.

was

the exUtence

article
an
country-conclades

follows:

mmd

theonaa

some

assuredlya denial

is

(" Pop"iUr

curiouriy-woft

"

man's

the

though

as

of the ablest writers

One

is

fact

the theory
rejected

he

fact,

ThU

p. 7).

he intends to say is.I suppose,

What

God

what

shows

phrase, and

it is not

becauw

"

thrown

it

Agnostic. If
awaiting the acceptance of Christian. Deist, or
absolute facU
such
to
that
I
appeal
by
am
wrong
en
any
prove
of
which I draw
inv
ftsthosefrom
arguments, the admuision
defeat shall not be vranting If not, let silence confess that I
be "t
that only
Lastly,
wrong
am
tb^y
SeiitimenUihs.u
logicalargument will be seriouslydealt with.
fact*, will be ridiculed, not
to get behind ultimate

Jcnown

right and

or^ttempts

answered, for

to

such

is

answer

impossible Facts, and

facts, can alone be taken as


which I haye here maintained

from
ments

Sectdar

Review,

to

answers

Tlurt

xs

tions
deduc-

the
no

state,

Qod,

January 20, 1888. p. 37.

The italicsare

Hei-e

his own.

is

denial

surelyemphatic

Joseph Symes, at that time tf sort of


Lieutenant of Mr. Charley Bradlaugh,and a prominent lecturer
And

enough.

on

Mr.

writes
Sefcularistic
platforms,

"Bah

r There

theirs
to
up
The

the ^me
"An

is

God

no

The

Christiana

blasphememmr"Freetkinker,

is also
following

time Secular
Atheist's

to the

seem

Oct

and

purpose,

to have

set

1, 1882, p. 310.

it illustrates at

of thought :
profundity

answer

to

'What

waa

the

of

on^n

the^

^
Universe?'
.'i:
--""-v
and there is no 0"".""S"nrfar JUview,
"God oqlyknows"
Febriiary
3, 1883, p. 73.
'

"

*"

Aoooxdingto Secularism, therefore, thi) non-existent has


knowledge; in other words, the non-existent exists. Truly.

ri"ethinker8""aveiy'credalou8
8etof pw^le,

^
t'

"

-"'" T

^ir,

"""

49

"

axl

till, before

ITj

u,^

"

'"

""" North

iKir",
^r""'r

*"'""

""

"8^""ly

know

od",

working

rhJo

a-

.'f

"

".:"".;;

.'

"#

"'io
'
"'I?'
U^th^'""'"
Ii.t"

who

",e"

F.."i

When

^*""t nidinient*

"*

of

"

to

'^T^

''"'''""'. it

7
,",.u",
following

.?

b"

may

P".fe,^/chlil?.
inj"^
i"
(Profe""r of A,tm"""y
PhiIo""ph^
i"
f'"'""""'"i
,"
a.,"briZ,
of
l^niversity
well to give

th"

"""P'*^ by

"is

"'^"

to

be

"^"*?'

pl"""j

""

"^

the Aanrf

motion

ao

as

r^"

tfte

sphere

to

'

moU^T'^

"""

P-T^^aof

"'"'"""""'

.hallZt^H
."eS"
'^"^
JightT"
^^^,^,_

"^

""

""

"^V-n

,u,"k

k"

by regnhtin^the
by the hand. " that it

0' fcction

be

JL

"""i,!^;^^"^"^^^^

.^

being ^",^^
-oggeet
#

/
A

during

P""n"nt

of ""h.,

CoT

WwL.

"

"[ pose

w"th

the

""

that

""

of

the

""

ex-

"Phm

""" "Otion

sphere, the eflest

the':CZ^^~"^J''e
/^
experiment

*"

^"et

proportion

U,

",

""

"

""":,;",""" "."":": W.

."

""

:",,

%.

""

""

..

"h"

*h""

of the

""

b"U^

"*"
rt.t"d\ataeq"eBtty.

'"^;"^^ twever.

th. "vide""

"'

""**"

^Ti"r"to

thrt

'^

defined

maybe

qnriity

the

be

to

ot Ih.

motioo

U.e

on

?'T,.'*vI^r""Unce..n"ce"it.t"

""^

P^^'^u^*^
He.i"

""""*"

whieb,

B..y

we

ployed to

("Iran.

"f

'f^t^^^ay
vol

InsC

Vict

per-

".

F. R.

FORCE.

OF

SOURCE

Bi*.Vmiin

V^ty

"

n.te-

)
O.

'NOTB

ONLY

THE

WILL

p. 202

xl,

""

1'

"/

iruHia

the

draw

S., in

work

admirable

his

^UtS'^.^ii^y^wSA-n.ptU.n.
h.3^^^^^ tbe
i"

"

'""TCXu^
A.

Ihe

is

wbicb

"""'7 ";"~

infer^ce._
_^^^

di"ct.y,"iv.n."nd
immed^^
knowledge
all

force, and

wiU

of

my

is. the only


foroe-finder-that
^nly

j^ "y

poweftha^carfinTwithdUnstrati
thati

show

can

force
^i!J^
thought
^
reasoned
a})out
anjr
o!
twdn
C.
1"*)"^
"****"'.__."",
fundamental
proposithe
"
.d'"n7he
'""jd"""""?"*^'^*ySrflow,
fowe.
'
whKh
of
tion out
In flndf "J "n.S^"d.,
is this:
aUthe
/ta^rtJ?!
w
ill,
-.thtif
aSi
SS
?^"*^ //'^"
t"tt
or

y**"

ing

"".

""

force

?~*

rf^,

"*"?* "L"*.?^^to.lm"

omiamon

wilhoat

down

Jumdwritten

the

.t

cmdhMwihatlw^
NOTa-0*

"

ANJ)

ITOMS
I

ling of Atooui;

To

to
no

the

labooTf

young

creative

brain
.

eddying impubc

With
Not

who"

CHANCE

of

buUt

new

wbservient

Dniry

Mne

man,

the plan
appertains
Wyatt

;
J,

he"l

in

ot

'

'-

"

V/?*".;Jh.
: .""J!A.,^^",
,

-S*^T

I,

Atom*

*"

'"'""

,*,r
",^"^^i,'^
","""""""

i \

i^"

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