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What do you mean by Human Resource Management?

Describe the functions of

Human Resource Management.
Fisher, Schoendfelt and Shaw define HRM as that which involves all management decisions
and practices that directly affect or influence the people or Human resources who work for
the organization. It can also be defined as the organizational function that deals with issues
related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization
development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, job analysis,
administration, and training.
HRM functions can be classified into the following two categories:
1. Managerial functions
2. Operative functions

Fig : Flow charts of functions of HRM

The managerial functions of HR department include the following:

Planning the future course of action and identifying human resource requirements
and forecasting personnel needs.
Organising the division of labour.
Staffing, wherein capable and competent personnel in various positions at all levels
should be obtained, i.e., manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement and
Directing all the available resources towards the common organisational goals.
Controlling, wherein the HRM has to measure and rectify activities to ensure that the
events conform to plans.
The operative functions of HR department are those core functions that only the HR department is
assigned to perform.

The first operative function of HRM is employment. The various functions of

employment are Job analysis, HR planning, Recruitment, Selection, Placement,
HR development concentrates on developing the workforce so that both the
employees and the organisation in turn can achieve their goalsHR development
involves functions such as:
a) Performance appraisal

b) Training
c) Management development
d) Career planning and development
Compensation includes the rewards that an employee receives during the course of
his or her jobfor his or her contributions to the organisation. It is based on the
following criteria : Job evaluation, Wage and salary administration, Incentives, Fringe
Employee relations deals with the employees, in the organisational context, as
social group that contributes to the organization and includes:

a) Promote, encourage and strengthen communication between employees and

management at all levels.
b) Promotion and safeguard of the proper application of University personnel
c) Establish and heighten mutual trust and acceptance within the campus
d) Providing confidential, fair, reliable and effective resolutions in a timely
Discuss the elements of a Career Planning Programme. Explain some of the benefits
of a Career Planning program to an organization

(unit 6)
The four distinct elements of career planning programs include (1) individual assessments of
abilities, interests, career needs, and goals; (2) organizational assessments of employee
abilities and potential; (3) communication of information concerning career options and
opportunities with the organization; and (4) career counseling to set realistic goals and plan
for their attainment.
Individual Assessments of abilities, interests, career needs, and goals is basically a process of
self-exploration and analysis which is frequently guided by self-assessment exercises. Selfassessment process is an individual responsibility; however, organizations can aid in this
process by providing the employee with materials and opportunities for self-exploration and
analysis. Individual career planning exercises can be done independently by employees or in
workshops sponsored by the organization. Workshops combine a number of career planning
elements including self-assessment, communication of organizational career and development
opportunities, and one-on-one counseling to ensure that career goals are realistic.

Organizational Assessments, decides, whether an employee's goals are realistic in terms of

organizational possibilities and organizational assessments of employee abilities and potential.
Assessments of employee abilities and potential are important to both the organization and the
Organizations have several sources of information for making assessments of employee
abilities and potential. First is selection information, including ability tests, assessment center
test, interest inventories, and biographical information such as education and work
experience. Second is current job history information, including performance appraisal
information, records of promotions and promotion recommendations, salary increases, and
participation in various training and development programs.
Career Information within an Organization, includes information about possible career
directions; possible paths of career advancement; and specific job vacancies. In organizations
with informal career planning programs, employees learn about career options and
opportunities from their supervisors within the context of developmental performance
appraisal interviews. Organizations with more established career planning programs make
greater use of workbooks, workshops, and even recruiting materials to communicate career
options and opportunities. Career paths have been defined as logical progressions between
jobs or from one job to a target position.

Career counseling, typically with supervisors and managers in developmental performance

appraisal interviews, that most employees explore career goals and opportunities in the
organization. Supervisors and managers need accurate assessments of employee abilities and
potential, as well as information about career options and opportunities in the organization.
HR professionals may be involved in some informal career counseling activities, but basically
their role is to support career counseling activities of supervisors and managers.

What do you mean by HRIS? Explain the components of HRIS. Describe the
different applications of HRIS in Human Resource Management.
Unit 10

What do you mean by HRIS? Explain the components of HRIS. Describe the different
applications of HRIS in Human Resource Management.

A human resources information system (HRIS) is a software package developed to aid

human resources (HR) professionals to manage data. Human resource professionals utilize
these systems to facilitate work flow, improve efficiency and store and collect information.
Several companies offer HRIS packages to employers. HRIS packages can be customized to
the specific needs and requirements of the employer.

Components of HRIS : HRIS performs three interconnected activities as a database:

1. Input : Inputs are received in the form of data from different sources. For example, all
employee-related data.
2. Data processing : Storing and processing data with the purpose of transforming them into
meaningful information. Here, the data is processed by a computer with the help oft he
software that issues instructions for processing.
3. Output : This ist he final stage of an HRIS process and involves generation of reportsin
different forms as required by the users.

The different applications of HRIS in human resource are :

The employee self-service module allows employees to query HR related data and perform
some HR transactions over the system. Employees may query their attendance record from
the system without asking the information from HR personnel. The module also lets
supervisors approve O.T. requests from their subordinates through the system without
overloading the task on HR department.

Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to
garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Talent management
systems typically encompass analyzing personnel usage within an organization, identifying
potential applicants and recruiting through company-facing listings.

Applicant tracking system , the purpose of which, is to give support to recruitment process
and to streamline the overall recruitment process.

Training and development system helps the employees gain new knowledge. HRIS
facilitates workplace e-learning by the employees as part of their training programme.

Compensation management system aims at computing employee payments through an

integrated payroll system and normally considers employee working hours, attendance and
productivity for computing the salary of the employees.

Performance management system is used to track employee performance reviews and due
dates for next reviews.

Manpower planning system manages the employee inventory and supports several HR

Succession planning system brings the identified and selected employees into the
succession channel.

Grievance management assists the management in pre-empting employee grievance by

analysing the nature, sources and frequency of earlier grievances.

4. Discipline in the broad sense means orderliness-the opposite of confusion. What do you
mean by Discipline? Explain the basic guidelines of a Disciplinary policy.
Discipline is the bridge between goals and accomplishments.

Discipline can be defined as "A process of controlling one's behavior and actions, either through selfmotivation or through teaching and punishment."
In terms of an oraganisation, it can be defined as employee self-control which prompts him/her to
willingly co-operate with the organisational standards, rules, objectives, etc.
Discipline is best defined as the observation of principles, rules or any other laid down procedures,
practices, written or otherwise in the organisation by the employees or group of employees, to whom
these apply, for smooth and effective functioning of the organisation.
Basic Guidelines of a Disciplinary Policy

1. Location of responsibility: The responsibility of creating awareness regarding discipline is entrusted

with every individual in the organisation. In case of employee indiscipline, the line manager issues only
verbal and written warnings. In serious cases, which warrant discharge or suspension, the Industrial
Relations Officer and other independent legal consultants need to be consulted.
2. Proper formulation and communication of rules: The employees are expected to conform to rules
and regulations, and behave in a responsible manner. It is essential that these rules and regulations
are carefully formulated, communicated clearly and properly documented by organisations. This
should be easily accessible for employees. In many organisations the employees need to read it and
sign it once in a year. This acts as an effective preventive mechanism to ensure that employees are
aware of it and have committed to abide by it.
3. Rules and regulations should be reasonable: Todays organisations pay a lot of attention, and rightly
so, towards formulating equitable polices that protect employee as well as the organisations values
and rights. Often organisations involve employee representatives in formulating these policies and
guidelines. Sometimes companies conduct workshops and training programmes to help their
employees to get a good and clear knowledge about company policies.
4. Equal treatment: An employee should realise the consequence of his/her inappropriate behaviour
and if he/she is going against the norms or the rules. The rule applied for a particular act of indiscipline
should reflect the offence and not the person who committed it. Discipline should be enforced and
ensured across every employee and every situation.
5. Disciplinary action should be taken in private: While the policies governing the acceptable code of
conduct are communicated publicly, the reprimand for non-compliance needs to be carried out in
private. This is to ensure that a wrong behaviour is corrected and not that the wrongdoer be punished,
or ridiculed. At all times the organisation needs to be watchful of remaining respectful of its employees
and carry out any action in a respectful and in a confidential manner.
6. Importance of promptness in taking disciplinary action: As goes the popular saying justice delayed
is justice denied. If the action for review and reprimand is taken long after a violation of a policy/rule
has happened, it loses its positive and corrective influence. The employees lose trust in the system
and assume that the organisation lacks commitment to it. It might even lead to resentment, which may
not have developed if the corrective action had been imposed on time.
7. Innocence is presumed: Again as per the fundamental rights of a human being, an individual is
presumed to be innocent until he is proven to be guilty. It is the organisations responsibility and
therefore the HR teams responsibility to prove beyond a reasonable doubt, that a violation or an
offence has been committed before any punishment is awarded. The employee or employees need to
be given the first opportunity to explain himself/herself/themselves. The kind of proof that would be
needed for this purpose would depend on the gravity of the offence that has been committed.

8. Get the facts: Before taking any disciplinary action, it is important to ensure that records of the
offence and any previous warnings are reviewed closely.
9. Action should be taken in a non-threatening atmosphere: Based on appropriate evidence
management can take proper action against the accused employee.

5. Suppose you have joined as an HR and you have been assigned a task to carry
out the grievance handling procedure in your organization. What according to
you are the causes of Grievance? Describe in detail the Grievance handling
Grievance is a sign of an employees discontent with job and its value-any dissatisfaction
or feeling of injustice in connection with ones employment situation that is brought to
the notice of the management.
Causes of Grievances: Grievances can arise out of the day to day working relations in an
organization. Relations with supervisors and colleagues also determine employees job
Grievances may occur for a number of reasons:
(a) Economic: Wage fixation, over time bonus, wage revision etc. Employees may feel
that they are paid less when compared to others.
(b) Work environment: Poor physical conditions of workplace, tight production norms,
defective tools and equipment, poor quality of materials, unfair rules, lack of recognitions
(c) Supervision: Relates to the attitude of the supervisor towards the employee such as
perceived notion of bias, favoritism, nepotism, caste affiliations, regional feelings etc.
(d) Work group: Employee is unable to adjust with his colleagues, suffers from feelings
of neglect, humiliations.
(e) Miscellaneous: These include issues related to certain violations with respect to
promotions, safety methods, transfer, disciplinary rules, fines, granting leave, medical
facilities, etc.
Work Environment




Causes of Grievances


The Grievance Handling Procedure

As a HR, the following helps me while dealing with grievance:
Treat each case as important and get the grievance in writing.
Talk to the employee directly. Encourage him/her to speak the truth. Give him/her
a patient hearing.
Discuss in a private place. Ensure confidentially if necessary
Handle each case within a time-frame
Examine company provisions in each case, Identify violations, if any, do not hold
back the remedy if the company is wrong. Inform your supervisor about all
Get all relevant facts about the grievance; examine the personal records of the
aggrieved worker. See whether any witnesses are available. Visit the work area.
The idea is to find where things have gone wrong and who is at fault.
Gather information from the union representative, what he has to say, what he
wants etc. Give short replies, uncovering the truth as well as provisions. Treat
him properly.
Control your emotions, your remark and behavior
Maintain proper records and follow up the action taken in each case
The essential requirements of a good grievance procedure are:
Legality sustainable
It should be ensured by the organisation that its grievance procedure is in
conformity with the existing laws of nation.
The procedure cannot violate any of the rights of the employees
guaranteed by the law.
Mutually acceptable
In order to be effective, the grievance procedure must enjoy the
confidence of all the relevant parties, i.e., the management and the
It should not be like a battleground. Procedure must ensure equity,
justice and openness.
Easily understandable
The grievance procedure must be reasonably simple and easily
Known to all the employees of the organisation.
If someone has some grievance, then he/she should know who is to be
Highly flexible
The grievance procedure should be flexible enough to respond to the

reported grievance quickly.

The number of stages in the grievance procedure should be kept to the
Sufficiently knowledgeable: The managers, supervisors, union leaders and others
dealing with employee grievance must be well-trained in the grievance handling

Write short notes on the following:

a) Competency Mapping
b) Flexi Time

a) Competency Mapping : Competency is the sum of knowledge, skills, attitude

and personality of an individual as required for performing current and future
organisational needs.

Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an

organisation and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the
various processes like job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organisation.

The steps involved in competency mapping with an end result of job evaluation

1) Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a Position Information

Questionnaire (PIQ). This can be provided for incumbents to complete or one can
conduct one-on-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide. The primary goal is to
gather, from incumbents, what they feel are the key behaviours necessary to perform
their respective jobs.
2) Using the results of the job analysis, on eis capable of developing a competency
based job description. A sample of a competency based job description generated
from the PIQ may be analysed. This can be developed after carefully analysing the
input from the represented group of incumbents and converting it into standard
3) With a competency based job description, one begins mapping the competencies
throughout the human resources processes. The competencies of the respective job
description become your factors for assessment on the performance evaluation.
4) Taking the competency mapping one step further, the results of evaluation can be
used to identify in what competencies individuals need additional development or
training. This will help one focus their training needs on the goals of the position and
the company and help your employees develop to achieve the ultimate success of
the organisation.

b) Flexi Time

Flexi time is a scheme where an organisation gives its employees the opportunity of
a flexible working hours arrangement.
Under flexi time, there is normally a core period of the day when employees must be
at work (e.g., between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M.), whilst the rest of the working day is "flexi
time", in which the staff can choose when they work, subject to achieving total daily,
weekly or monthly hours. An employee must work between the basic core hours and
has the flexibility to clock in/out between the other hours.
An example of a typical flexi time day is below:
Begin work between 0700 1000 (flexitime)
Must be there between 1000 1200 (core time)
Lunch break between 1200 1400 (flexible lunch hour)
Must be there from 1400 1600 (core time)
Leave between 1600 1900 (flexitime)

The hours employees work between these times are credited to their flexi time
For example, if the employees work a 35-hour week, then, over four weeks, they will
be obliged to work for 140 hours. If they work more than the required hours in those
four weeks then they will be in credit. If they have enough flexi time credit they can
turn that into time off, and this is one of the best liked features. This could be one or
maybe 2 days a month depending on their scheme.
Benefits of flexi time
Utilising a flexi time policy in an organisation can benefit everyone involved
employers, employees and their families.
Benefits to an organisation
Introducing flexible working hours could bring the following benefits in a business:
Greater staff morale and job satisfaction. Most employers offering flexi time working
report improvements in recruitment, reduced absenteeism and productivity.
Reduces stress and fatigue, and unfocussed employees.
Increases employee satisfaction and production.
Greater staff retention and increased ability to attract new staff. Recruitment costs
are thus reduced.
Ability to attract a higher level of skills because the business is able to attract and
retain a skilled and more diverse workforce.
Work time visits to doctor/dentist are in employees time.
Measures employees attendance you only pay for the time in attendance (delayed
arrival caused by traffic congestion, delayed trains etc. are at employees expense).
An incentive to complete the tasks the same day, instead of being carried forward to
the next day, since extra hours worked count towards the final target. Greater
competitiveness, for example, being able to react more effectively to changing market
Increased customer satisfaction and loyalty as a result of the above.
Benefits to employees
Increased opportunity to fit other commitments and activities with work, and make
better use of their free time.
Better control of their workloads and manage a better balance between life and
work. Allows the employees to schedule their travel; time to avoid congestion.

Allows employees bank time to be used for leisure/personal activities.

Avoid the stress of commuting at peak times if their start and finish times are
staggered or if they work from home.
Personal matters can be sorted without having to take time off.
Helpful for people caring for children or other dependants, others also may find
flexible working helpful too.
Disadvantages of flexi time
If the scheme is not monitored properly, there is potential for employees to abuse the
system. For example, if the time is recorded on paper or spreadsheets by staff they
can easily fabricate their time.
Administration of the system may make demands upon a HR department and create
additional workload.