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# LESSON PLAN

School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

: Wave

Subtopic

## : Behavior and Properties of wave

: XII/I

Time Allocated

: 8 hour (8 x 45 minutes)

A. Standard competency
Apply concepts and principles of wave behavior in problem
solving
(NETS-S) Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
B. Basic competency
Describe behavior and properties of wave in general
identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for
investigation.
collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed
decisions.
use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore
alternative solutions.
C. Indicator
Candidates should be able to:
show an understanding of and use the terms displacement,
amplitude,phase difference, period, frequency, wavelength and
speed
deduce, from the definitions of speed, frequency and wavelength,
the equation
v = f
recall and use the equation v = f compare transverse and
longitudinal waves
analyze and interpret graphical representations of transverse and
longitudinal waves

## explain the formation of a stationary wave using a graphical

method,and identify nodes and antinodes
explain the meaning of the term diffraction
show an understanding that polarization is a phenomenon
associated with transverse wave
state that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in
free
Identify the equation of stationary and progressive wave show an
understanding that energy is transferred due to a progressive And
stationary wave
recall and use the relationship intensity (amplitude)2
D. Learning Materials
Behavior and properties of wave
The Anatomy of a Wave
A transverse wave is a wave in which the particles of the medium are
displaced in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy
transport. A transverse wave can be created in a rope if the rope is
stretched out horizontally and the end is vibrated back-and-forth in a
vertical direction. If a snapshot of such a transverse wave could be
taken so as to freeze the shape of the rope in time, then it would look
like the following diagram.

## A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the particles of the medium are

displaced in a direction parallel to the direction of energy transport. A
longitudinal wave can be created in a slinky if the slinky is stretched out
horizontally and the end coil is vibrated back-and-forth in a horizontal
direction. If a snapshot of such a longitudinal wave could be taken so
as to freeze the shape of the slinky in time, then it would look like the
following diagram.

## E. Teaching and Learning Process

a. The Model, Approach, and Method on Learning
Learning model

: Problem Solving

Learning approach

Learning method

Session
Opening

Activities
Apperception:

Time
Allocated
4 x 10

Life skills

minute

greeting.

## The teacher ought to tell the

student the purpose of lesson

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned
about wave behavior. How can we
know the object is in diffraction,
interference, dispersion, refraction
and polarization?

Construction of
hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?

Communication

skills

## Teacher told students to

identify amplitude, frequency, ,
period wave length by drawing
the wave

Main

## Teacher define and enhance

amplitude, frequency ,wave

Activity

4 x 50
minute

hypotheses

Observation
skills

## related to wave length

Prediction skills

determination

Enclosing

question on separated
evaluation sheet.

Construction of

Drawing
conclusions
4 x 30
minute

## F. The Media and Learning Source

The Media
Worksheet

The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
Fisika Bilingual Kelas XII, Sunardi & Etsa Indra Irawan, Yrama Widya
G. Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

## b. The instrument of evaluation

Consider the diagram below in order to answer questions #1-2.

## 1. The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by

letter ______.
2. The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter
_____.
3. Indicate the interval which represents one full wavelength.

a. A to C

c. A to G

b. B to D

d. C to G

WORKSHEET
Name

Class

Presence No
:

Group

TRUE or FALSE: Identify the following statements as being either true (T)
or false (F).
T or F?
1. Waves are created by a vibration.
2. As a wave moves through a medium, the individual particles of the
medium move from the source of the wave to another location some
distance away.
3. Waves are a means of transporting energy from one location to another
without actually displacing matter from one location to another.
4. An ocean wave will transport ocean water from near the middle of the
ocean to a location near the shore.
5. As mechanical waves move through a medium, particles of the medium
undergo a periodic and repeated vibration about a fixed position.
6. Describe how a wave is different than a pulse.
7. Mechanical waves propagate or move through a medium because
________.
a. the particles of the medium are able to move along the curved
wavelike pathway
b. one particle pushes or pulls on the adjacent particle which pushes or
pulls on the next particle which ...
c. the initial vibration of the medium causes the medium to assume the
wavelike shape and this shape subsequently moves from one
location to another.
8. Which of the following categories of waves require a medium in order to
transport energy from one location to another?
a. mechanical b. electromagnetic
Wave Basics
The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 2
9. What's Wrong With This?
Suppose you're watching a science fiction movie and one of the scenes
involves a spaceship battle in outer space. Spaceship A launches a
successful strike on spaceship B. The scene is presented from the
perspective of spaceship A. The occupants of spaceship A view
spaceship B blowing up as the result of the successful missile strike.

## They see the

flames of the explosion and shortly thereafter hear the thunderous
sound of the explosion.While the scene is definitely exciting, there is a
significant fault with it in terms of the physics. What law of physics was
violated in the filming of the scene? Explain.

10. The arrows on the diagrams below represent the direction of particle
motion.

## Diagram A shows a ____ pulse and diagram B shows a ____ pulse.

a. longitudinal, transverse b. transverse, longitudinal
11. Compare the direction in which particles of the medium vibrate for a
longitudinal wave compared to a transverse wave. Reference the
diagram in question #10 in your discussion.

LESSON PLAN
School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

: wave

Subtopic

: XII/I

Time Allocated

## : 10 hour (10x45 minute)

A. Standard competency
Apply concepts and principles of wave behavior in problem
solving
(NETS-S) Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
B. Basic competency
Describe behavior and properties of wave in general.
identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for
investigation.
use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore
alternative solutions.
C. Indicator
Candidates should be able to:
Describe the characteristics of sound waves
Apply the Doppler principle in sound wave

## Describe the characteristics of light waves

D. Learning Materials
Reflection of Light Waves

Interference

Resonance

Intensity

10

Doppler Effect

a.

## The Model, Approach, and Method on Learning

Learning model

: Problem Solving

Learning approach

Learning method

b.

Session
Opening

Activities
Apperception:

Time
Allocated
30

Life skills

greeting.

## The teacher ought to tell the

student the purpose of lesson

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned
about wave behavior. How can we
know the object is in diffraction,
interference, dispersion, refraction

Construction of

11

and polarization?

hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?

Communication

skills

Characteristic of sound
wave

in wave sound

## Characteristic of light wave

Main

40

Activity

Construction of
hypotheses
Observation
skills
Prediction skills
Drawing
conclusions

Enclosing

question on separated

20

evaluation sheet.

## F. The Media and Learning Source

12

The Media

Worksheet

The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
Fisika Bilingual Kelas XII, Sunardi & Etsa Indra Irawan, Yrama
Widya.
G. Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure
The purpose of evaluation : Formative
The typical of evaluation

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

## b. The instrument of evaluation

1. TRUE or FALSE:
Doubling the frequency of a sound source doubles the speed of the
sound waves which it produces.
a. True

b. False

## 2. A sound wave has a wavelength of 3.0 m. The distance between the

center of a compression and the center of the next adjacent refraction
is ____.
a. 0.75 m.
b. 1.5 m.
c. 3.0 m.
e. impossible to calculate without knowing frequency.

d. 6.0 m.

## 3. Which one of the following factors determines the pitch of a sound?

a. The amplitude of the sound wave
b. The distance of the sound wave from the source

13

## c. The frequency of the sound wave

d. The phase of different parts of the sound wave
e. The speed of the sound wave
4. A certain note is produced when a person blows air into an organ pipe.
The manner in which one blows on a organ pipe (or any pipe) will effect
the characteristics of the sound which is produced. If the person blows
slightly harder, the most probable change will be that the sound wave
will increase in ____.
a. amplitude

b. frequency

c. pitch

d. speed

e. wavelength

## 5. A vibrating object with a frequency of 200 Hz produces sound which

travels through air at 360 m/s. The number of meters separating the
adjacent compressions in the sound wave is ____.
a. 0.90

b. 1.8

c. 3.6

d. 7.2

e. 200

## 6. Consider the diagram below of several circular waves created at

various times and locations.
The diagram illustrates ____.

a. interference

d. polarization

## 7. In the diagram above, a person positioned at point A would perceive

__________ frequency
as the person positioned at point B.
a. a higher

b. a lower

c. the same

## 8. A girl moves away from a source of sound at a constant speed.

Compared to the frequency of
the sound wave produced by the source, the frequency of the sound
wave heard by the girl is ____.

14

a. lower.

b. higher.

c. the same.

## 9. An earth-based receiver is detecting electromagnetic waves from a

source in outer space. If the frequency of the waves are observed to be
increasing, then the distance between the source
and the earth is probably ____.
a. decreasing.

b. increasing.

## c. remaining the same.

10. As two or more waves pass simultaneously through the same region,
____ can occur.
a. refraction

b. diffraction

c. interference

d. reflection

WORKSHEET
Name

Class

15

Presence No:
:

Group

## Sound and Music Name:

The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 1
Properties of Sound Waves
Read from Lesson 2 of the Sound and Music chapter at The Physics
Classroom:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/sound/u11l2a.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/sound/u11l2b.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/sound/u11l2c.html
MOP Connection: Sound and Music: sublevel 2
Review:
Match the following wave quantities to the mini-definition. Place the letter
in the blank.
A. Frequency B. Period C. Speed D. Wavelength E. Amplitude
1. How fast the wave moves through the medium.
2. How long the wave is.
3. How often the particles vibrate about their fixed position.
4. How much time it takes the particles to complete a vibrational cycle.
5. How far the particles vibrate away from their resting position.
6. A sound wave with its characteristic pattern of compressions and
rarefactions is shown below. A
metric ruler is included below the pattern. The wavelength of this sound
wave is _____ m.
7. The pitch of a sound is directly related to the _________ of the sound
wave.
a. frequency b. wavelength c. speed d. amplitude
8. High pitched sounds have relatively large _______ and small _______.
a. period, wavelength
b. speed, period
c. frequency, wavelength
d. period, frequency
e. amplitude, wavelength
f. amplitude, speed
9. As the frequency of a sound increases, the wavelength _______ and
the period _______.
a. increases, decreases
b. decreases, increases
c. increases, increases
d. decreases, decreases
10. A sound wave is described as being 384 waves/s. This quantity
describes the wave's ________.
a. frequency b. period c. speed d. wavelength
11. The speed of a sound wave depends upon the ______.
a. frequency of the wave b. wavelength of the wave
c. amplitude of the wave d. properties of the medium through which it
moves
12. If a person yells (as opposed to whispering), then it will cause ______.

16

## a. air molecules to vibrate more frequently

b. the sound wave to travel faster
c. air molecules to vibrate with a greater amplitude
13. If a person yells (as opposed to whispering), then it will cause ______.
a. the pitch of the sound to be higher
b. the speed of the sound to be faster

LESSON PLAN

17

School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

: wave

Subtopic

## : The use of sound and light wave

: XII/I

Time Allocated

: 4 Hour

H. Standard competency
Apply concepts and principles of wave behavior in problem
solving
(NETS-S) Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
I. Basic competency
Applying the concepts and principles of sound and light waves in
technology.
Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative
solutions.
J. Indicator
Candidates should be able to:
Describe the characteristic of sound and light wave
Apply the concept and principle sound wave in technology
Apply the concept and principle light wave in technology
K. Learning Materials
1. Ultrasound scanning
3. Ultrasonic Cleanning
4. Sonar
5. Infra red

18

## a. The Model, Approach, and Method on Learning

Learning model

: Problem Solving

Learning approach

Learning method

Session

Activities

Time
Allocated

Life skills

Apperception:

greeting.

Opening

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned

30

## about wave behavior. How can we

know the object is in diffraction,
interference, dispersion, refraction
and polarization?

Construction of
hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?
Main
Activity

Ultrasound scanning

40

Communication
skills

Ultrasonic Cleanning

19

Sonar
Infra red
Construction of
hypotheses
Observation
skills
Prediction skills
Drawing
conclusions

Enclosing

question on separated

20

evaluation sheet.

## M. The Media and Learning Source

The Media
Worksheet
LCD
The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
Fisika Bilingual Kelas XII, Sunardi & Etsa Indra Irawan, Yrama Widya

N. Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure

20

: Formative

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

WORKSHEET

21

Name

Class

Presence No

Group

:
:

LESSON PLAN

22

School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

## : Electricity and Magnetism

Subtopic

: Static Electricity

: XII/I

Time Allocated

: 16 Hour

O. Standard competency
Apply the concept of electricity and magnetism in various solving
problem and technology product
(NETS-S) Research and Information Fluency
Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making

P. Basic competency
Formulate electric force, electric field strength, flux, electric potential
and electric potential energy and its application to the chip level

## locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use

information from a variety of sources and media.

## collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make

informed decisions.

## use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore

alternative solutions.

Q. Indicator

23

## Candidates should be able to:

Describe the electrostatic force (Coulomb law) at the point charges.
Coulomb and applying Gauss' law for electric field for a continuous
charge distribution.

## Formulate the electric potential energy and its relationship to force,

electric field and electric potential.

## show an understanding of the concept of an electric field as an

example of a field of force and define electric field strength as force
per unit positive charge acting on a stationary point charge
represent an electric field by means of field lines show an
understanding of the concept of an electric field as an example of a
field of force and define electric field strength as force per unit
positive charge acting on a stationary point charge represent an
electric field by means of field lines

Recall and use E = to calculate the field strength of the uniform field
between charged parallel plates in terms of potential difference and
separation Recall and use E = to calculate the field strength of the
uniform field between charged parallel plates in terms of potential
difference and separation

## Calculate the forces on charges in uniform electric fields Calculate

the forces on charges in uniform electric fields

## Describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of

charged particles Describe the effect of a uniform electric field on
the motion of charged particles

Recall and use Coulomb's law in the form F = for the force between
two point charges in free space or air Recall and use Coulomb's law
in the form F = for the force between two point charges in free
space or water

## Recall and use E = Q 4 0 r 2 for the field strength of a point

charge in Recall and use E = Q 4 0 r 2 for the field strength of a
point charge in free space or air free space or water

## Define potential at a point in terms of the work done in bringing unit

positive charge from infinity to the point Define potential at a point in
terms of the work done in bringing unit positive charge from infinity
to the point

## State that the field strength of the field at a point is numerically

equal to the potential gradient at that point use the equation V = Q

24

4 0 r for the potential in the field of a point charge State that the
field strength of the field at a point is numerically equal to the
potential gradient at that point use the equation V = Q 4 0 r for
the potential in the field of a point charge

## Recognise the analogy between certain qualitative and quantitative

aspects of electric fields and gravitational fields. Recognize the
analogy between certain qualitative and quantitative aspects of
electric fields and gravitational fields.

## Show an understanding of the function of capacitors in simple

circuits Show an understanding of the function of capacitors in
simple circuits

using C qv =

## Derive, using the formula C QV = , conservation of charge and the

addition of pds, formulae for capacitors in series and in parallel
Derive, using the formula C qv =, conservation of charge and the
addition of PDS, formulae for capacitors in series and in parallel

## Solve problems using formulae for capacitors in series and in

parallel Solve problems using formulae for capacitors in series and
in parallel

R. Learning Materials
Force as a Vector Quantity

25

Capacitor

+
Q

Never

## S. Teaching and Learning Process

a. The Model, Approach, and Method on Learning
Learning model

: Problem Solving

26

Learning approach

Learning method

Session

Activities

Time
Allocated

Life skills

Apperception:

greeting.

Opening

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned

30

## about wave behavior. How can we

know the object is in diffraction,
interference, dispersion, refraction
and polarization?

Construction of
hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?
Main
Activity

Electrostatic force

40

Communication
skills

(Coulombs law)

27

Electric force

Electric field

Electric potential
Construction of
hypotheses
Observation
skills
Prediction skills
Drawing
conclusions

Enclosing

question on separated

20

evaluation sheet.

## T. The Media and Learning Source

The Media
Worksheet
Capacitor
LCD
The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
Fisika Bilingual Kelas XII, Sunardi, Etsa Indra Irawan, Yrama Widya

28

U. Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

## b. The instrument of evaluation

click the button to view the answers.
1. The Q in Coulomb's law equation stands for the _____.
a. mass of a charged object b. of excess electrons on
the object
c. the current of a charged d. the distance between
object
charged objects
e. charge of a charged
object
2. The symbol d in Coulomb's law equation represents the distance from
___.
a. A to B
e. C to D

b. A to D
f. A to G

c. B to C
g. B to F

d. B to D
h. C to E

## 3. Determine the electrical force of attraction between two balloons with

separate charges of +3.5 x 10-8 C and -2.9 x 10-8 C when separated a
distance of 0.65 m.
4. Determine the electrical force of attraction between two balloons which
are charged with the opposite type of charge but the same quantity of
charge. The charge on the balloons is 6.0 x 10 -7 C and they are separated
by a distance of 0.50 m.

29

## 5. Joann has rubbed a balloon with wool to give it a charge of -1.0 x 10 -6

C. She then acquires a plastic golf tube with a charge of +4.0 x 10 -6 C
localized at a given position. She holds the location of charge on the
plastic golf tube a distance of 50.0 cm above the balloon. Determine the
electrical force of attraction between the golf tube and the balloon.

## 6. A balloon with a charge of 4.0 C is held a distance of 0.70 m from a

second balloon having the same charge. Calculate the magnitude of the
repulsive force.
7. At what distance of separation must two 1.00-microCoulomb charges be
positioned in order for the repulsive force between them to be equivalent
to the weight (on Earth) of a 1.00-kg mass?

30

WORKSHEET
Name

Class

Presence No

Group

:
:

## Static Electricity Name:

The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 1
Coulomb's Law
Read from Lesson 3 of the Static Electricity chapter at The Physics
Classroom:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/estatics/u8l3b.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/estatics/u8l3c.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/estatics/u8l3d.html
MOP Connection: Static Electricity: sublevels 8 and 9
Coulomb's Law can be states in equation form as
F =k Q1 Q2
d2
This equation can be used as an algebraic recipe for solving
computational problems or as a guide to thinking about how an
alteration in the quantity of charge or the distance between charged
objects effects the amount of attractive or repulsive force.
Using Coulomb's Law as a "Guide to Thinking"
Alteration in the Quantity of Charge
1. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the charge of
one of the objects
is doubled, then what is the new force?
2. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the charge of
both of the
objects is doubled, then what is the new force?
Alteration in the Distance between Charged Objects
3. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the distance
separating the
objects is doubled, then what is the new force?

31

## 4. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the distance

separating the
objects is tripled, then what is the new force?
5. Two charged objects have an attractive force of .080 N. If the distance
separating the
objects is quadrupled, then what is the new force?
6. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the distance
separating the
objects is halved, then what is the new force?
Alteration in both the Quantity of Charge and the Distance
7. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the charge of
one of the objects
is doubled, and the distance separating the objects is doubled, then what
is the new
force?
8. Two charged objects have a repulsive force of .080 N. If the charge of
both of the
objects is doubled and the distance separating the objects is doubled, then
what is the
new force?
9. Two charged objects have an attractive force of .080 N. If the charge of
one of the
objects is increased by a factor of four, and the distance separating the
objects is
doubled, then what is the new force?
10. Two charged objects have an attractive force of .080 N. If the charge of
one of the
objects is tripled and the distance separating the objects is tripled, then
what is the new
force?
Static Electricity
The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 2
Using Coulomb's Law as an "Algebraic Recipe"
11. A balloon with a charge of 4.0 x 10-5 C is held a distance of 0.10 m
from a second balloon having the
same charge. Calculate the magnitude of the repulsive force. PSYW
12. Calculate the electrical force (in Newtons) exerted between a 22-gram
balloon with a charge of -2.6
C and a wool sweater with a charge of +3.8 C; the separation distance
is 0.75 m. (NOTE: a C or
microCoulomb is a unit of charge; 106 C = 1 C) PSYW
13. Suppose that two equally charged spheres attract each other with a
force of -0.492 N ("-" means
attractive) when placed a distance of 29.1 cm from each other. Determine
the charge of the spheres.
PSYW

32

## 14. A +5.0 C charge and a -6.0 C charge experience an attractive force

of -0.72 N ("-" means attractive).
Determine their separation distance. PSYW
15. A balloon has been rubbed with wool to give it a charge of
-1.0 x 10-6 C. A plastic tube with a charge of +4.0 x 10-6 C is held
a distance of 0.50 m above the balloon. Determine the electrical
force of attraction between the tube and the balloon. PSYW
In the space at the right, construct a free-body diagram showing the
direction and the type of all forces acting upon the 30.0-gram balloon.
Will the balloon accelerate up, down, or not at all? _____________
If there is an acceleration, then calculate its value. (Assume that the
plastic tube is held a constant distance of 0.5 m from the balloon.)

33

LESSON PLAN
School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

## : Electric and Magnetism

Subtopic

: Magnetic Induction

: XII/I

Time Allocated

: 12 hour

V. Standard competency
Apply the concept of electricity and magnetism in various solving
problem and technology product
(NETS-S) Research and Information Fluency
Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision
Making
W. Basic competency
Applying the magnetic induction and magnetic force on some
technology products.
locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use
information from a variety of sources and media.
evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on
process data and report results.

34

## collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed

decisions.
use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore
alternative solutions
X. Indicator
Candidates should be able to:
Describe the magnetic induction around the wires have current.
Describe the magnetic force on the wire have current and charge
moves.

## Applying the principle of magnetic induction and magnetic force in

technology.

Y. Learning Materials
Oersted Experiment

Ampere Law

35

Ampere Equation

36

Loop

37

Magnetic Force

F = I L B Sin

Solenoid

38

Bell

Bel listrik

Dymano

## Z. Teaching and Learning Process

a. The Model, Approach, and Method on
Learning
Learning model

: Problem Solving

Learning approach

Learning method

39

Session

Activities

Time
Allocated

Life skills

Apperception:

greeting.

Opening

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned

30

## about wave behavior. How can we

know the object is in diffraction,
interference, dispersion, refraction
and polarization?

Construction of
hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?
Main
Activity

40

Communication

Oersted Experiment

Amperes Law

## Magnetic fields of current

Loop

Solenoida

Magnetic force

Construction of

Bell

hypotheses

Dynamo

skills

Observation

40

skills
Prediction skills
Drawing
conclusions

Enclosing

20

question on separated

evaluation sheet.

AA.

## The Media and Learning Source

The Media
Worksheet
Magnet
LCD
The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
www.wikipedia.com
Fisika Bilingual
BB.

Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

41

WORKSHEET
Name

Presence No
:

Class
:

:
Group

42

LESSON PLAN
School

Subject Matter

: Physics

Topic

## : Electricity and Magnetis

Subtopic

: XII/I

Time Allocated

: 14 Hour

CC.

Standard competency

## Apply the concept of electricity and magnetism in various solving

problem and technology product
(NETS-S) Research and Information Fluency
Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision
Making
DD.

Basic competency

43

EE.

Indicator

## Candidates should be able to:

Describe the magnetic induction around the wires have current.
. Describe the magnetic force on the wire have current and charge
moves.

technology.

## Show an understanding that a magnetic field is an example of afield

of force produced either by current-carrying conductors or by
permanent magnets represent a magnetic field by field lines. Show
an understanding that a magnetic field is an example of afield of
force produced either by current-carrying conductors or by
permanent magnets represent a magnetic field by field lines.

## Show an appreciation that a force might act on a current-carrying

conductor placed in a magnetic field Show an appreciation that a
force might act on a current-carrying conductor placed in a
magnetic field

Recall and solve problems using the equation F = BIl sin , with
directions as interpreted by Fleming's left-hand rule Recall and
solve problems using the equation F = BIL sin , with directions as
interpreted by Fleming's left-hand rule

Define magnetic flux density and the tesla Define magnetic flux
density and the tesla

## Show an understanding of how the force on a current-carrying

conductor can be used to measure the flux density of a magnetic
field using a current balance Show an understanding of how the
force on a current-carrying conductor can be used to measure the
flux density of a magnetic field using a current balance

## Predict the direction of the force on a charge moving in a Predict

the direction of the force on a charge moving in a

## magnetic field magnetic field

recall and solve problems using F = BQv sin recall and solve
problems using F = BQv sin

sketch flux patterns due to a long straight wire, a flat circular coil
sketch flux patterns due to a long straight wire, a flat circular coil

44

## show an understanding that the field due to a solenoid may be

show an understanding that the field due to a solenoid may be

## influenced by the presence of a ferrous core influenced by the

presence of a ferrous core

## explain the forces between current-carrying conductors and explain

the forces between current-carrying conductors and

predict the direction of the forces predict the direction of the forces

## describe and compare the forces on mass, charge and current in

gravitational, electric and magnetic fields, as appropriate. describe
and compare the forces on mass, charge and current in
gravitational, electric and magnetic fields, as appropriate.

FF.Learning Materials

## GGL and Induction Current

45

AC
Sourc
e

dI
dt

Travo

V
AC p
Sour
Prima
ce
ry

V
s

Vs

Ns
Vp
Np

Se
co
n
da
ry

Generator

Alternating Current

46

RL Circuit

IR L

dI
0
dt

RC Circuit
R

dQ Q
0
dt C

RLC Circuit

47

R
L

d 2Q
dQ Q
R
0
2
dt
dt C

++++C

GG.

## Teaching and Learning Process

a. The Model, Approach, and Method on
Learning

Learning model

: Problem Solving

Learning approach

Learning method

## : Problem Based Instruction

b. The Steps on Learning Activity

Session
Opening

Activities
Apperception:

Time
Allocated
30

Life skills

greeting.

## The teacher ought to tell the

student the purpose of lesson

## The teacher says: in the senior

high school, you have been learned
about wave behavior. How can we

48

## know the object is in diffraction,

interference, dispersion, refraction
and polarization?

Construction of
hypothesis

## by asking to students why

theres rainbow during rain and
shiny day?

Communication

skills

## Generator and Travo

Alternating Current

RLC Circuit

Main

40

Activity

Construction of
hypotheses
Observation
skills
Prediction skills
Drawing
conclusions

Enclosing

question on separated

20

evaluation sheet.

HH.

## The Media and Learning Source

The Media
Worksheet

49

The Source:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/U10L2e.cfm
Fisika Bilingual

II. Evaluation
a. Evaluation procedure

: Closed essay

: 30 minutes

## b. The instrument of evaluation

Part 1
From the 4 video demonstrations on Faradays Solenoid experiment, note
Demo 1
A strong bar magnet is made by joining many button magnets. This
magnet is inserted into and subsequently removed from a solenoid. Note
the approximate size and direction of deflection on the galvanometer when
the magnet is:
a.

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Demo 2
A weaker magnet is used this time by using less button magnets. The
solenoid is the same as in Demo 1. Note the approximate size and
direction of deflection on the galvanometer when the magnet is:
a.

50

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Demo 3
Using the same magnet and solenoid as in Demo 1, the magnet is now
inserted and removed at a slower speed. Note the approximate size and
direction of deflection on the galvanometer when the magnet is:
a.

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Demo 4
A home-made solenoid with many less turns of wire than the solenoid is
used this time with the same magnet as in Demo 1. Note the approximate
size and direction of deflection on the galvanometer when the magnet is:
a.

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Conclusion
affecting the induced current caused by electromagnetic induction?

Part 2
From the 2 video demonstrations on Faradays Solenoid experiment (a
particular, note in which direction the coil is turned and how it is connected
to the ammeter. Draw a simple circuit diagram of the setup below.

51

Demo 1
The same magnet is used as in Demo 1 of part 1. Note the sign of the
ammeter reading when the north pole of the magnet is:
a.

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Demo 2
The south pole is inserted and removed here. Note the sign of the
ammeter reading when the south pole of the magnet is:
a.

b.

c.

## Coming out: _________________

Conclusion
affecting the direction of the current caused by electromagnetic induction?

WORKSHEET
Name

Presence No
:

Class
:

:
Group

## Advanced electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction

Question 1:
Electronic power conversion circuits known as inverters convert DC
into AC by using transistor switching elements to periodically
reverse the polarity of the DC voltage. Usually, inverters also
increase the voltage level of the input power by applying the
switched-DC voltage to the primary winding of a step-up

52

## transformer. You may think of an inverter's switching electronics as

akin to double-pole, double-throw switch being flipped back and
forth many times per second:

output:

## However, this caused problems for most power transformers designed to

output of such an inverter, most transformers would saturate due to
excessive magnetic flux accumulating in the core at certain points of the
waveform's cycle. To describe this in the simplest terms, a square wave
possesses a greater volt-second product than a sine wave with the same
peak amplitude and fundamental frequency.
This problem could be avoided by decreasing the peak voltage of the
square wave, but then some types of powered equipment would

53

## A workable solution to this dilemma turned out to be a modified duty cycle

for the square wave:

Calculate the fraction of the half-cycle for which this modified square wave
is n," in order to have the same volt-second product as a sine wave for
one-half cycle (from 0 to radians):

## Hint: it is a matter of calculating the respective areas underneath each

waveform in the half-cycle domain.
Fraction = [2/()] 0.637
Challenge question: prove that the duty cycle fraction necessary for the
square wave to have the same RMS value as the sine wave is exactly 1/2.
Hint: the volts-squared-second product of the two waveforms must be
equal for their RMS values to be equal!

54

Question 2:
An electric arc welder is a power conversion device, used to
step utility power voltage (usually 240 or 480 volts AC) down to
a low voltage, and conversely step up the current (to 100 amps
or more), to generate a very hot arc used to weld metal pieces
together:

The simplest designs of arc welder are nothing more than a large stepdown transformer. To achieve different power intensities for welding
different thicknesses of metal, some of these arc welders are equipped
with taps on the secondary winding:

## Some arc welder designs achieve continuous variability by moving a

magnetic hunt" in and out of the transformer core structure:

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Explain how this shunt works. Which way does it need to be moved in
order to increase the intensity of the welding arc? What advantages does
this method of arc power control have over a "tapped" secondary winding?
As the shunt is pulled further away from the core (up, in the illustration),
the welding arc intensity increases.
Challenge question: why would it not be a good idea to achieve the same
continuously-variable arc control by varying the reluctance () of the
transformer's magnetic circuit, like this?

Notes:
This question illustrates an application of the coupling (k) factor between
mutual inductors. There are a few advantages of controlling the arc
welder's output in this manner, as compared to using winding taps, so be
sure to discuss this with your students.
As to the challenge question, controlling the transformer output in this
manner would also affect the magnetizing inductance of the primary
winding, which would have detrimental effects at low settings (what would
happen to the xcitation" current of the primary winding as its inductance
decreases?).

56

Question 3:

## The majority of the "humming" sound emitted by an unloaded transformer

is due to an effect known as magnetostriction. What is this effect, exactly?
"Magnetostriction" is the physical strain (contraction or expansion) of a
material when subjected to a magnetic field.
Notes:
normally contract or expand with the application of a magnetic field. The
answer to this question is quite surprising!

Question 4:
What would happen to the magnetic flux inside an air-core
inductor made of superconducting wire (no electrical
resistance at all), if a constant DC voltage were applied to that
coil? Remember, this is an ideal scenario, where the only
mathematical function describing the resulting flux is that
which relates magnetic flux to voltage and time!
Ideally, the flux would increase from zero in a linear fashion over time.
Follow-up question: what would happen with an iron-cored inductor, with
the same superconducting (zero-resistance) wire?
Question 5:
Plot the magnetic flux () over time in the core of an ideal transformer,
given a square-wave voltage applied to the primary winding:

57

Question 6:
Plot the magnetic flux () over time in the core of an ideal transformer,
given a square-wave voltage applied to the primary winding:

58

Question 7:
Plot the magnetic flux () over time in the core of an ideal transformer,
given a square-wave voltage applied to the primary winding:

59

## Follow-up question: explain why the flux waveform is symmetrical about

the zero line (perfectly balanced between positive and negative halfcycles) in this particular scenario. How would this situation differ if the
square-wave voltage source were energized at a slightly different point in
time?
Question 8:
Power transformers may urge" when initially connected to a
source of AC voltage, drawing up to several times their rated
primary current for a brief period of time. This inrush of current
is usually audible, especially if the transformer is a large power
distribution unit, and you happen to be standing next to it!
At first, this phenomenon may seem contradictory, based on
your knowledge of how inductances respond to transient DC
voltage (zero current at first, then the current builds
asymptotically to its maximum value). Indeed, even with AC, it
is the nature of inductance to oppose current by dropping
voltage (producing a counter-EMF). So why would an unloaded
transformer draw a large inrush current when initially

60

## connected to a source of AC voltage?

Hint: a transformer will not always surge when first connected
to its voltage source. In fact, if you were to open and close the
disconnect switch feeding a power transformer's primary
winding, you would find the surge phenomenon to be almost
random: some times there would be no surge when you closed
the switch, and other times there would be surge (to varying
degrees) when the switch closed.
Question 9:
Suppose you were testing this step-down transformer, moving the selector
switch between its various positions and measuring the transformer's
output voltage at each switch position:

You notice something strange: when the switch is moved to the position
producing the greatest output voltage, the transformer audibly "buzzes." It
produces no noticeable noise in any of the other switch positions. Why is
this happening?
Hint: if the switch is left in the "buzzing" position for any substantial amount
of

Question 10:

## It is a known fact that the nonlinearity of a ferromagnetic material's B-H

curve will cause an inductor's current to be non-sinusoidal, even when the
voltage impressed across the inductor is perfectly sinusoidal:

Unless coil resistance is substantial, the core flux waveform () over time

61

## will be just as sinusoidal as the voltage waveform, because without

resistance to drop voltage, the relationship between voltage and flux is e =
N[(d)/dt], the rate-of-change of a perfect sine wave being a perfect cosine
wave.
Knowing that the core flux waveform will be sinusoidal allows us to derive
the inductor current waveform from the B-H curve using a graphical "trick":
using the B-H curve to correlate instantaneous values of flux over time
with instantaneous values of coil current over time. When used in this
manner, the B-H curve is called a transfer characteristic, because it is
used as a map to "transfer" points on one waveform to points on another
waveform. We know that is directly proportional to B because B =
[()/A], and the core area is constant. We also know that i is directly
proportional to H, because F = NI and H = [(F)/l], and both the core length
and the number of turns of wire are constant:

Notice that the flux waveform is nice and sinusoidal, while the current
waveform is not.
Based on what you see here, describe how an inductor designer can
minimize the current distortion in an inductor. What conditions make this
distortion better, and what conditions make it worse?

62

The key to minimizing current distortion is to keep the core flux amplitudes
within the straightest portions of the core's B-H curve. Anything that
causes the flux to reach greater amplitudes, and get closer to the
aturated" portion of the B-H curve, will create more distortion of the
current waveform.
Notes:
I wrote this question for the purpose of introducing students to a technique
as often: graphically generating a plot by the comparison of one waveform
against a static function, in this case the comparison of the flux waveform
against the B-H curve. Not only is this technique helpful in analyzing
magnetic nonlinearities, but it also works well to analyze semiconductor
circuit nonlinearities.
Question 11:
Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction states that the
induced voltage across a coil of wire is equal to the number of
"turns" in the coil multiplied by the rate of change of magnetic flux
over time:

d
v=N
dt
Often you will see a negative sign preceding the right-hand side of the
equation, to properly denote polarity of the induced voltage. This is the
mathematical expression of Lenz's Law. In this equation, though, the
negative sign is omitted and we pay attention only to the absolute value of
induced voltage.
Use calculus techniques to express as a function of v, so that we may
have an equation useful for predicting the amount of magnetic flux
accumulated in an inductor or transformer given the voltage across it (v)
and the time of the accumulation (T). Hint: you may treat this as a
differential equation with separable variables.
For those who are unfamiliar with calculus, you may still answer this
question, albeit in a simpler form: write an equation describing the change

63

## in magnetic flux within a coil () given a constant DC voltage across the

coil (V) and a certain amount of time (t).

64