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Saurabh kumar, M.Tech (Electric Drives & Power Electronics, IIT ROORKEE)

modulation techniques for voltage source inverter. A

variety of techniques, different in concept as naturally

sampled PWM, regular sampled PWM, delta modulation

techniques, delta sigma modulation techniques state

vector modulation and Hysteresis PWM are described

with corresponding waveform.

I. Introduction

One of the most widely utilized strategy for controlling the

A.C. output of power electronics converters is the pulse width

modulation (PWM), which varies the duty cycle (or mark

space ratio) of converter switches at a high switching

frequency to achieve target average low frequency output

voltage or current. Modulation theory has been a major

research area in power electronics for over three decades and

continues to attract considerable attention and interest. This is

not surprising since modulation is at the heart of nearly every

modern power electronic converter. There have been clear

trend in the development of PWM concept and strategies since

1970s, addressing the main objective of reduced harmonic

distortion and increased output magnitude for a given

switching frequency and development of modulation strategies

to suit different converter topology. While there have been

wealth of research investigating the modulation of DC/DC

converters the actual PWM process for these converters is

usually a simple comparison between reference waveform and

a sawtooth or triangular carrier waveform.

a sinusoidal output using this modulation strategy, the

reference waveform has the form

Where

M= modulation index with range 0<M<1

= target output frequency

= arbitrary output phase

With this type of sawtooth carrier, only the trailing edge of the

pulse varies as M varies, and hence this type of modulation is

termed trailing edge naturally sampled PWM For natural

used. A typical waveform for five level fling capacitor

inverter is shown For using PSCPWM in a flying

capacitor N -level inverter, N -1 carrier waveform is

needed which phase shifted by 2 / (N -I).

The work presented in this paper primarily relates to medium

and high power level hard switched inverters (i.e. above 1 kW

power level). This paper considers only modulation strategies

which are appropriate for voltage source converter (VSI).

Topics covered in this paper are

1. Naturally Sampled Pulse Width Modulation

2 Regular Sampled Pulse Width Modulation

3 Delta modulation techniques

4. Delta Sigma modulation techniques

5. Space vector modulation

6. Hysteresis Pulse Width Modulation

A. Sine-Sawtooth Modulation

The earliest and most straightforward modulation strategies is

termed as naturally sampled PWM, which compares a low

frequency target reference waveform (normally sinusoid)

against high frequency carrier waveform. In this process the

phase leg switched to upper DC rail when the reference

This is more common form of naturally sampled PWM uses a

triangular carrier instead of sawtooth carrier to compare

against refrence waveform. With this type of carrier, both side

of the switched output pulse from the phase leg are modulated,

which considerably improves the harmonic performance of the

pulse train. This type of modulation is termed double-edge

naturally sampled modulation.

Regular sampled PWM control technique significantly

reduces the number of calculations required to generate

microprocessor software implementation, thereby

considerably reducing the on-line computing

requirements, and thus allows significantly higher

switching frequency PWM to be generated using

microprocessor techniques. In these strategies the low

frequency reference waveforms are sampled and then

held constant during each carrier interval. These sampled

values are compared against the triangular carrier

waveform to control the switching process of each phase

leg. The sampled reference waveform must change

values at either the positive or positive/negative peaks of

carrier waveform, depending on the sampling strategies.

A typical practical implementation of regular sampled

PWM is illustrated in Fig. 2. As shown in the Figure, the

sinusoidal modulating wave a is sampled at regular

intervals tl, r2 etc., and stored by a sample-and hold

circuit to produce an amplitude modulated wave b.

Comparison of b with the triangular carrier wave c

produces the points of intersection TI, T2 defining the

switching edges of the PWM pulses d. The

implementation of Fig. 2 is representative of a typical

analogue or discrete digital hardware implementation, as

shown in the diagram in Fig. 3. An important feature of

Fig. 3 is that the modulating frequency , carrier

frequency , and sampling frequency , are in general,

as shown, independent, and therefore any desired

relationship between them can be defined. The simplest

relationship is to set

, and therefore to sample the

modulating wave at the carrier frequency, as shown in

Fig. 3. This result in only one sample being taken every

carrier cycle and therefore the sampled modulating wave

is kept constant throughout the carrier period resulting in

each edge of the PWM pulse being modulated equally;

commonly referred to as symmetric modulation, as

illustrated in Figs. 2 and 4. Alternatively, fs = 2fc can be

used such that two samples of the modulating wave are

taken each carrier cycle. The first sample taken at the

start of the carrier cycle is used to modulate the leading

edge of the pulse and the second sample, taken at the

middle of the carrier cycle, used to modulate the trailing

edge, resulting in asymmetric modulation, as shown in

Fig. 4. Since more samples of the modulating wave are

used to produce asymmetric PWM, the harmonic

spectrum is superior to that of symmetric PWM.

The delta modulation (DM) technique requires a very

simple circuit implementation, provides a smooth

transition between the PWM and single pulse modes of

operation and offers constant volts per Hertz operation

without the need of additional circuit complexity. Some

of the key voltage waveforms associated with the delta

modulation technique is illustrated in Fig. 5(a), (b). Fig.

5(c) shows their respective circuit implementation. In

particular, Fig. 5(a) illustrates the method by which the

DM switching function

(Fig. 5(b)), applicable to the

PWM inverter, is obtained. This method utilizes a sine

reference waveform

and a delta-shaped carrier

waveform

is allowed to "oscillate" within a

defined "window" extending equally above and below

the reference wave

. The minimum "window" width

and the maximum carrier slope determine the maximum

switching frequency of the inverter switchers

,

Therefore, when setting values for these two parameters,

care should be taken so that sufficient time is provided

for the proper turn-on and turn-off of

and

. Fig.

5(b) shows the DM switching function

which

describes the operation of switching elements

and

. The subscript of the element that is gated at any

instance is indicated by the sequence of ones and twos

shown in Fig. 5(b). The temporal relation between the

gating sequence of elements

and the waveform of

the DM switching function VI yields that the inverter

phase voltage

, and

have the same waveforms.

Fig. 5(c) depicts a circuit that is capable of producing the

waveforms shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). This circuit

operates in the following manner. Sine reference wave

is supplied to the input of the comparator

while

carrier wave VF is generated by the integrator

as

follows: whenever the output of

exceed the upper or

lower window boundaries (which are preset by the

ratio), comparator A 1 reverses the polarity of

at

the input of . This action reverses the slope of VF at

the output of , thus forcing

to "oscillate" around

the reference waveform

at ripple frequency r. This

forced oscillation ensures that the fundamental

component of

(i.e.

) and reference wave

have

the same amplitudes and that the dominant harmonics of

and

waveforms oscillate at frequencies close to

the ripple frequency r.

3. Delta Sigma modulation techniques

The delta-sigma modulator is effectively applied to a

generating scheme. The major feature of delta-sigma

modulator is the inherent nature of spread spectrum

characteristic in addition to simple configuration

scheme. Besides, delta-sigma modulator can be

considered as a sort of error amplifier. If the inverter

circuit is taken into feedback loop as a quantizer,

external DC voltage disturbances can be reduced in the

output side of inverter.

Multiphase motor drives are a very promising

technology, especially for medium and high power

ranges. As known, a multiphase motor drive cannot be

analyzed using the space vector representation in a

single d-q plane, but it is necessary to introduce multiple

d-q planes. So far a general space vector modulation for

multiphase inverters is not available due to the inherent

space vector simultaneously in different d-q planes The

basic scheme of a three-phase inverter is shown in Fig.

6. The signals

are switch commands of the

three inverter branches, and can assume only the values

0 or 1. The inverter output pole voltages are

Where

is the dc-link voltage.

The main problem is to control the load phase voltages

and

according to the requirements

imposed by the application, e.g. vector control of ac

machines. An elegant solution to this problem is the

space vector representation of the load voltages, which

describes the inverter pole voltages introducing a space

vector

and a zero sequence component

as

follows:

(2)

(3)

Where the coefficients

vectors with non-null magnitudes. These vectors, usually

referred to as active vectors, are represented in Fig. 2,

where the configurations of each vector are also

expressed in the form (

. Two configurations,

i.e.

and

lead to voltage vectors with null magnitudes, usually

referred to as zero vectors. The space vector modulation

selects two activevectors and applies each of them to the

load for a certain fraction of the switching period.

Finally, the switching period is completed by applying

the zero vectors. The active vectors and their duty-cycles

are determined so that the mean value of the output

voltage vector in the switching period is equal to the

desired voltage vector. The best choice is given by the

two vectors delimiting the sector in which the reference

voltage vector lies. Since two consecutive vectors differ

only for the state of one switch, this choice allows

ordering the active and the zero vectors so as to

minimize the number of switch commutations in a

switching period. For example, if the desired voltage

vector lies in sector 1, as shown in Fig. 7, the two

adjacent voltage vectors are

and

, whose

configurations (0,0,1) and (0,1,1) differ for only one bit.

After the active vectors have been chosen, the requested

voltage can be expressed as a combination of them as

follows:

(4)

be expressed as functions of s1, s2 and s3 by substituting

(1) in (2) and (3).

(5)

(6)

It is well-known that the load voltages depend only on

the space vector of the pole voltages, whereas the

inverter zero sequence component affects only the

potential of the load neutral point. In other words, to

control the load, it is sufficient to control the

vector

.

SVM for Three-Phase Inverters

The modulation problem consists in controlling the

switch states such that the mean values of the inverter

output voltages are equal to the desired values in any

switching period Tp. There are eight (namely

)

possible configurations for a three-phase inverter,

depending on the states of the three switch commands

(7)

where and are the duty-cycles of

switching period.

and

in the

evaluating the following dot products:

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

Once

and

have been calculated, the designer can

still choose in which proportion the two zero vectors are

used to fill the switching period. Fig. 8 shows the vector

sequence corresponding to the example of Fig. 7. In the

sequence of Fig. 3, the zero vectors are equally

distributed in the switching period.

IV CONCLUSION

In this term paper pulse width modulation inverter

techniques has been presented. Through various

modulation techniques a general hierarchical consensus

appears to have emerged from this work which ranks

space vector modulation techniques, regular sampled

modulation and sine-triangle modulation strategies in

decreasing order of merit based on harmonics

performance

V. REFRENCES

Hysteresis PWM refers to the technique where the

output is allowed to oscillate within a predefined error

band, called "hysteresis band". The switching instants in

this case are generated from the vertices of the triangular

wave shown in Fig. 9. Hysteresis PWM techniques does

not require any information about the inverter load

characteristics. As long as the reference signal is known

and the inverter output voltage is not saturated, the

inverter output will always follow the reference.

However, the switching frequency of power devices is

not fixed for this technique and will vary depending on

the magnitude and frequency of the reference,. Therefore,

switching losses for this techniques can be higher

compared to other techniques.

[1] Lega, A.; Mengoni, M.; Serra, G.; Tani, A.; Zarri, L.,

"General theory of space vector modulation for five-phase

inverters," Industrial Electronics, 2008. ISIE 2008. IEEE

International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.237,244, June 30

2008-July 2 2008

[2] Holtz, J., "Pulsewidth modulation-a survey," Power

Electronics Specialists Conference, 1992. PESC '92 Record.,

23rd Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.11,18 vol.1, 29 Jun-3 Jul

1992

[3] Bowes, S.R.; Lai, Y.S., "Investigation into optimising high

switching frequency regular sampled PWM control for drives

and static power converters," Electric Power Applications,

IEE Proceedings - , vol.143, no.4, pp.281,293, Jul 1996

[4] Sanakhan, S.; Babaei, E.; Akbari, M.E., "Dynamic

investigation of capacitors voltage of flying capacitor

multilevel inverter based on sine-sawtooth PSCPWM," Power

Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference

(PEDSTC), 2013 4th , vol., no., pp.182,187, 13-14 Feb. 2013

[5] Zhenyu Yu; Mohammed, A.; Panahi, I., "A review of three

PWM techniques," American Control Conference, 1997.

Proceedings of the 1997 , vol.1, no., pp.257,261 vol.1, 4-6 Jun

1997

[6] Hirota, A.; Nagai, S.; Nakaoka, M., "A novel delta-sigma

modulated DC-DC power converter operating under DC ripple

voltage," Industrial Electronics Society, 1999. IECON '99

Proceedings. The 25th Annual Conference of the IEEE , vol.1,

no., pp.180,184 vol.1, 1999

[7]Holmes,D.G. and Lipo , T.A.

"Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters:Principles and

Practice "

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