0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

23 vues4 pagesApplication of Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network to Center of Mass Estimation for Use in a Clinical Environment

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Application of Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network to Center of Mass Estimation for Use in a Clinical Environment

© All Rights Reserved

0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

23 vues4 pagesApplication of Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network to Center of Mass Estimation for Use in a Clinical Environment

© All Rights Reserved

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

A. L. Betker1 , T. Szturm2 , Z. Moussavi1

1

2

Department of Rehabilitation, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada

neural network model is developed to estimate the resultant

center of mass (COM) trajectory in the sagittal plane. The

COM trajectory is one of the primary outputs of the human

postural control system, and is indicative of the systems

stability. However, currently available systems that calculate

the COM are not clinically available, making it difficult to

widely assess balance problems. The inputs to the neural

network model developed in this paper are obtained using

equipment that is inexpensive, easy to use and portable. The

results indicate that neural network models show promising

results for obtaining COM estimates that have clinical

applications.

Keywordsaccelerometer, center of mass, clinical, neural

network

I. INTRODUCTION

Balance of the human multi-segmental system is

maintained by an integrated network, controlled by the

central nervous system (CNS). The system consists of

visual, vestibular and somatosensory inputs [1], used to

maintain the equilibrium of the bodys center of mass

(COM) in relation to its base of support. When the COM is

projected outside the base of support and does not have the

required momentum, in the appropriate direction, to re-enter

the base of support area, instability occurs. Thus, the

trajectory of the COM provides us with a measure of

stability and is a primary output of the control system.

Although there exists variability [2] in which

equilibrium is maintained, postural strategies or patterns

emerge [1,3,4]. During quiet stance, an ankle strategy is

generally adopted [5]. As the frequency of oscillation

becomes larger, the velocity of the COM increases.

Therefore larger and quicker movements are required to

maintain the COM within the base of support. Thus a hip

strategy emerges, in which the body can be modeled as a

two-segment inverted pendulum consisting of the trunk and

limbs [1,3,4].

Models have been developed to predict state estimates

during quiet stance using optimal estimation control theory,

which attempts to optimize the systems state vectors based

on a cost function for a single-segment [6] and a threesegment model [7]. However, these systems can not be

practically applied to a clinical situation as the data

collection equipment is expensive and not portable, and the

models are fit to specific subjects.

Current movement trajectories are collected using

motion detection systems and force plates. The equipment is

and ergo not readily available to the clinical world. In

addition, most motion detection systems are not real-time

and the data requires time -consuming off-line processing.

Conversely, accelerometers are inexpensive, portable and

provide real-time data. Sophisticated multi-degree of

freedom moving platforms are available that can create

sinusoidal translations at different frequencies, and can

perform sway-referencing. This effect can also be achieved

by asking a subject to stand on a dense piece of foam, and

having the subjects induce voluntary sway in either

anterior-posterior (AP) or medial-lateral (ML) directions.

While neural networks have been widely applied to

motor control of robots and some studies have applied

neural networks to a specific task or aspect of motor control,

few studies have been applied to overall postural control

analysis in humans. In [8], sway length and an index to the

proximity of stability were simulated based on

environmental and task conditions. However, sway can

easily be measured through the use of accelerometers;

equipment that is clinically available.

This paper proposes the application of feedforward

backpropagation neural networks to estimate the COM

trajectory for a two-segment inverted pendulum, using

clinically available information.

II. M ETHODOLOGY

Two healthy subjects, a male aged 39 and a female aged

27, volunteered and gave informed consent. Ethics approval

was granted prior to recruiting subjects by The University of

Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Ethics Committee.

A. Experimental Setup

An AMTI force plate, model OR-6, was used to obtain

forces and moments in the sagittal, frontal and vertical

planes. This data was then calibrated and the center of

pressure (COP) in the frontal and sagittal planes were

calculated. Two ADXL202EB accelerometers (Analog

Devices) were affixed to the subject; one representing the

trunk segment placed on the neck, and the second

representing limb segment placed on the shank below the

knee joint. The sway in the AP and ML planes were

recorded by each accelerometer. The sway signals were

filtered using a 2nd order Butterworth bandpass filter, with

cutoff frequencies of 0.01 Hz and 100 Hz. The force plate

2714

EMBC 2003

LabView VI at a sampling rate of 500 Hz.

Kinematic data was obtained using a Sony Hi 8mm

video camera, model CCD-V101, connected to a Panasonic

SVHS video recorder model A7350. The reflective markers

were placed on the end points of each segment as described

in [4]. The data was sampled at 60 Hz, then filtered using a

4th order lowpass Butterworth filter, with a cutoff frequency

of 5 Hz. The data was digitized using the Peak 2D Video

Motion Analysis System (Peak Performance Technologies

Inc). The x and y (horizontal and vertical respectively)

coordinates for each reflective markers centroid was

determined in relation to an earth-fixed marker. For

calculation of the COM, we used a six-segment model

consisting of the head, arm, trunk-neck-pelvis, thigh, shank

and foot. The location of the COM x and y coordinates, and

resultant trajectory in the sagittal plane was calculated using

anthropometric data and methods as described in [9] for

each frame. The kinematic data was then interpolated to a

sampling rate of 500 Hz; i.e., to that of the kinetic and

accelerometer data.

B. Protocol

The subjects stood with their feet apart at their preferred

normal position; this position was recorded on the first trial

and kept constant for the remaining trials. The subjects kept

their arms crossed in front of their chest to avoid obstructing

the markers. In the three trials performed, the subjects were

instructed to induce voluntary sinusoidal movement of 0.5

Hz kept via a metronome. The duration of each trial was 10

seconds with a 2 minute rest period between each trial. In

the first trial, the subjects stood on the force platform, with

eyes open. In the second and third trials, the subject stood on

a dense piece of foam with a board placed on top to evenly

distribute their mass. This was performed for eyes open and

eyes closed conditions. The sponge introduces uncertainty

into the system which damps the signals that the cutaneous

sensors of the feet receive. In effect, the trials attempt

eliminate or distort visual cues, somatosensory cues or both.

C. Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network Model

A feedforward backpropagation neural network consists

of two layers. The first layer, or hidden layer, has a tansigmoid (tan-sig) activation function, and the second layer,

or output layer, has a linear activation function. Thus, the

first layer limits the output to a narrow range, from which

the linear layer can produce all values. The output of each

layer can be represented by

YNx1 = f(W NxM XM,1 + b N,1 ),

(1)

where Y is a vector containing the output from each of the N

neurons in a given layer, W is a matrix containing the

weights for each of the M inputs for all N neurons, X is a

vector containing the inputs, b is a vector containing the

network was created using the neural network toolbox from

Matlab 6.0 release 13 (The MathWorks, Natick, Mass.,

USA).

The architecture of the neural network used to estimate

the resultant COM trajectory in the sagittal plane consists of

a single feedforward backpropagation neural network. The

inputs to the network are the resultant sway trajectory of the

trunk calculated from accelerometer data, the sway

trajectory of the shank in the AP direction provided by

accelerometer data, visual sensory input, 0 or 1 for eyes

closed and eyes open respectively, and somatosensory input,

0 or 1 for sponge and normal surface respectively.

In a backpropagation network, there are two steps

during training that are used alternately. The

backpropagation step calculates the error in the gradient

descent and propagates it backwards to each neuron in the

output layer, then hidden layer. In the second step, the

weights and biases are then recomputed, and the output from

the activated neurons is then propagated forward from the

hidden layer to the output layer.

The network is initialized with random weights and

biases, and was then trained using the Levinson-Marquardt

algorithm [11]. The weights and biases are updated

according to

Dn+1 = Dn [JT J + I] -1 JTe,

(2)

where Dn is a matrix containing the current weights and

biases, Dn+1 is a matrix containing the new weights and

biases, e is the network error, J is a Jacobean matrix

containing the 1st derivative of e with respect to the current

weights and biases, I is the identity matrix and is a

variable that increases or decreases based on the

performance function. The gradient of the error surface, g, is

equal to JTe [11].

The training data consisted of every third sample from

the first 6 seconds of data, for each of the three trials of each

subject; i.e. the network was trained for all conditions at

once. The length of the training data was 5000 points. The

network contained 50 neurons, and was trained until an

acceptable percentage error was achieved. The test data

consisted of the remaining 4000 samples from each trial for

each subject; 2000 samples from the first 6 seconds, and

2000 samples from the last 4 seconds.

The target vectors were obtained from the acquired

kinematic and kinetic data. The input and target vectors are

normalized by the mean plus standard deviation (SD) of the

training data. When simulating the network, the test vectors

are first normalized to lie within the range 0 to 1; i.e., the

range for which the tan-sig function is most sensitive [11].

Once simulated, the resultant vectors are then transformed to

their original means and SDs. The resulting estimations of

the resultant COM trajectory is then lowpass filtered using a

4th order Butterworth filter, with a cutoff frequency of 4 Hz.

The target vectors and estimated resultant COM

trajectory are then normalized to lie within the range of 0 to

2715

The mean of the normalized percent error is also reported.

III. RESULTS

The network was simulated with data from each of the

trials, for each subject. The results for each of the different

test conditions for subjects 1 and 2 are given in Fig. 1 and

Fig. 2 respectively. The first 2000 samples consist of the

remaining samples from the first 6 seconds of the trial that

were not used for training. Thus testing the networks

reliability. The remaining 2000 points consist of the data

from the last 4 seconds of the trial. Thus testing the

networks response to new data that is independent from the

training data in that there is no overlap between them as

with the first 2000 points.

The true COM trajectory is indicated with a solid line,

and the estimated COM trajectory is indicated with a dashed

line. The mean and maximum values for the NPE for each

subject, during each condition, are given in Table 1.

IV. DISCUSSION

Control models have been developed that estimate state

variables by incorporating the actual biomechanics of the

system [6,7]. Optimal estimation control theory is used,

which optimizes the state variables according to a cost

function. A benefit of this model is that sensory noise is

incorporated. A Kalman filter is used to provide an optimal

estimate of the state variables, given delayed sensor plus

noise signals and delayed control signals. As Kalman filters

operate on linear data, and the relationship between sensory

and state information is not always linear, optimal estimates

are then passed through a non-linear predictor.

normal surface, eyes open, b) sponge, eyes open and c) sponge, eyes

closed.

pendulum during quiet stance, and had to be fit to each

subject. The model in [7] was not tested with subjects, but

rather a three-link model system, during quiet stance. As the

degrees of freedom are increased, so are the dynamics of the

system and complexity of the model. While these models

give an understanding to sensory integration, they can not be

practically applied in a clinical environment.

The model developed in this paper is not attempting to

model system mechanics. Instead, it attempts to determine a

relationship between sway information, during different

conditions, and the corresponding motion of the COM,

when two-segment inverted pendulum dynamics are

considered.

The subjects induced voluntary, periodic, sinusoidal

motion, which was reflected in the resulting trajectory of the

COM during the normal surface, eyes open trial; however,

shifts in the baseline of the signal occurred as errors

accumulated in the system. The estimated COM trajectory

closely followed the true COM trajectory, and was able to

identify these baseline shifts.

TABLE I

Mean and Maximum Normalized Percentage Error

Subject 1

Trial

normal surface, eyes open, b) sponge, eyes open and c) sponge, eyes

closed.

2716

Subject 2

Mean

NPE (%)

Maximum

NPE (%)

Mean

NPE (%)

Maximum

NPE (%)

Eyes Open,

Normal Surface

7.3

23.6

5.4

15.0

Eyes Open,

Sponge

8.6

24.7

6.5

21.3

Eyes Closed,

Sponge

12.7

41.8

10.5

41.4

altered, it introduces uncertainties in the system. In

particular, the foam causes damping of the cutaneous

information provided, which in turn produces large errors in

the postural systems predictions. In the trial where the

somatosensory information is altered, but visual information

is still available, there are small deviations from a sinusoid,

and peaks where the subject had difficulty maintaining

balance. As there is still predictive elements to the signal,

the estimated COM trajectory was able to follow the true

COM trajectory, however, not as closely as in the normal

surface, eyes open trial. When visual cues are also removed,

the postural system begins to accumulate large errors and

the sway increases. The true COM trajectory had larger

deviations from a sinusoid, again with peaks where balance

was difficult to maintain. There are few predictive ele ments

to the signal as large uncertainty is added to the signal via

the removal of visual and somatosensory information. Due

to this lack of sensory information, our own balance systems

cannot predict the disturbances. This is reflected in the fact

that the estimated COM trajectory had difficulty following

the true path in this case. Therefore, the model requires

additional information to be able to more accurately

estimate the COM trajectory.

In order to improve the performance of the network, and

begin to incorporate the biomechanics of the system,

additional clinically available information will need to be

incorporated into the model. Also, training and test data

from a larger subject group would aid in training the

network with additional balance patterns.

The linear envelope of the electromyogram (EMG)

signal provides information regarding preparatory or

reactive movements, onsets of corrective actions and the

selected strategy via which muscle groups become active

and the order in which they are activated. In addition, post

hoc testing reveals that the incorporation of COP

coordinates into the model would be beneficial.

The UltraThin OrthoTest Mat (Vista Medical Ltd, 3-55

Henlow Bay, Winnipeg, MB, CAN) is a new device that

contains piezo resistive sensors, used to calculate the

vertical COP. The OrthoTest Mat provides real-time data via

a small, light-weight interface unit, that connects to a

computer via a serial port. The dimensions of the OrthoTest

Mat are 53 cm x 53 cm x 0.036 cm, meaning it is easily

portable. As the OrthoTest Mat is also relatively

inexpensive, it provides a clinically available alternative

from which the COP data can be obtained.

additional complexity, neural network models can be

developed to provide a clinician with the movement

trajectories required to assess balance.

V. CONCLUSION

The motivation behind this research is the development

of a clinically available system, that provides the same

2717

REFERENCES

[1] J. J. Buchanan and F. B. Horak, Emergence of Postural Patterns

as a function of vision and translation frequency Journal of

Neurophysiology, vol. 6, pp. 2325-2339, 1999.

[2] M. Schieppati, A. Giordano and A. Nardone, Variability in a

dynamic postural t ask attests ample flexibility in balance control

mechanisms Experimental Brain Research, vol. 144, pp. 200210, 2002.

[3] Y. G. Ko, J. H. Challis and K. M. Newell, Postural coordination

patterns as a function of dynamics of the support surface

Human Mo vement Science, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 737-764, 2001.

[4] T. Szturm and B. Fallang, Effects of varying acceleration of

platform translation and toes-up rotations on the pattern and

magnitude of balance reactions in humans Journal of Vestibular

Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 381-397, 1998.

[5] P. Gatev, S. Thomas, T. Kepple and M. Hallet, Feedforward

ankle strategy of balance during quiet stance in adults Journal

of Physiology, 514.3, pp. 915-928, 1999.

[6] H. van der Kooij, R. Jacobs, B. Koopman and H. Grootenboer,

A multisensory integration model of human stance control

Biological Cybernetics, vol. 80, pp. 299-308, 1999.

[7] T. Kiemel, K. S. Oie and J. J. Jeka, Multisensory fusion and the

stochastic structure of postural sway Biological Cybernetics,

vol. 87, pp. 262-277, 2002.

[8] W. Wang and A. Bhattacharya, A back-propagation neural

network model for prediction of loss of balance, IEEE

Proceedings (peer-reviewed) of the 15th Southern Biomedical

Engineering Conference, Pub. # 0-7803-3131-1/96, pp. 85-88,

1996.

[9] D. A. Winter, Biomechanics and motor control of human

movement. John Wiley & Sons Canada, LTD., 1990, pp. 5172.

[10] J. A. Freeman and D. M. Skapura, Neural networks: algorithms,

applications and programming techniques. Addison Wesley

Longman, 1991, pp. 89-105.

[11] Neural Networks Toolbox (4.0) Users Guide, The MathWorks,

Natick, MA, 2000, pp. 2-22-22, 5-22-56.