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Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude?

A) Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event.

B) Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one's actions.
C) Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event.
D) Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.
E) Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated.
Sheila works for a manufacturer of styrofoam trays for school lunches. Last year her son come
home from school and told her that the trays she makes go straight to the landfill where they sit
for hundreds of years without ever biodegrading. Although this information bothers Sheila, she
does not look for another job because she enjoys her very high salary.
Which dissonance moderating factor is illustrated by this example?
A) Dissonance is reduced because of the sense of control by the individual.
B) Dissonance is reduced because of the importance to the individual.
C) There is no dissonance moderating factor in the example.
D) Dissonance is increased because of the sense of control by the individual.
E) High dissonance is tolerated because of a high reward.
All of the following are classifications on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator except ________.
A) extroverted/introverted
B) sensing/intuitive
C) perceiving/judging
D) independent/dependent
E) thinking/feeling
You wish to hire a person who is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and entrepreneurial.
Candidates for this position would ideally have what classification on the Myers-Briggs Type
Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others?
A) conscientiousness
B) agreeableness
C) extroversion
D) feeling
E) emotional stability

A high score in which dimension of the Big Five model predicts good job performance for all

occupational groups?
A) extroversion
B) agreeableness
C) conscientiousness
D) emotional stability
E) openness to experience
What personality characteristic centers on whether a person is unemotional and pragmatic and
believes that ends can justify means?
A) authoritarianism
B) Machiavellianism
C) Type A personality
D) risk-taking
E) Narcissism
How would you describe an individual who is capable of presenting striking contradictions
between who they are in public and who they are privately?
A) low Mach
B) high Mach
C) low self-monitoring
D) high self-monitoring
E) narcissistic
Zach gulps his food, is constantly spinning his pen in class, always walks quickly, gets bored
with slow intellectual movies, and is annoyed that it's taking four and a half years to graduate
from business school. Zach is probably ________.
A) a Type A personality
B) a self-monitoring personality
C) a narcissist
D) A Type B personality
E) a proactive personality
David has the opinion that people who drive SUVs are dangerous drivers. He often perceives that
people driving SUVs are doing so in a dangerous manner, even when other observers can see
nothing wrong with the behavior of the SUV drivers. What factor in David is affecting his
perception in this case?
A) his interests
B) his work setting
C) his expectations
D) his motives
E) his background

Last year Elaine had her purse snatched on the street by two teens who wore their jeans very low.

All she can remember is seeing, as the teens ran away, was their plaid boxer shorts sticking out
above their pants. Whenever Elaine sees boys with low-riding jeans her face tightens and she
mumbles something about "delinquents". She is extremely bothered that her own grandson, an
honours student, has begun to wear his jeans low. Elaine's perception of her grandson is
influenced by ________.
A) motives
B) interests
C) setting
D) reality
E) experience
What is the name of the theory that deals with how we explain behavior differently depending on
the meaning we assign to the behavior of the actor?
A) behavioral theory
B) judgment theory
C) selective perception theory
D) attribution theory
E) equality theory
What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different
A) continuity
B) integrity
C) stability
D) flexibility
E) distinctiveness
What term is used for the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of
A) fundamental attribution error
B) self-serving bias
C) selective perception
D) consistency
E) actor bias
Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we perceive, we engage in ________.
A) selective perception
B) memorization
C) mental desensitization
D) periodic listening
E) linear clustering

What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single

characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance?

A) contrast effects
B) personal bias
C) prejudice
D) the halo effect
E) projection
Your rating in a job interview is high in contrast to the candidate who was interviewed directly
before you, who was rated extremely low. Your own high rating might be partially attributed to
which of the following?
A) the halo effect
B) contrast effects
C) projection
D) stereotyping
E) prototyping
Which of the following statements is not an example of stereotyping?
A) There is no need to offer child-care to him; men aren't interested in child care.
B) Don't hire an older worker; they can't learn new skills.
C) She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one.
D) She won't relocate for a promotion, since women don't relocate.
E) The new hire will be emotionally insensitive, since he is a man.
What is the first step in the rational decision-making model?
A) developing alternatives
B) defining the problem
C) identifying the decision criteria
D) weighing the decision criteria
E) collecting relevant data
Researchers today believe that intuition can be helpful in decision making because it ________.
A) allows systematic biases and errors to creep into their judgments
B) is a developed form of reasoning that is based on years of experience and learning
C) gathers a great deal of information about all the options
D) reduces problems to a simple level, easing the understanding
E) chooses the option with the highest utility
What do we call the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that they can
easily obtain?
A) representative bias
B) availability bias
C) confirmation bias
D) anchoring bias
E) principality
Tom knows that the title insurance company made a mistake on his property title. Because of

their mistake, his neighbor now has access to an easement road through his back 25 acres. He
can't use the acreage for pasture, because his neighbor insists that the gates remain open. The title
company has offered a $40,000 settlement. Tom has decided to take the settlement rather than
possibly lose in court if he were to sue the title company for more money. Tom's decision is
based on ________.
A) hindsight bias
B) availability bias
C) risk aversion
D) randomness error
E) escalation of commitment
Which of the following terms involves making decisions so as to provide the greatest good for
the greatest number?
A) utilitarianism
B) justice
C) rights
D) satisficing
E) humanitarianism
Which one of the following characteristics is not necessarily true about groups?
A) Group members are interdependent.
B) Groups have two or more members.
C) Groups have assigned goals.
D) Groups interact.
E) Groups have particular objectives.
Sunetra, Madhu and Rahul work in different departments but often eat lunch together. They are
an example of what type of group?
A) formal
B) informal
C) command
D) task
E) reactant
9) Sunita is looking for a new HR person for her company. She is reviewing resumes to
determine which candidates to call for an interview. She sees one candidate that attended her
same university. Sunita puts that resume in the "to call" pile. This is an example of ________.
A) uncertainty reduction
B) ingroup favoritism
C) an interest group
D) a friendship group
E) an informal group

When Judith became a doctor she modeled her manner on her observations of more experienced

doctors, and also on the behavior of doctors in medical dramas she had enjoyed watching as a
child on TV. What is Judith modeling her manner upon?
A) the role behaviors of doctors
B) her role perception of doctors
C) the role identity of doctors
D) her role expectation of doctors
E) the core role actions of doctors
Most people assume that a police officer should behave in a lawful manner, not show any
favoritism to any particular group, and do their best to uphold the law. What term is used for this
kind of belief?
A) a norm
B) a norm identity
C) a role expectation
D) a role perception
E) a norm violation
What term is used for the mutual expectations of what management expects from workers and
what workers expect from management?
A) group norm
B) role expectation
C) role identity
D) psychological contract
E) reactive goals
Norms that dictate with whom group members eat lunch, friendships on and off the job, and
social games are ________ norms.
A) appearance
B) social arrangement
C) performance
D) leisure
E) confluence
What term is used for the process by which an individual's desire for acceptance by the group
and the pressure by the group on individual members to match its standards results in a change in
individual attitudes and behaviors?
A) conformity
B) coercion
C) commitment
D) convergence
E) confluence

The major contribution of the Asch study was to demonstrate the impact of ________.

A) group pressures
B) seating arrangements
C) convergence
D) status
E) cognitive dissonance
What term is used for antisocial actions by organizational members who voluntarily violate
established norms and that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or
A) ethical dilemmas
B) deviant workplace behavior
C) abnormal behavior
D) discommitment behavior
E) reactive affirmation behavior
Madhu works as a salesperson in a department store. Whenever a customer asks for an item that
is in stock but not on display, she usually tells them that the product is out of stock. "It's a pain
going into the stock-room to find an item," says Madhu. "Nobody in my department ever tells a
customer the truth about what is in stock." This example illustrates which of the following facts
about deviant workplace behavior?
A) Deviant workplace behavior will arise when tasks that an employee is supposed to perform
are unpleasant or difficult.
B) Most workers do not consider lying to a customer to be deviant workplace behavior.
C) Workers will lie to customers as long as the customers do not complain about it.
D) Deviant workplace behavior flourishes where it's supported by group norms.
E) Groups will come to their own conclusions about what is and isn't appropriate.
A group is most likely to tolerate deviation from a group's conformity norms by which of the
following individuals?
A) a high status individual who does not care about the social rewards the group provides
B) a high status individual who is tightly integrated into the group's social structure
C) a low status individual who has only recently entered the group
D) a low status individual who strongly wishes to integrate within the group
E) a low status individual who is not well regarded by the rest of the group
What term is used for the tendency for individuals to spend less effort when working
A) groupthink
B) the rule of diminishing returns
C) social loafing
D) groupshift
E) clustering

Which of the following is not likely to increase group cohesiveness?

A) reward high-performing group individuals

B) decreasing the size of the group
C) agreement upon the established goals
D) increasing groups status in the organization
E) physically isolate the group
Which of the following is a phenomenon in which group pressures for conformity deter the
group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views?
A) group conformity
B) groupshift
C) groupthink
D) compromise
E) risk transfer
63) Indira needs as many creative ideas as she can get for the new advertising campaign, and her
small agency doesn't have a lot of money for high-tech meeting facilities. Given the information
provided, which meeting technique will provide the highest number of quality ideas?
A) interacting
B) brainstorming
C) nominal
D) electronic
E) social
Maya just got out of a meeting. She is extremely frustrated because nothing got done and now
she has to deal with workplace drama. Sophia is threatening to quit because various people
publicly humiliated her by disparaging her ideas. The entire meeting turned into conflict
management for Maya. Which kind of meeting technique did Maya most likely use?
A) interacting
B) brainstorming
C) nominal
D) electronic
E) social
You have observed that a particular group tends to come to consensus very quickly and there
appears to be an illusion of unanimity. You conclude that they may be suffering from ________.
A) inefficiency syndrome
B) groupshift
C) disintegrating norms
D) groupthink
E) risky shift

________ results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

A) Synergy
B) Enthusiasm
C) Energy
D) Initiative
E) Inversion
Which of the following types of teams would most likely be assembled to improve the efficiency
of a company's production process?
A) cross-functional
B) problem-solving
C) self-managed
D) virtual
E) co-evolving
Which of the following is not true about virtual teams?
A) There is an absence of paraverbal cues.
B) Members are more satisfied with the group interaction process.
C) There is limited social context.
D) They are more task-oriented.
E) Members are more focused on production than on process.
To provide teams with adequate resources, a company must supply which of the following?
A) proper equipment
B) adequate staffing
C) encouragement
D) all the above
E) none of the above
Julia works as a receptionist at a real estate company. Her boss just came in the door and yelled
at her, telling her that the front office was a mess and that she needed to get up and clean it
immediately. After her boss left the room Julia grabbed three magazines and violently slammed
them into the trash can. Which of the following best describes Julia's action?
A) an affect
B) a thought
C) a mood
D) an emotion
E) a mental process
What term is used for feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions?
A) affect
B) cognition
C) moods
D) thoughts
E) reactions
What is the name of the theory that has demonstrated that employees react emotionally to things

that happen to them at work and that this reaction influences their job performance and
A) psychoanalytic theory
B) the actor/observer bias
C) the theory of planned behavior
D) cognitive dissonance theory
E) affective events theory
Job satisfaction is best described as ________.
A) a result
B) a value
C) an attitude
D) causing high performance
E) a valued discipline
In her work in the publishing industry, Vera seeks out new authors who she considers promising.
In the past two years she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was
exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for
submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results,
none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. Vera believes that the decision
not to publish these authors was based on personal rivalries within management, rather than the
quality of her writers' work. She is extremely frustrated, dreads coming into work each morning,
and is seriously thinking of resigning.
How can Vera's job attitudes best be described?
A) low job satisfaction and low job involvement
B) low job satisfaction and high job involvement
C) high job satisfaction and low job involvement
D) high job satisfaction and high job involvement
E) low organizational commitment
Rohit is unhappy with his job. He takes every possible vacation and sick day and sometimes
shows up for work late. He is expressing his dissatisfaction through ________.
A) exit
B) voice
C) loyalty
D) social voice
E) neglect
Blind in Johari Window is that area which contains
A)What is not known to either self or others
B)What is known to both self and others
C)What is known to self but not to others
D)All of the above
E)None of the above
The Unknown area in Johari Window can be reduced by

A)Prompting through self-discovery or observation by others.

B)Through collective or mutual discovery
D)By the manager encouraging the him to try out new things which he has not done before
E)All of the above
Mark believes that his manager is a good person and will work things out if Mark just gives him
time to do so. Mark is dealing with his dissatisfaction through ________.
A) exit
B) voice
C) loyalty
D) neglect
E) acceptance
Which of the following statements is not true?
A) Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
B) Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee's job dissatisfaction.
C) In service organizations, customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how frontline employees deal with customers.
D) Satisfied employees are likely to be more productive.
E) The most effective way to improve job satisfaction is a raise in pay.