Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

1.

1 DEFINITION OF TOURISM
Tourism is travel for pleasure, also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting,
accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be
international, or within the traveler's country.
According to The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism more generally, in
terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as
people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
According to Law of Republic Indonesia Number 10 2009 on tourism explained that tourism is
an activity journey done by a person or group of people with visiting a particular place for the purpose of
recreation, personal development, or studying the uniqueness of tourist attraction that is visited in a
while.
According Kodhyat (1998) tourism is a journey from somewhere elsewhere, are temporary, done
individually or in groups, as attempt to find a balance or harmony and happiness with the environment in
the social, cultural, nature and science. While Gamal (2002), is defined as a form of tourism, a process
for temporary departure from one or more person to the other place than their residence, encouragement
his departure was due to a variety of interests both for the benefit of economic, social, cultural, political,
religious, health and other interests.
1.2 THE KINDS OF BUSINESS TOURISM
Based on Article 14 of Law No. 10 Year 2009 of Tourism, the kinds of business tourism are:
a. Travel Attractions Business
Management efforts natural attractions, cultural attractions, and / or tourist attraction artificial /
human target.
b. Tourism Resort Business
The construction and / or management of the region to meet the needs of tourism in accordance
legislation.
c. Transportation Tourism Services Business
Transportation business to the needs and activities of tourism, not regular freight transportation /
public.
d. Travel Services Business
Travel Bureau is the business of providing travel planning services and / or services and

the operations of tourism, including organizing trips worship.


Travel agents booking facilities are business services, such as ticketing and reservation of

accommodation and travel documents.


e. Food and Beverage Services Business

The business of providing food and beverages that are equipped with equipment and supplies for
the manufacture, storage and / or presentation. For example, restaurants, bars, cafes, caterers and
food outlets.
f. Supply Business Accommodation
Enterprises providing accommodation services to tourists which can be equipped with other
tourism services. For example, hotel, camping, caravan stopover, villa and cottage.
g. Implementation of Business Management Leisure and Recreation
The implementation of business activities such as performing arts business, arena games, karaoke
and other entertainment and leisure activities aimed at tourism. For example, sports arenas, art
stadium, arena games, recreational parks, and karaoke.
h. Operation Service Business Meetings, Incentive, Conference and Exhibition
Provision of services for a meeting of a group of people, organizing trips for employees and
business partners as a reward for his efforts, as well as exhibitions in the framework of
information dissemination and promotion of goods and services on national, regional, and
international.
i. Information Tourism Services
Enterprises providing data, news, features, photos, videos, and research on tourism which is
dispersed in the form of printed material and / or electronic.
j. Tourism Consulting Services Business
The business of providing advice and recommendations on the feasibility study, planning,
business management, research, and marketing in the field of tourism.
k. Tour Guide Services
The provision and / or coordination of a tour guide personnel to meet the needs of travelers and /
or the needs of travel agents.
l. Enterprises Water Tourism
Organizing business travel and water sports, including the provision of infrastructure and other
services commercially managed in marine waters, beaches, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.
1.3 THE EFFECT OF TOURISM
Tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in rural areas and developing
countries, but mass tourism is also associated with negative effects. Tourism can only be sustainable if it
is carefully managed so that potential negative effects on the host community and the environment are
not permitted to outweigh the financial benefits.
ECONOMY

POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
Tourism creates jobs, both through Successful tourism
direct

employment

within

the

establishing

relies

on
basic

tourism industry and indirectly in

infrastructure, such as roads,

sectors

and

visitor centers and hotels. The

transportation. When these people

cost of this usually falls on the

such

as

retail

spend their wages on goods and

government, so it has to come

services, it leads to what is known

out of tax revenues.

Jobs
created by tourism are often
as the "multiplier effect," creating
seasonal and poorly paid, yet
more jobs.
The tourism industry also provides
tourism can push up local
opportunities
business

for

enterprises,

small-scale
which

property prices and the cost of

is

goods and services.


especially important in rural Money generated by tourism does
not always benefit the local
communities, and generates extra
community, as some of it leaks
tax revenues, such as airport and
hotel taxes, which can be used for

out

to

huge

international

companies, such as hotel chains.


Destinations
dependent
on

schools, housing and hospitals.

tourism

can

be

adversely

affected by events such as


terrorism, natural disasters and

The

improvements

economic recession.
to Visitor behavior can have a

infrastructure and new leisure

detrimental effect on the quality

amenities that result from tourism

of life of the host community.

also benefit the local community.


Tourism
encourages
the

For example, crowding and

preservation

traditional

problems,

customs, handicrafts and festivals

increased

of

congestion, drugs and alcohol


prostitution
crime

levels

and
can

that might otherwise have been

occur.

Tourism
can even infringe on
allowed to wane, and it creates

SOCIAL

civic pride.
Interchanges between hosts and

human rights, with locals being

guests create a better cultural

make way for new hotels or

displaced from their land to

understanding and can also help

barred from beaches.


raise global awareness of issues Interaction with tourists can also
such as poverty and human rights
ENVIRONMEN
T

lead to an erosion of traditional

abuses.
cultures and values.
Tourism - particularly nature and Tourism poses a threat to a
ecotourism

helps

promote

region's natural and cultural

conservation

of

wildlife

and

resources, such as water supply,

natural resources such as rain

beaches, coral reefs and heritage

forests, as these are now regarded

sites, through overuse.


It also causes increased pollution

as tourism assets.
It also helps generate funding for

through

traffic

maintaining animal preserves and

littering,

increased

marine parks through entrance

production and noise.

emissions,
sewage

charges and guide fees.


By creating alternative sources of
employment,

tourism

reduces

problems such as over-fishing and


deforestation

in

developing

nations.
1.4 HOTEL DEFINITIONS
Hotel come from word hostel that take from ancient France language, this public building
known in the end of 17 century. In the past time, hotel know as the place that accommodate the stranger
or also called building that provide cottage and foods also drinks. So, in the beginning, hotel create to
give services to society.
There are many definitions of hotel, so we can explain :
1. Based on Parpostel Minister Decision No KM 94/HK103/MPPT 1987, hotel is the one kind of
accommodation that use half or all of their part for inn services, provide foods and drinks and also
others services for public society that manage as commercial
2. Based on AHMA (American Hotel and Motel Association), hotel is a building that manage as
commercial and give inn facilities for public with their services such as : foods and drinks
services, room services, laundry services, use hotel tools facilities, and also enjoy the decoration
in the hotel
3. Based on Lawson, 1976 : 27, hotel is public place for tourist with give room services, prepare
goods and drinks and also accommodation that purpose to commercial
4. Based on Grolier Electronic Publishing Inc. (1995), hotel is commercial manage that provide inn
services, foods and drinks and also another services for public.
So we can make conclusion, hotel is the place that manage as commercial that give
accommodation and services such as foods and drinks services, room services, and others for the people
who want to enjoy the facilities in hotel.
Hotel also have many characteristics that different from another industries such as :

a) Hotel industry classified as industry dense equity and also dense of activity, so for manage the
hotel industry need big equity and also many labors.
b) Sensitive with the change of situations such as economics, politics, social, culture, and safety in
the place of the hotels
c) Produce and marketing the product simultaneously with the place that services happen
d) 24 hours operations without off in services to the hotel customer and also public society
e) Treat the customers as a king and also friends because the hotel industry services depend on more
or less customer use their hotel facilities
1.5 HISTORY OF HOTEL IN INDONESIA
Until now, there isnt enough of literature to explain about hotel development in Indonesia. But,
long time ago, Indonesia tourism known before World War I, but the amount of tourist still few at that
moment. By the time, the tourism in Indonesia increase, so need to many accommodation to fulfill the
necessary. When the Dutch colonize Indonesia, at that moment build the hotels in many region such as ,
Der Nederlanden Hotel, Royal Hotel, Des Indes Hotel and Rijswijk Hotel in Jakarta, Slier Hotel in Solo,
Palace Hotel in Malang, and also Grand Hotel in Jogjakarta.
Most of that hotel now become heritage or has been renovation to become better or
redevelopment. For the example, Des Indes hotel, now become Duta Indonesia hotel and also now
become Duta Merlin shopping complex.
In the Soekarno era, Indonesia build hotels that owner by government in the below of BUMN,
such as Indonesian Hotel in Jakarta, Bali Beach in Bali, and also Samudra Beach Hotel in Yogyakarta.
After Orde Baru government period, development and represent hotel in Indonesia become rapidly.
Therefore, participate chains management international hotel that entry to big city in Indonesia. And after
that, the architecture of hotel in Indonesia become more develop and innovative.
1.6 THE KINDS OF HOTEL
THE KINDS OF HOTEL
A. Based on the location:
1. City Hotel is located in the city. This hotel made for the guess that want to stay in the short
term. Generally city hotel often called transit hotel because usually rented by business people
2. Residential Hotel is located in the country side but it has easy access to go to the places of
trade activities. This hotel usually located in the quite area because its made for the guess
who want to stay in the long term.
3. Motel or Motor Hotel is located in the roadside that connect one big city with other city or
other location. This hotel made for being the temporary rest place of guess who do long trip

with their vehicle or public transport. Because of that the Motel always prepare garage for
private vehicle.
4. Airport Hotel is located near by prime airport.
5. Down Town Hotel
Down town hotel is located nearby the trade and shopping location. The target customer soft
his hotel are the visitors who want to travel shopping or establish trade relations. Occasionally
the hotel was built to join the shopping facilities that can mutually benefit.
6. Resort Hotel is located far from city and in the tourist destination. This hotel made for the
guess who want to stay or rest in the holiday or for the traveller. The kinds of resort hotel
based on the location are:
6.1 Beach Hotel is are sort hotel located on the waterfront. Intended for guess who want to
enjoy the cool atmosphere of the beach with luxury and side rooms overlooking the sea,
has a water recreation facilities, have the equipment and have support facilities for guests
who want to relax.
6.2 Mountain hotel is the kind of hotel that is located in mountainous intended for guests who
want to enjoy the cool mountain air. Usually building Mountain hotel is not too high,
adapted to the natural conditions around it, except when allowing for the construction of
high-rise buildings.
6.3 Lake hotel is located on the shores of the lake. Its made for guess who like the beauty
view of the lake, the hotel is suitable for you and your family recreation.
6.4 Ravine hotelis located on the edge of cliffs, usually on a plateau, with steep cliffs below.
Ravine Hotel provides many recreational facilities and a special tour to get the valley
beneath.
6.5 Jungle hotel is located in forest area, relying on natural elements. Hotel facilities, such as
rooms, lobby and receptionist counter is usually made of natural shades, is tightly
integrated with the natural environment and forests.
B. Based on the room rate system:
1. Full American Plan (FAP) is the hotel that use the system that the rate of hotel already
includes 3 meals.
2. Modified American Plan (MAP) is the hotel that use the system that the rate of hotel already
includes 2 meals.
3. European Plan (EP) is the hotel that use the system that the rate of hotel does not includes
meal.

4. Continental Plan (CP) is the hotel that use the system that the rate of hotel already includes
breakfast, and the kinds of meals is continental meal.
5. Bermuda Plan ( BP)is the hotel that use the system that the rate of hotel already includes
breakfast, and the kinds of meals is American or English meal.
C. Based on the type of guess:
1. Family hotel is the hotel that the most of the guess from family
2. Business hotel is the hotel that the most of the guess from business people
3. Transit hotel is the hotel that the most of the guess from people who continue their long trip
( temporary stopover place)
4. Tourist hotel is the hotel that the guess from traveller.
5. Cure Hotel is the hotel that the most of the guess from people who aiming for treatment.
D. Based on the United State Lodging Industry :
1. Transient hotel is the hotel that located in the center of city. The kinds of guess are the
business people or tourist.
2. Residential hotel is basically house in the form of apartment with the rooms. Its for lease
monthly or yearly with many facilities such as restaurant and house keeping.
3. Resort hotel is the hotel basically located in the tourist destination that provide palace and
facilities for recreation.
E. Based on the structure and design:
1. Conventional hotel is the hotel that designed high rise.
2. Bungalows hotel is the hotel that the designed does not high rise. The hotel building are
located spread each other.
3. Motel (Motor Hotel) is the hotel that have garage in each room or in the group of the room.
F. Based on the rate
1. Economy hotel is the hotel with cheap rate.
2. First Class hotel is the hotel with moderate rate.
3. Deluxe hotel is the hotel with expensive rate.
G. Based on the duration opened in one year:
1. Seasonal hotel is the hotel that only open at certain time of the year such as 3 month, 6 month,
9 month.

2. Year round hotel is the hotel that always open throughout the year.
H. Based on the marketing:
1. International hotel chains is the hotel that managed by international chain so the marketing
and facilities between the chains are same.
2. National hotel chains is the hotel that managed by national chain so the marketing and
facilities between the chains are same.
3. The independent managed hotel is the hotel owned by personal so the marketing and the
management based on the owner.
I. Based on the star
The classification of hotel in Indonesia done with observation every three years by Indonesia
Hotel and Restaurant Association (IHRA) with consider some aspects such as the mount of rooms,
facility and available equipment, management system, and motto services. The classification of
Hotel minimum base on:
The number of the room
The facilities
The available equipment
The services
Base on this aspects, so the hotel can be classified into five class:
1. One star hotel
One star hotel is a small hotel because it is managed by the owners directly. This hotel
usually located in a crowded area and near by public transport and entertainment place
with reasonable price. The criteria are:
The number of standard rooms,minimum15 rooms
A bathroom inside
Width room standard, minimum20sqm
2. Two star hotel
Two star hotels are usually have easy access to the hotel location. The building is well
maintained, clean and tidy with free pollution location. The criteria are:
The number of standard rooms,minimum20 rooms
Minimum1 room suite
A bathroom inside
Rooms have telephones and televisions
Width standard room,minimum22m2
Widthsuites,minimum44m2
The doors are fitted safety
There should be lobby
Rules of the air conditioning/ventilation
Capacity of minimum illumination of 150lux
There are sports facilities and recreation

The room is equipped with air system with air regulator


Has Bar
3. Three star hotel
Three star hotels are usually located near the ex press way, business center and shopping
area with offering the best service, width rooms and a lobby full of decorations. The hotel
employee seen neat and professional. The following criteria are:
The number of standard rooms,minimum30 rooms
Minimum2room suite
A bathroom inside
Width standard room,minimum24m2
Widthsuites,minimum48m2
The rooms have their own toilets
Have recreation and sport means
The rooms are equipped with air-conditioning mechanic (AC) with a temperature

of 240C
There is a restaurant that offers above-average dishes at breakfast, lunch and

dinner.
Have valet parking
4. Four star hotel
Four star hotel has included a classy hotel with employees and staff more professional in
serving guests. They also provided information about tourism around the hotel. The hotel
has a large building, the location close to shopping, restaurants and entertainment. The
services are above average so guests will be satisfied when they stay. Following these
criteria:
The number of standard rooms,minimum50 rooms
Have a minimum of3 suites
A bathroom inside
Width standard room,minimum24m2
Widthsuites,minimum48m2
Have Lobby with a minimum area of 100m2
Has Bar
Have recreation and sport facilities
Bathroom fitted with the installation of hot /cold
Have Public Toilet
5. Five star hotel
This hotel is a luxurious hotel with extra facilities and a multilingual service available. A
five star hotel hold the principle that the guest is number one, so when guests come, they
were greeted at the entrance door of the hotel, given a welcome drink and in the room they
given a wine list to choose. The criteria for this hotel are:
The number of standard rooms,minimum100 rooms
There is aminimum4 suites

It has a private bathroom in the room


Width standard room,minimum26m2
Widthsuites,minimum52m2
The beds and furniture in the room hasno.1quality
There is a restaurant with room services for 24hours in a week.
There is a fitness center, valet parking and concierge service of the mature
experience.

1.7 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HOTEL


As a hotel comprises a large number of staff responsible for different areas of work, there is a
need to coordinate the activities of the different staff and departments. Each worker has to clearly
understand their duties and responsibilities, as well as how their work fits in with that of the other staff or
departments of the hotel.
The relationship between the different positions within a hotel can be represented by means of an
organizational structure or hierarchical chart. This gives a pictorial display of the relationships and how
they interlink with each other. The organizational structure enables the manager to know the position of
staff within the hotel, as well as who is responsible for whom. It also gives the employee a clear picture
of who is their boss. Figure 2.1 shows the organizational chart of a small hotel.
As you can see Figure 2.1, this organizational chart shows where and how each department fits
into overall organization of a hotel. In addition, its illustrated the division of responsibilities and lines of
authority. For example, the hotel in Figure 2.1 is divided into six major sections, each with a distinct area
of responsibility. The front office, for instance, may well be responsible for the selling and marketing of
rooms, the handlings of bookings, guest accounts, wages and suppliers invoices, and many other clerical
duties. The storekeeper can also be responsible for the purchasing of all food and beverage items,
housekeeping supplies and very often the stationery. The chart also shows that in this small hotel each
department is directly responsible to the manager or owner. Because of the complexity a hotels
organizational structure will vary according to the size and style of operation. Figure 2.2 illustrates

Owner/Manager

Front Office

Kitchen

Receptionists

Bar/Cellar

Cooks

Housekeeping
Room Attendants

Bartender

Restaurant

Store

Waiter/Waitress

Storekeeper
Figure 2.1 Organizational of a small hotel

The organizational of a large international hotel. If you compare it with that of a small hotel
(Figure2.1), you will see that the structures of the two are quite different. The increase in size of the hotel
means that very often there is a corporate level of management, which makes all the long term future
plans for the hotel. These plans and strategies are then passed down to the hotel manager (or general
manager) for implementation. Again because of the size of the property, there are more, very specialist
departments, such as human resources, purchasing, accounts and training.
A major difference between a small hotel and a large hotel is that, in a small hotel, the manager
may also be the owner, while in a large international hotel, the owner may be in the board of directors. In
this case it is the board of directors which is responsible for formulating the goals of company and
carrying out long-term planning. In such hotels, it is rare for the manager to be the owner. However, it is
the manager who is responsible for the implementation of the goals set by the board of directors.