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UNESCO Institute for Statistics

First edition: December 2007
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
P.O. Box 6128
Succursale Centre-Ville
Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7

Tel: (1 514) 343-6880

Fax: (1 514) 343-5740
Email: publications@uis.unesco.org

Ref: UIS/TD/08-01
ISBN: 978-92-9189-052-1
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................4
Acronyms ......................................................................................................................5
Executive summary.......................................................................................................7
1. Introduction ..........................................................................................................9
1.1 Rationale...........................................................................................................9
1.2 Policy context of the framework revision ......................................................... 11
1.3 Purpose and key objectives of the framework revision .................................... 13
2. Theoretical and conceptual model .................................................................... 14
2.1 Review of existing cultural statistics frameworks ............................................. 14
2.2 Summary of major findings across selected existing frameworks .................... 15
2.3 Breadth of the cultural sector in selected frameworks ..................................... 16
2.4 Depth of the sector.......................................................................................... 18
2.5 Framework revision: New model’s approach ................................................... 22
2.6 Definition issues.............................................................................................. 23
2.7 The culture cycle or cultural production chain.................................................. 23
2.8 Breadth of the cultural sector........................................................................... 27
2.9 Clarifying core cultural domains ...................................................................... 28
3. The framework structure.................................................................................... 34
3.1 Identifying cultural occupations and activities: from the economic
to the social model.......................................................................................... 34
3.2 The shift to direct measurement ...................................................................... 35
3.3 The social model ............................................................................................. 38
3.4 Dataset specification ....................................................................................... 42
3.5 Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC) .. 43
3.6 Cultural industries: Using the International Standard Industrial Classification
(ISIC) .............................................................................................................. 43
3.7 Cultural employment: Using the International Standard Classification of
Occupations (ISCO)........................................................................................ 45
3.8 Data collection issues ..................................................................................... 47
3.9 Management and policymaking.......................................................................49
3.10 Basic proposals for the measurement of the economic and social
contribution of culture...................................................................................... 49
4. Bibliography........................................................................................................ 53

5. Appendices
Appendix I: Glossary............................................................................................ 57
Appendix II: List of consultees.............................................................................. 59
Appendix III: Culture defined using international classifications ........................... 60


The revised 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics is based upon an initial
draft produced for the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) by Paul Owens of Burns
Owen Partnership, Calvin Taylor of the University of Leeds and Andy Pratt of the London
School of Economics. The actual text of the framework has profited from discussion with
many scholars, statisticians and other experts. In particular, we have learnt much from
discussions with the UNESCO Culture Sector, which has ensured that the statistics
remain policy-relevant.

ANZSCO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
BOP Burns Owen Partnership
CPC Central Product Classification
DCMS Department of Culture, Media and Sport, United Kingdom
FCS Framework for Cultural Statistics
ICTs Information Communication Technologies
IIFB International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity
ILO International Labour Organization
ISCED International Standard Classification of Education
ISCO International Standard Classification of Occupations
ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification
LEG European Union Leadership Expert Group
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
NSO National statistical office
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
SIC Standard Industrial Classification
UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNPFII United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
UNSD United Nations Statistics Division
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization

Executive summary
Defining culture: Core and periphery

Culture is often a reflection of certain shared beliefs or values. It is not possible to

measure such beliefs or values in a systematic or comparable fashion. Instead, this
Framework for Culture Statistics aims to identify culture through the behaviour and
activities resulting from those beliefs and values. The definition of culture is also very
closely related to national and social identity, and yet, it is important to compare certain
dimensions of culture across cultures and countries.

There is a core set of economic (production of goods and services) and social
(participation/attendance in cultural ‘performances’) activities that most people and
countries regard as forming part of culture. Other economic (e.g. advertising) and social
(e.g. sports) activities are not universally accepted as forming part of culture and are
therefore peripheral.

Therefore, it is not possible, or desirable, to construct a single proscriptive definition of

cultural activities. Instead, this framework suggests that statistical authorities select
domains or sectors of activities which they consider to be central to their culture. Where
countries select the same domain, they should use the definitions set out in this
document, making data internationally comparable for that domain. Although the
standards used for constructing these definitions are economic, the interpretation of the
resulting domain is not limited to economic aspects of culture and extends to all aspects
of that domain. Thus, the definition for the measurement of ‘performance’ includes all
performances, whether these are amateur or professional and take place in a formal
concert hall or in an open space in a rural village.

In addition, the framework emphasises three dimensions of cultural activity that should
be measured across a range of sectoral activities or functions. Education and archiving
and preserving are defined as transversal functions within the cultural production chain,
while traditional and local knowledge is considered as a transversal cultural domain. It
has been felt that each of these three dimensions is key to measuring the full breadth of
cultural activity.

Measuring culture: A pragmatic approach

This framework aims to provide a basis for producing comparable data on culture
worldwide within the constraints presented above in defining cultural activities.

It is acknowledged that the capacities of countries for collecting statistics on culture vary,
depending on policy priorities, statistical expertise, and human and financial resources.
The framework is explicitly designed to allow statistical authorities to produce
internationally comparable data within the limits of these constraints.

The framework is built upon the most common international statistical standards – the
International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) and the International Standard
Classification of Occupations (ISCO), together with the Central Product Classification
(CPC) – in order to maximise the potential for using existing surveys to measure cultural

activity. Countries with fewer resources will be able to use the basic fundamental
structure of the ISIC and ISCO classifications to measure cultural activities through
standard economic statistics, and household surveys such as labour force surveys and
censuses. Countries with more resources and in priority domains will be able to collect
more elaborate statistics using the Central Product Classification and more finely tuned,
or dedicated, statistical instruments.

There is a major role to be played by national labour force surveys, especially in

collecting data on secondary occupations, as cultural activities are often the result of
part-time or amateur production. It can be argued that in many developing countries
cultural production or activities are an important supplement to agricultural and basic
manual occupations and, thus, represent an important contribution to poverty alleviation.

The framework also makes reference to the creative chain/cycle model of cultural
activity, which is used here as an aid for understanding the relationships between
different cultural activities. Indicators should be interpreted with this model in mind so
that statistical authorities can understand which part of the creative process they are
measuring, e.g. authoring, production or distribution.

Specific indicators have not been defined in the framework. Rather, its purpose is to
suggest how statistics derived from economic data, household or visitor surveys, and
valuation of cultural assets can be brought together to present a holistic view of culture
that will allow some international comparability in certain ‘core’ domains. It is more of a
classification instrument than a tool for direct implementation. It is hoped that in the
future specific guidelines may be developed for particular types of instruments or
indicators, e.g. indicators for use in surveys of cultural participation or recommended
indicators for measuring handicraft production.

1. Introduction
This framework replaces the 1986 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (FCS).
Since that year, many different approaches to culture have emerged, and social and
technological changes have transformed the place of culture in the world.

Many cultures exist within the diverse populations of a country. It is this very richness of
expression and activity that makes culture so important and so vital to people’s lives
throughout the world. Yet cultural biases permeate every statistical instrument and
scientific investigation to the point where some scientists think that researchers have an
inescapable bias based on their own cultural background.

A UNESCO statistical framework for culture has to maximise international comparability,

and to identify ‘universal value’ to the extent possible. At the national level, there are also
demands for international comparability. Countries want to see their most important
cultural values and products recognised on the world stage.

UNESCO does not believe that comparing cultural statistics is comparing the
incomparable, but does acknowledge that this is a complex matter that can pose real
issues. A product that is highly cultural in one country, e.g. clothing or national dress,
may have few cultural meanings in another. In most African and Asian countries, clothing
is an important part of cultural expression. In many European countries, the cultural
aspect of clothing does not go beyond wearing national dress for special occasions.

This updated framework aims to be flexible and not proscriptive, while retaining key
elements of comparability. It is expected that it will operate in a way that will leave
countries free to select which major domains form part of their cultural statistics. Where
two countries adopt the same domain, it is assumed that data will be collected through a
similar (or ideally the same) definition so as to maximise cross-national comparability.

The framework identifies a core set of domains so that a benchmark across a number of
national and international cultural standards can be generated. Data in these ‘core’
domains will facilitate the collection of an internationally comparable dataset, but this will
not necessarily give a complete picture of culture at a national level.

1.1 Rationale

Since the original FCS was published in 1986 (UNESCO, 1986), public policy has placed
a higher priority on culture. There are a number of reasons for this, some of which
represent long-term underlying trends; others are more recent and contingent.

In the major economic centres of the global economy, increase in wealth and disposable
income has led to increased discretionary spending on culture. This means that culture
has become an essential part of the cycle of economic reproduction rather than a luxury,
or preference product, which is acquired through the allocation of surplus resources.
Cultural consumption has grown, the range of products has expanded, and a ‘product’
now mediates most cultural experiences. For example, instead of simply listening to the
live performance of a piece of music, a Compact Disc (CD) player is used as mediator.
This creates a market for, and need for, the production of CD players and CDs.

These long-term trends have been intensified by two more recent and related

• The Internet (and related technologies) is now a principal means for the
production and distribution of culture (and related processes of education,
conservation and critique); and

• Within wealthier countries, the growth of disposable income has encouraged

popular sensitisation to design. This, in turn, has introduced the possibilities of
economically sustainable levels of differentiation in product design and

By comparison with the pre-digital era, new technologies enable the rapid commercial
exploitation of even ‘one-off’ cultural production, such as a song. This transformation has
led to a shift in the balance of economic power between cultural activities that are
digitally reproducible – and potentially commercially tradable – and those that are not,
which are generally more difficult to trade (Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright, 2006).

As a result, the cultural sector in some developed countries is more economically

important (at least in employment terms) than a number of older established industries
(e.g. mining, car production, etc.) and it contributes significantly to export earnings. While
the economic impact of the cultural sector in the developing world is at present far less
evident with regard to employment, export earnings may be disproportionately
significant. Accordingly, culture is being reconsidered in its role as a tool of development
(Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright, 2006).

Existing cultural policy frameworks are based on the status quo balance of power,
preferences and resources of the pre-digital era. Therefore, the new forms of cultural
production present a significant challenge to such frameworks – particularly in areas
such as heritage conservation, intellectual property and diversity – and make them less
effective at meeting their objectives. For example, while some forms of musical
expression may become commercially stronger, other cultural forms that do not benefit
from digital reproduction and distribution may, in effect, require further public investment
if the cultural status quo is to be preserved. Equally, these changes may provoke a
reassessment of the status quo.

New forms of cultural production have also generated a new sphere of cultural policy
action that focuses on a distinct sub-group of activities – cultural industries. These are
often also referred to as creative industries and have much in common with the older
notion of cultural industries, which is usually taken to signify the commercial dimension
of the cultural sector. A creative industry can also be taken to include activities that are
‘creative’ but may have little to do with ‘culture’, e.g. advertising (see Section 2.6).
However, the notion of a strong and vibrant inter-dependency between all the activities
of the cultural sector, public or private, should be adopted instead. For example,
practitioners may move between publicly- and privately-funded – or indeed paid and
unpaid – work on a weekly basis, making it very difficult to position them in the public or
private domain. If the focus is on practice, it is hoped that the framework will capture the
fluidity of boundaries and appreciate the mutually reinforcing elements of both.

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These transformations in the creation, production, distribution and consumption of
culture mean that the cultural sector has grown in relative and absolute terms, often
outstripping traditional areas of the economy. Due to the rapid rate of change, and the
innovative and novel character of cultural production, more and better data are required
to fully appreciate the extent and depth of such changes. As will be noted below, the
cultural sector has not grown uniformly. This has created a number of tensions between
commercial and non-commercial activities, traditional and modern, high and low art
forms, and between international and indigenous sensibilities.

The 1986 FCS was conceived by UNESCO Member States that were largely from the
developed world. A revised FCS needs to take into account the possibly differing needs
of developing countries. In particular, a revised FCS needs to consider the
appropriateness and feasibility of incorporating elements such as intangible cultural
heritage, as well as dealing with the issue of cultural diversity. Some cultural activities,
such as craft production and the role of education, were either omitted or not given
enough emphasis in the 1986 framework.

In line with these various considerations, the revised framework has been developed
using the following terms of reference:

• revisit the intellectual framework that underpins the FCS in light of recent trends
and considerations in cultural policy and practice;

• review existing classifications/frameworks and indicators used by a range of

Member States for measuring culture within their national official statistics

• identify gaps in terms of relevant variables/indicators; and

• make proposals for updating the FCS, as well as for developing measures that
might be used to capture dimensions of the framework.

1.2 Policy context of the framework revision

Another important consideration for the development of a new framework is the growing
role of culture in public policy. A number of reasons can explain this trend:

• Increases in international trade in cultural products. This has major implications for
intellectual property rights in the strict sense (their creation, ownership and
exploitation) and for the wider question of cultural identity and its ownership
(intangible heritage, transmissible folklore, etc.).

• The growth and concentration of market power in a few multinational

conglomerates that operate across cultural industries. The organisation of cultural
production in many markets favours oligopoly; hence, there is enormous ‘first
mover advantage’, which lies almost exclusively with the developed world.

• The legal and policy institutions of cultural regulation and promotion were
developed before the growth of cultural industries. As such, these institutions are ill

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equipped to meet present challenges. A key part in developing appropriate policy
responses is having a robust evidential base. Cultural mapping documents that
draw on statistical sources to analyse the cultural sector are a vital part of this

• Cultural policy as ‘cultural industries’ policy, which allows for the development of a
sectoral and economic perspective. A consequence of this is that cultural policy
needs to take cultural industries into account.

• There are complex inter-dependencies between the public and private spheres
that go beyond simple dualism. For example, a number of commercial cultural
activities will impact upon cultural policy aspirations. Frameworks that are limited to
a dualism approach will become increasingly inadequate.

Since 1986, a very significant development has been the growing awareness of, and
need for, active policy on cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is a multi-faceted policy
area with a number of different roots, and with different emphasis and articulation at
different territorial levels: intra-state, inter-state or transnational. In this latter context, the
drive towards active policy on cultural diversity has a number of inter-connected aspects:

• In general terms, there has been a growing demand for cultural products
originating in the developing world or, in some cases, a hybridisation of these
products with those from the developed world. But developing countries are often
poorly positioned to negotiate returns on their cultural exports that are comparable
with those received by developed nations; this is partly due to a lack of local
institutional capacity but also to the absolute power of an oligopolist industrial

• The blurring of boundaries between (largely Western) notions of high and low
culture, and between the West and ‘the rest’.

• The commercialisation of craft production and its role in strategies of economic

development in the developing world.

A range of issues are emerging as a result of these changes; perhaps the most debated
issue concerns intellectual property rights. As culture is increasingly seen as a
commodity, a system of rights (and a definition of what rights individual producers may
have) dictates the degree of protection that should be given to individuals for the
exploitation of their ideas. As has been well publicised, there are particular problems –
mainly argued on behalf of large corporations seeking to protect their assets –
associated with copying or theft. At the same time, areas of culture that are untraded
may not develop a robust identification of rights, leaving them vulnerable to theft. This
problem exists in developing countries and often goes unreported, posing a threat to
diversity of cultural expression. For this reason, UNESCO established the Convention on
the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005.

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1.3 Purpose and key objectives of the framework revision

The proposed revised framework aims at establishing a conceptual foundation, common

understanding and minimum dataset that will enable international comparison of a full
range of activities in the production, circulation and use of culture. To do this, the
framework revision encompasses the following guiding principles:

• Capture the full range of cultural expression, irrespective of the particular economic
mode of its production;

• Address the breadth of cultural expression (cultural forms, practices, products and
processes), including the manner of their production and consumption (cultural
industries, creative industries and the cultural component of intellectual property, or
knowledge, industries);

• Assist countries in developing their own locally sensitive frameworks but with
common reference points for the purposes of international comparison and

• Where possible, acknowledge and cross-reference to other international frameworks

that possess overlapping concerns, e.g. the Nice Agreement Classification of
Trademarks (WIPO, 1957) and the World Intellectual Property Organisation’s
International Patent Classification System (WIPO, 1971). The revised framework,
however, should not be constrained by their sectional interest;

• Relate and make possible adaptations to frameworks already developed by

countries, such as Australia, Canada, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of
China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and by the
European Union (EU). (DCMS, 2001; Siwek, 2002; DCMS, 2003) and others (see
Section 2); and

• Where possible, use categories translatable into international classifications, such as

the Central Product Classification (CPC), the International Standard Industrial
Classification (ISIC) or the International Standard Classification by Occupations

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2. Theoretical and conceptual model
2.1 Review of existing cultural statistics frameworks

The following review, which was conducted by Burns Owen Partnership (BOP) with
Andy Pratt of the London School of Economics and Calvin Taylor of the University of
Leeds, covered 14 different cultural statistical frameworks. The coverage was not
intended to be exhaustive, but to be indicative of frameworks for culture, creative
industries and copyright industries. It takes into consideration:
• the global North and the global South;
• developed and developing countries;
• supra-national or regional blocs;
• intra-state ‘cultural exceptionalism’; and
• multi-lateral agencies.

Wherever possible, classification frameworks were selected that were developed by

national statistical agencies or by national culture ministries, departments or agencies,
i.e. they are not simply mapping studies but frameworks that have in some way been
commissioned, adopted and supported by government.

The frameworks reviewed collectively span the decade between 1995 and 2005, and
relate to the following territories:
• Australia, 2000/01 (Culture)
• Canada,1 2004 (Culture)
• China, 2005 (Culture)
• Colombia, 2004 (Creative Industries) – to be adopted by the countries
that are parties to the Andrés Bello Agreement
• European Union Leadership Expert Group (LEG), 1999 (Culture)
• Finland, 1999 (Culture)
• Hong Kong, Chine 2003 (Creative Industries)
• New Zealand, 1995 (Culture)
• Quebec, 2004 (Culture)
• Singapore, 2002 (Creative Industries)
• Taiwan, Chine 2004 (Creative and Cultural Industries)
• United Kingdom, 2004 (Culture)
• WIPO, 2002 (Copyright Industries)
• Zurich, 2005 (Creative Industries) – close in approach to other national
European frameworks, such as the one for Austria.

Includes all Canadian provinces and territories.

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2.2 Summary of major findings across selected existing frameworks

To varying degrees, the frameworks reviewed are each a product of the following
competing/contrasting factors:

• Political demands – the frameworks are closely linked to the needs and internal
policies of individual countries.

• The ‘art of the possible’ – technical considerations regarding classifications and

data availability have a pragmatic influence over definitions and frameworks.

• Aspirational – the frameworks highlight what each country/regional bloc considers to

be important in the field of culture; sometimes regardless of whether or not it is
possible to incorporate this into present statistical classification and data collection

In the earlier frameworks reviewed (e.g. New Zealand), pragmatic demands are more to
the fore and the cultural frameworks were based predominantly on what statistics and
codes were available. Later frameworks (e.g. in Canada and potentially the United
Kingdom) and definitions use weightings to apply to existing Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes. Some of the frameworks go further than this (e.g. Australia
and Quebec) to produce their own statistical nomenclature for culture, separate from the
ISIC. However, not all of the surveys in these countries currently use the new
classifications and the data collected remain limited. In this general context, it should be
noted that:

• With regard to emphasis and focus of the frameworks, European countries are more
concerned with consumption and the ownership of organisations engaged in cultural
industries. Other countries seek to measure cultural creation and consumption as a
means to support the sustainability of their indigenous cultures; while countries in the
developing world are relatively more interested in how they can measure and
harness crafts and the unregulated trade in cultural activities for economic

• The collection of statistics lags significantly behind the development and

establishment of frameworks for defining and classifying culture in statistical terms.

• The lack of data collected using the country classification frameworks is related to a
number of serious challenges to data collection in the cultural field. These challenges
are both structural and operational, and also related to the nature of the policymaking
process itself in each country, including the role that evidence plays, the
effectiveness of communication and the willingness of other agencies and
organisations to use the classifications that have been developed for culture.

• Frameworks with reliable cultural data collection tend to be the ones where national
statistical agencies are heavily involved (i.e. Australia, Canada and Finland).
Correspondingly, frameworks produced solely by culture departments/agencies seem
less successful in actually populating frameworks with data.

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In general, the cultural data that do exist relate to governance concerns either of
countries (whose concern is with the management of cultural assets or the promotion of
cultural heritage and the arts) or of corporations (whose concerns are sales). The data
that exist are seldom fit for the purposes set out earlier in this document. Some countries
have sought to either adapt existing data sources to be more appropriate for meeting set
objectives or to collect new data. Both exercises are costly and time consuming. This is
the challenge and the opportunity that a cultural framework and database must address.

2.3 Breadth of the cultural sector in selected frameworks

Analysis shows that there is a considerable range of activities that are taken to be
cultural/creative across the 14 frameworks. Frameworks either categorise activities
solely according to a list of individual industries, generally defined in terms of their
market (e.g. film) or also aggregate these activities into a smaller number of cultural
domains (e.g. audio-visual). As these higher level groupings may consist of different
constituent activities, even if they have the same name (see below), it is important to
start first with an analysis at the level of individual cultural activities (e.g. broadcasting or
crafts) to avoid confusion.

Once this is taken as a starting point, it is possible to identify relative agreement across a
significant sub-set of the 25+ separate cultural/creative activities contained within the
country classifications. This has been represented graphically in Figure 1 below,2 with
the activities for which there is greater commonality listed at the top and those that are
specific to only one or two countries/blocs/multi-lateral organisations listed at the bottom.

Leaving aside the ‘tail’ (i.e. activities that are included in only one or two of the country
classifications), the key areas of variation relate to:
1. Interactive Media;
2. Software;
3. Printing;
4. Celebratory Cultural Events: festivals, fairs and feasts;
5. Intangible and Natural Cultural Heritage; and
6. wider Leisure Activities: gambling, sport, tourism.

In part, this is a reflection of whether the classification frameworks analysed relate to

cultural industries or the related concepts of creative and intellectual property industries.
The first three activities highlighted above (interactive media, software and printing) are
typically absent from cultural frameworks, while celebratory events (intangible and
natural heritage and – to a lesser extent – also libraries and archives) are excluded from
most creative industries classifications, with Colombia/Andrés Bello Agreement countries
being an important exception. Finally, only a few countries include wider leisure activities
in culture – the United Kingdom and the Anglophone countries in the Southern
hemisphere (Australia and New Zealand), as well as China.

Figure 1 does not include all the activities covered under the WIPO Copyright Industries
Framework. Activities are shown here to illustrate overlaps with cultural and creative

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Figure 1. Review of the ‘breadth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks

Activities Cultural Statistical Frameworks for Countries/Territories/Blocs/Multi-lateral organisations Total

Publishing/literature AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc Zu 14
Performing arts AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc Zu 14
Broadcasting (TV and radio) AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc Zu 14
Advertising AU NZ CA UK FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc Zu 13
Design (inc fashion) AU NZ CA UK FI CL HK SG TW WIPO Qc Zu 12
Museums, built/landscape environment AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL SG TW CN Qc Zu 12
Architecture AU NZ CA UK FI CL HK SG TW WIPO Qc Zu 12
Photography AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL HK SG WIPO Qc 11
Libraries and archives AU NZ CA UK EU FI CL SG Qc Zu 10
Interactive media (web, games, mobile etc.) AU UK EU CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc 10
Crafts AU UK FI CL HK SG TW Qc Zu 9
Printing AU UK EU HK SG WIPO 6
Gambling and visitor attractions AU NZ UK FI TW 5
Community and government activities AU NZ FI CN Qc 5
Sports and recreation AU NZ UK CN 4
Intangible cultural heritage NZ FI CL Qc 4
Festivals, fairs, feasts UK FI CL SG 4
Tourism AU UK CN 3
Natural environment AU NZ CL 3
Toys and games CL WIPO 2
Other information services (inc trade unions) CA 1
Mass cultural services CN 1
Innovative lifestyle TW 1
Establishment in more than 1 field of culture Qc 1

AU Australia NZ New Zealand CA Canada UK United Kingdom EU European Union FI Finland

CL Colombia HK Hong Kong, SAR China SG Singapore TW Taiwan, China CN China

WIPO World Intellectual Qc Quebec Zu Zurich

Property Organisation

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Aggregation into domains

As implied above, there is much greater agreement over which activities make up the
breadth of the cultural sector than there is over how these activities should be
aggregated into higher level groupings or domains. For instance:
• the European Union (EU) Leadership Expert Group (LEG) culture framework uses
eight domains: Cultural Heritage, Archives, Libraries, Books and Press, Visual Arts,
Architecture, Performing Arts, Audio and Audio-visual/Multimedia;
• the Singapore creative industries classification uses three sub-sectors: Arts and
Culture, Design, Media; and
• the United Kingdom framework uses seven domains: Audio-visual, Books and Press,
Visual Arts, Performance, Heritage, Sport, Tourism.

In addition to varying numbers of sub-sector groupings with different category headings,

the constituent activities are often aggregated into different groupings depending on the
country or framework context. For example, ‘Photography’ is part of the ‘Arts and
Culture’ grouping in the Singapore framework, but part of a smaller ‘Visual Arts’ domain
in the EU LEG framework and part of the ‘Audio-visual’ domain in the United Kingdom.

Section 3 outlines a proposal for dealing with the issues raised in this analysis of existing
classification frameworks.

2.4 Depth of the sector

Understanding how countries establish the depth of the cultural sector is more complex
than dealing with its breadth. In part, this is because the breadth is not always explicitly
stated, whether this concerns the rationale or the list of activities that are included or
excluded. However, once again, by analysing the individual activities that are included
within the technical SIC definition of the sector, it is possible to establish what the implicit
notion of the depth of the sector is in instances where no explicit mention is made.
Understanding the depth of the sector is also complicated by the fact that there are
different models for this kind of analysis across frameworks.

Figure 2 maps the different stages (or functions) that were identified in the review of the
‘depth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks, and colour codes the
frameworks according to which of the three models they are based on:

Model A: The production of culture is the result of a series of interlinked processes or

stages that together form the cultural production, value and supply chains or cycles (AU,
CA, CL, EU, FI, HK, NZ, UK). The model is agnostic as to how these activities are
funded or what the economic business model is that predominates in these activities.
The production cycle or chain approach often also emphasises the importance of
education and critique processes for both the supply and consumption of culture.

Model B: This is an essentially hierarchical model, organised according to a

core + periphery or core + related axiom that prescribes activities as either part of culture
or in some way outside of it (but related to it). The defining characteristics that govern
the inclusion-exclusion logic of this model are intellectual property or symbolic value:

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i) Intellectual property: Based on copyright industries (SG3), the core in this
case includes activities that focus exclusively on the exploitation of intellectual
property and other functions that are either partial copyright activities or in
some ways linked to the first tier of core activities.
ii) Symbolic value: Functions are essentially defined by an assessment of how
cultural they are, to again produce a core and related set of cultural activities.
In this model (e.g. China), the core consists of activities that are most
concerned with the creation of symbolic value, while related activities are
concerned with the distribution and manufacturing of cultural products and

Model C: Activities in this model are defined and classified not by their function
(e.g. creation or retail), but by their funding and governance arrangements: private
sector, state/public sector or civil society, not-for-profit (e.g. Zurich).

The production chain/cycle model is the most commonly used across the frameworks
(see Figure 2). The major issue for a production chain/cycle model is establishing a
principle that determines how far back up the supply chain activities should be included.
For example, the Australian framework stops at what is referred to as ‘one step’
removed. Effectively this means gauging what the end use of the product or service will
be. If it is primarily for cultural purposes, as with a TV set, then the manufacture of TV
sets is included in cultural industries. But, if the end use is not clear because the good or
service can be put to a number of uses of which culture is only one (as with the
components of a TV set), then it is not included in the culture cycle.

Data collection

As Figure 3 below illustrates, there is very little actual data collection related to the
cultural statistical frameworks under review. While Australia, New Zealand, Finland and
Canada have received funding to conduct unique culture surveys, Australia and Finland
are the only countries that obtain regular funding for this purpose.

• The European countries (with the exception of the United Kingdom) are, in general,
more concerned with consumption and with the ownership of organisations engaged
in cultural industries than other countries. This is related to the positioning of culture
within government policies and public funding regimes.

• A number of countries and regions (New Zealand, Colombia, Taiwan and Quebec)
seek to measure cultural creation and consumption as a means to support their
indigenous cultures.

Countries in the developing world (e.g. Colombia) are relatively more interested in how
they can measure and harness crafts and the unregulated trade in cultural activities for
economic development.

Although this is not covered in the review of country classifications, it should be noted that the
notion of copyright industries used by Singapore largely stems from work undertaken in the
United States by Economists Incorporated, which produced the first of a series of reports on
the United States Copyright Industries for the International Intellectual Property Alliance 1990.

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Figure 2. Review of the ‘depth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks
Countries Framework Depth of cultural sector
etc. model 1 2 3 4 5 6
CA Creative chain Creation (creative/artistic ideas) Production (one-production, means Manufacturing (means of mass Distribution (distribution, wholesale, retail, Support services (agents, managers, Education (art
to support one-off production) reproduction) exhibition) promoters) schools, colleges)

Qc Production scheme Creation (creation of ideas, IP) Production (mass reproduction) Dissemination/distribution (incl. retail, Training (of cultural creators/workers)
exhibition, Internet distribution)

NZ Cycle of production and Creators (undertaking specific cultural Organisations (involved in cultural Products (goods/services produced as a Consumers (business and organisations
consumption activities to produce cultural goods or production and distribution) result of cultural activities - at consuming cultural products)
services) retail/wholesale)

AU Supply chain (but not Creation/origination One-off production, mass Wholesale, retail Exhibition Preservation Education (arts
consistently or explicitly reproduction, some manufacturing education)
applied) inputs

UK Production chain Creation (content origination, authoring) Making (one-off production, tools, Dissemination (distribution, wholesale, Exhibition/reception Archiving/preservation Education
infrastructure, mass reproduction) retail)

EU LEG Production chain Creation Production Dissemination Trade/sales Education

FI Production chain (but Creation Production Dissemination/participation Trade/sales Preservation Education
CL Value chain Creation Production Distribution Consumption Preservation
HK Value chain Content origination & creation Production input (incl. manufacturing Reproduction and distribution (incl.
/ infrastructure) exhibition)

TW Production chain (but Content origination & creation Production (one-off and mass Distribution Cultural education services
implicit) reproduction, tools & infrastructure)

WIPO Copyright industries Core copyright industries (IP Partial copyright industries Distributive copyright industries Interdependent copyright industries Non-dedicated support industries
owners/exploiters) (industries where IP is only part of (distribution, wholesale, retail) (manufacture, distribution and retail of the (general, i.e. non-dedicated wholesale,
the business model, e.g. means of playback/reception, e.g. DVD retail, distribution, e.g. of copyright
Architecture, Advertising) players, TVs, game consoles) products in supermarkets, over the web)

SG Copyright industries Core copyright industries (IP Partial copyright industries Distributive copyright industries
owners/exploiters) (industries where IP is only part of (distribution, wholesale, retail)
the business model, e.g.
Architecture, Advertising)

CN Core-periphery- Core cultural industries (defined by how Periphery cultural industries Related cultural services (wholesale, retail, Education (cultural studies)
supporting 'cultural' the end use is ) manufacturing)

ZU Narrow-broad (based on Economy/private sector (cultural industries State/public sector (performing arts, Civil society/intermediary sector (e.g not-
governance/funding e.g. film, publishing, design) museums & galleries) for -profit arts organisations, foundations)

- 20 -
Figure 3. Review of statistical indicators collected according to cultural and
creative industries frameworks
Cultural statistical frameworks for countries/territories/blocs/multi-lateral organisations
Labour market
Occupation (incl self-employment)
Employment status (PT/FT)
Age of employees
Gender of employees
Education of employees
Ethnicity of employees
Hours worked
Unpaid work

Economic performance
Number of businesses
Size of business
Capital expenditure
Trade / Export
Value of sales
Products (classification)
Sponsorship revenues

Public support
Government expenditure

Participation and consumption

Attendance numbers by activity
Participation numbers by activity
Consumption (unit sales)
Volunteer numbers
Household expenditure
Possession of cultural storage formats/methods for
receiving/playback (books, TV etc.)
Cultural time use and frequency
Genre (e.g music, TV)

Intangible cultural assets

Language: no of speakers

- 21 -
2.5 Framework revision: New model's approach

The challenge in developing a new framework for cultural statistics is to develop an

approach that goes beyond some of the oppositions and dichotomies that are
characteristic of debates in cultural policy, specifically about how to measure culture.
The approach used here aims to address tension created by three regularly occurring
cultural policy dichotomies:

i) Scope of culture (culture-economy). The approach is based on an

understanding of how cultural meaning is created and transmitted. This focus on
the production and distribution of culture necessarily entails understanding how it
is embedded within social and economic processes. Culture is not removed or
separate from society and the economy. A cultural economy approach, however,
does not mean that cultural value is commensurate with market value. Similarly,
many of the formative elements of culture, or those within a pre-market stage, or
those that will never be marketed, can be tracked through indicators on time use,
social capital, living standards, etc. But equally, many of the processes by which
culture is produced and transmitted do involve an economic transaction and
these can be tracked.

ii) Governance mode (public-private). The approach is agnostic as to the funding

and governance arrangements (private sector, public sector or civil society) for
cultural production and transmission. Instead, the emphasis is on the
relationships, connections and exchanges that cut across these lines in cultural

iii) Degree of institutionalisation (formal-informal). The approach recognises that

cultural production and distribution take place in both the formal and informal
economy. Informal cultural production is a characteristic of the developed world
and the developing world. However, if cultural production takes place within the
informal economy, it cannot be measured using formal economic statistics,
though it may be estimated. The approach here aims to do justice to the entire
process of cultural creation, expression and meaning and is designed so that
practitioners will not be excluded on the basis of Western high-low art criteria or
manual-intellectual division. In the developed world, increasing specialisation of
the division of labour has led to a finer distinction of tasks between ‘making’
culture and its ‘use’. In the developing world, these distinctions are less
pronounced, as craft producers may conceive, make and exhibit/sell their
artefacts, thus conflating or erasing the division of labour that is increasing in the
developed world. As such, craft producers may occupy several steps in the
cultural production cycle (see Section 2.8).

However, the increasing division of labour in the developed world does not mean that the
Western romantic notion of the artist as lone creator/visionary apart from society will
prevail. This notion holds, for example, that a singer or performer is the art and that the
mise-en-scène, the performance space, the training or the management somehow play a
lesser part. The truth is that with the exception of a few craft producers, neither
performer nor technician can exist alone. This is perhaps more readily grasped in the
developing world, where a greater importance is given to folkloric expression and
traditional and local knowledge, and culture is often a more collective and shared

- 22 -
The logic behind the framework revision comprises three components:
• sectoral breadth (including activities considered as cultural) and depth
(including performers, artists, and support workers and products without which
performers and artists could not operate);
• the opportunity to move to a system of direct metrics; and
• the ability to make international comparative assessments. At the same time,
it is important not to impose a ‘one size fits all’ framework. It needs to be both
sensitive to local specificity and variety and suitable for comparison.

2.6 Definition issues

Researchers, experts and policymakers from around the world have not been able to
reach a consensus on a single agreed definition of culture. Yet, identifying sectoral
breadth is necessary for measuring the cultural sector and defining which categories
belong to it and which do not.

All this requires a debate about what constitutes the cultural sector. There are three main
aspects to such a debate:

• Symbolic: Culture is in some way about symbolic value; sometimes this may be
contrasted with economic value. Debates about the culturalisation of economic life, or
the economisation of cultural life create an unhelpful polarisation. While most
products have a cultural dimension, some products are more likely to have a cultural
end use than others. It is these products that are defined as cultural products and
that are produced within the cultural sector.

• Creative: Many countries have used the term ‘creative’ to describe these industries,
but many companies within a creative industry may not be creative. The definition
and measurement of creativity is in itself subject to much debate. The term ‘cultural
industry’ can be given a more operational definition in terms of sectors, products and
activities. In common usage, confusion remains between the two terms: cultural and

• Domain: The cultural domain is comprised of a number of industries (commonly

collectively termed cultural industries). For the purposes of the framework, a domain
can include all cultural activity under the appropriate heading, including informal and
social activities. For example, cinema statistics can include attendance at commercial
cinemas and commercial film production, but they can also include home movie
production and viewing.

2.7 The culture cycle or cultural production chain

The effect of developing a sectoral approach is that culture can be viewed as the product
of a cognate set of productive and distributive activities. These activities may or may not
be institutionalised, and they may or may not be governed by the state. The broad
conception of an industrial sector that includes non-formal, amateur and activities
unrelated to the market is termed a ‘domain’ here in order to indicate that the concept
covers much more than economic, market-related activity.

- 23 -
Figure 4. Analytical model of the ‘cultural production chain’ or ‘culture cycle’

- 24 -
The development of a perspective based on sectors or domains allows the processes of
the production and distribution of culture to be mapped across a supply chain or
production cycle. As the analysis of country and regional classifications in Section 2.3
demonstrates, the concept of the cultural production chain or culture cycle is already
used by a number of UNESCO Member States. However, in some of these contexts, it is
a latent concept and/or it is not consistently applied.

While this may not be a new approach, it does mark a significant departure from the
common historical concern of cultural policy with consumption and state-funded
activities, which normally (but not always) includes heritage, fine arts and tourism. In
contrast, the culture cycle or production chain approach is an aid for conceptualising how
cultural production actually takes place and goes beyond a simple grouping of domains.

The challenge for a robust and sustainable cultural statistical framework is to cover the
contributory processes that enable culture to not only be created but distributed,
received, used, critiqued, understood and preserved, together with the education and
training that underpin these activities. A number of approaches have been developed
that allow a fuller extension of the universe of activities that are required for the
production and distribution of culture. These tend to resolve into a seven-phase supply
chain or production cycle, though clearly different cultural forms have different production
cycles and therefore will not all require equal inputs at each and every stage. Also, as
Figure 4 shows, the last two functions of the supply chain or production cycle can
actually occur across each of the other four functions.

1. Creation: the origination and authoring of ideas and content (e.g. sculptors,
writers, design companies).

2. Production: the making of both one-off production (e.g. crafts, fine arts) and
mass reproducible cultural forms (e.g. TV), as well as the specialist tools,
infrastructure and processes used in their realisation (e.g. the manufacture of
musical instruments, the printing of newspapers).

3. Dissemination: bringing generally mass reproduced cultural products to

consumers and exhibitors (e.g. the wholesale, retail and rental of recorded music
and computer games, film distribution).

4. Exhibition/reception: the provision of live and/or unmediated cultural

experiences to audiences by granting or selling restricted access to consume/
participate in often time-based cultural activities (e.g. festival organisation and
production, opera houses, theatres, museums).

5. Consumption/participation: the activities of audiences and participants in

consuming cultural products and taking part in cultural activities and experiences
(e.g. book reading, dancing, participating in carnivals, listening to radio, visiting

6. Archiving/preserving: the conservation, collection and management of

particular sites and repositories of cultural forms (material and immaterial) for the
purposes of preserving for posterity, exhibition and re-use (e.g. the preservation
of historic sites and buildings, sound archives, picture libraries).

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7. Education/training: specialist pedagogic and other learning activities that
support the development, understanding and reception of culture, including
processes of critique (e.g. art and dance schools, literary criticism).

Both the term culture ‘cycle’ and ‘chain’ are helpful as they suggest the inter-connections
across these activities, including the feedback processes by which demand-side
activities (consumption) inspire the creation of new cultural products and artefacts.
These feedback processes should be borne in mind when viewing the linear model of
the production chain presented in Figure 4.

The model is an abstract analytical aid for thinking about cultural production; it should be
seen in part as a sensitising model. In practice – depending upon the degree of
institutionalisation or governance – some of the phases may be conflated and limited
data may be available. For instance, the individual crafts person who collects raw
materials (informal resource input) and uses tradition (informal training) in making an
artefact and sells the product at the roadside (informal distribution and retail) personifies
the whole cycle. However, within the same society, a dancer may be one part of a
complex division of labour in a touring theatre troupe. Understanding which part of the
process is being measured is an important element in designing the consequent public
policies for intervention in cultural production.

The culture cycle, then, seeks to highlight how what is traded has its origins in the social
realm; it is fundamentally about including all activities and not cherry picking either the
ostensibly public or private, the commercial or the ‘not for profit’. For instance, in even
the most commercial of cultural activities, such as publishing, some writers may receive
public funds, particularly at an early stage in their careers (creation); state-supported
libraries are often key to disseminating the products of the industry, and the state may
also provide free or subsidised education for creative writing and for analysing and
understanding language and literature. Moreover, the culture cycle or production chain
approach is similarly agnostic as to the motivation behind cultural production – be it for
profit or for the purposes of the transmission of inherited cultural values. Since cultural
activities, and actors, move continuously between market and non-market activities, one
must acknowledge the part played by non-market activities in culture as well as the
difficulties in measuring them.

Finally, the culture cycle or production chain approach marks a departure from many
ways of thinking and defining culture as it is not concerned with making judgements on
how cultural particular aspects of the production chain are. Rather, what is important is
understanding and being able to track the totality of activities and necessary resources
that are required to transform ideas into cultural goods and services that, in turn, reach
consumers, participants or users. The point is that in cultural economy terms (which
includes the informal economy), the artefact (whether painting, craft object, performance,
etc.) is meaningless without a value system and a production system that gives it
value/meaning. So, having a particular site recognised as being of outstanding cultural
heritage is of only limited use to a developing country, unless that country is also able to
mobilise the assets of tourism, transport, preservation and hotels to capture the value of
paying guests.

- 26 -
The cultural cycle also has a spatial dimension. Some activities may be clustered in one
place, region or country, while others may be articulated across the world. The exact
nature of this articulation is only known through empirical enquiry, and this has important
implications for both the regulation of the cultural sector and where the benefits
(economic and cultural) accrue. An equally important spatial component of culture is
dislocation, whereby people become separated from their original cultural milieu through
migration. Globalisation has increased the potential for such dislocation, as well as the
problems of cultural assimilation, disagreement and the sense of the exotic or foreign
that may result.

The empirical data (quantitative and qualitative) that can be used to animate the cycle
(as derived, in part, from the cultural statistical framework) are not readily available in all
nations. For those nations that have invested in information gathering, the model has
revealed that the scale of the contribution of culture, above and beyond its intrinsic
worth, has been substantial. True worth though – and information upon which policy may
be developed – will only be gauged when comparative information is available nation to
nation, region to region.

Any particular cultural policy does not need to take in the whole culture cycle. But
policymaking must work with the knowledge that a smaller/limited intervention may have
wider repercussions within the whole cycle.

The logic of the culture cycle also allows one to see how some activities can be
considered to be functions of other culturally productive industries. In particular, a
significant component of cultural heritage activities also have a function as the archiving
and preserving components of the fine arts, crafts, design, architecture, publishing and
audio-visual industries, while also serving in turn as creative inspirations for new
production. For example, historic houses preserve (and exhibit) architecture; museums
and galleries conserve (and exhibit) paintings, sculpture, jewellery and a wide array of
other artefacts whose value resides principally in their design attributes (e.g. everything
from furniture to cars); and archives preserve books, films, radio recordings, etc. In a
similar vein, the category of ‘Art and Antiques’ is principally part of the dissemination
function for a range of visual and applied arts industries, while many printing activities
are part of the ‘producing’ function required to reproduce the products of the publishing
industry. This analysis necessarily leads to a discussion of the breadth of the cultural

2.8 Breadth of the cultural sector

The review of classification frameworks from around the world (see Section 2.2) shows
that there is a growing consensus around the idea that culture is the product of a group
of identifiable constituent activities. However, it also shows that this can be partly
obscured by:

i) a lack of agreement in identifying which activities share enough

characteristics and commonalities to be grouped together at a higher level as
domains; and

ii) little shared understanding as to what functions should be included in the

analysis of the cultural sector.

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In part, divergence related to the former (i) is a genuine reflection of local differences in
culture. But it is also related to the lack of a fully developed underlying model or logic for
the analysis, and this is the main root cause of the latter (ii).

However, in revising the framework for cultural statistics, applying a consistent and
logical approach is not the only requirement. Consideration also has to be given to more
pragmatic issues related to:

• implementation – the ability to implement the definition of activities and

categories within statistical classification systems, whether this is the Central
Product Classification (CPC) or the International Standard Industrial
Classification (ISIC) and so on; and

• politics – ensuring that the framework will be used (and therefore be useful)
will require backing and ratification from countries, many of whom have cultural
institutions that represent powerful interests and that have to be able to ‘see
themselves’ within the framework.

2.9 Clarifying core cultural domains

The underlying understanding of culture for revising the Framework for Cultural Statistics
draws on UNESCO uses of the term, which include:

i) The different manifestations of human intellectual and artistic creativity, past

and present. These arts and cultural expressions, together with the individuals
and institutions responsible for their transmission and renewal, constitute what
is commonly regarded as the cultural sector, a demarcated policy domain
concerned mainly with both artists and art forms broadly defined; and

ii) The broad understanding of culture as the all pervasive set of values, beliefs,
attitudes and practices shared by a group. This anthropological view of culture
spreads beyond the cultural sector and touches upon many other areas of
human activity.

The definition of culture is very closely related to the ways in which societies, groups and
communities define their identity.

UNESCO views culture and cultures in dynamic and interactive terms, eschewing the so-
called culturalist vision of culture as a homogeneous, integral and coherent unit. Cultures
can no longer be examined as if they were islands in an archipelago. The contemporary
globalisation of economic, political and social life has resulted in even more cultural
penetration and overlapping, the coexistence in a given social space of several cultural
traditions. The current effort of updating the Framework for Cultural Statistics responds
in a way to this new context intensified by globalisation.

However, for the purpose of the framework which follows a pragmatic approach, a
narrower definition of culture must be used.

- 28 -
The purpose of this framework is to measure cultural activities, goods and services that
are generated by industrial and non industrial processes. Cultural activities, as defined
by David Throsby, “…involve some form of creativity in their production; they are
concerned with the generation and communication of symbolic means; their output
potentially embodies at least some form of intellectual property”. (Throsby, 2001)
Cultural goods and services encompass artistic, aesthetic, symbolic and spiritual values.

The definition of cultural domains follows a hierarchical model that comprises core and
related cultural domains. The core domains include cultural activities, goods and
services that are involved in the different phases of the cultural production chain model.
The related domains are linked to the broader definition of culture, encompassing social
and recreational activities. They represent categories that have a cultural character, but
which have a main component that is not cultural.

Within each domain, an additional sub-category of expanded products and activities is

established. This makes it possible to take into account the “tools of cultural products
and activities”. Core products (goods and services) are those directly associated with
cultural content, while expanded cultural products are equipment and materials, as well
as ancillary services (even if they are only partly cultural in their content), that facilitate or
enable the creation, production and distribution of core cultural products.

The reason for making the distinction between core and expanded is to be able to
include in these categories elements that are not essentially cultural but that can be used
for the production or execution of a cultural good or activity and that are necessary for
the existence of these cultural products.

The core domains are a common set of culturally productive industries and activities that
can be listed under the following headings:
 Cultural and Natural Heritage;
 Performance and Celebration;
 Visual Arts, Crafts and Design;
 Books and Press; and
 Audio-visual and Digital Media.

These categories are considered to be 100% cultural. These core domains represent the
minimum set of cultural activities for which UNESCO would want countries to collect
comparative data. This allows for a specification of the breadth of the cultural sector but
also gives a sense of its cohesion. In some instances, the analysis of country
classifications reveals that there are activities which, while falling within the core
domains, do not benefit from the same degree of consensus regarding whether they
should be part of the cultural sector or not. These are:

• Sport and recreation, gambling, toys and games, and tourism fall outside the
core set of cultural activities based on the definition given above and the review of
current national classifications.

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• Interactive media and software are important emerging fields of activity. While
many interactive media products and services have a cultural end use (computer and
video games, interactive web and mobile content), the same cannot be said for the
software industry. 'Interactive Media' should be part of the core 'Audio-visual' domain.
In practice, this will depend on the classification system used and its ability to
discretely separate interactive media activities from mainstream software and
telecommunications activities. The Central Product Classification used in Section 3
allows for some, but not all, interactive media activities to be accurately identified.
When activities cannot be discretely identified in the CPC, or when other broader
classifications are being used that do not allow accurate identification of interactive
media activities, these activities are excluded.

• Printing is not normally included in cultural classifications or definitions of creative

industries. Using a production chain model, printing would be included only as part of
the production function of the publishing industry rather than as a cultural activity in
its own right. In this way, not all printing is included but only that which has a
predominantly cultural end use. The difficulty is to implement this distinction within
statistical classifications. Generally, printing activities related to the publishing
industry are included within the core 'Books and Press' domain as a production
function of publishing, with other printing activities, e.g. the printing of business
supply catalogues or ‘quick’ printing, excluded.

• Museums, archives and libraries – Although a large part of museums, archives and
libraries’ activities could be considered to be a production function of the other
domains as outlined in Section 2.8, ultimately they are more properly part of the
'Cultural Heritage' domain. First, these activities encompass areas that lie outside the
other cultural domains (e.g. museums of science and engineering, archives that are
repositories of factual records and information on citizen’s rights). Second, a
significant function of these activities is to curate and exhibit collections of cultural
products and forms so that they may inform and stimulate new forms of cultural
production. This has more typically taken place through influence, allusion and
indirect quotation in, for example, the way visual artists may draw on traditional
elements to do their contemporary work; however, as many elements of culture
become reproducible, this increasingly also includes the direct incorporation of
fragments of the earlier cultural form, as in the use of archive footage in documentary
films or the practice of sampling within popular music. Third, the activities are carried
out by a set of common institutions and practices that are distinct from the other
domains and, more pragmatically, these institutions often have considerable political
influence regarding cultural policy and need to be able to ‘see themselves’ within any
revised framework.

A two-stage model for describing the breadth of cultural domains is represented

graphically in Figure 5.

- 30 -
Figure 5. Proposed domains and activities for a revised framework for cultural statistics

- 31 -
As can be seen in Figure 5, in order to avoid double-counting, each activity can only be
classified once within the framework, even though there are instances where activities
logically span more than one domain. For instance, music would fall under both 'Audio-
visual' and 'Performance and Celebration', as it consists of live music (Performance) and
recorded music (Audio-visual). But, as much of the domain cannot be discretely
separated within statistical classifications from other performing arts activities,
pragmatically it makes sense for music to be a part of the 'Performance and Celebration'

The different core cultural domains are defined as follows:

• Cultural and Natural Heritage

Cultural heritage represents artefacts, monuments, group of buildings and sites

that have historic, artistic, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological, scientific and
social significance. Cultural landscape represents combined works of nature and
by humans, and they express a long and intimate relationship between people and
their natural environment (UNESCO, 2007).

Natural heritage consists of national features, geological and physiographical

formations and delineated areas that constitute the habitat of threatened species of
animals and plants and natural sites of value from the point of view of science,
conservation or natural beauty. It includes nature parks and reserves, zoos and
aquaria and botanical gardens (UNESCO, 1972).

Activities related to cultural and natural heritage encompass the management of

sites and collections that have historic, aesthetic, scientific, environmental and
social significance. Preservation and archiving activities undertaken in museums
and libraries are also part of this category.

• Intangible Heritage

Intangible heritage cannot be considered as a discrete domain of cultural activity or

production, as it includes “practices, representations, expressions, knowledge,
skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces
associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals
recognise as part of their cultural heritage”. (UNESCO, 2003) It is, thus,
considered as a transversal category spanning any and all of the domains
proposed. Several non-exhaustive domains in which intangible heritage is
manifested are: (a) oral traditions and expressions, including language;
b) performing arts; (c) social practices, rituals and festive events; (d) knowledge
and practices concerning nature and the universe; and (e) traditional

Intangible heritage (practices, expressions, knowledge or associated tangible

manifestations) can only be defined as such when invested by one or another
community with the value of heritage. In other terms, there is nothing intrinsic in
the expression or practice itself that would allow outsiders (governments,
statisticians, researchers) to define it as intangible heritage. Rather, as in the case
of cultural and natural heritage, the identification of intangible heritage rests with

- 32 -
the conception of ‘outstanding universal value’, the operational definition of which
is under development by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

• Performance and Celebration

This core cultural domain includes live performances, i.e. music performances and
music composition. This covers other types of professional or amateur performing
arts activities, such as theatre, dance, opera, puppetry, etc. Celebratory cultural
events (e.g. festivals, feasts, fairs) are incorporated into contemporary definitions
of the performing arts.

• Visual Arts, Crafts and Design

The core domain of visual arts includes fine arts as well as crafts, which covers
handicrafts that can be made in many different materials such as clay, leather,
wood, basketry, handmade textile products, etc.

Domains such as design, architecture and advertising are often part of cultural
domains for their creative input in the production of non-cultural goods (European
Commission, 2006). These three categories fall under 'Visual Arts'. Design is
categorised as a core cultural domain. Since the primary purpose of architecture
and advertising is not cultural, these categories are included in the expanded
cultural domains.

• Books and Press

This core category represents all publishing in different formats: book, newspaper
and magazine publishing, as well online newspapers.

• Audio-visual and Digital Media

The core elements of this domain are radio and television, films and videos.
Photography is also included in this category for the prevalence of new media,
digital photography and the relations with other audio-visual activities, such as
photography in motion picture.

While the use of domain groupings clearly complicates the framework – as is highlighted
by the example of music – higher level groupings are needed as often statistical
classifications do not actually allow for the finer disaggregation required to identify
individual cultural activities. Larger groupings also have the added advantage of
improving the robustness of the data that can be obtained from sampled business

- 33 -
3. The framework structure
The previous section established the theoretical and analytical background for the
framework. In this section the structure is outlined. The model includes all activities,
services and goods produced by cultural industries, whether these are factory-based or
cottage-based, and are described as craft or artisanal production (see Figure 5). It also
includes all elements of participation in cultural activity, whether this is through formal
employment or attendance at formal or informal cultural events, or through cultural
activities at home. The model covers the entire cultural creative chain.

3.1 Identifying cultural occupations and activities: From the economic to the
social model

Figure 6 delineates the culture sector as considered in the framework (grey shaded
area). It indicates the different groups of cultural occupations (formal and informal). Non-
cultural industries will only be included when assessing cultural employment if these
include cultural workers. A designer working in the automobile industry is an example of
someone in a cultural occupation working in a non-cultural sector.

Figure 6. The cultural sector

Non-cultural Craft sector Cultural

industries industries

Cultural Cultural Cultural Non-cultural

occupations occupations occupations occupations

The underlying approach here is based on an economic view. This is for both policy and
pragmatic reasons. First, countries attach major importance to obtaining maximum
economic benefits from their cultural products. Second, the economic representation of
cultural exchange, while posing many problems, is the easiest to measure. However, this
economic model has been adapted to a number of other areas: social participation,
traditional and local knowledge, education, and heritage. Someone who is a cultural
worker or who is engaged in cultural activities is also a social actor interacting with the
community as both audience and inspiration for new creation.

- 34 -
The social elements of culture need to be captured by statistics to ensure that culture is
not reduced to an economic phenomenon. The social dimension of culture helps to
strengthen identity and social cohesion. It introduces key aspects of culture, such as
education and traditional knowledge.

Education is a means of socialisation by which culture is imparted and develops

creativity that can challenge existing cultural norms. The framework, thus, identifies
education as a major transversal function of the cultural cycle and a major concern and
responsibility for UNESCO. It is generally accepted that culture is always evolving and
never static, and in this education plays a large role.

With globalisation, traditional knowledge is both increasingly valued and under threat.
Within the framework, traditional knowledge is another transversal theme which has a
place in all sectors and links into UNESCO’s strategy on the intangible heritage. This
helps to emphasise that, while traditional knowledge is difficult to measure, it is a rich
resource for artistic inspiration and cultural identity.

From an economic viewpoint, heritage is an asset. The value of assets can be enhanced
or devalued, depending on how they are maintained. Economic studies have analysed
the economic value of cultural heritage in relation to the public’s preferences (Navrud,
2002). They calculate a value of use, which is based on how much someone is willing to
pay to preserve a cultural heritage or to go to a site. They also cover the non-use value
of a cultural heritage, examining how much someone is willing to pay for the preservation
of a heritage for future generations. However, such contingent value or travel cost
techniques are difficult to aggregate into provincial or regional values because of
substitution effects.

Besides being an economic asset, cultural heritage is a social good. It incorporates

aesthetic, historical, social, spiritual and educational values. Tangible heritage sites are
often the locations for celebrations in which intangible heritage performances take place.
In developed countries, attendance at cultural assets, such as monuments and
museums, is often recorded. However, distinguishing cultural tourism data from regular
tourism statistics requires further development, which is best undertaken within the ambit
of the World Tourism Organization. Sample surveys of both tourists and local people at
heritage sites are an important statistical tool. In developing countries, surveys of
attendees at cultural heritage sites can be particularly cost-effective and play a large part
in a cultural statistics framework, though they may present problems such as
distinguishing performers from the audience.

3.2 The shift to direct measurement

Up until now, the established models of cultural policymaking have seen the economic
dimension of a given culture as an indirect consequence of public investment in that
culture. This resulted in the development of a number of models that use inferential
approaches (e.g. multiplier models) to assess the impact of culture (Scanlon and
Longley, 1984; Myerscough, 1988). For example, the Conveno Andrés Bello (CAB), an
international inter-governmental organisation working in Latin America (mainly
MERCOSUR countries), and Spain are currently developing a methodological manual
for the implementation of cultural satellite accounts which will assess the economic
contribution of cultural industries and activities to GDP. This approach makes the
valuation and integration of non-market cultural products and activities a particular

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The model chosen for the present framework relates mainly to the position of culture
within processes of economic development and reproduction. This has reduced the
necessity for over-dependence upon indirect, inferential and relatively challengeable
methodologies. The shift from using indirect or multiplier models to measure cultural
outputs to using direct measures of process and output provides the opportunity to
develop an approach for measuring the impact of culture that can be compared
internationally and with other sectors.

Direct measures are more robust and reliable if a common framework for collection is
used (Pratt, 2001). Some data can be extracted using standard taxonomies (especially
those of the International Standard Industrial Classification or the Central Product
Classification). Direct measures may include enterprise-based measures, such as
turnover, investment, output, exports and employment, as well as parallel information on
public sector funding that most closely approximates to such measures. Further, direct
measures relating to consumption and participation can also be gained via general
household surveys or bespoke surveys of individuals.

The starting point is the Mode 1 model of Girard (1982) which, despite its limitations,
captures the principle well. This model can be adapted to develop and to construct a
practical and pragmatic means to collect data (rather than an ideal). On the basis of the
EU LEG group (EU, 2000) work and a survey of (the logic of) a number of extant
‘mapping exercises’, a Mode 2 grid was established that has the re-stated logic and
serves to indicate which data could be collected (see Figure 7). A further extension
would be to trial such a schema. The proposal is directly implementable but also
suggests the potential for future development and data collection by highlighting what
cannot presently be measured. Critically, it is expected that this model could make
international benchmarking possible.

Figure 7. Mode 2 simplified revised framework

Exhibition/ Archiving/ Education/
DOMAINS Creation Producing Dissemination reception Consumption preserving understanding

Cultural and Natural
Performance and
Visual Arts, Crafts
and Design

Books and Press

Audio-visual and
digital media


Sport and Leisure


- 36 -
Each country will position indicators within the matrix. Each country is then free to
choose the content of the cultural sector is part of its national framework.

The revised Mode 2 framework suggested in this report can be used to underpin a
number of different approaches to cultural statistics. Figure 8 sets out some initial
elements for a broad-based indicator structure across the core domains, as well as the
two transversal functions of 'Education' and 'Archiving and Preserving'. Items in bold are
those for which UNESCO already has available data or is actively pursuing international
data collection, including data from other international agencies.
Figure 8. Data and indicators using the new revised framework

A. Cultural and B. Performance C. Visual Arts D. Books and E. Audio-visual

Natural Heritage and Celebration Crafts and Design Press Film, Video, New
Production & - Employment - Employment - Employment - Employment - Employment
Consumption - Expenditure - Value - Value - Value - Value
- Consumer - Number of - No. of titles; - No. of titles
spending performances books, press
Education - Enrolment - Enrolment - Enrolment - Number of - ICTs in
- Attendance - Performances school textbooks education
(visitors and in/by schools
Archiving & - Conservation - Documentation - Galleries - Volumes, - Film archives
Preserving (employment, $ centres (no of items, transactions in (volumes)
earnings) employment, $) libraries

For the purpose of illustration, two further sets of indicators are suggested here:
• to illustrate how the framework can provide a statistical basis for estimating the
economic contribution of culture; and
• to illustrate how it can be used to assess the social contribution of culture
through participation.

In both cases, and in line with the earlier discussion, the purpose of the indicators is
direct measurement. The indicators suggested above can be used at the aggregated
sector level or at the level of subsequent disaggregation into domains or different phases
of the production chain/cycle; either at the aggregated level or within individual domains
of cultural activity (subject to the sample size of the particular data source used). They
can also be spatially disaggregated to the level permitted by measures of statistical
reliability (see Section 2.8).

The list of illustrative indicators is deliberately restricted. The review of country

frameworks already shows the degree to which countries infrequently collect data on
culture, despite the existence of statistical frameworks. Therefore, the focus is
concentrated on outlining a pragmatic set of indicators to be used for assessing both
baseline contribution and change over time.

In each case, contribution is disaggregated into a number of subsidiary contributing

activities. Indicators and measures are then proposed, together with an indicator of
where the data required for these purposes might be sourced. The sets of indicators

- 37 -
suggested can be used in whole, or in part, as the basis for a full statistical framework or
as part of a framework devised for a different set of purposes.

In each case, the suggested indicators could be cross-tabulated with other data sets. For
example, data on employment can be cross-tabulated with census data to produce more
detailed information on, say, the gender and ethnicity of the cultural workforce.

3.3 The social model

Traditional and local knowledge

Traditional and local knowledge can be found in all societies. It is sometimes the
intellectual property of a certain cultural milieu, or group of people, and there is
increasing recognition of ownership of such intellectual rights by the appropriate
community. The ownership of such intellectual property and knowledge make traditional
knowledge in many senses a cultural product. UNESCO has recognised that traditional
knowledge may be enshrined in a physical product or as an aspect of intangible heritage
requiring guardianship, protection and enhancement in the same way as material or
tangible heritage.

In the context of this statistical framework, traditional and local knowledge, as a service
or product, can be found in almost any of the domains, products or sectors covered by
the framework. It is, thus, a transversal dimension of the framework (see Figure 9). The
creative process for traditional knowledge may differ from the standard model of the
creative process, as the three stages of creation, production and dissemination may be
executed at the same time.

The production or creation of traditional knowledge is often in the hands of elders,

shamans or simply ‘wise people’. A count of the numbers of such people might be
attempted if their role/identity is clearly defined. The occupation of the production of
traditional knowledge, or its transmission in an appropriate form/media (storytelling), is
often not well defined. It may be considered a secondary occupation, as for example the
production of craft/artisan goods in a predominantly agricultural household. Secondary
occupations can be recognised in labour force and other household surveys through
more intense questioning on different tasks undertaken in the day. It is not, however,
recommended that countries indulge in a full-scale time use survey unless they have a
considerable amount of human and financial resources.4

Some products of traditional and local knowledge are extremely difficult to measure in
quantity or quality as they are intangible. UNESCO is building a list of themes of the
intangible heritage which are of universal cultural value to mankind. This gives some
prospect that in the future a database of ‘intangible heritage’ will develop including a
closer definition of some aspects of traditional knowledge at the international level.

A time use survey may, of course, find further justification from the amount of information
obtained on other topics such as: household organization, family relations, craft/artisan
production, religious observance, etc.

- 38 -
Figure 9. Transversal dimension of traditional and local knowledge

- 39 -
A proxy for the level of production of traditional knowledge can be obtained, at least at
country level, through key institutions. Many countries now have national institutions that
are responsible for cataloguing and documenting traditional knowledge, for example
collecting numbers of traditional medicines. It is possible to count at international level
both the number of such institutions and the number of products they have documented.
Ideally the creation of such institutions should lead to the patenting of traditional
knowledge, in which ownership of the patent is vested in the community from which it
first originated, as well as to measures for safeguarding such knowledge (e.g. manage-
ment and conservation of plants used in traditional medicine).

If traditional knowledge is transmitted through music, storytelling, dance or other forms of

performance, other measures are possible. For example, surveys at an appropriate
scale (local, regional, national) might document numbers of participants/performers.5
Surveys might also document content and mode of transmission.

The intangible aspects of traditional and local knowledge present major barriers to
measurement. Nevertheless, several potential indicators can be proposed:
 number of persons involved in the creation or transmission of traditional
knowledge, collected through labour force or household surveys involving
questions about secondary occupations;
 number of institutions responsible for collecting or documenting traditional
knowledge, as well as the number of elements/products documented;
 number of patents or other form of registration of traditional knowledge (closely
related to previous indicators);
 number of participants/performers in events at which traditional knowledge is
transmitted (traditional story tellers, dancers etc.;
 number of participants speaking traditional languages;
 number of persons practising/using traditional medicine; and
 production of crafts.

Traditional and local knowledge is often associated with indigenous knowledge. Uganda
described indigenous knowledge as "traditional and local knowledge existing within and
developed around the specific conditions of a community indigenous to a particular
geographical area". (Uganda, 2006) The work undertaken by the Working Group on
Indicators of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB) will likely
contribute to the identification of indicators pertinent for indigenous peoples. This group,
which was set up by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, is
supported by the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). The
UNPFII had identified the need to develop indicators relevant to indigenous peoples and
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These indicators relate to indigenous rights,
'enabling environments'6, cultural practices and the use of traditional languages.

In some cases, audience and performers may be the same people at different times in a
i.e. conditions (policies, infrastructure, etc.) in which indigenous practices can flourish.

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Cultural participation

Cultural participation measures have been piloted mainly in the European Union (EU).
The LEG Group (2000) attempted to produce a regional model, but there has yet to be a
comprehensive Europe-wide survey. A useful definition of the European conception of
cultural participation is provided by Bennett, where cultural participation includes the arts
and also everyday life activities that are related to enjoyment. It refers to "the ways in
which ethnically-marked differences in cultural tastes, values and behaviours inform not
just artistic and media preferences but are embedded in the daily rhythms of different
ways of life; and of the ways in which these connect with other relevant social
characteristics – those of class and gender, for example". (Bennett, 2001)

Cultural participation, thus, includes cultural practices that may involve consumption and
activities that are undertaken within the community, reflecting quality of life, traditions
and beliefs. It covers attending formal and payable events, such as going to a movie or
to a concert, as well as informal cultural action, such as community cultural activities and
amateur artistic productions or everyday activities like reading a book. Cultural
participation is usually measured with regard to community, social group, ethnicity, age
and gender. An analysis based on ethnic group, social group and gender would also be
relevant for measuring the diversity of cultural expressions as it would indicate the
diversity of groups participating in different cultural activities.

Moreover, cultural participation covers both active and passive behaviour. It includes the
person who is listening to a concert and the amateur who practices music. The purpose
of cultural participation surveys should be to assess overall participation levels, even
though it may be very difficult to distinguish active from passive behaviour. For example,
in some festivals individuals may at one time be performers (active, creating and
inspiring others) and at other times be audience (passive or seeking inspiration). Cultural
participation does not concern activities carried out for employment, however, which are
defined by occupation (ILO, 1988); for example, cultural participation does include
visitors to a museum but not the guide.

In 2006, the UIS commissioned a report to set the EU model in the context of cultural
activities in developing countries. The report (UIS, 2006) defines cultural practices
according to three categories:
i) Home-based: which refers to the number of hours spent watching TV, listening to
the radio or music, reading, etc.
ii) Going out: this includes going to the cinema, opera, theatre and visiting museums,
monuments and archaeological sites.
iii) Identity building: this encompasses amateur cultural practices, cultural
associations, popular culture, ethnic cultures, youth culture.

It is expected that developing countries will find it difficult to find resources for frequent
surveys on cultural participation. This framework proposes that participation surveys
concentrate on overall levels of participation and on recording the domain under which
cultural activities take place. By using such surveys in a systematic way – for example to
survey participation in activities such as music, dance and reading – it will be possible to
examine social issues, as well as link amateur or informal cultural production with more
formal activity. This link is vital for examining the key concern of commercialisation of the
cultural sector and its impact on society as a whole.

- 41 -
3.4 Dataset specification

The conceptualisation of cultural production and distribution as a sectoral activity makes

it possible for the framework to contain a specified minimum dataset. This would
comprise the minimum data cells that model the core activities of the cultural sector as
specified across its supply chain or production cycle. It would be a minimum dataset that
regions could agree to but that would also allow for wider locally-agreed extension
(within the boundaries of the UNESCO universe of cells). This would make unique
mapping possible and allow for overlap between different studies and the production of a
developmental ‘road map’ toward more comprehensive mapping.

Moreover, the creation of such a dataset will make international benchmarking feasible.
While some groups of countries are likely to have a priority interest in some – but not
all – measures, our objective is to create a common framework that will facilitate
maximum possible comparison and usage.

Section 3.5 focuses on data collection and instruments for identifying the cultural sector.
Many national statistical offices (NSOs) will not be in a position to carry out such detailed
data collection. Each NSO will adapt its data collection based on its own capacities, and
NSOs will determine how far the model can be implemented. Comparability at different
levels will depend on policy development in the country and the degree to which culture
is a priority. Use of this framework at every level will still allow a country to compare itself
with others.

The different components of the cultural sector have been defined as:

 Cultural goods and services: The output produced by cultural industries and
activities will be categorised using the Central Product Classification (CPC).

 Cultural organizations will be categorised using the International Standard

Industrial Classification (ISIC). However, cultural goods can also be produced on
a non-commercial basis, for example through governmental institutions, by
voluntary institutions, amateurs or ad hoc groupings of artists and creators.

 Creators, producers, distributors: People involved in creative or productive

cultural activities on their own, in groups or in organizations are categorised
through occupations data using the International Standard Classification of
Occupations (ISCO).

 Consumers of cultural goods and services and participants in cultural activities

are measured using expenditure data or household surveys (see Section 3.10).

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3.5 Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC)

This section will mainly cover the first four phases of the production cycle: creation,
production, dissemination and exhibition/reception. The participation phase reflects
social behaviour, which is captured by different statistical tools (see Section 3.10).

In proposing how this Mode 2 framework could be implemented, the UN’s Central
Product Classification (CPC) has been used. Despite the fact that this statistical
classification system is not in common use, its great level of detail allows a bridging
between different international classifications, increasing comparability and identifying
some sectors more precisely. It is particularly pertinent for services data.

CPC codes provide only a current ‘best fit’ and there are many cells within the Mode 2
framework that cannot be populated using the CPC (or other current international
statistical classifications). In particular, it is very difficult to identify education and training
activities related to culture, whereas these have better coverage within the ISIC Rev 4
(8541 and 8542 covering ‘Sports and Recreation Education’ and ‘Cultural Education’
respectively), ISCO 08 and UNESCO’s own International Standard Classification of
Education (ISCED) classification (UIS, 1997).

There are instances where CPC codes cover both cultural and non-cultural activities. In
most instances, these CPC classes have not been included. Thus, while this measure
may underestimate the scope of the cultural sector, it is a more robust measure.

Separate tables for each domain are provided in Appendix III and referenced according
to the letters and numbers used in Figure 5.

3.6 Cultural industries: Using the International Standard Industrial Classification


A complementary classification that can be used to implement the framework is the

International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). One of the main advantages of
using ISIC is that, in contrast to CPC, it is widely used by countries.

ISIC, with only four digits, is less detailed than CPC; consequently, some cultural
activities are often hidden in a broader category or grouped in a single code. The use of
this classification alone to measure the economic contribution of culture within a country
will necessitate defining multipliers in order to identify which portion of a broader industry
can be attributed to cultural activities.

The draft ISIC 4 as available in 2007 (UNSD, 2007) has been used in this report. An
information and communication category has been created in this version to reflect the
current structure of this industry. It provides better coverage of broadcast and motion
picture activities, but it is still not possible to identify cultural activities using the Internet,
such as e-books, music downloads, etc.

Each cultural activity has been designated by an ISIC 4 code. In several cases, the ISIC
code includes cultural activities that can be classified in all functions, such as creation,
producing, etc.

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However, since ISIC is an industrial classification, it does not allow specification of non-
industrial cultural activities. There are two major drawbacks of using ISIC codes to
measure cultural activities:
 Craft is not covered by ISIC; and
 Intangible heritage and traditional knowledge (see Section 3.3) are not clearly

The following two ISIC codes can be considered to be spread across all cultural

i) 9000 (Creative Arts and Entertainment Activities): This code may be considered to
cover all forms of creative activity associated with all the domains of the
classification. While an authors’ co-operative or writers circle might not be considered
as part of 581x 'Publishing', a similar approach could identify a business or
co-operative of painters, a string quartet or indeed a major rock band, which surely
have huge earnings as a business.

ii) 92911 (Cultural Education): This code has been included in every domain, because
education can be seen as a cultural activity within all domains, whether as sector-
specific training or as businesses and institutions which use educational means to
promote the cultural activity of the domain concerned. It includes formal and non-
formal education in cultural activities, such as in fine arts, architecture, music, dance,

Another code that should to be mentioned is 3320 (Musical Instruments), which

represents the manufacture of musical instruments. Based on the creative chain model,
making such instruments is considered a cultural activity since they form part of the
production element of artistic expression.

It has been suggested that CPC contains the most appropriate existing classification to
capture cultural activity and that ISIC, though more frequently used than CPC, provides
too coarse a classification. Thus, this framework proposes that CPC codes be used to
identify which aspects of a sector are appropriately placed in which domain of cultural
activity. However, where possible, both classifications should be used together in order
to obtain a clearer picture of the economic aspects of culture in terms of variables such
as employment, turnover and productivity.

Even the less obviously economic parts of the framework can, to some degree, be
studied in this way using these codes. For example, data on employment at historic sites
and economic valuations of such sites as capital investment, staff employment or visitor
revenue can be gathered together under domain 'A. Cultural Heritage'. Data on
participation in cultural events, including ticket sales and revenue, can be gathered
under domain 'B. Performing Arts'.

Separate tables for each core domain are provided in Appendix III and referenced
according to the letters and numbers used in Figure 5.

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3.7 Cultural employment: Using the International Standard Classification of
Occupations (ISCO)

The following definitions of cultural occupations were primarily based on the Australian
and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO)7 and on Canadian
definitions. Whereas the Australian definitions encompass leisure activities, the
proposed definitions for the framework focus solely on core cultural occupations related
to creativity and art within the core UNESCO domains defined in Figure 5.

Core cultural occupations include occupations involved in creative and artistic

production, heritage collection and preservation. These occupations involve tasks and
duties that are carried out:
 to generate, develop, preserve or reflect cultural or spiritual meaning;
 to create, produce and disseminate cultural goods and services, which generally
contain intellectual property rights; and
 for the purpose of artistic expression (e.g. visual, music, writing, dance or
dramatic arts).

The broader definition that encompasses related domains as defined in Figure 5 and
which are usually associated with leisure activities, such as sports and travels, would
include activities that involve sports or physical recreation skills and that provide
enjoyment, relaxation, diversion or recreation.

Measurement of cultural employment

In order to define cultural employment, it is necessary to include both the occupations in

cultural industries and cultural occupations in non-cultural industries, such as design
activities (see Figure 6).

The contribution of cottage8 industries in cultural employment is quite significant. Cultural

occupations are quite often a secondary occupation in developing countries. Agricultural
labourers or other workers may have a second occupation in craft and, as such, are
often not declared or captured in censuses and labour force surveys. These hidden or
‘embedded’ cultural occupations may not include a large enough number of practitioners
to be accurately measured in sample surveys. In many cases, they involve self-
employed or informal workers in small companies of less than ten people which are
frequently not captured in business surveys. It is often considered that cultural and
creative jobs are over-represented in small businesses, and in this respect, even
European statistics may well underestimate cultural employment.

In addition, volunteer and non-paid activities often play an important role in cultural
employment. Methodological research is required for better assessment of these

ANZSCO: Alternative View: Culture and Leisure Occupations.
An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based rather than factory-

- 45 -
Identification of cultural occupations within ISCO 08

The ISCO classification is based on two concepts: job and skill. Job is defined in the
forthcoming ISCO 08 as a “set of tasks and duties carried out, or meant to be carried
out, by one person for a particular employer, including self-employment”. Skill is defined
as “the ability to carry out the tasks and duties of a given job”. (ILO, 2007)

It is difficult to define a separate category for all cultural occupations since they cover
many different types of occupations that require quite different skills. Nevertheless,
ISCO 08 will incorporate new codes for cultural occupations, derived from a joint
proposal by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and
the UIS.

The following codes for key cultural occupations are used in ISCO 08 and the UIS 2009
Framework for Cultural Statistics:
• 262: Librarians, archivists and curators
• 264: Authors, journalists and linguists (new code)
• 265: Creative and performing artists
• 344: Artistic and cultural associate professionals
• 3521: Broadcasting and sound and vision recording technicians
• 73: Handicraft and printing workers (new category, which includes all handicraft
workers using clay, metal, glass, wood, textiles, etc.)

However, some unresolved issues remain in assessing cultural occupations. Cultural

occupations are spread across all ISCO categories and the classification is sometimes
not detailed enough to distinguish them. In addition, the occupations may not include a
large enough number of practitioners to allow a separate category within ISCO. For
example, it is difficult to distinguish cultural occupations within these main categories:

 Heritage and conservation

The occupations related to heritage and conservation, such as archaeologists or
curators and conservators, are not identified within ISCO. They are included in
2632 (Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals). Professionals
working in this field usually have scientific knowledge and a high skills level that
can be associated with Major Group 2 Professionals in ISCO.

 Managers, senior officials and legislators

With regard to managers, senior officials and legislators, only code 1113
(Traditional chiefs and heads of village) can be related to cultural occupations.
However, it is important to consider where occupations, such as director of an art
company, could be included.

Teachers identified for culture are in the 'Other teachers' category, such as 2354
(Other music teachers) and 2355 (Other arts teachers). Generally, however, arts
and humanities teachers at all levels of education (i.e. higher education, vocational

- 46 -
education and secondary education) are not included in this category since they
can be included in the formal and non-formal education and vocational education

 Information and communication technologies (ICTs)

The cultural occupations related to ICTs are mainly related to audio-visual
occupations and the new media, i.e. multimedia designer. This category needs to
be considered for managers of broadcast and multimedia activities, including
computer graphics.

Appendix III proposes a list of codes that can serve as a basis for defining cultural

3.8 Data collection issues

Given the lack of data collected by even the countries that have taken time and
resources to develop statistical frameworks for the cultural industries, it is perhaps worth
summarising some of the main difficulties associated with this task.

Structural challenges

The most insurmountable of these difficulties is that policy and management tend to
focus upon activities as defined in terms of their markets (e.g. film, television, music),
while the most commonly used statistical classifications (country-specific versions of the
ISIC) work predominantly on a classificatory principle of industrial output9 (e.g. the
manufacture of printed items and reproduction by computer media). Thus, attempting to
use these classifications to describe industries defined by market is problematic.

With regard to culture, the relevant classes are scattered across the classifications, and
these then have to be artificially re-aggregated. This is a specialist and time-consuming

Statistical systems of industrial classification also struggle to keep pace with the rate of
industrial change. They provide the most detailed coverage for traditional areas of the
economy, such as primary and extractive industries, and manufacturing. Consequently,
the service sector in general is poorly served and the classifications are particularly weak
for areas in which there is rapid technological and market change; both of which
generate difficulties for implementing a revised cultural statistical framework that takes
into account the increasing influence of new digital ICTs.

Operational challenges

Cultural activities can generally be accurately identified within statistical industrial

classification systems only at the greatest level of disaggregation (four- or five-digit
classes). This creates difficulties as data from sources provided by national statistical
offices for many variables (e.g. exports) are often only available for industry sectors at a
higher level of aggregation, typically in the two- or three-digit class.

Although the primary logic is classification by output, this is not consistent. In some cases it is
process or the raw material used that forms the taxonomic principle.

- 47 -
The fine grain level of industrial disaggregation required to accurately identify cultural
activities has further implications. It makes detailed sub-national analysis – which is
particularly important for the cultural sector due to agglomeration tendencies –
problematic, as the combination of four-digit analysis within a local or regional area unit
decreases reliability for many business surveys undertaken by national statistical offices
(due to sample size issues). Many cross-economy business surveys also have
insufficient coverage of micro-enterprises and sole traders, which are disproportionately
represented in the cultural sector.

There are some ‘work-arounds’ that can be used in the instances where cultural activity
is combined with other activities in individual classes. In particular, estimations can be
used to distinguish the cultural component from the non-cultural component within these
classes, and these weightings or co-efficients can then be used in analysis of data from
business surveys. But, there has to be some empirical basis on which the weightings are
derived, and this implies that there is ready access to a data source containing a census
of all businesses. Once again – presupposing that such a business register exists –
analysing this to produce the co-efficients is a time- and resource-intensive task.

Finally, producing data on the social aspects of culture, to a standard that is in line with
other data produced by national statistical offices, also presents a number of operational

There may be opportunities to use aspects from existing cross-departmental surveys,

such as household or time use surveys. However, the data that can be gained from
these sources may not be sufficient to be able to support the cultural/social policymaking
process. This is due to the limitations of the areas covered within these generalist
surveys. However, it may also be due to problems of robustness when survey results are
disaggregated to identify particular sub-populations (e.g. by age, gender, racial, ethnic
groups, etc.) and especially where measurement of change is required. The problem of
robustness can also affect even dedicated surveys of cultural participation, such as the
Eurobarometer Survey, which, because it is only on a limited sample of approximately
1,000 respondents per country, can only really provide contextual information at the
country level rather than the more detailed and reliable data required to support policy.

Obviously, the alternative to using data gleaned from existing national statistical sources
and/or more focused international sources of data is to launch a bespoke, national
survey of cultural participation – but this is very costly. It should be noted that, in part,
these difficulties are not so much universal but relate more to the level of sophistication
of the cultural policymaking process itself, and particularly the degree to which evidence
is used to underpin decision-making (see Section 3.9).

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3.9 Management and policymaking

Any data set is collated with a set of uses and users in mind; discussion of these needs
may finetune the schema. The potential uses are for:
• auditing: identifying, classifying, valuing;
• mapping transactions: economic, social, cultural and spatial;
• sensitising managers: scale, organisation and operations of sectoral activities;
• policymaking: governance (public, private and third sector); strategy and
interaction within public policy.

Creating and collecting evidence is not cultural policymaking per se. However, it is
central to modern public policymaking and also to the accountability of public institutions.
In this context, the primary data input will be made from national censuses of population,
business censuses and any participation/usage data, as well as funding allocation data.
The role of the framework will be to create space for dialogue between the functions of
evidence-based policy, the providers of data and the cultural sector in its diverse forms.
This, therefore, needs to be understood as the inauguration of a developmental process
involving periodic updating, testing and necessary revision.

It can be assumed that the framework will be a starting point for the development of
more comprehensive statistical data. The document may form a basis for negotiations
between cultural policymakers, practitioners and census agencies.

The outputs will be relevant to both the global North and the global South. A first step
would be to review national level data. However, since much cultural employment is
urban (and usually concentrated in primary cities), further spatial breakdowns will be

3.10 Basic proposals for the measurement of the economic and social
contribution of culture

The purpose of the framework is not to provide an exhaustive list of indicators which
requires further development. This section provides a short list of basic indicators and
identifies different source of economic and social data which have proved to be useful for
the assessment of the economic and social contributions of culture.

Economic data

Different survey instruments can be used to assess the contribution of culture to the
economy (see Figure 10), i.e. determining the percentage of GDP attributed to culture
using annual economic surveys, national accounts or business surveys. Household
expenditure surveys can determine the spending of households on culture, while public
spending is assessed using government expenditure data.

- 49 -
Figure 10. Examples of indicators for measuring the economic contribution of

Estimating economic contribution

Contribution Indicator Unit of measure Source
Volume of economic Gross Value-Added or Annual economic
activity by value Gross Domestic Product surveys
Component of economic activity
System of national
accounted for by the cultural
Share of total economic % of total GVA/GDP Annual economic
activity by value surveys
Volume of employment Number of employees Annual business
(headcount or full-time surveys
equivalent) Labour force surveys
Census surveys
Employment in the cultural Share of total % of total employment Annual business
sector employment surveys
Volume of self- Number of self- Household surveys
employment employment jobs
Average earnings (in Value in constant USD Earnings surveys
sector occupations)
Stock of businesses Number of businesses Business registration
by size (employment data and annual
and/or business business surveys
Component of business base revenue)
accounted for by the cultural
sector Share of stock of % of stock of Business registration
businesses businesses by size data and annual
(employment and/or business surveys
business revenue)
Volume of trade by Export value Annual economic
Foreign trade accounted for by value surveys
the cultural sector Share of total foreign % of export value Annual economic
trade surveys
Volume of investment Value in constant USD Annual business
Investment by enterprises in the
Level of investment % of GVA/GDP
cultural sector
Volume of public Value in constant USD Annual business
investment surveys
Volume of self- Number of self- Household surveys
employment employment jobs
Enterprise associated with the Business start-up rate Number of new Business registration
cultural sector business registrations and census data
per 10,000 head of
Household expenditure culture Volume of culture % of expenditure in Household expenditure
sector expenditure culture surveys

- 50 -
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has developed guidelines to
determine the contribution of the copyright industries to the economy (WIPO, 2003). The
identification of goods and services that generate intellectual property rights is a key
component of the contribution of culture to the economy. Nevertheless, the WIPO
definition of the cultural sector differs from that used in this framework because it does
not cover areas where no intellectual property rights are involved, such as with cultural
Finance data for culture is another area that will require further methodological
development to obtain international comparable data. Three sources of finance for
culture are identified: i) public (mainly from government or public institutions); ii) private
(from the market); and iii) non-profit organisations, donations, etc. Current data do not
provide a clear picture of these three different sources of financing for culture. The Task
Force on Cultural Expenditure and Finance recognised the impossibility of obtaining
comparable and harmonised data on public finance for culture in European countries
(European Commission, 2001). The different structures of public finance (centralised or
not) and methodologies used among different countries made the comparison extremely
Social data
Figure 11 proposes some indicators to assess some aspects of the social dimension of
culture. They mainly refer to measurement of cultural participation using household
surveys or time use surveys.
Figure 11. Examples of indicators for measuring social contribution to culture
Estimating social contribution (participation)
Contribution Indicator Unit of measure Source

Consumption of Volumes and value of Number of visits, uses, Household surveys

cultural goods and attendance/consumption receptions and surveys at
services (both digital sites/events
and non-digital) Spending on entrance Household surveys
fees and travel costs and surveys at
Frequency of Number of visits, uses Household surveys
attendance/consumption and receptions per and surveys at
annum sites/events
Share of population % of population Time use surveys
directly accessing cultural (disaggregate as
products and services appropriate for age,
gender, ethnicity, etc.)
Duration of access Hours per month

Participation in cultural Volume of participation in Number of Household surveys

creation (not on a activities participation activities
professional basis) Frequency of Number of Household surveys
participation in activities participation activities
per annum
Share of population % of population Household surveys
participating in cultural (disaggregate for age,
creation gender, ethnicity, etc.)
Duration of participation Hours per month Time use surveys

- 51 -
Other dimensions of culture

Other dimensions of culture work are still required in order to fit some areas of culture
into the framework, particularly for some social elements of culture and their impact on
society. The relationship between culture and the environment which, to some extent, is
included in the 'Cultural and Natural Heritage' domain needs further consideration,
especially with regard to sustainability. The relationship between social capital and
culture might be debated. The relationship between culture and well-being has been a
major discussion point, leading to relationships between culture and health. Topics such
as health and environment in the largest sense extend well beyond culture, and the
debate here may be more about linkages between culture and other statistical domains.
For example, this could include the potential impact on general health of practising a
cultural activity, such as playing a musical instrument (Michalos, 2003 and 2005).

Box 1. Film policy

Film policy is probably the one area where most efforts have been exerted internationally to
develop indicators for measuring cultural diversity. The new Cultural Test for British Films,
brought in by the United Kingdom’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) in
December 2005, is an interesting example of one such recent attempt.

The aim of the test is to better identify ‘culturally British films’ that are eligible for the new British
film tax relief. It aims to offer better targeted support and remove uncertainty for applicants. The
test awards points to various elements that contribute to the overall cultural value of a film. This
includes the use of British ‘cultural hubs’ (e.g. locations, special effects, post-production
facilities, etc.), practitioners and content. Every section is given a certain number of points. For
example, within the cultural hubs section, 10 points are awarded if the studio and visual effects
used in the film are based in the United Kingdom. A maximum of 13 points is given in relation to
the nationality of the creative practitioners (e.g. producers, directors, writers, actors). Within the
content section, only 1 point is given if the film is based on a British subject matter or underlying
material, or the dialogue is in English. A film qualifies for tax relief if it scores more than 16
points out of 32.

As the weighting indicates, many of the key measures used in the cultural test are economic
indicators related to the de facto industrial policy for film in the United Kingdom. This is clearly
very different from the position in France, where the cultural test is much more dependent on
the use of the French language.

- 52 -
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Appendix I

Appendix I: Glossary
Cultural goods are defined as consumer goods that convey ideas, symbols and ways of
life, i.e. books, magazines, multimedia products, software, recordings, films, videos,
audio-visual programmes, crafts and fashion.

Cultural services are aimed at satisfying cultural interests or needs. Cultural services
do not represent cultural material goods in themselves but facilitate their production and
distribution. For example, cultural services include licensing activities and other
copyright-related services, audio-visual distribution activities, promotion of performing
arts and cultural events, as well as cultural information services and the preservation of
books, recordings and artefacts (in libraries, documentation centres, museums), etc.

Cultural activities embody or convey cultural expressions, irrespective of the

commercial value they may have. Cultural activities may be an end in themselves or they
may contribute to the production of cultural goods and services.

Culture chain or cycle refers to the production of culture as a result of a series of

interlinked processes or stages that together form the cultural production chain or cycle,
value chain or supply chain.

Cultural industries produce and distribute cultural goods or services as defined above.

Cultural diversity refers to the many ways in which the different cultures of groups and
societies find expression. These cultural expressions are passed on within and among
groups and societies, and from generation to generation. Cultural diversity, however, is
evident not only in the varied ways in which cultural heritage is expressed, augmented
and transmitted but also in the different modes of artistic creation, production,
dissemination, distribution and enjoyment, whatever the means and technologies that
are used.

Cultural participation is participation in the arts and everyday life activities that may be
associated with a particular culture. It refers to “the ways in which ethnically-marked
differences in cultural tastes, values and behaviours inform not just artistic and media
preferences but are embedded in the daily rhythms of different ways of life; and of the
ways in which these connect with other relevant social characteristics – those of class
and gender, for example”. (Bennett, 2001)

Informal sector is broadly characterised as comprising production units that operate on

a small scale and at a low level of organization, with little or no division between labour
and capital as factors of production, and with the primary objective of generating income
and employment for the persons concerned. Operationally, the sector is defined on a
country-specific basis as the set of unincorporated enterprises owned by households
which produce at least some products for the market but which either have less than a
specified number of employees and/or are not registered under national legislation
referring, for example, to tax or social security obligations or regulatory acts. (OECD,

Intangible heritage is defined as “the practices, representations, expressions,

knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces

- 57 -
Appendix I

associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals

recognise as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted
from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in
response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and
provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural
diversity and human creativity”. (UNESCO, 2003)

Indigenous and tribal peoples include:

 “tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic
conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and
whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by
special laws or regulations; and
 peoples in independent countries who are regarded as indigenous on account of
their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical
region to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation or the
establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status,
retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions."
(ILO, 1989)

Traditional knowledge “refers to the knowledge, innovations and practices of

indigenous and local communities around the world. Developed from experience gained
over the centuries and adapted to the local culture and environment, traditional
knowledge is transmitted orally from generation to generation. It tends to be collectively
owned and takes the form of stories, songs, folklore, proverbs, cultural values, beliefs,
rituals, community laws, local language and agricultural practices, including the
development of plant species and animal breeds. Traditional knowledge is mainly of a
practical nature, particularly in such fields as agriculture, fisheries, health, horticulture,
forestry and environmental management in general”. (SCBD, 2007)

- 58 -
Appendix II

Appendix II: List of consultees

Meetings and networks at which the framework was presented for comment:

Asia Cultural Co-operation Forum, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China,

China International Cultural Industries Forum, Shenzhen, China, 2007

Convenio Andrés Bello, Bogota, Colombia, 2007

Friederich Nauman Stiftung, 4th Conference on Creative Industries, Berlin, Germany


IFACCA Researchers Network, Singapore, 2007

7th Northumbria Conference on Library Performance Statistics, Stellenbosch, South

Africa, 2007

OECD Expert Meeting on Cultural Statistics, Paris, France, 2006

UNESCO Expert Group on Measuring Cultural Diversity, Montreal, Canada, 2007

UNESCO Conceptual Workshop for the World Report on Cultural Diversity, Paris, 2007

Round table: The interactions between public and private financing of the arts and
culture, Erasmus University and Boekman Foundation, Amsterdam, 2007

Individuals and Organisations who submitted formal written comments:

Australian Bureau of Statistics

Policy Research Group, the Cultural Trade and Investment Branch and Arts Policy
Branch, Department of Canadian, Heritage, Canada

- 59 -
Appendix III

Appendix III: Culture defined using international classifications

1. Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC)
A. Cultural and Natural Heritage
1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage

Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1

Dissemination 84510 Library services 84510
Exhibition/reception 96411 Museum services except for historical sites and buildings 96411
96421 Botanical and zoological garden services 96421
96422 Nature reserve services including wildlife preservation services 96422
Archiving/preserving 83214 Historical restoration architectural services 83211*, 83212*, 83219*
96412 Preservation services of historical sites and buildings 96412
84520 Archive services 84520
Education/training 92911 Cultural education services (museum education services) 92900*

* All codes under CPC 1 marked with an asterisk (*) signal that only some of the activities under the CPC 1 code fall under the CPC 2 code.

- 60 -
Appendix III

B. Performance and Celebration

1. Core: Performing Arts, Music , Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Creation 96310 Services of performing artists 96310
Producing 96111 Sound recording services 96111*, 96130*
96112 Live recording services 96111*, 96130*
96113 Sound recording originals -
Exhibition/reception 96230 Performing arts facility operation services 96230
96290 Other performing arts and live entertainment services 96290
96220 Performing arts event production and presentation services 96220
Dissemination 96210 Performing arts event promotion and organization services 96210
95997 Cultural and recreational associations (other than sports or games) 95999*
89122 Reproduction services of recorded media, on a fee or contract basis
Archiving/preserving -
Education/training 92911 Cultural education services 92900*

Music is problematic in that it logically spans the 'Audio-visual' domain as well as 'Performance and Celebration'. Activities related to recorded
music are mostly included in this category. However, activities such as the distributive activities of wholesale and retail are included within the
'Audio-visual' domain when these codes combine audio, video and broadcast activities.

- 61 -
Appendix III

2. Expanded
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Producing 38991 Festive, carnival or other entertainment articles, including conjuring tricks and novelty jokes 38991
38310 Pianos and other keyboard stringed musical instruments 38310
38320 Other string musical instruments 38320
38330 Wind musical instruments (including pipe organs, accordions and brass-wind instruments) 38330
38340 Musical instruments, the sound of which is produced, or must be amplified, electrically 38340
Other musical instruments (including percussion instruments, musical boxes and fairground
38350 organs); decoy calls; whistles, call horns and other mouth-blown sound signalling instruments 38350
38360 Parts and accessories of musical instruments; metronomes, tuning forks and pitch pipes 38360
47321 Sound recording or reproducing apparatus 47321, 47322
Dissemination 32520 Music, printed or in manuscript 32260
47610 Musical audio disks, tapes or other physical media 47520*
Archiving/preserving -
Education/training 92911 Cultural education services 92900*
It should include sound recording apparatus for music recording only.

- 62 -
Appendix III

C. Visual Arts, Crafts1 and Design

1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Creation 83911 Interior design services 83410
83919 Other specialty design services 83490
83920 Design originals
81229 Research and experimental development services in other humanities 81210*, 81290*
38220 Cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones, and reconstructed precious or semi- 38220
Producing precious stones (except industrial diamonds)
38240 Jewellery, other articles of precious metal/metal clad with precious metal; articles of 38240
natural or cultured pearls or precious or semi-precious stones
38961 Paintings, drawings and pastels; original engravings, prints and lithographs; original 38960
sculptures and statuary, in any material
38962 Postage or revenue stamps, stamp-postmarks, first-day covers, postal stationery 38960
(stamped paper) and the like; collections and collectors' pieces of zoological, botanical,
mineralogical, anatomical, historical, ethnographic or numismatic interest; antiques
38210 Pearls, natural or cultured and unworked 38210
Education/training 92911 Cultural education services (for visual arts, design and craft) 92900*

The CPC does not offer any real solutions to the essential difficulty of measuring craft activity within statistical classifications. That is, products
are generally defined by their form or type (e.g. ‘statuettes and other ceramic articles’, ‘carpets and other textile floor coverings’) and not by the
method of their production, i.e. artisanal or industrialised. Thus, our approach is to use codes where the materials used and/or product types
indicate that the activities are least likely to involve mass production and comparatively more likely to be crafts-based.

- 63 -
Appendix III

2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material

Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1

Creation 83211 Architectural advisory services 83211*
83212 Architectural services for residential building projects 83211*, 83212*, 83219*
83213 Architectural services for non-residential building projects 83211*, 83212*, 83219*
83231 Landscape architectural advisory services 83222
83232 Landscape architectural services 83222
83611 Planning, creating and placement services of advertising 83610
83613 Advertising design and concept development 83610
Producing 83619 Other advertising services 83690
35120 Artists', students' or signboard painters' colours, modifying tints, amusement colours and the 35120
Dissemination 83620 Purchase or sale of advertising space or time, on commission 83620
83631 Sale of advertising space in print media (except on commission) 83631
83633 Sale of Internet advertising space (except on commission) 83633
83639 Sale of other advertising space or time (except on commission) 83639
83632 Sale of TV/radio advertising time (except on commission) 83632
Exhibition/reception -
The code 32550 ('Plans and drawings for architectural, engineering, industrial, commercial, topographical or similar purposes, being originals
drawn by hand; hand-written texts; photographic reproductions and carbon copies of the foregoing related to plans and drawing of architecture') is
not included because it does not make the distinction between cultural and non-cultural products.

- 64 -
Appendix III

D. Books and Press

1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Creation 96320 Services of authors, composers, sculptors and other artists, except performing artists 96230
96330 Original works of authors, composers and other artists except performing artists, painters and sculptors
81229 Research and experimental development services in other humanities 81210*, 81290*
Producing 89110 Publishing, on a fee or contract basis 89110
84410 News agency services to newspapers and periodicals 84410
32300 Newspapers, journals and periodicals, appearing at least four times a week 32300
32410 General interest newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print 32400
32420 Business, professional or academic newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print 32400
32490 Other newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print 32400
32510 Maps, similar charts and wall maps other than in book-form 32250
32210 Educational textbooks, in print 32210*, 32230*
32220 General reference books, in print 32210*, 32220*,
32230*, 32240
32291 Professional, technical and scholarly books, in print 32210*, 32230*
32292 Children's books, in print 32210*, 32230*
32299 Other books n.e.c., in print 32210*, 32230*
81221 Research and experimental development services in languages and literature 81240*
81229 Research and experimental development services in other humanities 81210*, 81290*
Dissemination 84311 On-line books 84300*
84312 On-line newspapers and periodicals 84300*
47691 Audio books on disk, tape or other physical media 47520*
47692 Text-based disks, tapes or other physical media 47520*
62551 Retail trade services on a fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 62551
62451 Other non-store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 62451
62351 Mail order retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 62351
62251 Specialized store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 62251
62151 Non-specialized store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 62151
61251 Wholesale trade services on a fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 61251
61151 Wholesale trade services, except on fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery 61151
Exhibition/reception -
Archiving/preserving -
Education/training -

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2. Expanded
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Producing 32800 Composed type, prepared printing plates or cylinders, impressed lithographic stones or other impressed 32700
media for use in printing
44914 Bookbinding machinery; machinery for type-setting and the like; printing machinery and machines for 44914*
uses ancillary to printing (except office type sheet fed offset printing machinery)
89121 Printing services and services related to printing, on a fee or contract basis 89121
Exhibition/reception -
Archiving/preserving -
Education/training -

This is a problematic code as, while it clearly covers authors, it also covers many other types of (individual) cultural creation activities.
Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to more accurately allocate activities within this class
across the domains.
The inability to distinguish between printing of items with a cultural end use, e.g. books and newspapers, within the generalised CPC 'Printing'
category 89121 means that this has been omitted from this table.

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E. Audio-visual and Digital Media

1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Creation 96121 Motion picture, videotape and television programme production services 96121*, 96130*, 96149*
96122 Radio programme production services 96122, 96130*, 96149*
83814 Specialty photography services
83813 Action photography services
83811 Portrait photography services
Producing 96139 Other post-production services 96142*
96137 Sound editing and design services 96112*, 96142*
96136 Captioning, titling and subtitling services 96142*
96135 Animation services 96121*
96134 Visual effects services 96142*
96133 Colour correction and digital restoration services 96142*
96132 Transfers and duplication of masters services 96112*, 96142*
96131 Audio-visual editing services 96112*, 96142*
96123 Motion picture, videotape, television and radio programme originals -
84631 Broadcasting (programming and scheduling) services 96160
84622 Television channel programmes -
84621 Radio channel programmes -
84612 Television broadcast originals -
84611 Radio broadcast originals -
84420 News agency services to audio-visual media
83820 Photography processing services
83819 Other photographic services
73320 Licensing services for the right to use entertainment, literary or acoustic originals
47699 Other non-musical audio disks and tapes 47520*
47620 Films and other video content on disks, tape or other physical media 47520*
47610 Musical audio disks, tapes or other physical media 47520*
38950 Motion picture film, exposed and developed, whether or not incorporating sound track or
consisting only of sound track
38942 Photographic plates and film, exposed and developed, other than cinematographic film 38942
38941 Photographic plates, film, paper, paperboard and textiles, exposed but not developed 38941
32540 Printed pictures, designs and photographs 32540

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Dissemination 96140 Motion picture, videotape, television and radio programme distribution services 96141
84634 Home programme distribution services, pay-per-view 84170*
84633 Home programme distribution services, discretionary programming package 84170*
84632 Home programme distribution services, basic programming package 84170*
84332 Streaming video content 84300*
84331 Films and other video downloads -
84322 Streaming audio content 84300*
84321 Musical audio downloads -
73220 Leasing or rental services concerning videotapes and disks
62542 Retail trade services of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks 62542
and tapes
62442 Other non-store retail trade services, radio and television equipment and recorded audio and 62442
video disks and tapes
62342 Mail order retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and 62342
video disks and tapes
62242 Specialized store retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded audio 62242
and video disks and tapes
62142 Non-specialized store retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded 62142
audio and video disks and tapes
61242 Wholesale trade services, on a fee contract basis of radio and television equipment and
recorded audio and video disks and tapes 61242
61142 Wholesale trade services, except on a fee contract basis of radio and television equipment 61142
and recorded audio and video disks and tapes
Exhibition/reception 96151 Motion picture projection services
96152 Videotape projection services
Archiving/preserving 83815 Restoration and retouching services of photography
Education/training 92911 Cultural education services (broadcast and film) 92900*

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2. Expanded
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Producing 48342 Chemical preparations for photographic uses
48341 Photographic plates and film and instant print film, sensitized, unexposed
48323 Cinematographic projectors, slide projectors and other image projectors, except microform
48322 Photographic (including cinematographic) cameras
47530 Magnetic media, not recorded, except cards with a magnetic stripe 47510*
47590 Other recording media, including matrices and masters for the production of disks 47510*
38580 Video games of a kind used with a television receiver 38580
47530 Magnetic media, not recorded, except cards with a magnetic stripe 47510*
47540 Optical media, not recorded 47510*
47550 Solid-state non-volatile storage devices 47510*
47590 Other recording media, including matrices and masters for the production of disks 47510*
Dissemination 47311 Radio broadcast receivers (except of a kind used in motor vehicles), whether or not 47311, 47332
combined with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock
47312 Radio broadcast receivers not capable of operating without an external source of power, of a 47312
kind used in motor vehicles
47212 Television cameras
47211 Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or
47220 Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy; video phones
46520 Photographic flashbulbs, flashcubes and the like
47323 Video recording or reproducing apparatus 47323*
47313 Television receivers, whether or not combined with radio-broadcast receivers or sound or 47313*
video recording or reproducing apparatus
47214 Video camera recorders 47323*
47215 Digital cameras 47323*
47213 Television cameras 47212
As with other classifications, the CPC has a good coverage of audio-visual activities. However, there are still a number of issues in using the
classification to fully and accurately capture audio-visual activities:

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Appendix III

• 73320 ‘Licensing services for the right to use entertainment, literary or acoustic originals’ clearly covers both audio-visual activities and
those that fall within other cultural domains. Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to
more accurately allocate activities within this class across the different domains.

• Distributive activities related to photography (wholesale and retail) are insufficiently disaggregated within the CPC as they are combined
with ‘Optical and precision equipment’, these codes were thus omitted from the framework.

• Retail trade services of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes cover both core and expanded
domains. Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to more accurately allocate activities
within this class across both domains.

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Appendix III

F. Tourism, Sport and Leisure

1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions
Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Creation 96510 Sports and recreational sports event promotion services 96510
96610 Services of athletes 96610
97230 Physical well-being services 97230
85511 Reservation services for air transportation 67811*, 67813*
85512 Reservation services for rail transportation 67811*, 67813*
85513 Reservation services for bus transportation 67811*, 67813*
85514 Reservation services for vehicle rental 67811*, 67813*
85519 Other transportation arrangement and reservation services, n.e.c. 67811*, 67813*
85521 Reservation services for accommodation 67811*, 67813*
85522 Time-share exchange services 67813*
85523 Reservation services for cruises 67811*, 67813*
85524 Reservation services for package tours 67811*, 67813*
85531 Reservation services for convention centers, congress centers and exhibit halls 67813*
85539 Reservation services for event tickets, entertainment and recreational services and other 96230*, 96411*, 96421*,
reservation services 96422*, 96520*, 96910*
85540 Tour operator services 67812
85550 Tourist guide services 67820
85561 Tourism promotion services 67813*
85562 Visitor information services 67813*
Producing 96512 Services of sports clubs 96510
96990 Other recreation and amusement services n.e.c. 96990
96620 Support services related to sports and recreation 96620
96590 Other sports and recreational sports services 96590
63111 Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, with daily housekeeping services 63110
63112 Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, without daily housekeeping services 63191*, 63192*
63113 Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, in time-share properties 63191*, 63192*
63114 Accommodation services for visitors, in rooms for multiple occupancy 63193, 63199*
63120 Camp site services 63195
63130 Recreational vacation camp services 63191*, 63194
63220 Room or unit accommodation services for workers in workers hostels or camps 63199*
63290 All other room or unit accommodation services 63199*
91136 Administrative services related to tourism affairs 91136

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Exhibition/reception 96520 Sports and recreational sports facility operation services 96520
96910 Amusement park and similar attraction services 96910
Dissemination 85539 Reservation services for event tickets, entertainment and recreational services and other 96230*, 96411*, 96421*,
reservation services 96422*, 96520*, 96910*
64131 Sightseeing services by rail 64212
64132 Sightseeing services by land, except rail 64319
64133 Sightseeing services by water 65219
64134 Sightseeing services by air 66120*
Archiving/preserving –
Education/training 92912 Sports and recreation education services 96620*
Tourism is qualitatively different from the other cultural domains as it cannot readily be classified as a sector in the traditional sense, i.e. as
measured by either particular market or industrial outputs. Rather, tourism is better understood as a demand-driven, consumer-defined activity,
and as such, it is intimately linked with all of the other domains within the cultural sector as each contain activities that are regularly undertaken by
tourists. For this reason, there is also a now well-established international methodology for measuring the economic impact of tourism, based on
constructing satellite accounts (e.g. see Eurostat, OECD, UN and WTO, 2001). Therefore, within this domain, core tourism activities were
considered (e.g. tourist guides and tour operators) as well as those activities outside of the cultural sector in which tourists are likely to account for
the bulk of activities (e.g. accommodation).

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2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys

Function CPC 2 Description CPC 1
Producing 96930 Coin-operated amusement machine services 96930
38600 Roundabouts, swings, shooting galleries and other fairground amusements 38600
38590 Other articles for funfair or table games except video games of a kind used with a TV receiver 38590
49490 Other vessels for pleasure or sports; rowing boats and canoes 49490
49410 Sailboats (except inflatable), with or without auxiliary motor 49410
38450 Fishing rods and other line fishing tackle; fish landing nets, butterfly nets and similar nets 38450
38440 Other articles and equipment for sports or outdoor games 38440
38440 Gymnasium or athletics articles and equipment 38430
38420 Water-skis, surf-boards, sailboards and other water-sport equipment 38420
38410 Snow-skis and other snow-ski equipment; ice-skates and roller-skates 38410
29490 Other sports footwear, except skating boots 29490
29420 Tennis shoes, basketball shoes, gym shoes, training shoes and the like 29420
29410 Ski-boots, snowboard boots and cross-country ski footwear 29410
29210 Saddlery and harness, for any animal, of any material 29210
28236 Track suits, ski suits, swimwear and other garments, of textile fabric, not knitted 28236
28228 Track suits, ski suits, swimwear and other garments, knitted or crocheted n.e.c. 28228
Exhibition/reception 96921 On-line gambling services 96920
96929 Other gambling and betting services 96920
53270 Outdoor sport and recreation facilities 53270
Dissemination 62555 Retail trade services on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 62555
62355 Mail order retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 62355
62255 Specialized store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 62255
62455 Other non-store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 62455
62155 Non-specialized store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 62155
61255 Wholesale trade services on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 61255
61155 Wholesale trade services, except on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) 61155
73240 Leasing or rental services concerning pleasure and leisure equipment
38510 Dolls' carriages; wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children 38510
38520 Dolls representing human beings; toys representing animals or non-human creatures 38520
38530 Parts and accessories of dolls representing human beings 38530
38540 Toy electric trains, and tracks, signals and other accessories therefore; reduced-size ("scale") 38540
model assembly kits and other construction sets and constructional toys
38550 Puzzles 38550

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Appendix III

38560 Other toys (including toy musical instruments) 38560

38570 Playing cards 38570
38580 Video games of a kind used with a television receiver 38580
38590 Other articles for funfair, table or parlour games (including articles for billiards, pintables, 38590
special tables for casino games and automatic bowling alley equipment), except video games
of a kind used with a television receiver

2. Using the International Standard Industrial Classification

A. Cultural and Natural Heritage

1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage

ISIC 4 Description Functions CPC 2

9101 Library and archives activities Dissemination, 84510, 84520
9102 Museums activities and operation of historical sites and buildings Exhibition/reception, 96411, 96412
9103 Botanical and zoological gardens and nature reserves activities Exhibition/reception, 96421, 96422
8542 Cultural education Education/training 92911

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B. Performance and Celebration

1. Core: Performing Arts, Music, Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
9000 Creative, arts and entertainment activities Creation, exhibition/reception 96210, 96220, 96230, 96290, 96310
3290 Other manufacturing not elsewhere classified Producing 38991
5920 Sound recording and music publishing activities Dissemination 32520
4762 Retail sale of music and video recordings in specialized stores Dissemination
8542 Cultural education Education/training 92911

This code is also part of the category 'Visual Arts for the Fine Arts'.
Authors and composers can be classified in this category.
The ISIC being less detailed than CPC, many categories are not individually identified. This code corresponds to 'Festive article' in CPC.

2. Expanded
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
3290 Other manufacturing not elsewhere classified Producing 38991
3220 Manufacture of musical instruments Producing 38310, 38320, 38360, 38330,
38340, 38350, 38360
1820 Reproduction of recorded media Producing, dissemination 89122
The ISIC being less detailed than CPC, many categories are not individually identified. This code corresponds to 'Festive article' in CPC.

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Appendix III

C. Visual Arts, Crafts and Design

1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
9000 Creative, arts and entertainment activities Creation, exhibition/reception 96210, 96220, 96230, 96290, 96310
7410 Specialized design activities Creation 83911, 83919, 83920
8542 Cultural education in visual arts Education/training 92911

It is difficult to measure craft with the ISIC, which generally covers industrial activities.
This code is also part of the category 'Visual Arts for the Fine Arts'. It includes painters and sculptors.

2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material

ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
7110 Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy Creation 83211, 83212, 83213, 83214,
83231, 83232
7310 Advertising Creation, dissemination 83611, 83613, 83919, 83920
3211 Manufacture of jewellery and related articles Producing 38220, 38240

It is necessary to evaluate the only part related to architectural activities. ISIC codes do not distinguish the different types of architectural
activities (landscape, historical restoration, etc.).

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Appendix III

D. Books and Press

1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing

ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2

5811 Book publishing Creation, producing 32210, 32220, 32291, 32292, 32299,
32510, 47691, 47692, 84311
6321 News agency activities Producing, dissemination 84410
5813 Publishing of newspapers, journals and periodicals Producing 32300, 32410, 3240, 32490, 84312
4761 Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationary in specialized stores Dissemination 62551

2. Expanded

ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2

1811 Printing Producing 89121
1812 Service activities related to printing Producing 89121

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Appendix III

E. Audio-visual and Digital Media

1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
5911 Motion picture, video and television programme production activities Producing 38950, 47620, 84331, 5911
5912 Motion picture, video and television programme post-production activities Producing 38950, 96131, 96132, 96133, 96134,
96135, 96136, 96137, 96139
5913 Motion picture, video and television programme distribution activities Dissemination, 96140
5914 Motion picture projection activities Exhibition/reception 96151, 59152
6010 Radio broadcasting Producing, 84611, 84621, 84631*, 96122
6020 Television programming and broadcasting activities Producing, 84612, 84622, 84631*, 96121
4742 Retail sale of audio and video equipment in specialized stores Dissemination 62142
7729 Renting of video tapes and disks Dissemination 73220
5819 Other publishing activities Producing 32540
6321 News agency activities Producing 84420
7420 Photographic activities Producing 83811, 83813, 83814, 83815, 83819,
83820, 38941, 38942
8542 Cultural education on media Education/training 92911

Printed pictures, designs and photographs.

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Appendix III

2. Expanded
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
2680 Manufacture of magnetic and optical media Producing 47530, 47590
2670 Manufacture of optical instruments and equipment Producing, 47215, 48322, 48323
2640 Manufacture of consumer electronics Producing, 47214, 47220, 47311, 47312, 47313,
dissemination 47321, 47323, 88234*
2630 Manufacture of communication equipment Producing, 47211, 47212, 47213, 47323 88234*
6110 Wired telecommunications activities Dissemination 84632
6120 Wireless telecommunications activities Dissemination 84633
6130 Satellite telecommunications activities Dissemination 84634
Only part related to audio, broadcast and cinema activities.
* All codes under CPC 2 marked with an asterisk (*) signal that only some of the activities under the CPC 2 code fall under the ISIC 4 code.

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Appendix III

F. Sports, Leisure and Tourism

1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions
ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
4763 Retail sale of sporting equipment in specialized stores Dissemination
7721 Renting and leasing of recreational and sports goods Dissemination 73220
9311 Operation of sports facilities Producing, dissemination 96520
9312 Activities of sports clubs Producing, dissemination 96512
9319 Other sports activities Producing, dissemination 96610
9321 Activities of amusement parks and theme parks Producing, dissemination 96910
9329 Other amusement and recreation activities n.e.c. Producing, dissemination 96990
8541 Sports and recreation education Education/training 92912
7911 Travel agency activities Dissemination 85511
7912 Tour operator activities Dissemination 85511
7990 Other reservation service and related activities Dissemination
5510 Short term accommodation activities Dissemination 63110, 63191, 63192,
63193, 63194, 63195,
5520 Camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks Dissemination 63120

2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys

ISIC 4 Description Function CPC 2
3240 Manufacture of games and toys Producing 38510
3012 Building of pleasure and sporting boats Producing
4764 Retail sale of games and toys in specialized stores Producing 38410, 38420, 38430,
9200 Gambling and betting activities Dissemination 96921, 96929

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Appendix III

3. Using the International Standard Classification of Occupations

The codes used in this section are taken from the draft ISCO 08 (to be published in 2008).

A. Cultural and Natural Heritage

1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88

Creation 2632 Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals 2442
1120 Managing directors and chief executives 1210
Producing 1431 Sports, recreation and cultural centre managers 1319 part
Dissemination 3443 Gallery, library and museum technicians New group
1346 Other professional services managers: library manager, museum manager, 1319 part
Exhibition/reception archives manager
5154 Pet groomers and animal care workers: It includes zookeeper
Archiving/preserving 2133 Environmental protection professionals 2211 part
2621 Archivists and curators 2431
2622 Librarians and related information professionals 2432
4141 Library and filing clerks 4141

Include archeologists and conservators.
Include managers of cultural enterprises and institutions, and directors of museums.
Include managers of art galleries or museums.
Include professionals working in protected areas.

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Appendix III

B. Performance and Celebration

1. Core: Performing Arts, Music , Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Creation 2659 Creative and performing artists not elsewhere classified: Other live performers (music hall artists, 3474
ventriloquists, bull fighters, tap dancers etc.); community arts worker, clowns, magicians and
related workers
Producing 2653 Dancers and choreographers 2454 - 3473, part
2652 Musicians, singers and composers 2453, 3473, part
5142 Beauticians and related workers: make-up artists 5141 part
5141 Hairdressers: wig dressers 5141 part
Exhibition/reception 1346 Other professional services managers: Performing arts and festival managers 1319 part
Education/training 2353 Other language teachers 2359, part
2354 Other music teachers 2359, part
2355 Other arts teachers 2359, part
2310 University and higher education teachers in music
2320 Vocational education teachers in music 2310, 2320
2330 Secondary education teachers in music 2320
2340 Primary school teachers in music 2331, 3310

2. Expanded

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88

Creation/producing 7312 Musical instrument makers and tuners 7312
Music is problematic in that it logically spans the 'Audio-visual' domain as well as 'Performance and Celebration'. Activities related to
recorded music are mostly included in this category. However, activities such as the distributive activities of wholesale and retail are
included within the 'Audio-visual' domain when these codes combine audio, video and broadcast activities

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Appendix III

C. Visual Arts, Crafts and Design

1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Creation 2163 Product and garment designers 3471
2166 Graphic and multimedia designers 3471 part
2651 Visual artists 2452
3442 Interior designers and decorators 3471, part
Producing 3118 Draughtspersons 3118
7314 Potters and related workers (handicraft workers) 7321
7315 Glass makers, cutters, grinders and finishers (handicraft workers) 7322
7316 Sign writers, decorative painters, engravers and etchers (handicraft workers) 7323, 7324
7317 Handicraft workers in wood, basketry and related materials 7331, 7431, 7432
7318 Handicraft workers in textile, leather and related materials 7332
7319 Handicraft workers not elsewhere classified 7221, part
7522 Cabinet-makers and related workers (handicraft workers) 7422
7531 Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and hatters 7433, 7434
7532 Textile, leather and related pattern-makers and cutters 7435
7533 Sewers, embroiderers and related workers 7436
7113 Stonemasons, stone cutters, splitters and carvers (handicraft workers) 7113, 7122, part
7115 Carpenters and joiners (handicraft workers) 7124
7313 Jewellery and precious-metal workers 7313
7534 Upholsterers and related workers (handicraft workers) 7437
7535 Pelt dressers, tanners and fellmongers (handicraft workers) 7441
7536 Shoemakers and related workers (handicraft workers) 7442
Dissemination 1346 Other professional services managers: art gallery manager 1319 part
Education/training 2310 University and higher education teachers in visual arts
2320 Vocational education teachers in visual arts 2310, 2320
2330 Secondary education teachers in visual arts 2320
2340 Primary school teachers in visual arts 2331, 3310
2355 Other arts teachers in visual arts 2359, part

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Appendix III

2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Creation 2161 Building architects 2141, part
2162 Landscape architects 2141, part
2164 Town and traffic planners 2141, part
2165 Cartographers and surveyors 2148
Producing 7322 Printers: Silk-screen, block and textile printers (handicraft workers) 7346, 8161
7521 Wood treaters 7421
Dissemination 1222 Advertising and public relations managers 1234, 1317 part
2431 Advertising and marketing professionals 2419, part

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Appendix III

D. Books and Press

1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Creation 2641 Authors and related writers 2451
Producing, dissemination 2646 Journalists 2451

2. Expanded
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Producing 7341 Pre-press technicians (includes: compositors, typesetters and related workers, printing 7341, 7342, 7343
engravers and etchers)
7322 Printers 7346, 8161
7343 Print finishing and binding workers 7345, 8162

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Appendix III

E. Audio-visual and Digital Media

1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Creation 3441 Photographers 3131, part
Producing 2654 Film, stage and related directors and producers 2455, part - 1229, part
2655 Film, stage and related actors 2455, part
Artistic associate professionals not elsewhere classified: Includes script-girl/boy,
3449 prompter, stage manager 3449
Dissemination 2656 Announcers on radio, television and other media 3472
Education/training 2310 University and higher education teachers in audio-visual and multimedia 2310, 2320
2320 Vocational education teachers in audio-visual and multimedia 2310, 2320

2. Expanded
Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Producing 8132 Photographic products machine operators 7344, 8224
Dissemination 3521 Broadcasting and sound and vision recording technicians 3131, part 3132

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Appendix III

F. Sports, Leisure and Tourism

1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88

Producing 3441 Athletes and sports players 3475 part
Dissemination 1432 Sports, recreation and cultural centre managers 1319 part
4221 Travel agency and related clerks 4221
5111 Travel attendants and travel stewards
5113 Travel guides
Education/training 3442 Sports coaches, instructors and officials 3475, part
3443 Fitness and recreation instructors and program leaders 3475, part

2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Dissemination 4212 Bookmakers, croupiers and related gambling workers 4213
4213 Pawnbrokers and money-lenders 4214


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Appendix III

Intangible Heritage

ISCO is the only classification that could allow some assessment of the number of occupations related to traditional knowledge.
The following codes have been identified as pertinent for this domain but further work is required for the identification of these
professions such as the integration of some craft professions.

Function ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88

Producing 1113 Traditional chiefs and heads of village 1130
2636 Religious professionals 2460
5169 Personal services workers not elsewhere classified: Faith healers 3242
2230 Traditional and complementary medicine professionals 3241, 3229 part
3230 Traditional and complementary medicine associate professionals

Dissemination 3422 Religious associate professionals 3480


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