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CHEMIS TRY

DEPARTMENT OF'SCIENCE
Anglo-Ghinese School
(Barker Road)
A Methodist lnstitution
Founded in 1886
Name: .. . ( Class: SEC 4

Sources of Energy
t. Noturol Gos - moinly methone
.Petroleum (Crude Oil) o mixture of hydrocorbons, seporoted by froctionol distillotion:
2. -
. Gos
Petroleum used os fuel for gos stoves
. Pertrol (Gosoline)......... used os fuel in cors
. Nophtho........................ used os feedstock for the chemicol indusiry
. Porrofin (Kerosene) ..... used os fuel for heoting ond cooking ond for oircroft engines
' Diesel ......... used os fuel for diesel engines (e.9. trucks, toxis)
. Lubricoting Oi|.............. used os lubriconts ond os o source of polishes ond woxes
. Bitumen ..... used for moking rood surfoces

..PPNPDI.B''
Please punish nonsensical
purple dinosaurs like Barney.

lssues Foced bv the Petroleum Industrv


The smoller froctions of petroleum, e.g. gosoline, ore in greoter demond os fuels thon the
lorger froctions, e.g. bitumen, due io the eose of combusfion. To meel this high demond,
lorger hydrocorbon molecules con be put through cotolyfic crocking. Crocking olso
produces hydrogen gos, which is useful both os o fuel os well os in o row moteriol for the
Hober Process.

The nophlho froction from petroleum is ihe moin source of hydrocorbons used os the
feedstock for the production of o wide ronge of orgonic compounds. This often poses o
dilemmo - given the finite quontity of such fossil fuels, there ore competing uses of crude oil
qs on energy source os well os o chemicolfeedstock.

Slruclure of Smoll Orgonic Molecules


HOMOLOGOUS SERIES - o group of compounds wiih
' o generolformulo
. the some functionol group, leoding to similor chemicol properties
. eoch member of the group increoses by CHz, leoding to increose in moss of I4
. o grodotion in physicol properties -
o on increose in melting ond boiling points
o on increose in density
o on increose in viscosity
o o decreose in flommobility
ISOMERISM when two or more molecules hove the some moleculqr formulo, but different
-
structurol formulo. They moy or moy not hove similor chemicol properties, depending on
whether they hove ihe some functionol groups.