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Lecture 10.

Mechanical Properties
of Metals (2)

Learning Objectives

After this lecture, you should be able to do the following:

1. Understand elastic and plastic deformation.


2. Given an engineering stressstrain diagram, determine (a) the
modulus of elasticity, (b) the yield stress, and (c) the tensile strength and
(d) estimate the percentage elongation (ductility).
3. Understand (a) measures of energy capacity of materials (resilience
and toughness) and (b) hardness.

Reading
Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals (6.66.12)

Multimedia

Tensile tests: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwTF_-JZgt8;


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67fSwIjYJ-E;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K28WiL21Sgs

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 10 - 1

1. Elastic Deformation

Elastic deformation is nonpermanent: when the applied load is released, the


piece returns to its original shape (not breaking atomic bonds).
Hookes Law
E [Pa]: Modulus of elasticity, or Youngs modulus
Linear elastic deformation

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Nonlinear elastic deformation

Lecture 10 - 2

2. Plastic Deformation

Plastic deformation is irreversible.


Elastic deformation of metals: up to strain of about 0.005
Beyond this point, the stress is no longer proportional to strain, and plastic
deformation occurs.
Breaking of bonds with original atom neighbors and reformation of bonds with
new neighbors.

Mechanisms
Crystalline solids: slip
(Section 7.2)
Noncrystalline solids:
viscous flow mechanism
(Section 12.10)

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Lecture 10 - 3

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
return to
initial

F
Elastic means reversible!

Linearelastic

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Non-Linearelastic

Lecture 10 - 4

Plastic Deformation (Metals)


1. Initial

2. Small load
bonds
stretch
& planes
shear
elastic + plastic

F
Plastic means permanent!
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3. Unload
planes
still
sheared
plastic

F
linear
elastic

linear
elastic

plastic

Lecture 10 - 5

Plastic (Permanent) Deformation

(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < Tmelt/3)

Simple tension test:


Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress

engineering stress,

Elastic
initially

ep

permanent (plastic)
after load is removed
engineering strain, e
plastic strain

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Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a),


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Lecture 10 - 6

Yield Strength, y

Yield strength: The stress level at which plastic deformation begins, or


yielding occurs.
Yield point phenomenon

Yield Strength, y

P: Proportional limit
(onset of plastic
deformation at the
microscopic level

Strain offset of 0.002


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* Yield stress for nonlinear elastic deformation


(Figurer 6.6): stress required to produce
some amount of strain (e.g., =0.005)

Lecture 10 - 7

Yield Strength, y
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when ep = 0.002
tensile stress,

y = yield strength
Note: for 2 inch sample
e = 0.002 = z/z
z = 0.004 in

engineering strain, e

ep = 0.002
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Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a),


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
Lecture 10 - 8

Yield Strength : Comparison


Metals/
Alloys

200

Al (6061) ag
Steel (1020) hr
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500) hr

100
70
60
50
40

Al (6061) a

30
20

10

Tin (pure)

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dry

PC
Nylon 6,6
PET
PVC humid
PP
HDPE

Hard to measure,

300

Composites/
fibers

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

700
600
500
400

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a
W (pure)
Cu (71500) cw
Mo (pure)
Steel (4140) a
Steel (1020) cd

since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

1000

Polymers

Steel (4140) qt

Hard to measure ,

Yield strength, y (MPa)

2000

Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond

Room temperature
values
Based on data in Table B.4,
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered

LDPE
Lecture 10 - 9

VMSE: Virtual Tensile Testing

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Lecture 10 - 10

Tensile Strength, TS

stress

TS

M = Tensile strength (TS)

Necking

Tensile strength: Maximum


stress on engineering
stress-strain curve;
maximum stress that can be
sustained by the structure in
tension
If this stress is applied,
fracture will result.
F = Fracture or ultimate
strength
Neck acts as stress
concentrator; fracture
occurs at the neck.

strain

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.


Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are aligned and about to break.
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 10 - 11

Tensile Strength: Comparison


Metals/
Alloys

Tensile strength, TS (MPa)

5000
3000
2000
1000

300
200
100

Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond

Polymers

C fibers
Aramid fib
E-glass fib

Steel (4140) qt
W (pure)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)aa
Steel (4140)cw
Cu (71500)
Cu (71500) hr
Steel (1020)
Al (6061) ag
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Al (6061) a

40
30
20

A FRE(|| fiber)
GFRE(|| fiber)
CFRE(|| fiber)

Diamond
Si nitride
Al oxide

Si crystal
<100>

Glass-soda
Concrete
Graphite

Composites/
fibers

Nylon 6,6
PC PET
PVC
PP
HDPE

wood(|| fiber)
GFRE( fiber)
CFRE( fiber)
A FRE( fiber)

LDPE

10

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wood (

fiber)

Room temperature
values

Based on data in Table B4,


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.

Lecture 10 - 12

Example Problem 6.3


Determine the following:
(a) Modulus of elasticity
(b) Yield strength at a strain
offset of 0.002
(c) The maximum load that can
be sustained by a cylindrical
specimen having a diameter
of 12.8 mm (0.05 in)
(d) The change in length of a
specimen originally 250 mm
long that is subjected to a
tensile stress of 345 MPa

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 10 - 13

Ductility

Stress

Ductility: Measure of the degree


of plastic deformation that has
been sustained at fracture
Brittle: little or not plastic
deformation (approximately, a
fracture strain < 5%)
Ductility usually increases with
temperature.
Percent elongation

Percent reduction in area

Strain
1. It indicates the degree to which a structure will deform plastically before fracture
2. It specifies the degree of allowable deformation during fabrication operations
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 10 - 14

Ductility
Plastic tensile strain at failure:
Engineering
tensile
stress,

Lf - Lo
x 100
%EL =
Lo

smaller %EL
larger %EL

Lo

Ao

Af

Lf

Engineering tensile strain, e

Another ductility measure:

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%RA =

Ao - A f
x 100
Ao
Lecture 10 - 15

Table 6.2: Mechanical Properties


of Several Metals

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Lecture 10 - 16

Stress-strain behavior for iron at


three temperatures

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Lecture 10 - 17

Measures of Energy Capacity 1:


Resilience
Resilience: Capacity of a material to absorb
energy when it is deformed elastically and
then, upon, unloading, to have the energy
recovered.

Stress

Modulus of resilience [J/m3] Measure of


the ability of material to store elastic energy;
Strain energy per unit volume required to
stress a material from an unloaded state up
to the point of yielding

Strain
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U r = d
0

Lecture 10 - 18

Resilience, Ur
Ability of a material to store energy
Energy stored best in elastic region

If we assume a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to

ey
Fig. 6.15, Callister &
Rethwisch 9e.
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1
Ur y ey
2
Lecture 10 - 19

Measures of Energy Capacity 2:


Toughness
Tensile toughness: Measure of the ability of the material to absorb energy
without fracture
The area under the entire stress-strain curve up to fracture (Unit: J/m3)
Fracture toughness: Materials resistance to fracture when a crack (or other
defect) is present
Engineering
tensile
stress,

small toughness (ceramics)


large toughness (metals):
strength + ductility
very small toughness
(unreinforced polymers)
Engineering tensile strain, e

Brittle fracture:
Ductile fracture:
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elastic energy
elastic + plastic energy

U f = d
0

Lecture 10 - 20

Measures of Energy Capacity:


Toughness
f

U f = d
Stress

Large toughness:
strength + ductility

Strain
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Lecture 10 - 21

True Stress and Strain

(Corrected axial
stress in the neck)

Ai is the instantaneous crosssectional area.


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Lecture 10 - 22

Elastic Strain Recovery


D

yi
yo
Stress

2. Unload

1. Load

3. Reapply
load

Strain
Fig. 6.17, Callister &
Rethwisch 9e.
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Elastic strain
recovery
Lecture 10 - 23

Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface (localized plastic

deformation).
Large hardness means:
-- resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
-- better wear properties.
apply known force

e.g.,
10 mm sphere

D
most
plastics

brasses
Al alloys

measure size or depth


of indent after removing load
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.

d
easy to machine
steels
file hard

cutting
tools

nitrided
steels

diamond

increasing hardness
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Lecture 10 - 24

Hardness: Measurement
Table 6.5

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Lecture 10 - 25

Hardening
An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

large hardening

y
1
y

small hardening

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

( )

T = K eT
true stress (F/A)
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hardening exponent:
n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
true strain: ln(/o)
Lecture 10 - 26

Design or Safety Factors

Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.


Factor of safety, N
Often N is
between
1.2 and 4

Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does


not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a
factor of safety of 5.

1045 plain
carbon steel:
y = 310 MPa
TS = 565 MPa

d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm
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d
Lo

F = 220,000N
Lecture 10 - 27

Summary of Mechanical
Properties of Metals

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Lecture 10 - 28

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Lecture 10 - 29

Summary
1. Elastic and plastic deformations
2. Engineering measures of strength: Yield strength,
tensile strength (TS)
3. Engineering measures of ductility
4. Engineering measures of energy capacity:
resilience, toughness
5. Hardness

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 10 - 30

Hardness: Measurement
Rockwell
No major sample damage
Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range
20-100.
Minor load 10 kg
Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness
TS (psia) = 500 x HB
TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB
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Lecture 10 - 31

True Stress & Strain


Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched
True stress
True strain

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Lecture 10 - 32

Variability in Material Properties


Elastic modulus is material property
Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws
(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.
Statistics
Mean

Standard Deviation
where n is the number of data points
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Lecture 10 - 33