Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

Lecture 20.

Electrical Properties
Learning Objectives
After this lecture, you should be able to do the following:

1. Describe intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors (n-type and p-type


semiconductors) with their energy band structures.
2. Understand the conductivity in semiconductors.

Reading

Chapter 18: Electrical Properties (18.1015)

Multimedia

Virtual Materials Science & Engineering (VMSE):


http://www.wiley.com/college/callister/CL_EWSTU01031_S/vmse/

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 1

1. Semiconductors
(Intrinsic Semiconductors)

Intrinsic semiconductors: the electrical behavior is based on the electronic structure


inherent in the pure material.
They have a completely filled valence band, separated from an empty conduction band
by a relatively narrow band gap (< 2 eV) at 0 K:
Elemental semiconductors: silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) have band gap energies of
approximately 1.1 and 0.7 eV.

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 2

Charge Carriers in Semiconductors:


Concept of a Hole
Two types of electronic charge carriers:
Free Electron
negative charge (-1.6 X 10-19 C)
in conduction band
Hole
positive charge (+1.6 X 10-19 C):
same magnitude as that for an
electron, but of opposite sign
vacant electron state in
the valence band

Move at different speeds - drift velocities


MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 3

Conduction in Semiconductors

To become free electrons, electrons must be promoted across the energy band gap and
into empty states at the bottom of the conduction band.
The excitation energy is from a nonelectrical source such as heat or light.
Thermal excitation: The number of electrons excited thermally (by heat energy) into the
conduction band depends on the energy band gap width as well as temperature.

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 4

Energy Band Structures:


Insulators & Semiconductors
Semiconductors:

-- wide band gap (> 2 eV)


-- few electrons excited
across band gap
empty
Energy
conduction
band

filled states

GAP

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

filled
valence
band
filled
band

-- narrow band gap (< 2 eV)


-- more electrons excited
across band gap

Energy

empty
conduction
band

GAP
filled states

Insulators:

filled
valence
band
filled
band
Lecture 20 - 5

Conduction in Intrinsic
Semiconductors
Electron bonding model of
electrical conduction in intrinsic
silicon: (a) before excitation, (b)
and (c) after excitation (the
subsequent free-electron and
hole motions in response to an
external electric field).

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 6

Intrinsic Semiconduction in Terms of


Electron and Hole Migration
Concept of electrons and holes:
valence
electron

no applied
electric field

electron hole
pair migration

electron hole
pair creation

Si atom

+ applied
electric field

+
applied
electric field

Electrical Conductivity given by:

# holes/m3
hole mobility

# electrons/m3
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

electron mobility
Lecture 20 - 7

Number of Charge Carriers


Intrinsic Conductivity

for intrinsic semiconductor n = p = ni


= ni|e|(e + h)

Ex: GaAs

For GaAs
For Si
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

ni = 4.8 x 1024 m-3


ni = 1.3 x 1016 m-3
Lecture 20 - 8

Intrinsic Semiconductors:
Conductivity vs T
Data for Pure Silicon:
-- increases with T
-- opposite to metals

material
Si
Ge
GaP
CdS

band gap (eV)


1.11
0.67
2.25
2.40

Selected values from Table 18.3,


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
Adapted from Fig. 18.16,
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 9

Intrinsic Semiconductors
Pure material semiconductors: silicon (Si) &
germanium (Ge); Band gaps: 1.1 eV and 0.67 eV
Group IVA materials
Compound semiconductors
III-V compounds
Ex: GaAs & InSb; 1.42 eV, 0.17 eV

II-VI compounds
Ex: CdS & ZnTe; 2.40 eV, 2.4 eV

The wider the electronegativity difference between


the elements the wider the energy gap.

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 10

The Periodic Table


give up 1egive up 2egive up 3e-

accept 2eaccept 1einert gases

Columns: Similar Valence Structure

K Ca Sc

Se Br Kr

He

Li Be

F Ne

Na Mg

Cl Ar

Rb Sr

Cs Ba

Te

Adapted from
Fig. 2.8,
Callister &
Rethwisch 9e.

Xe

Po At Rn

Fr Ra

Electropositive elements:
Readily give up electrons
to become + ions.
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Electronegative elements:
Readily acquire electrons
to become - ions.
Lecture 20 - 11

Table 18.3: Electrical Properties of


Semiconductors

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 12

2. Extrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductors: the electrical behavior is determined by impurities.


An impurity concentration of one atom in 1012 is sufficient to render silicon extrinsic at
room temperature (semiconductor devices: doping with dopants).

n-Type semiconductors

p-Type semiconductors

Dopant (donor) : P, As, and Sb

Dopant (acceptor) : P, As, and Sb

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 13

n-Type semiconductors: Electron


Energy Band Structure

n >> p
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 14

p-Type semiconductors: Electron


Energy Band Structure

p >> n
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 15

Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Conduction


Intrinsic:
-- case for pure Si
-- # electrons = # holes (n = p)

Extrinsic:
-- electrical behavior is determined by presence of impurities
that introduce excess electrons or holes
-- n p

n-type Extrinsic: (n >> p)

p-type Extrinsic: (p >> n)

Phosphorus atom
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+
4+ 5+ 4+ 4+
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+
no applied
field

Adapted from Figs. 18.12(a)


electric
& 18.14(a), Callister &
Rethwisch
MSE
3300 /9e.
5300 UTA Spring 2015

Boron atom
hole
conduction
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

valence
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

Si atom

4+ 3+ 4+ 4+

no applied
electric field
Lecture 20 - 16

Conductivity of Extrinsic
Semiconductors

n-Type semiconductors

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

p-Type semiconductors

Lecture 20 - 17

Conductivity: Temperature
Dependence of Carrier Concentration

Solid-state device
operation

Intrinsic carrier concentration


as a function of temperature
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Electron concentration versus


temperature for silicon (n-type)
Lecture 20 - 18

Extrinsic Semiconductors: Conductivity


vs. Temperature

Data for Doped Silicon:

-- increases doping
-- reason: imperfection sites

-- extrinsic doping level:


1021/m3 of a n-type donor
impurity (such as P).
-- for T < 100 K: "freeze-out,
thermal energy insufficient to
excite electrons.
-- for 150 K < T < 450 K: "extrinsic"
-- for T >> 450 K: "intrinsic"

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

extrinsic

intrinsic

3
freeze-out

extrinsic conduction...

concentration (1021/m3)

Comparison: intrinsic vs

undoped

Conduction electron

lower the activation energy to


produce mobile electrons.

doped

0
0

200

400

600

T (K)

Adapted from Fig. 18.17, Callister & Rethwisch


9e. (From S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices, Physics
and Technology. Copyright 1985 by Bell Telephone
Laboratories, Inc. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley
& Sons, Inc.)

Lecture 20 - 19

Conductivity: Factors that Affect


Carrier Mobility
1. Dopant content
2. Temperature

Dependence of electron and hole mobilities in silicon as a function of the


dopant (both acceptor and donor) content at room temperature
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 20

Conductivity: Factors that Affect


Carrier Mobility

1. Dopant content
2. Temperature

Temperature dependence of (a) electron and (b) hole mobilities for silicon
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 21

4. Semiconductor Devices

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 22

p-n Rectifying Junction


Allows flow of electrons in one direction only (e.g., useful
to convert alternating current to direct current).

Processing: diffuse P into one side of a B-doped crystal.

+ p-type
+ +
+ +

-- No applied potential:
no net current flow.
-- Forward bias: carriers
flow through p-type and
n-type regions; holes and
electrons recombine at
p-n junction; current flows.
-- Reverse bias: carriers
flow away from p-n junction;
junction region depleted of
carriers; little current flow.
MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

n-type

p-type

+ - n-type
+
++- - + -

+ p-type
+ +
+ +

n-type

Adapted from
Fig. 18.21,
Callister &
Rethwisch
9e.

Lecture 20 - 23

Properties of Rectifying Junction

Fig. 18.22, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Fig. 18.23, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


Lecture 20 - 24

MOSFET Transistor
Integrated Circuit Device

MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor)

Integrated circuits - state of the art ca. 50 nm line width


~ 1,000,000,000 components on chip
chips formed one layer at a time

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 25

Summary
1. Semiconductors: intrinsic and extrinsic
semiconductors
2. Band structures of semiconductors
3. Conductivity of semiconductors
4. Semiconductor devices

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 26

Homework 10
18.4, 18.5, 18.8, 18.11, 18.17
18.21, 18.25, 18.29, 18.38
* Problems from Callister, 9th Edition

MSE 3300 / 5300 UTA Spring 2015

Lecture 20 - 27