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Effect of job satisfaction on employee performance in QURTUBA

Education System.


ID# 7078D
MBA 3.5

Qurtuba University Of Science & Information

Technology D.I.Khan, KPK

Effect of job satisfaction on employee performance in QURTUBA

Education System.


ID# 7078D
MBA 3.5

Qurtuba University Of Science & Information


Effect of job satisfaction on employee performance in QURTUBA

Education System.
D.I.Khan, KPK

This project focusses on the several essential job facors that effects employees satisfaction in
Qurtuba Education System.The core purpose of performing this survey is to perceive the pros
and cons of the current system.This research will contribute to numerous benefits in terms of
theroretical, managment as well as academic prespectives.

The study is conducted in QURTUBA .... and designed in the form of





evaluated by the help of statistical tools




TITLE PAGE............................................................................................................i
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................iii

CHAPTER #1: INTRODUCTION...........................................1

1.1) Background of the study.............

1.2) Problem statement......................4
1.3) Objectives of the study..........................................4
1.4) Hypothesis.....................................................4
1.5) Significance of the study...............................5



Job satisfactio..........................................................6


Affect theory ..........................................................8


Fulfillment theory ...........................................8


Dispositional approach............................9


Equity theory.......................................9


Discrepancy theory ...........................10

2.7) Two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory)................11


Job characteristics model ......................11




Employee Performance .............13


Job satisfaction .............................15


Employee performance ............................15


Payroll ..........................................15


Organizational environment ........................16


Communication system .......................16

CHAPTER #3: METHODOLOGY................................17




Population & Sample.............................................17


Data Collection Tools............................................17


Data Analysis Tools...................................17


Theoretical Framework .................................18


Variables of the Study ...............................................................19


Analytical Model........................................19






TEST of Significance.............................................19



1.1) Background of the study
Job satisfaction can be defined as psychological state of how an individual feels towards
work, in other words, it is peoples feelings and attitudes about variety of intrinsic and
extrinsic elements towards jobs and the organizations they perform their jobs in. The
elements of job satisfaction are related to pay, promotion, benefits, work nature, supervision,
and relationship with colleagues (Mosadeghard, 2003). Employees satisfaction is considered
as all-around module of an organizations human resource strategies.
According to Simatwa (2011) Job satisfaction means a function which is positively related to
the degree to which ones personal needs are fulfilled in the job situation. Kuria (2011)
argues that employees are the most satisfied and highly productive when their job offers them
security from economic strain, recognition of their effort clean policy of grievances,
opportunity to contribute ideas and suggestions, participation in decision making and
managing the affairs, clean definitions of duties and responsibilities and opportunities for
promotion, fringe benefits, sound payment structure, incentive plans and profit sharing
activities, health and safety measures, social security, compensation, communication,
communication system and finally, atmosphere of mutual trust respect. Job satisfaction means
pleasurable emotional state of feeling that results from performance of work (Simatwa,
It commences with the recruiting of right people and continues with practicing programs to
keep them engaged and committed to the organization (Freyermuth, 2004). Sutherland,
(2004) contends that companies with high quality human capital perform better in
marketplace, and deliver higher and more consistent returns to shareholders, than companies
with mediocre workers. Sustainable competitive advantage requires satisfaction of employees

for retention to the knowledge base of an organization. This knowledge is often tacit and hard
to transmit between employees. Competitive companies worldwide rely on their employees to
provide innovative, advantageous and original solutions to problems the company may have.
are deemed to be part of the intangible assets of an organization. They are a precious
commodity that forms a significant part of an organizations value. Employee job satisfaction
is supremely important in an organization because it is what productivity depends on. If your
employees are satisfied they would produce superior quality performance in optimal time and
lead to growing profits. Satisfied employees are also more likely to be creative and
innovative and come up with breakthroughs that allow a company to grow and change
positively with time and changing market conditions. Employee satisfaction is becoming
more challenging for companies including those in the educatinal sectores due to a number of
factors such as availability of the right talent in some fields, manager-employee relations,
competition, differences in the level of employer-employee expectations, the high cost
associated with hiring new talents, among others. Employers need for strategic effort
directed at satisfying current employees is now urgent than ever to improve retention rates
and decrease the associated costs of high turnover. Voluntary turnover is a huge problem for
many organizations (Mitchell et al., 2001). The labor market today is growing and changing
fast. It is the responsibility of the leader in the organization to adapt to these changes to be
able to make the organization profitable. To be able to do this, it is crucial to satisfy the key
employees in the organization since they are the ones that drive the company forward.
According to Young (2006), companies are faced with people leaving to join other
companies. The average worker is changing jobs ten times between ages of 18 and 37
continuously. Young asserts that one answer to this issue is to believe that you can purchase
knowledge to replace what you are losing. McCrea (2001) suggests that employees today

change jobs frequently and do not have the company loyalty that existed 30 years ago when
your valued employees were hired.
Employees in an organization have always been key assets as their departure could have
significant effect on the implementation of the organizations business plans and may
eventually cause a parallel decline in productivity. As such, employee satisfaction is
important in the long-term growth and success of a company. Employee satisfaction would
ensure customer satisfaction and effective succession planning (Mello, 2007). Employee
satisfaction would also improve investors confidence, as they are concerned with
organizations capacity to perform in such ways that would positively influence the value of
their investment in the company, hence there is no question that uncontrolled employee
turnover could damage the stability of the company. Talent and employee job satisfaction are
closely related, in that happy brains lead to creative brains. Job satisfaction and employee
happiness should be a big aspiration in talent management due to its impact on productivity,
creativity and loyalty of employees. Talented employees want a clear vision of where the
organization is going and an opportunity to personally grow and develop. Talent is the natural
above average ability to perform a task. This individual has the natural inclination to perform
the tasks they are talented in better than others. A talent is always a skill but a skill isn t
always a talent. A skill is the ability to do something well ie expertise, while talent is the
natural aptitude. Career is an occupation undertaken for a significant period of an
individuals life with opportunities for progress. Its an individuals journey through
learning, work and aspects of life. Employees want to feel that their talent and skill enables
them to develop in a certain organization through opportunities for growth. Absence of this
leads to dissatisfaction and poor performance.

1.2) Problem Statement

A problem statement is a brief description of the issues that need to be addressed by a
problem solving team and should be presented to them (or created by them) before they try to
solve the problem. This research is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of
job satisfaction on the employees work performance in QURTUBA education system. Based
on the case studies of organizations current situations and conditions, it is clear that the
organization is committed to provide excellence and quality services to their employees. So,
there is a need for the identification and analysis of various factors i.e payroll, organization
environment and communication system which may contribute towards the employees job
satisfaction. It will also help determine how these factors are affecting the work performance
within the organization to achieve goals and objectives that are predetermined by the

1.3) Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the research is to examine the relationship

between job satisfaction and employees performance and to

analyze how these affect employees.

To investigate the effect of pay roll on job satisfaction and employees performance.
To investigate the effect of organization enviorment and communication system on
job satisfaction and employees performance.


H1; There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and

employees performance.
H2; There is significant relationship between payroll and employee

H3; There is

environment and employee performance.

H4; There is significant relationship between communication system



and employee performance.

1.5) Significance of the study



The researcher hope that this study will contribute to

numerous benefits in terms of theroretical, managment as

well as academic prespectives.

In terms of theoretical,this research whould help other
individual to prove the theory and also support the future
research, generates good idea and also provides better

This study could support the managment to improve the
employee job performance in the future as well as to increase

employee job satisfaction.

This research will benefit other student to understand the
relationship between job satisfaction and job performance
better and could be a reference or guaidline for other
researcher who is intrested to study the relationship between
job satisfaction and job performance in other organization.

The literature review will examine relevant theories, discuss and define employee
satisfaction,and employee performance. This chapter will serve as the foundation for the
development of the study. It will discuss the relevant literature relating to the factors that
affect employee job satisfaction. It will specifically focus on theoritical review, past studies
on the subject in an effort to highlight the relationship of those research and this research and
a review of some of the literature on the variables of the research. These variables
include:pay roll, organization enviourment and communication systemof managers, these
variables form the basis of the research.

2.1) Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some
believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether
or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or
supervision. Others believe it is not so simplistic as this definition suggests and instead that
multidimensional psychological responses to one's job are involved (Spector, P.E. 1997).
Researchers have also noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they
measure feelings about the job affective job satisfaction (Thompson, E.R.; Phua F.T.T. 2012).
The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different
researchers and practitioners. One of the most widely used definitions in organizational
research is that of Locke (1976), who defines job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences (Locke,E.A.
1976). Others have defined it as simply how content an individual is with his or her job;

whether he or she likes the job or not. It is assessed at both the global level (whether or not
the individual is satisfied with the job overall), or at the facet level (whether or not the
individual is satisfied with different aspects of the job).
A more recent definition of the concept of job satisfaction is from Hulin and Judge (2003),
who have noted that job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an
individual's job, and that these personal responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or
emotional), and behavioral components. A more recent definition of the concept of job
satisfaction is from Hulin and Judge (2003), who have noted that job satisfaction includes
multidimensional psychological responses to an individual's job, and that these personal
responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral components
(Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. 2003).
Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent to which they assess the affective feelings about the
job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct
representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Hence, affective job
satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general
induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets
of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just
one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets
of a job are simultaneously evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of
pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to
which those job facets are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with
objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. While cognitive job satisfaction might help
to bring about affective job satisfaction, the two constructs are distinct, not necessarily
directly related, and have different antecedents and consequences (Moorman, R.H.1993).
Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which
affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can

be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being,
stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions (Tomaevi, N.
Seljak, J. Aristovnik, A. 2014).

2.2) Affect theory

Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most
famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that
satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a
job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much
one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a







expectations are/arent met. When a person values a particular facet of a

job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when
expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met),
compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A
values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about
autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that
offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little
or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too
much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction
the more a worker values that facet.

2.3) Fulfillment theory

The main aim of this theory is to measure satisfaction in terms of rewards
a person receives orthe extent to which his needs are satisfied. Job
satisfaction cannot be regarded merely as a

function of how much a person receives from his job but it is the strength
of the individuals
desire of his level of aspiration in a particular area.The main difficulty in
his approach as observed by willing is that job satisfaction is not only a
function of what a person receives but also what he feels he should
receive, as there would be considerable difference in the actual and
expectations of persons.

2.4) Dispositional approach

The dispositional approach suggests that individuals vary in their tendency to be satisfied
with their jobs, in other words, job satisfaction is to some extent an individual trait (Staw,
B. M.; Bell, N. E.; Clausen, J. A. 1986).
This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job
satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates
that identical twins raised apart have similar levels of job satisfaction (Arvey, R. D.;
Bouchard, T. J.; Segal, N. L.; Abraham, L. M. 1989).
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the dispositional approach was the Core Selfevaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in
1997.Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones
disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and
neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on
his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher
work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his
own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally,

lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction (Judge, T. A.; Locke, E. A.;
Durham, C. C.1997).

2.5) Equity theory

Equity Theory shows how a person views fairness in regard to social relationships such as
with an employer. A person identifies the amount of input (things gained) from a relationship
compared to the output (things given) to produce an input/output ratio. They then compare
this ratio to the ratio of other people in deciding whether or not they have an equitable
relationship. Equity Theory suggests that if an individual thinks there is an inequality
between two social groups or individuals, the person is likely to be distressed because the
ratio between the input and the output are not equal (Huseman, R.; Hatfield, J.; Miles, E.
1987). For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same
pay and benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same work as the other, then
the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace. If, on the other hand,
both individuals get pay raises and new responsibilities, then the feeling of equity will be
maintained. Other psychologists have extended the equity theory, suggesting three behavioral
response patterns to situations of perceived equity or inequity (Huseman, Hatfield, & Mile,
1987; O'Neil & Mone 1998). These three types are benevolent, equity sensitive, and entitled.
The level by each type affects motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance.
1. Benevolent-Satisfied when they are under-rewarded compared with co-workers
2. Equity sensitive-Believe everyone should be fairly rewarded
3. Entitled-People believe that everything they receive is their just due.

2.6) Discrepancy theory

The concept of discrepancy theory is to explain the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection.
An individual who has not fulfilled his responsibility feels the sense of anxiety and regret for
not performing well. They will also feel dejection due to not being able to achieve their hopes
and aspirations. According to this theory, all individuals will learn what their obligations and
responsibilities are for a particular function, and if they fail to fulfill those obligations then

they are punished. Over time, these duties and obligations consolidate to form an abstracted
set of principles, designated as a self-guide. Agitation and anxiety are the main responses
when an individual fails to achieve the obligation or responsibility. This theory also explains
that if achievement of the obligations is obtained then the reward can be praise, approval, or
love. These achievements and aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles, referred to
as the ideal self guide (Higgins, E. T. 1987).
When the individual fails to obtain these rewards, they begin to have feelings of dejection,
disappointment, or even depression (Strauman, T. J. 1989).

2.7) Two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory)

Frederick Herzbergs two-factor theory (also known as motivator-hygiene theory) attempts to
explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and
dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively.
An employees motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate.
Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and
organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those
aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for
example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities (Aristovnik, A.; Jakli,
K. 2013).
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.
Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies,
supervisory practices, and other working conditions (J. R. Hackman; G. R. Oldham 1976).
While Herzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to
reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Herzberg's
original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the
theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will

react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors.Finally, the model has
been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.

2.8) Job characteristics model

Hackman & Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential
score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an
employee's attitudes and behaviors. Not everyone is equally affected by the MPS of a job.
People who are high in growth need strength (the desire for autonomy, challenge and
development of new skills on the job) are particularly affected by job characteristics. A metaanalysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the
validity of the JCM (Fried, Y.; Ferris, G. R. 1987).
a) Core job characteristics
Skill Variety: The degree to which a job requires various activities, requiring the
worker to develop a variety of skills and talents. Jobholders can experience more
meaningfulness in jobs that require several different skills and abilities than when the

jobs are elementary and routine.

Task Identity: The degree to which the job requires the jobholders to identify and
complete a workpiece with a visible outcome. Workers experience more
meaningfulness in a job when they are involved in the entire process rather than just

being responsible for a part of the work.

Task Significance: The degree to which the job impacts other peoples lives. The
influence can be either in the immediate organization or in the external environment.
Employees feel more meaningfulness in a job that substantially improves either
psychological or physical well-being of others than a job that has limited impact on
anyone else.


Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides the employee with significant
freedom, independence, and discretion to plan out the work and determine the
procedures in the job. For jobs with a high level of autonomy, the outcomes of the
work depend on the workers own efforts, initiatives, and decisions; rather than on the
instructions from a manager or a manual of job procedures. In such cases, the
jobholders experience greater personal responsibility for their own successes and

failures at work.
Feedback: The degree to which the worker has knowledge of results. This is clear,
specific, detailed, actionable information about the effectiveness of his or her job
performance. When workers receive clear, actionable information about their work
performance, they have better overall knowledge of the impact of their work
activities, and what specific actions they need to take (if any) to improve their

2.9) Employee Performance

The job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed.
Many business personnel directors assess the employee performance of each staff member on
an annual or quarterly basis in order to help them identify suggested areas for improvement.
Management is a process for establishing a shared workforce understanding about what is to
be achieved at an organisation level. It is about aligning the organisational objectives with
the employees'agreed measures, skills, competency requirements, development plans and the
delivery of results.
Your success at work will further the success of the organization for which you are employed.
But what is the meaning of success, and how does a business measure it? Managers must first
hire employees with the right skills and qualifications for the job. Once the hiring process is
complete, managers seek to ensure that an employee's work is closely aligned with the
organization's goals and objectives.

To achieve strong employee performance, managers conduct employee performance
appraisals, implement training and development programs, and decide when to promote and
reassign employees. Let's look at each of these features of managing employee performance.
The performance review generally looks back at an employee's performance over the past
year and involves setting new plans and goals for the year ahead. When you accept a new job,
you will want to be sure to have a clear understanding of the performance standards for your
position to avoid any surprises when you sit down for your first performance review. It's
always a good idea to prepare for a performance review by evaluating your own job
performance ahead of time.
A performance appraisal is usually a face-to-face meeting between a manager and an
employee. However, some businesses broaden the appraisal process to include other
stakeholders. For example, a 360-degree review provides an employee with feedback from
superiors, peers, subordinates, and even outside parties such as customers and vendors. A
broader employee review process can uncover areas for improvement that the manager and
employee had not identified. It's important to provide guidelines to the participants in a 360degree review to ensure a fair and accurate review process.
The close relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is not something that has
arisen recently addressed (Argyris, 1964), (Gross & Etzioni, 1985). In contrary many
research efforts have been made in the past to detect the subject (Emery & Trist, 1960),
(Organ, 1977), (Ostroff, 1992), (Peterson & Luthans, 2006). The research has dealt with the
relationship between the two features in many forms of economic and productive activities in
the market, such as Bunks (Hira & Waqas, 2012), Public bus transport (Padmakumar, 2013)
and in quite extensive ways of analysis (Judge. Thoresen, Bono, Patton, 2001). Especially in
healthcare services and the nursing profession job satisfaction is considered one of the key
factors shaping the growth of performance in the project (Hanan. 2009).

The analysis of the specific issues and generally of nurses working environment holds a
large part of modern literature. In this paper, we are trying to investigate the relationship
between these two concepts exploring attitudes, perceptions and self-evaluation of Greek
nurses working in the National Health System (NHS) of Greece.
Performance Management began around 60 years ago as a source of income justification and
was used to determine an employees wage based on performance. Organisations
used Performance Management to drive behaviours from the employees to get specific
outcomes. In practice this worked well for certain employees who were solely driven by
financial rewards. However, where employees were driven by learning and development of
their skills, it failed miserably. The gap between justification of pay and the development of
skills and knowledge became a huge problem in the use of Performance Management.
This became evident in the late 1980s; the realisation that a more comprehensive approach to
managse and reward performance was needed. This approach of managing performance was
developed in the United Kingdom.

2.10) Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal
of ones job; an affective reaction to ones job; and an attitude towards ones job. Weiss
(2007) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should
clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and
behaviors. This definition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into
account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.

2.11) Employee performance

Employee performance is defined as whether a person executes their job duties and
responsibilities well. Many companies asses theiremployee's performance on an annual or

quarterly basis in order todefine certains areas that need improvement. Performance is a
critical factor in organizational success.

2.12) Payroll
Payroll is the sum total of all compensation that a business must pay to its employees for a set
period of time or on a given date. Payroll is usually managed by the accounting department of
a business. Small-business payrolls may be handled directly by the owner or an associate.

2.13) Organizational environment

The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization that have the
potential to affect the way it operates and its access to scarce resources. The organization
needs to properly understand the environment for effective management.

2.14) Communication system

Communication systems are the various processes, both formal and informal, by which
information is passed between the managers and employees within a business, or between the
business itself and outsiders. Communication whether written, verbal, nonverbal, visual, or
electronic has a significant impact on the way business is conducted. The basic process of
communication begins when a fact or idea is observed by one person. That person (the
sender) may decide to translate the observation into a message, and then transmit the message
through some communication medium to another person (the receiver). The receiver then
must interpret the message and provide feedback to the sender indicating that the message has
been understood and appropriate action taken


A research methodology is A plan outlining how information is to be gathered for an
assessment or evaluation that includes identifying the data gathering method(s), the
instruments to be used/created, how the instruments will be administered, and how the
information will be organized and analyzed this study is concerned about leadership styles.

3.1) Approach
In this study survey approach is used. The word survey is used most often to describe a
method of gathering information from a sample of individuals. This sample is usually just a
fraction of the population being studied.

3.2) Population & Sample

a) Population
A population can be defined as the set of elements on information is desired( Mater, 1980:6).
The population of this study consists all, the employees of Qurtuba education system
b) Sample
Sample is that portion of population, which is chosen systematically with the objective that it
represent all the characteristics of the population. It means that every element of population
has or has not the opportunity to be selected in the sample. A sample of 100 respondents
(employees) is selected through convenience sampling technique.

3.3) Data Collection Tools

Literature survey is used for obtaining secondary from secondary sources, from books,
newspaper and online resources on job satisfaction. While the primary data is collected
through questionnaire.

3.4) Data Analysis Tools

The collected data is analyzed using different descriptive and inferential analytical methods
particularly, correlation, regression and t-test

3.5) Theoretical Framework

An effective employee is a combination of a good skill set and a
productive work environment. Many factors affect employee performance
that managers need to be aware of and should work to improve at all
times. Below is a diagrammatic representation of these factors

Job satisfaction

Pay roll


Employee Performance


Test of signnificance

3.6) Variables of the Study

Dependent Variable
Independent variable

3.7) Analytical Model

Researcher will use the following model
employeeperformance=o+ 1 payrol+ 2 orgenvir+ 3 commsys+ i

The following tests will be used to analyzed the data.

Definition of Correlation: Correlation is a statistical technique that is used

measure and describe




of the

relationship between two variables. Correlation requires two scores from

the SAME individuals.

Regression is a statistical measure that attempts to determine the
strength of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually
denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables (known as
independent variables).



TEST of Significance

Once sample data has been gathered through an observational study or experiment, statistical
inference allows analysts to assess evidence in favor or some claim about the population from
which the sample has been drawn. The methods of inference used to support or reject claims
based on sample data are known as tests of significance.

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