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Allied American University ANT

202 Complete Course

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The four fields of anthropology are

a. biological anthropology, paleoanthropology, cultural anthropology, prehistoric

b. paleoanthropology, primatology, forensics, cultural anthropology, prehistoric
c. biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics.
d. archaeology, ethnography, ethnology, cultural anthropology.

What are the traditional areas of focus within cultural anthropology?

a. Archaeology and applied anthropology

b. Forensic archaeology and descriptive linguistics
c. Ethnographic and ethnological research
d. Primatology and contemporary human variation
The overall goals of anthropological research include this aspect of human
a. mapping the genome of Homo sapiens.
b. describing human races.
c. description and analysis of the evolution of Homo sapiens.
d. assessing the influence of biochemistry on human behavioral evolution.

Goals of research in cultural anthropology include:

a. explaining cultural ecology.

b. describing the origin and spread of human religions.

c. describing and explaining human geographic distribution.

d. describing cultural similarities and differences.

Anthropology is unique as a discipline because it:

a. is holistic in its approach.

b. uses statistical methods.
c. collects data in the field.
d. uses the scientific method.

What is meant by the "holistic" approach in anthropology?

a. Entire cultures are studied and compared.

b. The entire time of human existence is studied.
c. Human beings are viewed in the broadest context possiblebiologically and
culturally through time.
d. Cultures are studied using fieldwork and participant observation, together with a
perspective of cultural relativism.

On what do humanistic anthropologists focus their studies?

a. The application of the scientific method to the study of humans

b. The use of the comparative method when studying cultures
c. The uniqueness of every individual in a culture
d. The common behavioral patterns of a society

The description of a single society based on fieldwork is called a(n):

a. ethnography.
b. ethnology.
c. comparative analysis.
d. cultural anthropology.
The approach that compares and analyzes cultural data with a goal of making
general statements about human cultural adaptations is called:
a. ethnography.

b. ethnology.
c. cultural relativism.
d. holism.
Making value judgments based on your own culture when describing another
culture is called cultural:
a. relativism.
b. ethnocentrism.
c. ethnography.
d. customs.
Criteria that are used to judge the worth of a scientific hypothesis include all
of the following, EXCEPT:
a. whether the hypothesis explains things.
b. whether the hypothesis is relevant.
c. whether the hypothesis is compatible with established theories.
d. whether the hypothesis is testable.

Linguistics is a subfield of anthropology that:

a. focuses on the mechanics of language.

b. evaluates the relationship between language and social relationships.
c. reconstructs the history of language.
d. all of the choices apply.
Contemporary human variation studies undertaken by anthropologists
include all of the following subjects, EXCEPT"
a. DNA.
b. disease.
c. nutritional deficiencies.
d. fossils.
Forensic anthropologists apply their knowledge to legal issues by studying
what materials?

a. Hair samples recovered from crime victim clothing

b. Blood splatter patterns at a crime scene
c. Bullets and bullet casings at a crime scene
d. Skeletal remains at an airline crash site

One of the key features of the scientific method is:

a. using statistical methods.

b. fieldwork.
c. background investigations.
d. formulating hypotheses.
The process whereby an individual learns his or her culture from infancy,
through experience, observation, and instruction is called:
a. education.
b. enculturation.
c. innovation.
d. ideal culture.


Definitions of culture that appeared in the 1970s began to include:

a. ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

b. a focus on how culture supplies a blueprint for behavior.
c. the idea that culture is transmitted by symbols.
d. how culture is acquired, shared, and transmitted.
Every aspect of culture influences every other aspect of that culture. Thus
culture is:
a. functionally integrated.
b. dynamic and flexible.
c. adaptive and diverse.
d. learned and shared.


To be considered part of a culture, a behavior or custom must be:

a. genetically inherited.
b. acquired by trial and error.
c. invented within the group.
d. shared by the group.

The three major components of culture are:

a. material objects, cognitive processes, and behaviors.

b. technology, learned behavior, and innovation.
c. symbols, learned behavior, and diffusion.
d. inventive processes, learned behavior, and diffusion.

What people "think" is an example of the following aspect of human culture:

a. behavior.
b. cognitive process.
c. material artifacts.
d. customs.

Behavioral aspects of culture include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. thinking about a solution to a math problem.

b. playing a musical instrument.
c. playing soccer.
d. interacting with friends.
Humans are not born with the ability to speak a specific language. Thus we
would say that language as a part of culture is:
a. shared.
b. learned.
c. inherited.
d. adaptive.

Which of the following is a subculture within the United States?

a. Cuban Americans
b. Spaniards
c. Ethiopians
d. Yanomamo

Members of the soccer team on a college campus would constitute a:

a. culture.
b. subculture.
c. micro-culture.
d. mini-culture.

Heterogeneous cultures are those that exhibit:

a. deviant individuals.
b. many shared features.
c. few shared features.
d. a lack of subcultures.

Homogeneous cultures are those that exhibit:

a. deviant individuals.
b. many shared features.
c. few shared features.
d. a lack of shared features.

From the perspective of anthropology, the idea of separate human races is:

a. valid at the subspecies level.

b. valid geographically and evolutionarily.
c. invalid because no clusters of separate genetic traits exist.
d. invalid because ABO blood group distribution is inaccurate.
Ethnic groups are groups of people with the same geographical point of origin
and consist of:
a. cultural groups.

b. racial groups.
c. subcultures and races.
d. races and microcultures.

Archaeological goals focus on culture in all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. establishing time sequences of past cultures.

b. appreciating the arts of living cultures.
c. understanding the processes of culture change through time.
d. reconstructing past lifeways.


Which of the following situations is considered a suitable fieldwork setting for
an anthropologist?
a. Business office
b. Research laboratory
c. Tribal village
d. All of the choices apply
The formal rules that guide anthropological behavior toward informants is
called the American Anthropological Association Code of:
a. Fieldwork.
b. Responsibility.
c. Ethics.
d. Behavior.
The AAA Code of Ethics holds that an anthropologist's primary ethical
responsibility is toward the:
a. discipline of anthropology.
b. institution that provided funding.

c. colleagues who work on the project.

d. people with whom they work.

Theoretical models in anthropology are:

a. models of ideal culture.

b. devices for explaining and understanding cultures.
c. approaches to fieldwork that uncovers actual cultural behavior.
d. modes of analysis that can't be proven.
An anthropologist that includes his or her thoughts about what he or she sees
as well as quotations from his or her informants is presenting what type of
a. Reactive
b. Reflexive
c. Classical
d. Objective

Which of the following is a major challenge associated with fieldwork?

a. Recording interviews
b. Statistical analysis of data
c. Culture shock
d. Conflicting theoretical models

The "honeymoon" phase in anthropological fieldwork can be described as a:

a. period of the inhabitants accommodating the fieldworker.

b. time of relaxation within the culture being studied.
c. period of intense culture shock.
d. period of excitement after years of training.

An anthropologist doing fieldwork strives to achieve the role of:

a. friend and teacher.

b. key informant.

c. privileged stranger.
d. participant observer.
The process by which an anthropologist develops a harmonious relationship
with people in the field is called:
a. establishing rapport.
b. formal interviewing.
c. participant observation.
d. informal interviewing.

A key informant is selected using a:

a. judgment sample.
b. random sample.
c. stratified random sample.
d. random stratified sample.

The primary advantage of formal interviews is that they yield data that:

a. are real rather than ideal.

b. reflect personal attitudes.
c. are comparable and quantifiable.
d. have been gathered under controlled settings.

The field method that focuses on kin relationships is known as the:

a. life history method.

b. formal interview method.
c. informal interview method.
d. genealogical method.

All of the following are part of the informal interview, EXCEPT:

a. structured questions.
b. conversation style dialog.
c. conversation in an opportunistic setting.

d. when the interviewee controls the flow of the conversation.


Photographs are an important source of data because they:

a. accurately capture cultural belief systems.

b. capture unique events and behavior that can be used as analytical tools.
c. allow the anthropologist to capture images during forbidden rituals.
d. ethical issues are not relevant.

The reporting of fieldwork information may be in the form of:

a. an ethnography.
b. a paper read at a professional meeting.
c. an article written for a journal.
d. all of the choices apply.

Linguistics became part of the discipline of anthropology because:

a. studying syntax helps one to learn a language.

b. a knowledge of historical linguistics improved ethnographic fieldwork.
c. many aboriginal cultures had no written language.
d. university departments of linguistics and anthropology merged.

The study of sound used in speech is called:

a. syntax.
b. descriptive linguistics.
c. phonology.
d. language.

All of the following are units of descriptive linguistics, EXCEPT:

a. phonemes.
b. syntax.
c. morphemes.
d. kinesics.


The first step in the descriptive linguistic study of a language is to:

a. make a list of words in the language.

b. identify phonemes in the language.
c. identify morphemes used in the language.
d. record syntax used in the language.

How many morphemes are in the word "filled"?

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four

How many phonemes are in the word "rat"?

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
Statistical analysis of the evolution of vocabulary meanings in Indo-European
languages indicates that:
a. less used words change slowly.
b. frequently used words change slowly.
c. frequently used words change rapidly.
d. both frequently and less used words change at the same rate.
The relationship between language and culture is the emphasis of which of
the following areas in linguistics?
a. Ethnolinguistics
b. Descriptive linguistics
c. Phonology
d. Syntax

You are a linguistic anthropologist studying the differences between suburbs
and innercity gang languages. What area of linguistic anthropology are you
a. Descriptive linguistics
b. Historical linguistics
c. Sociolinguistics
d. Ethnolinguistics

Who formulated the idea that language structures our perception of reality?

a. E. E. Evans-Pritchard
b. Benjamin Whorf
c. Edward Hall
d. Leslie Sponsel
In the United States, the subsystem of English known as "African-American
Vernacular English" (AAVE) appears to have come from what speech sources?
a. White Southern and African tribal speech
b. White Southern and Creole
c. African tribal and Creole
d. African tribal and hip hop
Chimpanzees are not considered to have language because their
communication system is:
a. open but lacks creative change.
b. open but lacks syntax.
c. closed and lacks recursion.
d. closed and lacks calls.
The analysis of cultural gestures, facial expressions, and body positions is
a. kinesics.
b. displacement.

c. signing.
d. proxemics.
Silent language can be one of the most difficult aspects of another culture to
learn because it:
a. is not shared by everyone in the community.
b. is not formally taught.
c. does not convey the same meaning as verbal communication.
d. causes ethnocentrism.

The study of how people perceive and use space is called:

a. ethnolinguistics.
b. sociolinguistics.
c. kinesics.
d. proxemics.

ANT 202 WEEK 2 Homework Assignment

List and briefly describe four common difficulties encountered by
anthropologists in the field.

Describe four symptoms of culture shock.


Contrast formal and informal interviewing.


Describe how key informants are selected.

Discuss the importance and limitations of participant observation in the

Contrast a phoneme and a morpheme.


Is one language more complex than another? Explain why or why not.


Explain how displacement is a part of human symbolic communication.


Compare and contrast human and chimpanzee communication.

10. Using examples, explain how silent language is a part of culture.


ANT 202 WEEK 2 Discussion

Describe culture in the sub-fields of anthropology and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit.
Discuss the relationship between language and culture and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit..
Distinguish between human and nonhuman systems of communication and respond
to at least one classmate to earn full credit..
Describe how nonverbal communication supplements verbal communication and
respond to at least one classmate to earn full credit.



The first evidence of early human subsistence strategies comes from:

a. archaeological sites with Acheulean hand axes and evidence of butchering.

b. archaeological sites with Oldowan tools and stone cut marks overlying animal
chew marks on bones.
c. archaeological sites with projectile points and fire hearths.
d. archaeological sites in the Mediterranean and Europe where Oldowan tools are
The neoevolutionary model of culture developed by Elman Service is
characterized by:

a. sociocultural stages of development based on degree of economic

b. evolutionary stages of development based on technological types.
c. evolutionary stages of development based on levels of political organization.
d. sociocultural stages of development based on subsistence patterns.
What type of evidence is used to analyze the evolutionary model of human
cultural adaptations?
a. Ethnographical and ethnological data
b. Historical and descriptive linguistic data
c. Optimal foraging data
d. Carrying capacity data

The word technology, as used by anthropologists, means:

a. how machines affect human evolution.

b. the tools, knowledge, and skills used by humans.
c. the mechanical skills acquired through enculturation.
d. the cars, computers, and machines used by humans.

The primary function(s) of technology include the following:

a. creating leisure time.

b. the procurement of food, water and shelter.
c. making more efficient use of time.
d. aid groups in communication and contact.

Foragers are organized into groups called:

a. bands.
b. tribes.
c. chiefdoms.
d. hunter-gatherers.

Which foraging group relies most heavily on the gathering of wild plant
a. Haida, North America
b. Mbuti, Africa
c. Caribou Inuit, North America
d. Dobe Ju/'hoansi, Africa
Foraging societies such as the Haida of the North Pacific Coast make the
creation of evolutionary paradigms difficult because they do not meet all of the
criteria of the model. In the case of the Haida, this is because they:
a. are sedentary.
b. are partly horticulturalists.
c. are nomadic for only half of the year.
d. hunt but do not forage.

A society is called "egalitarian" when its members have equal access to:

a. status, wealth, and power within the same age group.

b. status and wealth.
c. status and power within the same kin group.
d. the same status through balanced reciprocity.
A societal type common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social
structure and lack of specialization is a:
a. band.
b. tribe.
c. chiefdom.
d. state.

The concept of carrying capacity refers to:

a. the amount of food foragers can locate in their territory.

b. the ability of an ecological niche to support a particular organism.
c. conclusions drawn from optimal foraging models.

d. the ability of the patrilocal band to care for its members.


Low energy budgets are associated with:

a. foragers.
b. horticulturalists.
c. pastoralists.
d. agriculturalists.
Key elements of the sociocultural adaptive strategies held in common by
hunter-gatherers-foragers include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a. market economy.
b. kinship structure.
c. type of leadership.
d. economic reciprocity.

A primary advantage of using the evolutionary-ecological model is that:

a. it allows comparisons of cultures with similar subsistence strategies.

b. similar subsistence strategies will have similar sociocultural adaptations.
c. it allows comparisons of cultures from different parts of the world.
d. all of the choices apply.

This anthropologist identified categories of economic reciprocity.

a. E.B. Tylor
b. Elman Service
c. Julian Steward
d. Marshall Sahlins
In the evolutionary-ecological model of societal development, the various
"stages" are viewed as:
a. discreet well defined stages.
b. points along a continuum.
c. hypothetical stages only.

d. supported by optimal foraging paradigms.

In the eastern part of North America, the earliest horticultural societies were
based on:
a. corn, beans, and squash.
b. zea maize and squash.
c. wheat, corn, and beans.
d. chenopodium and other seeds.
The Yanomamo tribe of Venezuela and Brazil are horticulturalists that rely on
gardens for what percentage of their food?
a. About 20 percent
b. Less than 50 percent
c. About 60 percent
d. More than 80 percent
What type of subsistence strategy is based on simple crop production without
the benefit of cultivation or irrigation?
a. Foraging
b. Agriculture
c. Horticulture
d. Pastoralism
In addition to their distinctive subsistence strategies, horticulturalists are
characterized by what features?
a. Small population and low energy budget
b. Large population and land ownership
c. Large population and good nutrition
d. High energy budget and a loose division of labor

Horticulturalists have poorer nutrition than foragers because:

a. their vitamin and mineral intakes are reduced.

b. they suffer from protein deficiency owing to lack of meat.

c. they live in crowded conditions and do not get enough to eat.

d. they have to work harder.
Agriculturally based societies are primarily associated with the following
economic institution(s):
a. generalized reciprocity.
b. market exchange.
c. redistribution and market exchange.
d. negative reciprocity and market exchange.
A societal type that is marked by an egalitarian social structure based on
horticultural and pastoral economies is called a:
a. band.
b. tribe.
c. chiefdom.
d. state.
A societal type with a hereditary leader, social stratification, and
redistributive economy is called a:
a. band.
b. tribe.
c. chiefdom.
d. dictatorship.
A society based on the herding of animals where herds are moved to
seasonal pastures is known as:
a. nomadic pastoralism.
b. transhumance.
c. sedentary pastoralism.
d. mixed agriculture.

Agriculture as a subsistence strategy is based primarily on the use of:

a. slash-and-burn.

b. tractors and swidden methods.

c. sharecropping and slash-and-burn techniques.
d. fertilizers and irrigation.

"Money" became important in state societies because the state needed:

a. to be able to exchange goods with other societies.

b. to minimize the differences between social classes.
c. a portable, impersonal medium of exchange.
d. a mechanism to unify the society.
The production maximization model of intensive agriculture strives to
maximize production through:
a. maintaining crop genetic diversity.
b. growing folk varieties of crops.
c. maintaining soil fertility without chemical fertilizers.
d. growing genetically engineered varieties and using chemical fertilizers.

The positive side of sustainable agriculture includes all of these, EXCEPT it:

a. helps traditional cultures maintain their local communities.

b. maintains soil fertility.
c. increases food costs.
d. may provide better nutrition.
The domestication of animals such as goats and sheep resulted in major
changes in all of these aspects of society, EXCEPT:
a. nuclear family structure.
b. systems of economic exchange.
c. social organization.
d. the division of labor.



List five features that are common to foragers


Briefly describe the division of labor among foragers.


List and describe three dietary advantages of eating insects.


Discuss and cite examples of three different human subsistence strategies.

Describe the differences among generalized, balanced, and negative
Name two similarities and two differences between the features of
horticultural and

Describe two types of currency used in market economies.


Discuss and cite examples of three different human subsistence strategies.

Compare and contrast the environments and technologies of two societies
you have read about.
10. Discuss the pros and cons of a worldwide adoption of sustainable agriculture.

ANT 202 WEEK 3 Discussion

Explain at least three background preparations for doing ethnographic fieldwork and
respond to at least one classmate to earn full credit.
Describe three ethical standards that govern the fieldworker and respond to at least
one classmate to earn full credit.
Describe at least three methods employed by fieldworkers and the problems
associated with each method and respond to at least one classmate to earn full

Discuss at least three of the challenges associated with fieldwork and respond to at
least one classmate to earn full credit.


Scarves worn by bride and groom are tied together symbolizing their eternal
bond in which traditional wedding ceremony?
a. Buddhist
b. Hindu
c. Christian
d. Muslim

A kinship relationship based on a blood connection is called:

a. clan.
b. consanguineal.
c. affinal.
d. collateral.

A kinship relationship based on a marriage connection is called:

a. patrilineal.
b. consanguineal.
c. affinal.
d. collateral.
In a kinship diagram, a single line between a male and a female symbol
a. siblings.
b. marriage.
c. divorce.

d. death.

A nuclear family consists of all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. mother.
b. father.
c. siblings.
d. grandparents.

Family that include persons that are not kin are called:

a. blended families.
b. single-parent families.
c. expanded families.
d. extended families.

Bridewealth refers to:

a. gifts from the groom's family to the bride's family.

b. wealth brought with the bride when she marries.
c. wealth already owned by the bride.
d. wealth accumulated prior to marriage.
Which of the following marriage patterns allows the newly married couple to
choose where they live?
a. Bilocal residence
b. Neolocal residence
c. Avunculocal residence
d. Matrilocal residence
In which residence form does the newly married couple live with the bride's
a. Neolocal
b. Patrilocal
c. Matrilocal

d. Avunculocal
What marriage rule functions to assure that a man will have a replacement
wife when his wife dies?
a. Levirate
b. Sororate
c. Exogamy
d. Endogamy
What marriage rule functions to assure that a widow and her children are
provided for?
a. Levirate
b. Sororate
c. Exogamy
d. Endogamy
You are an ethnographer whose data on residence customs after marriage
show that 65% of couples live with the groom's MoBr. Your ethnography would
report that __________ residence is the most common.
a. patrilocal
b. matrilocal
c. avunculocal
d. bilocal
A marriage rule requiring an individual to marry someone in his or her own
social group is called a(n):
a. lineage rule.
b. exogamous rule.
c. clan rule.
d. endogamous rule.
The advantages of polygyny across cultures include all of the following,
a. more wives means more sexual variety and access.

b. having more than one wife is a mark of prestige for both husband and wife.
c. more wives means more children, and more children brings status.
d. more wives means more workers, which means more wealth.
Which form of marriage found in Melanesia and elsewhere potentially gives a
man the most political status?
a. Polyandry
b. Polygyny
c. Monogamy
d. Group marriage
All of the following are goals or aims that kinship systems achieve for their
group members, EXCEPT:
a. identify political leaders.
b. organize people into groups.
c. direct people's behavior.
d. provides security for the group.
Which of the following descent groups are predominate in the United States
and Europe?
a. Patrilineal
b. Matrilineal
c. Ambilineal
d. Bilateral
In what descent group do individuals trace their descent to a known
a. Clan
b. Lineage
c. Phratry
d. Kindred

In this type of descent group, two individuals cannot actually trace how they
are related by blood; rather, they trace their descent to a mythical ancestor.
a. clan
b. Lineage
c. Phratry
d. Moiety
A culture is described as having polygynous marriages and patrilineal descent
but data shows that fewer than twenty percent of the population is in a polygynous
marriage. This illustrates what dichotomy?
a. Ideal/real
b. Culture/subculture
c. Culture/society
d. Etic/emic
How do the Hawaiian and the Iroquois terminological systems differ? The
Hawaiian system:
a. is not generational while Iroquois is generational.
b. is found in societies without strong unilineal descent whereas Iroquois is
associated with unilineal descent societies.
c. uses more specific terms than the Iroquois.
d. bifurcate kin and the Iroquois does not.
This common type of kinship organization found in large food producing
societies seems to function in the same way as clans and phratries are:
a. patrilineages.
b. segmentary lineages.
c. sodalities.
d. moieties.
The most common kinship system in North America today consists of
__________ descent groups known as __________.
a. ambilineal, phratries

b. unilateral, clans
c. bilateral, moieties
d. bilateral, kindreds
In aboriginal foraging societies, like the Dobe Ju/'hoansi !Kung, kinship
relations are important because kin:
a. share food resources.
b. help in conflict situations.
c. provide security during major life transitions.
d. all of the choices apply.

A significant advantage of unilineal descent groups is that they:

a. facilitate property inheritance.

b. determine residence.
c. dictate appropriate marriage partners.
d. control the choice of a chief.
If your informant describes how her peers treat her differently because her
father is an important film star, this is termed her __________ status.
a. earned
b. achieved
c. ascribed
d. ancillary
An informant tells a fieldworker that the preferred marriage custom in his
culture is for a man to marry his mother's brother's daughter. The fieldworker would
label this as an example of what type of marriage?
a. Lineage double descent
b. Parallel cousin
c. Cross-cousin
d. Clan


The Inuit kinship terminological system was so named because it was:

a. only used by the Inuit.

b. first described for the Inuit.
c. only found among such foraging societies as the Inuit.
d. a primary feature of aboriginal arctic societies.

A bifurcate kinship system is one where:

a. all cousins are called by the same term.

b. each member of a kin group is called by a different term.
c. ego labels father's side of the kin group differently than mother's side.
d. ego calls two different generations by different terms.
It is often difficult for members of one culture to understand the kinship
system of another culture because:
a. an etic perspective makes it difficult to grasp an emic perspective.
b. kinship rules do not fit any recognizable patterns.
c. the logic behind kinship systems is constantly changing.
d. ideal patterns of kinship systems are not the same as the real (or actual)


Identify at least three strategies common to foraging and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit.
Determine at least three various ways that goods and services are distributed in
your community and respond to at least one classmate to earn full credit.

Identify at least strategies common to horticulture and pastoralism and respond to

at least one classmate to earn full credit.
Identify at least strategies common to agriculture and industrialism and respond to
at least one classmate to earn full credit.



Distinguish between sex and gender


How do Trobriand Islanders learn about sex?

Cite two things that cross-cultural research revealed about sexual
attractiveness across cultures.
What has cross-cultural research revealed about sexual prohibitions across
When Margaret Mead began her work, many people believed that men and
women were biologically programmed to behave in certain ways. Discuss what was
revealed by Mead's work in New Guinea.



Margaret Mead profiled the temperament of men and women among the

a. Arapesh Zuni, and Arapaho.

b. Arapesh Washo, and Trobriands.
c. Arapesh, Mbuti, and Nandi.
d. Arapesh, Tchambuli, and Mundugumor.
a. XX

Which of the following chromosomal pairs shows that an individual is male?

b. XY
c. Xxy
d. YY

Gender refers to the:

a. ability of an individual to produce sperm or egg.

b. biological designation of male and female.
c. sex of the individual.
d. assigned role of an individual within a society.

Throughout Polynesia, third-gender individuals are known as:

a. gay.
b. hijra.
c. mahu.
d. berdache.

The Zuni recognize the berdache gender person as being:

a. neither man nor woman.

b. a woman who cross-dresses.
c. part man and part woman.
d. a man who wears woman's clothes.

The hijras of India are:

a. men who dress like women and behave like women.

b. emasculated men who take feminine names.
c. men who behave as women in all ways.
d. gay men.
The practice of designating "female husbands" among the Nandi of Africa
serves what purpose?
a. It provides for an additional economic asset for a household.
b. It allows economic security to women who never married.

c. It gives lesbian women an opportunity to marry.

d. It provides a means for women without male heirs to transmit property.

Sex play and experimentation are common among young children of the:

a. Trobrianders and the Ju/'hoansi.

b. Nandi and the East Bay people.
c. Zuni and the Mbuti pygmies.
d. Mbuti pygmies and the Mae Enga.
Ford and Beach's cross-cultural study of homosexuality found that it was
socially accepted as "normal" in what percentage of societies?
a. About 20 percent
b. About 30 percent
c. About 40 percent
d. About 60 percent
Which of the following terms refers to the socially and culturally assigned
roles dictating how male and females should behave?
a. Sex roles
b. Gender roles
c. Sexual orientation
d. Diversity

All of the following are factors that affect gender roles, EXCEPT:

a. economic resources.
b. ideology.
c. sexual behavior.
d. kinship.
The marriage of one woman to another among the Nandi of Africa serves
which of the following?
a. It is a cultural adaptation that allows a woman without male heirs to transmit

b. It serves to marry women whose father's cannot give large dowries.

c. It allows the Nandi to practice matrilineal descent in a patrilineal society.
d. It ensures a stable household for a woman who has lost her husband.
Among the Yanomamo, the purpose of separate origin myths for males and
females reinforces:
a. the role of women in a patrilineal society.
b. female dominance over men.
c. the relative position of men over women.
d. none of the choices apply.
Anthropological interest in sexuality can be traced back to which of the
following anthropologists?
a. Majorie Shostak
b. Regina Smith Oboler
c. Margaret Mead
d. Bronislaw Malinowsk
The issue of female circumcision generates outrage in North America.
According to Kristen Bell, the reason for this is that:
a. medical research proves male circumcision is a necessary, healthful practice.
b. culture bound ideas about gender prevent our objectivity.
c. we are more advanced than the cultures that practice female circumcision.
d. only undereducated people practice such customs.

ANT 202 WEEK 5 Discussion

Describe at least three types of families, their functions, & residence patterns and
their functions and respond to at least one classmate to earn full credit.

Describe and analyze at least three functions of kinship and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit.
Describe and discuss at least three types of descent systems found around the
world and respond to at least one classmate to earn full credit.



Contrast power and authority


Contrast leadership in tribes and chiefdom.


Describe two informal means of societal control.


Describe and give an example of one dimension of social stratification.

What was the crime of Cephu, and how does the way the Mbuti dealt with
Cephu illustrate informal means of social control?


Distinguish between sex and gender cross-culturally and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit.
Give an overview of the variations in gender roles and respond to at least one
classmate to earn full credit.
Describe the cross-cultural forms of political organization and respond to at least
one classmate to earn full credit.

Describe social stratification in societies and respond to at least one classmate to

earn full credit.


1 Politics is difficult to define cross-culturally because:
a. leadership is inherited in some cultures.
b. individual cultures do not view the use of power as a political force.
c. one culture views another culture's politics ethnocentrically.
d. there are few common features in political systems.

An anthropological study of politics will include a consideration of:

a. power and authority.

b. sanctions.
c. decision making.
d. all of the choices apply.
The ability to influence people and cause them to do things they would not do
otherwise is called:
a. authority.
b. power.
c. coercive power.
d. legitimate power.
A group of people who have a similar relationship to the mechanisms of
wealth, power, and social status is termed a(n):
a. class.
b. stratified group.
c. caste.
d. age set.


An industrial society's police force is an example of the legitimate use of:

a. power.
b. political sanctions.
c. wealth.
d. authority.

According to Elman Service, the basic types of political structure include:

a. bands, tribes, and kingdoms.

b. bands, tribes, and states.
c. bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.
d. bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and nations.

The Ju/'hoansi are best described as a band because:

a. leadership is inherited.
b. they have an egalitarian social structure.
c. leaders require gifts from the community.
d. the leader is called a Big Man.

Bands are very flexible social groupings because:

a. leaders continually rotate positions of authority.

b. leadership is not concentrated in one individual.
c. food resources are concentrated in one area.
d. the kinship division of labor is egalitarian.
Which term has been used to designate a stage in human evolution, as a
term for "primitive" people, and as a political system of non-state societies?
a. band
b. chiefdom
c. tribe
d. hunter-gatherer

Chiefdoms differ from tribes primarily as a result of the:

a. environments they inhabit.

b. accumulation of goods.
c. hereditary office of chief.
d. domestic mode of production.

A sodality is associated with a(n):

a. egalitarian kinship organization.

b. similar residence location.
c. similar kinship affiliation.
d. shared interests and concerns among its members.

Rank societies are those where individuals gain prestige and wealth by using:

a. coercive power.
b. persuasive power.
c. coercive authority.
d. simple authority.

The aboriginal Washo had leaders who:

a. were elders of the senior clan.

b. had special knowledge and skills.
c. had inherited the role of leader.
d. were elected by the group.

Among the Siuai of the Solomon Islands, becoming a leader requires:

a. generosity in gift giving and providing feasts.

b. being the most successful hunter.
c. having a charismatic personality.
d. raising the most pigs.

Inuit (Eskimo) song duels are considered:

a. formal means of social control.

b. informal means of social control.

c. part of the court system.
d. part of the moot system.


The cohesive and supportive functions of belief systems are best exemplified
by the
a. singing during a molimo ceremony.
b. Hindu prohibition against killing cattle.
c. Dani cremation ceremony.
d. Inuit story of Sedna.

Polytheistic belief systems can be defined as belief systems:

a. consisting of one all-powerful god or goddess.

b. where special knowledge is held by shamans.
c. where both supernatural forces and beings are found.
d. consisting of multiple gods or goddesses.

Which statement best describes the difference between magic and religion?

a. Religion contains many ceremonies, whereas magic does not.

b. Religion gives people a euphoric feeling, whereas magic does not.
c. Magic is the belief of aboriginal populations, whereas religion is the belief of
advanced cultures.
d. Magic deals primarily with supernatural forces, whereas religion deals primarily
with supernatural beings.
A part-time practitioner who has special abilities for handling supernatural
forces is called a:
a. priest.

b. shaman.
c. mana.
d. churinga.
The story of Sedna, the Inuit goddess, best fulfills which of the following
functions of belief systems?
a. Revitalization
b. Euphoria
c. Explanation
d. Ecological
Which of the following is a supernatural being with the potential to cause
harm to the living?
a. Ghost
b. Soul
c. Hobbit
d. Fairy

Gods cross-culturally have all but one of these attributes: they are:

a. more powerful than people.

b. are anthropomorphic.
c. forgiving.
d. often ancestral to people.
Failure to obey one of the Judeo-Christian Ten Commandments would bring
negative sanctions from a group. This is a direct example of which supernatural
a. Cohesive function
b. Disciplining function
c. Revitalizing function
d. Supportive function

The Hindu religion's tradition of not eating beef is an example of which
supernatural function?
a. Euphoric function
b. Supportive function
c. Ecological function
d. Explanatory function
It is often difficult to recognize supernatural beliefs and practices in other
cultures because you are:
a. using a holistic view.
b. being ethnocentric.
c. being culturally relativistic.
d. using an emic perspective.

A rite of passage will usually involve what steps?

a. Withdrawal, initiation, and incorporation

b. Separation, initiation, and incorporation
c. Separation, transition, and incorporation
d. Withdrawal, transition, and incorporation
A supernatural being that can have human form and is usually concerned
with human welfare is called a:
a. trickster.
b. ghost.
c. soul.
d. god.
A man wants a woman to fall in love with him. He pays a shaman to use
imitative magic to help him achieve his goal. Which of the following imitative magic
techniques would the shaman use?
a. Give the man a rabbit's foot to carry
b. Gather the man's family to petition the love god

c. Make a clay figurine of the man and the woman together

d. Have the man carry a locket of the woman's hair
A major difference between a rite of passage and a rite of intensification is
a. rites of passage are generally associated with religious beliefs; rites of
intensification are not.
b. ceremonies associated with rites of passage last several days whereas those
associated with rites of intensification last a week or more.
c. rites of passage involve the entire community; rites of intensification only
involve the individual who is undergoing a social change in their status and social
d. rites of passage focus on the individual; rites of intensification focus on the
Saying graceor any prayerbefore every meal is an example of what
supernatural function?
a. Supportive function
b. Educational function
c. Revitalizing function
d. Disciplining function

Upper Paleolithic cave art dates to:

a. 200,000 to 100,000 B.P.

b. 100,000 to 50,000 B.P.
c. 40,000 to 12,000 B.P.
d. 10,000 to 8,000 B.P.
An important Upper Palaeolithic cave in Spain where artists used
exaggeration of proportion when painting a deer is:
a. Lascaux.
b. Grotto Chauvet.
c. Altamira.

d. La Marche.
Upper Paleolithic artists were masters of the use of tone. Tone includes all of
the following, EXCEPT:
a. color.
b. value.
c. line.
d. intensity.
The imitative magic hypothesis to explain Upper Paleolithic cave art states
that magic that is performed on:
a. a picture of an animal can influence the living animal.
b. a hoof print of the animal can influence the living animal.
c. a sample of an animal's hair can influence other similar animals.
d. drawings on the body of an animal can influence its health.

The Venus of Willendorf is an example of:

a. parietal art.
b. mobile art.
c. a fetish figure.
d. a poltergeist.
According to the author, all of the following are valid hypotheses used to
explain the purposes for cave art, EXCEPT:
a. contagious magic.
b. art for symbolic use.
c. imitative magic.
d. backdrop for ceremonies.
At Niaux cave between one-third and one-half of the more than five hundred
foot prints are considered to be children. This suggests that:
a. children were members of a religious cult.
b. the Niaux society was comprised mainly of children.

c. the cave served as a place for initiating children.

d. the Niaux cave was a place for children's games.
Members of the Yurok, Karuk, Hupa, and Tolowa used valued items such as
obsidian blades, white deer skins, and elaborately carved paddles and spoons to:
a. give away as gifts.
b. reinforce social position.
c. trade with other Native American groups.
d. appease their spirits.

The oldest musical instruments found in the archaeological record are:

a. flutes.
b. drums.
c. cymbals.
d. maracas.

Ethnomusicologist study all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. music of contemporary societies.

b. cultural context in which music is played.
c. world music tonal systems.
d. natural musical sounds like bird songs.
Valued items among the Yurok, Karuk, Hupa, and Tolowa include all of the
following, EXCEPT:
a. large obsidian blades.
b. acorn woodpecker scalps.
c. white fox hides.
d. carved acorn cooking paddles.
The Cuna (Kuna) of San Blas, Panama, express themselves through the art of
the mola. Molas are:
a. colorful woven textiles made from alpaca wool.

b. colorful multi-layered appliqus on blouses.

c. carved wooden panels depicting tribal history.
d. carved mush paddles with geometric designs.
Permanent forms of body art across cultures includes all of the following,
a. branding.
b. mehndi.
c. moko.
d. piercing.
Among the New Zealand Maori, facial tattoos communicated all of the
following, EXCEPT:
a. personal name.
b. personal history.
c. clan membership.
d. social rank.

The 5300 year old man found frozen in a glacier had the following body art:

a. scarification on his back.

b. tattoos on back, wrist, and ankle.
c. pierced ear with a bone plug.
d. tattoos on his face and a flattened head.



Describe three features of shamans


Describe one way that rites of passage and rites of intensification are similar.


What are three ways that magic is similar to religion?


What is religion? Discuss the problems of defining religion cross-culturally.


Describe the basic functions of super naturalism.

List and briefly describe two features of Upper Paleolithic cave paintings that
are also found in contemporary paintings.

What are the distinguishing characteristics of Cuna (Kuna) molas?


List and describe three cross-cultural functions of body art.


ANT 202 WEEK 8 Assignment


Describe two methods used by anthropologists to study culture change


Explain how and why tradition can be a serious barrier to culture change

What two things did the caseworker do correctly when he tried to introduce
the new hybrid corn to the community in New Mexico?

How was tradition a barrier to culture change for the Raikas?


List and describe three common negative outcomes of development projects.

What are three central concepts in anthropology that can be used in applied
situations to give a new perspective on problems and issues?
What do business people typically mean when they used the term corporate
What did research by medical anthropologists reveal about the folk disease
called "susto"?
Discuss two successful strategies that were part of Gerald Murray's program
for reforestation in Haiti.

What do applied anthropologists do?



Cultural change became a focus in cultural anthropology in the 1940s
a. radiocarbon dating had been developed to date prehistoric sites.
b. the science of genetics began to yield information about genetic change.
c. the end of World War II set the stage for growth and rebuilding.
d. all of the choices apply.
On the issue of the anthropologist's role in planned change programs, the
view of most professional applied anthropologists is that:
a. as scientists they should stay neutral and not become involved.
b. as professionals they have a moral obligation to take the side of native peoples.
c. as professionals trained in the issues of change, they should work to educate all
d. not all of them agree about what their role should be; some hold each of the
above views.
Interest by anthropologists in the process of culture change has its roots in
what theoretical school?
a. Unilineal evolution
b. Historical particularism
c. Functionalism
d. Neoevolutionism
The three categories that George Foster outlined in his analysis of barriers to
culture change were:
a. cultural barriers, social barriers, and psychological barriers.
b. culture structure barriers, technological barriers, and fatalistic barriers.
c. technological barriers, economic barriers, and cultural barriers.
d. economic barriers, social barriers, and cultural barriers.
Which method for the study of culture change looks at a situation after the
planned change program is implemented?

a. Archaeological research
b. Ethnographic restudy
c. Analysis of historical records
d. Impact study
The borrowing that takes place between cultures as a result of prolonged
contact is termed:
a. acculturation.
b. enculturation.
c. invention.
d. hegemony.
__________ is the approach to the study of culture change that consists of
anthropologists talking to elder members of a culture and asking them to recount
aspects of their lives.
a. Participant observations
b. Life histories
c. Restudies
d. Impact studies
The approach that examines the adaptations made by rural peoples as they
move into cities is called:
a. urbanization studies.
b. microeconomic studies.
c. urban poverty studies.
d. acculturation studies.

The major source of change for any culture is:

a. innovation.
b. invention.
c. directed change programs.
d. diffusion.

The barriers to culture change in the case of the introduction of hybrid corn to
farmers in New Mexico were:
a. poor communication and size of social groups.
b. fatalism and ethnocentrism.
c. tradition and relative values.
d. cultural ethnocentrism and fatalism.
Just when the future of the Raikas seemed most bleak, the Raikas learned of
the success of other camel herders with the sale of camel's milk. Traditional
attitudes began to change regarding the sale of camel's milk. George Foster would
attribute this culture change to the motivator of:
a. intratribal competition.
b. desire for prestige.
c. religious motivation.
d. desire for economic gain.
Susan Emley Keefe's work among urban Mexican-Americans and AngloAmericans in southern California demonstrated that:
a. there was a breakdown in family ties as members moved to the city.
b. the urban setting resulted in fewer family interactions.
c. in both groups people lost touch with rural relatives and relied more on friends.
d. in both groups extended family ties were important and were maintained.

When anthropologists study globalization the focus is most commonly on:

a. individuals and cultural process.

b. individuals and political process.
c. nation-states and economic processes.
d. nation-states and social processes.
The ideological domination by one cultural group over another through
institutions, bureaucracy, education, and sometimes force, is termed:
a. colonialism.
b. hegemony.

c. imperialism.
d. globalization.
Eric Michaels' study of the impact of video tapes on the Warlpiri of Australia
shows that:
a. technology may change during diffusion.
b. technology diffuses slowly.
c. values may not diffuse with technology.
d. values and technology diffuse with equal speed.
What type of anthropologist seeks solutions to problems in areas such as
children's health?
a. Urban anthropologist
b. Corporate anthropologist
c. Medical anthropologist
d. Paleoanthropologist
Employing ethnographic methods in business settings results in information
and data that are helpful because they are more:
a. qualitative.
b. quantitative.
c. statistically significant.
d. personal.
Which of the following is NOT an example of the type of work applied
anthropologists do? Applied anthropologists:
a. help to develop various programs associated with health care.
b. help to develop businessmen and corporations solve production and supply
c. assist in problems concerning agriculture management.
d. assist horticulturalists in developing foraging techniques.

Corporate culture qualifies as a culture in anthropological terms because:

a. employees share the same work location.

b. employees view themselves as part of a stratified system.
c. patterns of behavior within the corporation are learned.
d. patterns of leadership are the same in corporations.
Applied anthropologists who use ethnographic methods to study business
organizations are said to be studying:
a. corporate culture.
b. business culture.
c. organizational culture.
d. business structure.
When people in business use the term corporate culture, they typically mean
that the corporate members share:
a. ideologies.
b. work places.
c. common goals.
d. manners and customs.
The on-site techniques used to study the multinational corporation's
education division, as reported by McCurdy, revealed what warehouse problems?
a. Outdated computers
b. Outdated billing systems
c. Employees who only estimated the number of books packaged
d. Employees who were not properly trained in the warehouse management
Investigations by medical anthropologists of "susto" showed that people with
"susto" had:
a. fewer biological diseases than a control group.
b. more psychological ills than a control a group.
c. fewer psychological ills than a control group.

d. more biological diseases than a control group.

Robert Trotter showed sensitivity to the local culture in designing a program
that drew attention to products containing lead when he:
a. developed educational programs for "curanderos."
b. had local Mexican-American art students design information posters.
c. asked local political leaders to make speeches.
d. developed educational programs for the local schools.

Initial attempts by AID to bring about reforestation in Haiti failed because:

a. an unsuitable species of tree was to be planted.

b. the peasants lacked appropriate equipment for irrigation.
c. peasants perceived that they would lose title to their land.
d. peasants perceived that the state would profit at their expense.
Susan Squires and her colleagues discovered all of the following about
people's breakfast desires and attitudes, EXCEPT:
a. mothers wanted nutritious breakfasts.
b. dad wanted a traditional breakfast.
c. moms and dads wanted the most economical breakfast.
d. kids wanted a fun breakfast if they ate at all.
Design anthropologists are expert at using ethnographic methods to
a. the best possible design.
b. between ideal and actual behavior.
c. the best pricing for a new commodity.
d. between subcultures.
Ann Jordan's report on the corporate merger between "Uno Inc" and "Due Inc"
exemplified all of the following problems in newly merged companies, EXCEPT:
a. two different corporate cultures existed.
b. marketing strategies differed in these companies.

c. all of the employees of one company were fired.

d. both company employee groups saw their way of doing business as most
adaptive to the market.
Susan Squires and her colleagues used what techniques in their research
leading the development of the product Go-Gurt?
a. Observation, recorders, video cameras
b. Focus groups and interviews
c. Questionnaires and interviews
d. Participant observation and questionnaires
Office furniture manufacturer Steelcase modified its office design approach
based on ethnographic methods input by design anthropologists. This included:
a. creating larger offices.
b. eliminating office cubicles.
c. creating gathering places in halls.
d. creating lunch rooms closer to office cubicles.


Refer to the list of your personal top seven 7 goals and objectives to gain from this
course from Module 1 and describe how many were achieved, and explain why or
why not. Thank you for a wonderful term!