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# the joints and the stiffness of interacting beams and columns.      # • Minimum eccentricity should be as follows.

## l = unsupported length of column in mm l
e
+
min
≥  
500
30 D   
≥ 20

# Concrete and steel work together and overall capacity of column is sum of the strength of individual material capacities. # COMPRESSION MEMBERS

## Axial load carrying Capacity of a column is given by P
= f
A
+ f
A
cu
cc
c
sc
sc

## f cc= Permissible stress in concrete in direct compression f
0.67
f
ck
ck
f
=
=
=
0.445 f
cc
ck
γ
1.5
ms

# Stress in mild steel bars f
f
y
y
f
=
=
=
0.87 f
sc
y
γ
1.15
m P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.87 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

# the full design stress will develop at a strain of 0.002. Stress in HYSD bars may be read from stress-strain diagram . 0.85 f
y
f
=
=
0.74 f
sc
y
1.15 P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.74 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

# For mild Steel P
= 0.40 f
A
+ 0.77 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

# For HYSD bar P
= 0.40 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

sc

g

sc

g

c

g

sc

cu

ck

g

g

y

g

ck

cu

g

y

g

# For Rectangular Cross-section P
cu
f
bDf
ck # Ultimate load for columns with helical (spiral) reinforcement shall be 1.05 times ultimate load for similar short column with lateral ties or rings, provided following condition is satisfied V
 A
  f
 
g
h
0 . 36
1
ck
V
A
f
core
  
c
y
  

# Where V h= volume of helical reinforcement per 1mm length V core= volume of core of concrete per 1 mm length • V h

# Pitch of Spiral Wire(Spacing) π .
d
.
A
c
sc
V
=
h
P 2
π
core
V
. 1
core
=    D
4
   ## Where D core= diameter of core measured outer to outer of the spiral D c= centre line diameter of spiral = pitch of the spiral ## The volumetric Ratio [volume of helical spiral steel to the volume of core concrete] The confinement stress due to spiral on concrete V
π
.
d
.
A
4
h
c
sc
ρ
=
=
×
s
2
V
P
π
D
core
core ρ
.d
. P
s
c
A
=
sp
4 2 A
f
1
sp
y
1
The Confinement Stressσ
due to Spiral on Concrete >
= σ
2
2
d
P
c ρ f
1
s
y
σ
=
2
2

# iii. forty-eight times the diameter of the helical bars. ,

# All compression members are to be designed for a minimum eccentricity of load in two principal directions. l
d
e
=
+
, Subject of a minimum of 20 mn
min
500
30 When e
0 .05 d
min P
= 0.4 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
u
ck
c
y
sc

# section cu

F d

ck

sc

cc

c

ck

st

f

ck

# Taking moments about centroid of the section : #  # II) When the neutral axis lies outside the section

• x u

## Parabola is Mathematically

2 2
Y
= kx ## • 2

2

ck

##   1
2

# 

f ck

2

## Where g= difference between stress at the highly compressed edge and the stress at the least compressed edge.   ck

ck

4

2

Here

g =

0 .446

f ck

 

7

k

3

 

2

ck

ca

ck

## Moment about the highly compressed edge

• ### M   2
D
8
2
= 0 . 446
f
D
gD
ck
2
49
  
  

## Equilibrium equations n

u

1

ck

i = 1

si

ci

si

u

n

i = 1

si

ci

# )

i

u

1

ck

2

si

k

=

0 . 446 1

 

4

4

2

 

1

21

7

k

3

0

. 223

8 g

k

=

49 f

ck

2

k

1

i

si

cu

ck

1

n

i = 1

si

ci

i

ck

ck

1

2

n

i = 1

si

ci

## )

i

ck

i

###  M
u
2
bD
f

## III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section ## III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section: n

cu

ck

i = 1

sci

cci

sci

cu

ck

n

i

= 1

sci

cci

i

ck

u

cu cc

.

cu sc

.

i

n

ck

2

i =1

sci

cci

sci

i

2

u

ck

n

i

= 1

sci

cci

# )

i

ck

i

## KN  D
= 300 mm
π
π
2
A
=
Gross Area
=
D
=
×
300
×
300
g
4
4
2
f
= 15N/mm
ck
2
f
= 415 N/mm
y

## Assume P = 1% 1
π
2
A
=
×
× 300
sc
100
4 Assume that e
<
0.05 D
min Assume that e
<
0.05 D
min
P
= 0.4 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
u
ck
c
y
sc
P
A
=
A
A
=
A
1 −
c
g
sc
g
100
P
π
P
P
π
cu
=
0.4
×
15
×
×
300
×
300 1
+
0.67
×
415
×
A
×
300
×
300
g
1.05
4
100
100
4
⇒ P =
1% of A
=
2.25
g
P
π
2
×
×
300
×
300
=
1591.7 mm
A sc =
100
4
2
A
=
Area of steel
=
1592mm
sc
1592
2
D
=
=
15 . 91 mm
16 mm
π
8 ×
4

### 1/6 diameter of core V
 A
f
g
h
ck
≥ 0 . 36
− 1
V
A
f
core
c
y
π
(
π
d
)
2
2
×
×
φ
s
c
18122.985
4
V
=
=
h
P
=
sn
sn
i
π
2
2
V
=
D
× =
1
38013.36
mm
core
core
4
π
(
)
2
2
π
d
×
×
φ
s
V
c
 A
f
h
4
g
ck
=
=
0 . 36
1
2
V
π
D
A
f
core
core
c
y
18122.985
15
=
=
0.36 0.8595
[
]
×
= 0.011184
38013.30 × sn
415
18122
. 985
sn
=
=
42 . 63m
38013 . 30
×
0 . 0111

## >75 ## Assume 20mm dia bars with 40m cover 1
d
=
40
+
10
=
50 1
d
50
=
= 0 . 1
D
500 1
d
Charts for
=
0.1 will be used
D   P
1050
×
10 3
1050
21
42
cu
=
=
=
=
= 0.42
bDf
20
×
250
×
500
2500
50
10
ck
M
135
×
10 6
135
2.7
2.7
u
=
=
=
=
×
10
=
1.08
=
0.108
2
bD
f
20
×
250
×
500
×
500
125
25
25
ck
ρ
= 0 . 08
f
ck
ρ = 0 . 08 × 20 = 1 . 6
1 . 6
2
ρ =
A
=
×
250
×
500
=
2000
m
sc
100
Four sides
ρ
= 0 . 10 =
f
ck
f
ck
ρ =
0.10 × 20 = 2%
2
A
=
×
250
×
500
=
2500
mm
sc
100

### BIAXIAL BENDING Exact design of members subjected to axial load and biaxial bending is extremely laborious. Therefore, the code permits the design of such members be α
α
n
n
  Mux  
+   Muy  
1.0
Mux
Muy
 
1
 
 
1
 

Mux =

Muy =

Mux

• 1 =

Muy

• 1 =

### Maximum moment capacity about y – axis P
u
α
= Depends on
n
P
uz [
]
P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.75 f
A
uz
ck
c
y
s P
u
α
P
n
uz ≤ 0.2
1.0 ≥ 0.8
2.0 ## The additional moments may be reduced by multiplying factor “k” given below P
P
uz
u
k
=
≤ 1
P
P
uz
b P
= 0 . 45 f
A
+ 0 . 75 f
A
uz
ck
c
y
s P
b

## and tensile strain of 0 .002 in outermost layer of tension steel.  # Factored Moment = 1.5 × 90 = 135kN.m L
e = 4 . 0
m 2
f
=
20 N / mm
ck 2
f
=
415 N / mm
y

• # D = 500 mm

### 1. 4000
500
e
=
+
min
500
30

# = 8 + 16 . 66 = 24 . 67 nm

## 2. e
min
=
0.0493
<
0.05
D 4000
350
e
=
+
= 19 .67
min
500
30 e
18
min
=
= 0 . 06
D
300