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Compression Members

A

column

is

defined

as

a

structural

member

subjected

to

compressive load in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis.

When the effective length of a compression member does not exceed three times the least lateral dimensions then such compression member is called Pedestal .

Compression Members

When the compression members are overloaded, then their failure may occur in direct Compression, Excessive Bending combined with Twisting.

Failure of columns depends on their Slenderness Ratio.

Load required to cause these types of failures, decreases as the length of compression members increases, while maintaining the the cross-section areas constant.

Classification of Columns

Based on length

  • 1. Short Columns and

  • 2. Long or Slender Columns

If slenderness ratios (l ex /D) and L ey /b less columns are called Short Columns.

than

12, then

the

When slenderness ratios l ex /D and l ey /b or both slenderness ratios are more than 12, then the columns are called Slender Columns.

Classification of Columns

Based on type of loading and load combinations

  • 1. Axially Loaded Columns

  • 2. Axially Loaded with Uniaxial Bending Moment

  • 3. Axially Loaded with Biaxial Bending Moment

Reinforced Concrete Columns

  • 1. Tied Columns

  • 2. Spiral Columns

EFFECTIVE LENGTH

Effective length of a column is the length between points of contra flexure of the buckled column.

Code specifies certain values of effective length for normal usage assuming idealized end conditions.

Code provided two charts to calculate effective length of columns in framed structures.

Chart

26

is

for

a braced column structure in which the relative

movement of ends of a compression member transverse to its axis is

prevented

Chart

27

is

for an unbraced column system

where such relative

movement is possible and the restraint is provided only by the rigidity of

the joints and the stiffness of interacting beams and columns.

Effective Length of Compression Members

“Degree of End Restraint’ of the Member

Effective

Length

  • 1. Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at both ends

0.65

L

  • 2. Effectively held in position at both ends, restrained against rotation at one end

0.80

L

  • 3. Effectively held in position at both ends, but not against rotation

  • 1.0 L

  • 4. Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end, and at the other restrained against rotation but not held in position

  • 1.2 L

  • 5. Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation

 

at one end, at the other end partially restrained against rotation but not held in position

  • 1.5 L

  • 6. Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end, not held in position nor restrained against rotation at the other end

  • 2.0 L

ASSUMPTIONS

1. Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending.

2. Relationship between stress vs. strain in concrete is assumed to be parabolic. The maximum compressive stress is equal to 0.67 f ck . (a) Design stress = 0.446f ck

3. Tensile strength of concrete is ignored.

4. Stress in reinforcement can be obtained from the representative stress-strain curve for the type of steel used.

5. Maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is limited to 0.002.

ASSUMPTIONS

7. Maximum compression strain at highly compressed extreme fibre in concrete subjected to axial compression and bending, but no tension on section, is taken as 0.0035 minus 0.75 times strain at the lead compressed extreme fibre.

8. Maximum compressive strain at highly compressed extreme fibre in concrete subjected to axial compression and bending, when part of section is in tension, is taken as 0.0035. The strain distribution lines for these two cases intersect each other at a depth of [0.43 D] from highly compressed edge. This point is assumed to act as a fulcrum for the strain distribution line when the neutral axis lies outside the section .

MINIMUM ECCENTRICITY

In practice, a truly axially loaded column is rare, if not non existent.

Therefore, eccentricity.

every

column

should

be

designed

for

certain

minimum

This accidental eccentricity may occur due to end conditions, inaccuracy during construction or variation in materials even when the load is theoretically axial.

Minimum eccentricity should be as follows.

l = unsupported length of column in mm

l e + min ≥    500 30 D    ≥ 20
l
e
+
min
≥  
500
30 D   
≥ 20

D = lateral dimension of column in the direction under consideration in mm .

All members subjected to a compression load must be designed for the eccentricity, “e min ” corresponding to the maximum moment which can accompany this loading condition.

STRENGTH OF AXIALLY LOADED SHORT COLUMNS

Strength of short columns with lateral ties is the sum of the concrete contribution and the steel contribution.

Concrete and steel work together and overall capacity of column is sum of the strength of individual material capacities.

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

Axial load carrying Capacity of a column is given by

P = f A + f A cu cc c sc sc
P
= f
A
+ f
A
cu
cc
c
sc
sc

f cc = Permissible stress in concrete in direct compression

f 0.67 f ck ck f = = = 0.445 f cc ck γ 1.5 ms
f
0.67
f
ck
ck
f
=
=
=
0.445 f
cc
ck
γ
1.5
ms

A c = Cross-sectional area of concrete

A c

= A g – A sc

A g = Gross- cross sectional Area of the column f sc = Permissible compressive stress for column bars A sc = Cross-sectional Area of longitudinal steel bars for columns P cu = Axial ultimate load in compression stress in concrete

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

At failure, strain across the column section is 0.0020 uniform . At this strain full design stress may develop in mild steel bars.

Stress in mild steel bars

f f y y f = = = 0.87 f sc y γ 1.15 m
f
f
y
y
f
=
=
=
0.87 f
sc
y
γ
1.15
m

Load carrying capacity

P = 0.45 f A + 0.87 f A cu ck c y sc
P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.87 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

When high strength deformed bars are used as reinforcement,

the full design stress will develop at a strain of 0.002. Stress in HYSD bars may be read from stress-strain diagram .

0.85 f y f = = 0.74 f sc y 1.15
0.85 f
y
f
=
=
0.74 f
sc
y
1.15
P = 0.45 f A + 0.74 f A cu ck c y sc
P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.74 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

Then

IS: 456-2000 recommends the ultimate load carrying capacity of member by reducing this capacity by approx. TEN PERCENT.

When minimum eccentricity does not exceed 0.05D, capacity is given by

For mild Steel

P = 0.40 f A + 0.77 f A cu ck c y sc
P
= 0.40 f
A
+ 0.77 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

For HYSD bar

P = 0.40 f A + 0.67 f A cu ck c y sc
P
= 0.40 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
cu
ck
c
y
sc

ρ =Percentage reinforcement

   

ρ

=

A

A

sc

×

g

100

A

sc

=

ρ

A

g

100

 

A

c

=

A

g

A

sc

 

P

cu

=

 

0.4

f

ck

A

g

. A

ρ

g

100

 + 0.77 f

y

A  

ρ

.

g

100

  

For mild Steel bars

 

P

cu

=

 

0.4

f

ck

A

g

ρ

. A

g

100

 + 0.67 f

y

ρ

A  

.

g

100

  

 
 

P

 

 

f

ck

 

1

   

ρ

ρ

 

 

cu

=

0.4

 

+ 0.77

A

g

 

100

 

f

y

100

 
 

P

 

 

f

ck

 

1

   

ρ

+ 0.67

f

ρ

 

cu

=

0.4

A

g

100

 

y

100

 

 
 

P

cu

A

g

=

 

0.4

f

ck

+

[

0.67

f

y

0.4

f

ck

]

ρ

100

 

 
 
 

A

g

=

bD

 

=

0 . 4

+

ρ

100

f

ck

[

0 . 67

f

y

0 . 4

ck

]

For HYSD bar

For mild Steel bars

For HYSD bar:

For Rectangular Cross-section

P  cu f  bDf ck 
P
cu
f
bDf
ck

If possible high yield strength deformed bars should be used.

Columns reinforced with Mild Steel bars tend to collapse without warning when the steel bars yield.

Classification of short columns avoids superfluous calculations of moment due to additional eccentricity.

In case, additional eccentricity is calculated in short columns,

this shall be nearly always less than the minimum of 0.05 D.

Ultimate load for columns with helical (spiral) reinforcement shall be 1.05 times ultimate load for similar short column with lateral ties or rings, provided following condition is satisfied

 V  A   f   g h ≥ 0 . 36 
V
 A
  f
 
g
h
0 . 36
1
ck
V
A
f
core
  
c
y
  

Where V h = volume of helical reinforcement per 1mm length V core = volume of core of concrete per 1 mm length

• Ultimate load for columns with helical (spiral) reinforcement shall be 1.05 times ultimate load for
  • V h

=

Circumferential length

×

Cross

Sectional Area of Spiral

Pitch of Spiral Wire(Spacing)

π . d . A c sc V = h P
π .
d
.
A
c
sc
V
=
h
P
2 π  core V . 1 core =    D 4  
2
π
core
V
. 1
core
=    D
4
  

Where D core = diameter of core measured outer to outer of the spiral D c = centre line diameter of spiral = pitch of the spiral

Where D = diameter of core measured outer to outer of the spiral D = centre

The volumetric Ratio [volume of helical spiral steel to the volume of core concrete] The confinement stress due to spiral on concrete

V π . d . A 4 h c sc ρ = = × s 2
V
π
.
d
.
A
4
h
c
sc
ρ
=
=
×
s
2
V
P
π
D
core
core
ρ .d . P s c A = sp 4
ρ
.d
. P
s
c
A
=
sp
4
2 A f 1 sp y 1 The Confinement Stressσ due to Spiral on Concrete >
2 A
f
1
sp
y
1
The Confinement Stressσ
due to Spiral on Concrete >
= σ
2
2
d
P
c
ρ f 1 s y σ = 2 2
ρ f
1
s
y
σ
=
2
2

REQUIREMENTS OF LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT

  • 1. Minimum area of cross-section of longitudinal bars must be at least 0.8% of A g

  • 2. Maximum Area of cross-section of longitudinal bars must not exceed 6.0% of gross c/s area of concrete (Practically not more than 4.0% ).

  • 3. In any column that has a larger cross-sectional area than that required to support the load, the minimum percentage steel must be based on the area of concrete required to resist the direct stress

  • 4. Bars should not be less than 12mm diameter

  • 5. Minimum number of bars should be four in rectangular columns and six in circular columns

  • 6. For helical reinforced columns at least six bars should be provided

  • 7. Spacing of longitudinal bars should not be more than 300mm .

TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT

Lateral ties

1.

Diameter ¼ diameter of longitudinal bar (or) 6mm

Pitch should not exceed

  • a. least lateral dimension

  • b. 16 times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal bars

  • c. 48 times the diameter of lateral ties.

HELICAL REINFORCEMENT

Diameter of helical reinforcement ¼ (largest longitudinal bar)

Helical reinforcement should be of regular formation with turn of helix evenly spaced and its ends should be anchored properly by providing one and a half extra turns of the spiral bars.

Pitch should not exceed

a.

1/6 core diameter of column

a.

25mm

b.

Three times diameter of steel bar forming helix.

For increased load on strength of helical column pitch should not exceed 75mm

If an increased load on the column on the strength of helical reinforcement is not allowed for, its pitch should not exceed

  • i. least lateral dimension

ii. sixteen time the smallest diameter of in longitudinal bar

iii. forty-eight times the diameter of the helical bars.

,

AXIAL LOAD AND UNIAXIAL BENDING

All compression members are to be designed for a minimum eccentricity of load in two principal directions.

l d e = + , Subject of a minimum of 20 mn min 500 30
l
d
e
=
+
, Subject of a minimum of 20 mn
min
500
30
When e ≤ 0 .05 d min
When e
0 .05 d
min
P = 0.4 f A + 0.67 f A u ck c y sc
P
= 0.4 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
u
ck
c
y
sc

Section is designed for a moment which is not less than that due to the prescribed minimum eccentricity when a compression member is subjected axial load and bending moment, maximum strain at outermost compression fibre is 0.0035 is also applicable when the neutral axis lies within section and in limiting case when the neutral axis lies along one edge of the section .

In the later case, strain varies from 0.0035 at highly compressed edge to zero at opposite edge.

For purely axial load, strain is assumed to be uniformly equal 0.002 across the section .

Strain distribution lines for these two cases intersect each other at a depth of 3D/7 from the highly compressed edge.

This

point

is

assumed

to

act

as

a

fulcrum

for

the

strain

distribution line when the neutral axis lies outside the section .

This

leads

to

the

assumption

that

the

strain

at

the

highly

compressed edge is 0.0035 minus 0.75 times the strain at the least

compressed edge.

I)

N eutral

axis

lies within the

section

I) N eutral axis lies within the section

I) When the neutral axis lies within the section

Cross section dimensions b = width of the section D = depth of the section

Steel bars are symmetrically distributed along the outer faces. The stress block parameters are simpler. These parameters may be directly incorporated into the expressions. The equilibrium equation can be written from the diagram

 

P

cu

.

F d

[

= P + P P

u cc

.

u

.sc

TS

]

 
 

P .

cu

F d

=

[

0.36 f .b.x

ck

u

+

(

f

sc

f

cc

)

A

sc

(

f

st

A

st

)]

 
 

P

cu

.

F d

bDf

ck

=

0.36 k

+

(

f

sc

f

cc

)

P

c

100

f

ck

 −

(

f

st

P

f

100 f

ck

)

 

Taking moments about centroid of the section :

Taking moments about centroid of the section : M cu = P cu . F (0.5
 

M

cu

=

P

cu

.F (0.5 D

d

e)

M

cu

=

P

cu cc

.

.

y

c

+

P

u sc

.

y

sc

 
 
 

= 0.36

f

ck

.

b kD

.

( 0.5

D

0.416

x

u

)(

f

si

f

ci

)

A

st

.

y

 
 
 

=

0.36

f

ck

.b.kD ( 0.5 D

0.416 kD )

+

( f

si

f

ci

) A

si

. y

i

   
 
 

M

cu

 

=

0 . 36

k

[

0 . 5

0 . 416

k

]

+

n

i

= 1

(

f

si

f

)

P

i

y

i

 

f

ck

.

b D

.

2

ci

100 f

ck

D

Taking moments about centroid of the section : M cu = P cu . F (0.5

II) When the neutral axis lies outside the section

  • x u

= kD =

neutral axis distance from the extreme compression edge

Parabola is Mathematically

2

2 Y = kx
2
Y
= kx
II) When the neutral axis lies outside the section x u = kD = neutral axis

II) When the neutral axis lies outside the section x u = kD = neutral axis
 

g

=

  4 D  

7

2

 
 

0 . 446 f

=

kD

3 D

2

 

ck

 

7

 

 
1 2
1
2
   

= 0.446

f ck

4 D

 

2

g

7

kD

3

D

 
 

g = 0 . 446

f ck

7

4

k

3

2

 

Where g= difference between stress at the highly compressed edge and the stress at the least compressed edge.

Area of stress block

Area of Stress Block

=

0.446

f

ck

.

k D

.

g 4

   

3

7

D

 
   

4

 

= 0 .446

f

ck

.

k D

.

21

gD

 
       

4

2

 

Here

g =

0 .446

f ck

 

7

k

3

 

 
 

4

21

 

2

Area of Stress Block

=

0.446

f

ck

D

 

1

7

4

k

3

 

ca

=

0

. 446

f

ck

D

D

2

 −

4

21

gD

3

7

D

+

3

4

 

4

7

D

The centroid of the stress block is obtained by taking moments about the highly compressed edge.

Moment about the highly compressed edge

  • M

Area of stress block Area of Stress Block = 0.446 f ck . k D .
 2 D  8 2 = 0 . 446 f D − gD ck 2
2
D
8
2
= 0 . 446
f
D
gD
ck
2
49
  
  

Centroid =

Moment

Area of Stress Block

Equilibrium equations

Equilibrium equations n P u = k 1 σ ck bD + ∑ i = 1
 

n

 

P

u

=

k

1

σ

ck

bD

+

i = 1

(

f

si

f

ci

)

A

si

 
 

M

u

= About Centroidal Axis

 
 

bD   D

2

 

  +

n

M

=

k

k

D

i = 1

(

f

si

f

ci

)

A

 

y

i

 

u

1

σ

ck

2

si

.

 
 

k

=

0 . 446 1

 

4

4

2

 

 

1

21

7

k

3

 
   

0

. 223

8 g

 

k

=

49 f

ck

2

k

1

 
 

A

 

P .bD

i

 

si

=

 

100

 
 

P

cu

bDf

ck

=

k

1

+

n

i = 1

(

f

si

f

ci

)

P

i

100 f

ck

   

ck

=

k

1

[

0

.5

k

2

]

+

n

i = 1

(

f

si

f

ci

  

)

P

i

100 f

ck

     y  

i

D

M u 2 bD f
M
u
2
bD
f

III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section

III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section

III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section:

III) When the N.A lying on the edge of the section: n P = 0.36 f
 

n

 

P

=

0.36

f

bD

+

(

f

f

)

A

cu

ck

.

i = 1

sci

cci

sci

 
 

P

cu

bDf

ck

 

=

0

. 36

+

n

i

= 1

(

f

sci

f

cci

)

P

i

100 f

ck

 

M

u

= P

cu cc

.

(

D

0 . 416

D

)

+ P

cu sc

.

[

D y

i

]

 
 

]

 

n

 

=

0.36

f

ck

.

b D

.

2

[

0.584

 

+

i =1

(

f

sci

f

cci

)

A

sci

[

D y

i

]

 

M

bD

2

u

f

ck

=

0.36

×

n

0.584 +

i

= 1

(

f

sci

f

cci

)

100 f

P

i

ck

D y  

 

 

D

i

 

#1. Design a short helically reinforced concrete circular column of 300mm diameter to support an axial load of 600kN. Adopt M15 concrete and Fe415.

P cu = 1 .5 × 600 = 900

KN

# 1. Design a short helically reinforced concrete circular column of 300mm diameter to support an
D = 300 mm π π 2 A = Gross Area = D = × 300
D
= 300 mm
π
π
2
A
=
Gross Area
=
D
=
×
300
×
300
g
4
4
2
f
= 15N/mm
ck
2
f
= 415 N/mm
y

Assume P = 1%

1 π 2 A = × × 300 sc 100 4
1
π
2
A
=
×
× 300
sc
100
4
Assume that e < 0.05 D min
Assume that e
<
0.05 D
min
Assume that e < 0.05 D min P = 0.4 f A + 0.67 f A
Assume that e
<
0.05 D
min
P
= 0.4 f
A
+ 0.67 f
A
u
ck
c
y
sc
P
A
=
A
A
=
A
1 −
c
g
sc
g
100
P
π
P
P
π
cu
=
0.4
×
15
×
×
300
×
300 1
+
0.67
×
415
×
A
×
300
×
300
g
1.05
4
100
100
4
⇒ P =
1% of A
=
2.25
g
P
π
2
×
×
300
×
300
=
1591.7 mm
A sc =
100
4
2
A
=
Area of steel
=
1592mm
sc
1592
2
D
=
=
15 . 91 mm
16 mm
π
8 ×
4

Spirals Diameter

i.

¼ (diameter of larger bar = 4m

ii.

5mm

Pitch maximum

i.

75mm

ii.

1/6 diameter of core

V  A  f g h ck ≥ 0 . 36 − 1  
V
 A
f
g
h
ck
≥ 0 . 36
− 1
V
A
f
core
c
y
π
(
π
d
)
2
2
×
×
φ
s
c
18122.985
4
V
=
=
h
P
=
sn
sn
i
π
2
2
V
=
D
× =
1
38013.36
mm
core
core
4
π
(
)
2
2
π
d
×
×
φ
s
V
c
 A
f
h
4
g
ck
=
=
0 . 36
1
2
V
π
D
A
f
core
core
c
y
18122.985
15
=
=
0.36 0.8595
[
]
×
= 0.011184
38013.30 × sn
415
18122
. 985
sn
=
=
42 . 63m
38013 . 30
×
0 . 0111

Spacing of Helical Reinforcement=<25

>75

Spacing of Helical Reinforcement=<25 >75 0 #2 A column of effective length 4m is to be

0

#2 A column of effective length 4m is to be designed for an axial force of 700 kN and a

BM of 90 kN.m . Design the section by limit state approach. M20 and Fe415 steel are

to be used.

  • m

l

e = 4.0

 

sol:-

P

u = 700

kN

 
 

M

= 90 kN .m

 

Assume the column as a short column. Reinforcement is provided on two sides

symmetrically (on two sides)

Assume moment due to minimum eccentricity to be less than the actual moment.

Assume

250 mm × 500 mm

column

Assume 20mm dia bars with 40m cover

1 d = 40 + 10 = 50
1
d
=
40
+
10
=
50
1 d 50 = = 0 . 1 D 500
1
d
50
=
= 0 . 1
D
500
1 d Charts for = 0.1 will be used D
1
d
Charts for
=
0.1 will be used
D
P 1050 × 10 3 1050 21 42 cu = = = = = 0.42 bDf
P 1050 × 10 3 1050 21 42 cu = = = = = 0.42 bDf
P 1050 × 10 3 1050 21 42 cu = = = = = 0.42 bDf
P
1050
×
10 3
1050
21
42
cu
=
=
=
=
= 0.42
bDf
20
×
250
×
500
2500
50
10
ck
M
135
×
10 6
135
2.7
2.7
u
=
=
=
=
×
10
=
1.08
=
0.108
2
bD
f
20
×
250
×
500
×
500
125
25
25
ck
ρ
= 0 . 08
f
ck
ρ = 0 . 08 × 20 = 1 . 6
1 . 6
2
ρ =
A
=
×
250
×
500
=
2000
m
sc
100
Four sides
ρ
= 0 . 10 =
f
ck
f
ck
ρ =
0.10 × 20 = 2%
2
A
=
×
250
×
500
=
2500
mm
sc
100

Design a rectangular reinforced concrete column to support an axial load of 1000KN. Actual length of column is 6.0m . The column is restrained in position and direction at its both the ends. M20 grade of concrete and HYSD steel bars of grade Fe415 are to be used.

BIAXIAL BENDING Exact design of members subjected to axial load and biaxial bending is extremely laborious. Therefore, the code permits the design of such members be

α α n n   Mux   +   Muy   ≤
α
α
n
n
  Mux  
+   Muy  
1.0
Mux
Muy
 
1
 
 
1
 

Mux =

Muy =

Design moment due to design load about x – axis. Design moment due to design load about y – axis.

Mux

  • 1 =

Maximum moment capacity about x – axis

Muy

  • 1 =

Maximum moment capacity about y – axis

P u α = Depends on n P uz
P
u
α
= Depends on
n
P
uz
[ ] P = 0.45 f A + 0.75 f A uz ck c y s
[
]
P
= 0.45 f
A
+ 0.75 f
A
uz
ck
c
y
s
P u α P n uz
P
u
α
P
n
uz
≤ 0.2 1.0
≤ 0.2
1.0
≥ 0.8 2.0
≥ 0.8
2.0
BIAXIAL BENDING Exact design of members subjected to axial load and biaxial bending is extremely laborious.

For intermediate values, interpolation may be done .

The additional moments may be reduced by multiplying factor “k” given below

P − P uz u k = ≤ 1 P − P uz b
P
P
uz
u
k
=
≤ 1
P
P
uz
b
P = 0 . 45 f A + 0 . 75 f A uz ck c
P
= 0 . 45 f
A
+ 0 . 75 f
A
uz
ck
c
y
s
P b
P
b

= Axial load corresponding to the conditions of max Comp strain 0 .0035 in concrete

and tensile strain of 0 .002 in outermost layer of tension steel.

  • 1. Design completely an RC column to carry an axial load of 20 kN and a lateral load of 10 kN acting at mid section of a height 4.5m with partial fixity at ends. Use HYSD bars and M20 grade concrete.

Sol :-

Axial Load = 20 kN

Bending Moment = 10 × 2.25 = 22.5 kN/m

Factored loads

P

u = 1.5 × 20 = 30

kN

kN

  • M u = 1.5 × 22.5 = 33.75 /

m

3 . A column of effective length 4m is to be designed for an axial force of 700kN and a BM of 90 kN.m . Design the section by limit state approach. M20 concrete and Fe415 are to be used.

Sol

Factored Load = 1.5 × 700 = 1050kN

Factored Moment = 1.5 × 90 = 135kN.m

L e = 4 . 0 m
L
e = 4 . 0
m
2 f = 20 N / mm ck
2
f
=
20 N / mm
ck
2 f = 415 N / mm y
2
f
=
415 N / mm
y

Assume b = 350 m

  • D = 500 mm

1.

4000 500 e = + min 500 30
4000
500
e
=
+
min
500
30

= 8 + 16 . 66 = 24 . 67 nm

2.

e min = 0.0493 < 0.05 D
e
min
=
0.0493
<
0.05
D
4000 350 e = + = 19 .67 min 500 30
4000
350
e
=
+
= 19 .67
min
500
30
e 18 min = = 0 . 06 D 300
e
18
min
=
= 0 . 06
D
300