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Government HSA Review Guide

Directions: This review guide does not contain everything you need to know for the
Government HSA. However, this review guide is a great resource to assist you in your HSA
exam preparation. Check out http://mr-shulman.wikispaces.com/Government+HSA+HELP!
to help review material and take practice HSA quizzes

Unit 1: Govt. & Economic Basic Unit 2: The US Constitution

- In a federal govt., power is shared - The US Constitution describes how the US govt.
and divided amongst the national, operates.
state, and local govt.s. - You need to know and understand the following
- In a confederate govt., states & constitutional principles (rules):
local govt.s are more powerful than - Popular Sovereignty: people control the govt. 
the national govt.. Example?
- In a unitary govt., the national govt. - Limited Govt.: the US govt. was created to be
is more powerful than the states & restricted from becoming too powerful Examples?
local govts. - Federalism: power is shared & divided amongst
- The United States of America utilizes the national, state, and local govt.s Example?
a federal form of govt. - Rule of Law: laws apply to all people [“no one is
- Monarchies, Dictatorships, and above the law”] Example?
Oligarchies are examples of - Separation of Powers: govt. powers are divided
unlimited goverments (government into 3 branches What are the names of the 3
has more power than the people) branches?
- Presidential Democray = citizens - Checks & Balances: each branch is limited by
elect both the legislature & executive the other branches Example?
- Parliamentary Democracy =
citizens only elect legislature; Unit 4: The Legislative Branch
legislature then picks executive - The main power of a legislative branch is to make
- In a market economy, buyers and laws
sellers control the economy. - The name of the national legislative branch is US
- In a command economy, the govt. Congress
controls the economy. - The name of Maryland’s legislative branch is
- In a mixed economy, buyers and Maryland General Assembly
sellers have freedom with some govt. - Most legislatures in the USA are bicameral (two
restrictions. chamber organizations)
- Every 10 years the national govt. conducts a
Unit 3: Political Participation census (national population count)
- Political parties are groups of - A state’s population determines a state’s
people that try to win elections and representation in the House of Representatives
control government - Each state has 2 Senators
- What are the 2 biggest political - Some of Congress’s main powers include: declaring
parties in the USA today? war, raising/lowering taxes, regulating interstate
- Third parties are political commerce [business]
parties, though not very popular— - The necessary and proper clause allows
they often lack $$ & resources Congress to make laws not specifically written in the
- Interest groups represent a Constitution.
specific group and lobby the - A bill is a proposed law a law must be passed by
government to make policies that both the House & Senate and receive the president’s
help its members signature
- A primary election is when
political parties have its members
vote on who should represent the
party in the upcoming general
- A general election consists of
candidates from different parties
Unit 5- The Executive Branch Unit 6- The Judicial Branch
- The main power of the executive branch is - The main power of the judicial branch is to
to enforce laws interpret laws
- The leader of the national executive - The highest court in the national judicial branch
branch is called the President = US Supreme Court
- The leader of Maryland’s executive branch - The highest court in Maryland’s judicial branch =
is called the Governor Court of Appeals
- The president and vice president are - The government must provide due process to all
elected through the Electoral College persons accused of a crime—examples include:
- that a presidential candidate cares more - 4th amendment: bans illegal search & seizures
about winning electoral votes than - 5th amendment: protects from self-
popular votes. incrimination; no double jeopardy; eminent
- The cabinet is responsible for advising the domain protections
president - 6th amendment guarantees a speedy & public
- Regulatory agencies enforce millions of trial
specific laws - 8th amendment prevents extreme bail and
- Food & Drug Administration (FDA): punishments
regulates food/drugs sold in the USA - The Supreme Court uses judicial review to
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): declare acts of the legislative or executive branch
enforces clean air & water laws unconstitutional.
- Federal Communication Commission
- The Supreme Court has original and appellate
(FCC): regulates the media
- Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): jurisdiction.
enforces air safety laws - Under criminal law, the prosecution (govt.) is
- Federal Trade Commission (FTC): enforces trying to prove a defendant committed a crime.
- a person can be subpoenaed to be a witness
in a criminal case
The Big 8 Court
Cases: You need to Unit 7: Domestic, Foreign, Economic Policy
know the Economic Policy:
PRECEDENTS each - Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures amounts of goods/stuff
of these important made by a country
cases!! - Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures inflation changes in a
- Marbury v. - Unemployment Rate measure the amount of people who don’t have
Madison: Established a job, but are currently looking for a job.
Judicial Review - Fiscal Policy consists of the president & Congress deciding the
- McCullough v. spending and taxing policies of the government
Maryland: Explained - Monetary Policy consists of the Federal Reserve deciding how to
the “necessary and keep the money supply stable in order to keep inflation balanced
proper clause” & the - During a recession/depression, the government tries to increase
“Supremacy Clause” the money supply (higher spending, lower taxes, decreased
- Plessy v. interset rates)
Ferguson: Legalized - During high inflation, the government tries to decrease the
“separate but equal money supply (lower spending, higher taxes, increased interest
racial segregation” rates)
- Brown v. Board of Domestic Policy:
Education: - The local/state government decide how land will be developing using
Overturned Plessy; zoning boards
segregation finally - Two land development theories: Urban Sprawl (develop on natural
declared illegal land) & Smart Growth (rejuvenate cities that already exist)
- Gideon v. - The federal government provides assistance to people using 3 main
Wainwright: the programs:
govt. must provide a - Medicare = Healthcare assistance to senior citizens
lawyer for person - Medicaid = Healthcare assistance to low income people
accused of crime - Social Security = Money assistance to senior citizens &
- Miranda v. disabled
Arizona: Before police Foreign Policy: 2
questioning, the