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Function of Ligaments

- joins bone to bone

- allows bones to move past each other
- gives stability
Advantages of keyhole surgery
- less damage to tissue
- short recovery time
- more patients treated
- cheaper
- less anesthesia needed
- less chance of infection
- less chance of osteoarthritis
- less scaring
- less blood loss
- less pain
How do plants flower
- correct amount of day length
- day length is environmental cue
- critical period required
- plants have photoreceptors/phytochromes
- reduction in Pfr levels (during dark)
- after Pfr below threshold, they flower
- darkness is a stimulus (even if its on part of a plant)
- amount of Pr increases
- signal passed to growing site
Advantages of plants being able to respond to day length
- flowering happens at right time
- flowers when insects available
- seeds germinate at right time
- leaves fall in autumn
- right season
- day length has a pattern, short in winter long in summer
- other stimuli not regular
Ethical issues of using animals in trials
- rationalist view - good must outweigh bad
- absolutist view - all use of animals unacceptable
- as few animals as possible should be used
- welfare of animals important

Drug Trials
- Animal testing
- small sample for safety of treatment
- larger sample for effectiveness
- double blind trials
- placebos
- take age, sex into account
ATP production in fast twitch fibers
- phosphorylation of ADP
- energy required
- glucose converted to pyruvate
- pyruvate reduced to lactate
- makes NAD available (less)
- anaerobic respiration
- ATP from oxidative phosphorylation
- phosphocreatine involved
How do muscles fatigue/slowness in speed
- ATP limited
- anaerobic respiration
- pH lower
- enzymes affected
- glycolysis slowed down
- muscle contractions affected
What is myogenic
- stimulation from within muscle
- bringing about depolarization
How is sequence of muscle contraction controlled in the heart
- SAN initiates depolarization
- through atria
- causing systole
- blood passes into ventricles
- AVN conduct to ventricles
- through purkyne fibers
- ventricular systole
- AV valves close
- semilunar valves opened by pressure
- blood in artery
- diastole closes semilunar valves
Why early blindness cannot be treated
- lack of stimulus affects brain development
- lack of connections
- within the visual cortex
- brain cannot interpret stimuli
- critical windows has passed

How is energy supplied to fast twitch fibers

- energy from ATP
- some ATP already present in cells
- ATP from glycolysis
- glycolysis process ATP quickly
- anaerobic respiration due to little oxygen
- pyruvate also converted to lactate
- anaerobic respiration takes place
- creatine phosphate also used
Fate of lactate
- lactate escapes the cell
- into blood
- taken to liver and converted to pyruvate
- by oxidation with the help of NAD
- pyruvate oxidized by
- Krebs cycle
- increasing O2 debt
- CO2 and H2O produced
When are slow twitch fibers used
- long distances
- more aerobic respiration needed
- to reduce production of lactate
- O2 debt cannot be sustained
How is increased blood flow brought about
- heart rate increased
- neurotransmitter acts on SAN
- vasodilation
- blood pressure increases
What happens during synapse
- impulse arrives at synaptic knob
- Ca2+ ion channels open
- move into synaptic knob down the concentration gradient
- synaptic vesicles move to presynaptic membrane
- neurotransmitter is released into gap
- diffuses across
- binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane
- gated channels open, Na+ travels through post synaptic membrane
- causing a depolarization
- if sufficient present, action potential sets in
- summation may take place if not enough neurotransmitter
- neurotransmitter broken down
- reabsorbed by presynaptic membrane through channel proteins

What is oxidative phosphorylation

- reduced NAD and FAD are oxidized releasing electrons
- these electrons are accepted by electron acceptors
- electrons pass down the electron transport chain
- through redox reactions, energy is released
- Oxygen is the final electron acceptor
- H+ actively transported into the intermembranal space
- concentration gradient, pH gradient, electrochemical gradient across membrane
- H+ ions move back inside through pored on stalked particles (ATPase)
- Phosphate added to ADP
- Energy used to synthesize ATP
How is increase in cardiac output brought about
- heart rate increases
- stroke volume increases
- SAN activity increases
- AVN time delay increases
- more blood returning causes heart to stretch
- ventricles contract with greater force
Heat control in the body
In cold
- receptors in the skin detect cold
- nerve impulses to hypothalamus
- arterioles constrict as sphincter muscles contract so less blood to skin
- arterio-venus shunt opens
- hair erector muscles contract to trap hair
- less heat loss by radiation
- heat generated by shivering
- less sweating, and so less heat loss
In heat
- vasodilation occurs
- sphincter muscles relaxed
- arteriovenous shunt closes
- hair erector muscles relax so no trapping of heat
- sweating increases
How does sweating increase heat loss
- as the body temperature increases, receptors detect this, hypothalamus send impulses to
sweat glands (and other effectors), heat energy from blood in capillaries is absorbed by
sweat, the energy breaks H bonds, so water evaporates taking the heat from the body

How are genes removed and incorporated into plasmids

- restriction enzyme to cut gene out of dna
- amplification of DNA through PCR
- plasmid opened by enzymes
- endonuclease used to produce sticky ends
- ligase used to join gene to plasmid
- phosphodiester bonds and H bonds formed
Why plants used instead of bacteria to produce proteins
- easier to manage growth
- safer
- more protein can be made
- bacteria may not have required amino acids
- edible
- cheaper
Risks of using GMO
- gene transfer to other species
- resistance gained
- risks related to viral vectors
- effect on organic factors
What is a transcription factor
- protein
- activates
- gene
How is breathing rate controlled
- concentration of CO2 in lungs higher
- concentration in blood higher
- pH decreases
- detected by chemoreceptors in carotid body
- impulses sent to respiratory centre
- which sends impulses to intercostal muscles
- which increases or decreases rate
What happens when light hits the eye
- rhodopsin splits into
- opsin and retinal
- cis changes to trans
- generator potential established
What happens to visual cortex without stimulus
- fewer stimuli
- less neurotransmitter
- synapses weakened
- neurones for eye lost
- occult columns smaller

How does action potential set in

- depolarization of adjacent membrane
- permeability of membrane to Na+ increases
- Na+ channels open
- Na+ move into neurons
- through diffusion
- stimulates more Na+ channels to open
- pd is +ve as excess Na+ inside
- two action potentials cannot set in at the same time
- neurone needs to reach resting potential
- as sodium ion channels are closed
How does habituation take place
- high frequency of impulses
- depletes neurotransmitter
- Ca2+ ion channels less responsive
- in neurone
- less Ca2+ taken up
- less neurotransmitter released
- post synaptic membrane not polarized
- fewer impulses
Advantage of habituation
- avoids wasting of effort, time, resources, energy
- to nonthreatening impulses
How structure of a motor neurons affects speed of impulse
- schwann cells cover the aon
- myelin sheath insulates
- depolarization at nodes
- saltatory conduction, impulses jump from node to nod
- local current occur over longer distances
- increasing speed
Benefits of exercise
- increases fitness of heart and capacity of lungs
- increased oxygen supply
- increased stroke volume
- increased ventilation
- used to build muscles
- moderate exercise helps immune system

How does exercise lead to obesity

- Food supplies energy
- Exercise takes up energy
- Better Energy IN energy OUT balance
- Lack of exercise disrupts balance
- excess energy stored as fat
Lactic cycle
- anaerobic respiration
- glycolysis takes place
- glucose phosphorylated
- NADH produced
- pyruvate formed
- 2 ATP gained
- pyruvate converted to lactate with NADH
How do muscles contract
- Calcium ions move in from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Ca2+ binds to the troponin molecules, changing their shape, thus pulling tropomyosin
molecules exposing myosin binding sites
- Myosin heads bind to the actin forming an actomyosin bridge
- ADP and Pi released from the myosin head, thus changing its shape, the head bends forward
thus moving the actin filament and shortening the sarcomere
- ATP binds to the myosin head, causing a shape change thus breaking the actomyosin bridge
- ATPase activated, which with the help of Ca2+ provides the energy for the myosin head to
return back to its original position
What happens when the last electron acceptor isn't present
- electron cannot be passed
- transport of electrons prevented
- ATP not made
- no oxidative phosphorylation
- ATP only from glycolysis, anaerobic respiration
- muscle cannot contract
Parts of brain and their functions
- cerebrum - voluntary behaviour, intelligence, learning, memory, personality, reasoning
- hypothalamus - coordinates autonomic nervous system, thirst, hunger, aggression, heat
- medulla oblongata - breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
- visual cortex - sight
- cerebellum - movement and balance
Functions of SAN
- initiates heartbeat
- starts wave of depolarization
- determines heart rate

Why is there a need for antagonistic muscles

- muscles cannot extend themselves
- need opposing force
- contraction of one muscle, stretches the other
- antagonistic muscles allow fine control
Structure of cell membrane related to function (neurones)
- phospholipid restricts movement
- proteins span the membrane
- Na K pumps move ions
- protein gates allow diffusion
How does phototropism take place
- light causes redistribution of auxin
- high concentration away from light
- auxin diffuses into shoot
- stimulates cell elongation
- auxin binds to receptor sites on cell membrane
- which activates pumping of H+ ions into the cell
- which makes it the optimum pH to break down the H bonds between cellulose microfibrils
- making the cell flexible
- cell absorbs water through osmosis
- flexible cell walls stretch and elongate
- as the cells mature, auxin is destroyed, pH of the cell walls ride, and bonds form back
- the cell becomes rigid
Comparison of plant and animal hormone systems
- both are chemical
- both transport away from production site
- diffusion in plants/blood system in animals
- slower in plants
- animal hormones have short term effects
- animal hormones dont only promote growth
How do gene targeted drugs work
- allele responsible for the disease identified
- drug targets allele
- mutant allele no longer expresses itself
- drug prevents translation
- protein no longer produced
- mutant cells killed
- no cell division
- cells replaced with normal cells
- through mitosis

How is a generator potential caused (what happens to retina in bright light)

- at a specific light intensity
- light absorbed by rhodopsin
- cis to trans
- splits into retinal and opsin
- opsin binds with cell membrane
- fewer Na+ enter cell
- Na+ ions pumped out of rod
- less neurotransmitter
- hyper polarization occurs
How does a fMRI work
- allows to look at brain activity in real time
- firing of neurons requires energy
- which increases oxygenated blood flow
- measures oxygen uptake
- active areas get more blood
- oxyhemoglobin involved
- uses radio waves
- active brain emits less energy
- active area appears lighter
- increased supply of oxygenated blood in active areas reflects fMRI signals
How do anabolic steroids work
- hormone at cell membrane
- enters cell, binds to receptors
- moves to the nucleus
- binds to transcription factor
- forms a transcription initiation complex
- binds to promoter region
- switching on gene
- allowing formation of mRNA
- translation produces protein
How do peptide hormones work
- bind to a receptor on cell surface
- this complex activates a second messenger
- triggering a protein kinase cascade
- which is the activation of several proteins until the final product enters the enters the nucleus
as a transcription factor
- genes switched on or off
Pupil reflex
- muscles work antagonistically
- circular muscle relaxes (dim light)/circular muscle contracts (bright light)
- radial muscle contracts (dim light)/circular muscle relaxes (bright light)

Comparison of MRI and CT

- CT low res, MRI high res
- CT can identify only large structures, MRI can identify smaller ones
- MRI uses radio waves, CT uses X rays
- both can give 2D 3D images
- CT uses X-rays so harmful, in MRI patient needs to remain still, takes longer
- Both are at one point of time
- MRI costlier
How does training help
- reduces resting heart rate
- increases potential to reach maximum
- higher stroke volume
- less anaerobic respiration
How training increases oxidative phosphorylation
- increased oxygen supply
- oxygen is last electron acceptor
- to form water
- increased glucose supply
- more NAD and FAD produced
- more electrons passed down in ETC
- more H+ pumped
- more ATP produced
Disadvantage of too much exercise
- wear and tear
- suppression of immune system
Difference between fast twitch and slow twitch
Fast Twitch

Slow Twitch

rapid action

steady action

fast contraction

slow contractions

few blood vessels

rich blood supply

lesser mitochondria

lots of mitochondria

less myoglobin

plenty of myoglobin



rich glycogen stores

smaller glycogen stores

more myofibrils

less myofibrils

Function of restriction enzymes

- cuts at a specific sequence of bases
- generates sticky ends
- so easier to join together
Advantages of injecting drugs into veins rather than arteries
- larger lumen
- less muscle
- less blood pressure so less damage to vein
- vein easier to find
Difference between sensory and motor neurons
- sensory have longer dendron
- sensory have myelinated dendrites
- sensory axon shorter
- cell body in the middle for sensory
How is heart rate controlled during exercise
- increase in respiration rate
- more CO2, low pH
- more lactic acid in blood
- chemoreceptors in medulla stimulated
- cardiovascular control centre in medulla sends impulses along the sympathetic nervous
- noradrenaline released onto SAN
- SAN rate increases
- increases heart rate
What happens to the retina in the dark
- opsin uncouples from cell membrane
- trans to cis retinal
- rhodopsin reformed from opsin and retinal
- Na+ permeability increases
- hyper polarization decreases
- more neurotransmitter released
How are genetically modified drugs produced
- cut out gene from human DNA using restriction enzyme
- insert gene into a vector, eg plasmid, virus
- cut plasmid with same restriction enzyme
- join plasmid and gene with DNA ligase
- use vector to introduce gene into host cell
- incase of plants gene is inserted into the plasmid of A Tumefaciens, the plant is then infected
with this bacteria, and a tumor forms on the site of infection, which can be cultured to produce
identical plants
- incase of humans, microinjections, microprojectiles, virus, or liposome wrapping is used